page 1 of 17
IDSL
RU-E
(1620)Heat flows enrich prebiotic building blocks and enhance their reactivity
  • Thomas Matreux,
  • Paula Aikkila,
  • Bettina Scheu,
  • Dieter Braun,
  • Christof B. Mast
abstract + abstract -

The emergence of biopolymer building blocks is a crucial step during the origins of life. However, all known formation pathways rely on rare pure feedstocks and demand successive purification and mixing steps to suppress unwanted side reactions and enable high product yields. Here we show that heat flows through thin, crack-like geo-compartments could have provided a widely available yet selective mechanism that separates more than 50 prebiotically relevant building blocks from complex mixtures of amino acids, nucleobases, nucleotides, polyphosphates and 2-aminoazoles. Using measured thermophoretic properties, we numerically model and experimentally prove the advantageous effect of geological networks of interconnected cracks that purify the previously mixed compounds, boosting their concentration ratios by up to three orders of magnitude. The importance for prebiotic chemistry is shown by the dimerization of glycine, in which the selective purification of trimetaphosphate (TMP) increased reaction yields by five orders of magnitude. The observed effect is robust under various crack sizes, pH values, solvents and temperatures. Our results demonstrate how geologically driven non-equilibria could have explored highly parallelized reaction conditions to foster prebiotic chemistry.


CN-4
MIAPbP
(1619)Towards early-type eclipsing binaries as extragalactic milestones: III. Physical properties of the O-type eclipsing binary OGLE LMC-ECL-21568 in a quadruple system
  • Mónica Taormina,
  • R. -P. Kudritzki,
  • B. Pilecki,
  • G. Pietrzyński,
  • I. B. Thompson
  • +6
  • J. Puls,
  • M. Górski,
  • B. Zgirski,
  • D. Graczyk,
  • W. Gieren,
  • G. Hajdu
  • (less)
arXiv e-prints (04/2024) e-Print:2404.02970
abstract + abstract -

We present the results from a complex study of an eclipsing O-type binary (Aa+Ab) with the orbital period $P_{A}=3.2254367$ days, that forms part of a higher-order multiple system in a configuration (A+B)+C. We derived masses of the Aa+Ab binary $M_{1}= 19.02 \pm 0.12 \,M_\odot$, $M_{2}= 17.50 \pm 0.13 \,M_\odot$, radii $R_{1}= 7.70 \pm 0.05 \,R_\odot$, $R_{2}= 6.64 \pm 0.06 \,R_\odot$, and temperatures $T_1 = 34250 \pm 500 $ K, $T_2 = 33750 \pm 500 $ K. From the analysis of radial velocities, we found a spectroscopic orbit of A in the outer A+B system with $P_{A+B}=195.8$ days ($P_{A+B}/P_{A}\approx 61$). In the O-C analysis, we confirmed this orbit and found another component orbiting the A+B system with $P_{AB+C}=2550$ days ($P_{AB+C}\,/P_{A+B}\approx 13$). From the total mass of the inner binary and its outer orbit, we estimated the mass of the third object, $M_B \gtrsim 10.7 M_\odot$. From the light-travel time effect fit to the O-C data, we obtained the limit for the mass of the fourth component, $M_C \gtrsim 7.3 M_\odot$. These extra components contribute to about 20% to 30% (increasing with wavelength) of the total system light. From the comparison of model spectra with the multiband photometry, we derived a distance modulus of 18.59 $\pm$ 0.06 mag, a reddening of 0.16 $\pm$ 0.02 mag, and an $R_V$ of $3.2$. This work is part of our ongoing project, which aims to calibrate the surface brightness-color relation for early-type stars.


(1618)Lensed Type Ia Supernova "Encore" at z=2: The First Instance of Two Multiply-Imaged Supernovae in the Same Host Galaxy
  • J. D. R. Pierel,
  • A. B. Newman,
  • S. Dhawan,
  • M. Gu,
  • B. A. Joshi
  • +58
  • T. Li,
  • S. Schuldt,
  • L. G. Strolger,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • G. B. Caminha,
  • S. H. Cohen,
  • J. M. Diego,
  • J. C. J. Dsilva,
  • S. Ertl,
  • B. L. Frye,
  • G. Granata,
  • C. Grillo,
  • A. M. Koekemoer,
  • J. Li,
  • A. Robotham,
  • J. Summers,
  • T. Treu,
  • R. A. Windhorst,
  • A. Zitrin,
  • S. Agarwal,
  • A. Agrawal,
  • N. Arendse,
  • S. Belli,
  • C. Burns,
  • R. Cañameras,
  • S. Chakrabarti,
  • W. Chen,
  • T. E. Collett,
  • D. A. Coulter,
  • R. S. Ellis,
  • M. Engesser,
  • N. Foo,
  • O. D. Fox,
  • C. Gall,
  • N. Garuda,
  • S. Gezari,
  • S. Gomez,
  • K. Glazebrook,
  • J. Hjorth,
  • X. Huang,
  • S. W. Jha,
  • P. S. Kamieneski,
  • P. Kelly,
  • C. Larison,
  • L. A. Moustakas,
  • M. Pascale,
  • I. Pérez-Fournon,
  • T. Petrushevska,
  • F. Poidevin,
  • A. Rest,
  • M. Shahbandeh,
  • A. J. Shajib,
  • M. Siebert,
  • C. Storfer,
  • M. Talbot,
  • Q. Wang,
  • T. Wevers,
  • Y. Zenati
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

A bright ($m_{\rm F150W,AB}$=24 mag), $z=1.95$ supernova (SN) candidate was discovered in JWST/NIRCam imaging acquired on 2023 November 17. The SN is quintuply-imaged as a result of strong gravitational lensing by a foreground galaxy cluster, detected in three locations, and remarkably is the second lensed SN found in the same host galaxy. The previous lensed SN was called "Requiem", and therefore the new SN is named "Encore". This makes the MACS J0138.0$-$2155 cluster the first known system to produce more than one multiply-imaged SN. Moreover, both SN Requiem and SN Encore are Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia), making this the most distant case of a galaxy hosting two SNe Ia. Using parametric host fitting, we determine the probability of detecting two SNe Ia in this host galaxy over a $\sim10$ year window to be $\approx3\%$. These observations have the potential to yield a Hubble Constant ($H_0$) measurement with $\sim10\%$ precision, only the third lensed SN capable of such a result, using the three visible images of the SN. Both SN Requiem and SN Encore have a fourth image that is expected to appear within a few years of $\sim2030$, providing an unprecedented baseline for time-delay cosmography.


(1617)DoubleTES detectors to investigate the CRESST low energy background: results from above-ground prototypes
  • G. Angloher,
  • S. Banik,
  • G. Benato,
  • A. Bento,
  • A. Bertolini
  • +53
  • R. Breier,
  • C. Bucci,
  • J. Burkhart,
  • L. Canonica,
  • A. D'Addabbo,
  • S. Di Lorenzo,
  • L. Einfalt,
  • A. Erb,
  • F. v. Feilitzsch,
  • S. Fichtinger,
  • D. Fuchs,
  • A. Garai,
  • V. M. Ghete,
  • P. Gorla,
  • P. V. Guillaumon,
  • S. Gupta,
  • D. Hauff,
  • M. Ješkovský,
  • J. Jochum,
  • M. Kaznacheeva,
  • A. Kinast,
  • H. Kluck,
  • H. Kraus,
  • S. Kuckuk,
  • A. Langenkämper,
  • M. Mancuso,
  • L. Marini,
  • B. Mauri,
  • L. Meyer,
  • V. Mokina,
  • M. Olmi,
  • T. Ortmann,
  • C. Pagliarone,
  • L. Pattavina,
  • F. Petricca,
  • W. Potzel,
  • P. Povinec,
  • F. Pröbst,
  • F. Pucci,
  • F. Reindl,
  • J. Rothe,
  • K. Schäffner,
  • J. Schieck,
  • S. Schönert,
  • C. Schwertner,
  • M. Stahlberg,
  • L. Stodolsky,
  • C. Strandhagen,
  • R. Strauss,
  • I. Usherov,
  • F. Wagner,
  • V. Wagner,
  • V. Zema
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

In recent times, the sensitivity of low-mass direct dark matter searches has been limited by unknown low energy backgrounds close to the energy threshold of the experiments known as the low energy excess (LEE). The CRESST experiment utilises advanced cryogenic detectors constructed with different types of crystals equipped with Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) to measure signals of nuclear recoils induced by the scattering of dark matter particles in the detector. In CRESST, this low energy background manifests itself as a steeply rising population of events below 200 eV. A novel detector design named doubleTES using two identical TESs on the target crystal was studied to investigate the hypothesis that the events are sensor-related. We present the first results from two such modules, demonstrating their ability to differentiate between events originating from the crystal's bulk and those occurring in the sensor or in its close proximity.


(1616)A novel strategy to prove chiral symmetry breaking in QCD-like theories
  • Luca Ciambriello,
  • Roberto Contino,
  • Andrea Luzio,
  • Marcello Romano,
  • Ling-Xiao Xu
arXiv e-prints (04/2024) e-Print:2404.02967
abstract + abstract -

We demonstrate that chiral symmetry breaking occurs in the confining phase of QCD-like theories with $N_c$ colors and $N_f$ flavors. Our proof is based on a novel strategy, called `downlifting', by which solutions of the 't Hooft anomaly matching and persistent mass conditions for a theory with $N_f-1$ flavors are constructed from those of a theory with $N_f$ flavors, while $N_c$ is fixed. By induction, chiral symmetry breaking is proven for any $N_f\geq p_{min}$, where $p_{min}$ is the smallest prime factor of $N_c$. The proof can be extended to $N_f <p_{min}$ under the additional assumption on the absence of phase transitions when quark masses are sent to infinity. Our results do not rely on ad-hoc assumptions on the spectrum of massless bound states.


(1615)Dianoga SIDM: galaxy cluster self-interacting dark matter simulations
  • Antonio Ragagnin,
  • Massimo Meneghetti,
  • Francesco Calura,
  • Giulia Despali,
  • Klaus Dolag
  • +3
  • Moritz S. Fischer,
  • Carlo Giocoli,
  • Lauro Moscardini
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

This work aims at assessing the impact of DM self-interactions on the properties of galaxy clusters. In particular, the goal is to study the angular dependence of the cross section by testing rare (large angle scattering) and frequent (small angle scattering) SIDM models with velocity-dependent cross sections. We re-simulate six galaxy cluster zoom-in initial conditions with a dark matter only run and with a full-physics setup simulations that includes a self-consistent treatment of baryon physics. We test the dark matter only setup and the full physics setup with either collisionless cold dark matter, rare self-interacting dark matter, and frequent self-interacting dark matter models. We then study their matter density profiles as well as their subhalo population. Our dark matter only SIDM simlations agree with theoretical models, and when baryons are included in simulations, our SIDM models substantially increase the central density of galaxy cluster cores compared to full-physics simulations using collisionless dark matter. SIDM subhalo suppression in full-physics simulations is milder compared to the one found in dark matter only simulations, because of the cuspier baryionic potential that prevent subhalo disruption. Moreover SIDM with small-angle scattering significantly suppress a larger number of subhaloes compared to large angle scattering SIDM models. Additionally, SIDM models generate a broader range of subhalo concentration values, including a tail of more diffuse subhaloes in the outskirts of galaxy clusters and a population of more compact subhaloes in the cluster cores.


(1614)Diagnostics of 3D explosion asymmetries of stripped-envelope supernovae by nebular line profiles
  • Bart van Baal,
  • Anders Jerkstrand,
  • Annop Wongwathanarat,
  • Thomas Janka
abstract + abstract -

Understanding the explosion mechanism and hydrodynamic evolution of core-collapse supernovae is a long-standing quest in astronomy. The asymmetries caused by the explosion are encoded into the line profiles which appear in the nebular phase of the SN evolution -- with particularly clean imprints in He star explosions. Here, we carry out nine different supernova simulations of He-core progenitors, exploding them in 3D with parametrically varied neutrino luminosities using the $\texttt{Prometheus-HotB}$ code, hydrodynamically evolving the models to the homologeous phase. We then compute nebular phase spectra with the 3D NLTE spectral synthesis code $\texttt{ExTraSS}$ (EXplosive TRAnsient Spectral Simulator). We study how line widths and shifts depend on progenitor mass, explosion energy, and viewing angle. We compare the predicted line profile properties against a large set of Type Ib observations, and discuss the degree to which current neutrino-driven explosions can match observationally inferred asymmetries. With self-consistent 3D modelling -- circumventing the difficulties of representing $^{56}$Ni mixing and clumping accurately in 1D models -- we find that neither low-mass He cores exploding with high energies nor high-mass cores exploding with low energies contribute to the Type Ib SN population. Models which have line profile widths in agreement with this population give sufficiently large centroid shifts for calcium emission lines. Calcium is more strongly affected by explosion asymmetries connected to the neutron star kicks than oxygen and magnesium. Lastly, we turn to the NIR spectra from our models to investigate the potential of using this regime to look for the presence of He in the nebular phase.


CN-3
RU-C
(1613)Simulations of galaxy cluster mergers with velocity-dependent, rare, and frequent self-interactions
  • V. M. Sabarish,
  • Marcus Brüggen,
  • Kai Schmidt-Hoberg,
  • Moritz S. Fischer,
  • Felix Kahlhoefer
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (04/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae664
abstract + abstract -

Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) has been proposed to solve small-scale problems in $\rm {\Lambda CDM}$ cosmology. In previous work, constraints on the self-interaction cross-section of dark matter have been derived assuming that the self-interaction cross-section is independent of velocity. However, a velocity-dependent cross-section is more natural in most theories of SIDM. Using idealized N-body simulations without baryons, we study merging clusters with velocity-dependent SIDM. In addition to the usual rare scattering in the isotropic limit, we also simulate these systems with anisotropic, small-angle (frequent) scatterings. We find that the collisionless brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) has an offset from the DM peak that grows at later stages. Finally, we also extend the existing upper bounds on the velocity-independent, isotropic self-interaction cross-section to the parameter space of rare and frequent velocity-dependent self-interactions by studying the central densities of dark matter-only isolated haloes. For these upper-bound parameters, the DM-BCG offsets just after the first pericentre in the dark matter-only simulations are found to be ≲10 kpc. On the other hand, because of BCG oscillations, we speculate that the distribution of BCG offsets in a relaxed cluster is a statistically viable probe. Therefore, this motivates further studies of BCG off-centring in hydrodynamic cosmological simulations.


CN-3
RU-C
(1612)Cosmological and idealized simulations of dark matter haloes with velocity-dependent, rare and frequent self-interactions
  • Moritz S. Fischer,
  • Lenard Kasselmann,
  • Marcus Brüggen,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Felix Kahlhoefer
  • +3
  • Antonio Ragagnin,
  • Andrew Robertson,
  • Kai Schmidt-Hoberg
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (04/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae699
abstract + abstract -

Dark matter self-interactions may have the capability to solve or at least mitigate small-scale problems of the cosmological standard model, Lambda cold dark matter. There are a variety of self-interacting dark matter models that lead to distinguishable astrophysical predictions and hence varying success in explaining observations. Studies of dark matter (DM) density cores on various mass scales suggest a velocity-dependent scattering cross-section. In this work, we investigate how a velocity dependence alters the evolution of the DM distribution for frequent DM scatterings and compare to the velocity-independent case. We demonstrate that these cases are qualitatively different using a test problem. Moreover, we study the evolution of the density profile of idealized DM haloes and find that a velocity dependence can lead to larger core sizes and different time-scales of core formation and core collapse. In cosmological simulations, we investigate the effect of velocity-dependent self-interaction on haloes and satellites in the mass range of ≈1011-$10^{14} \, \mathrm{M_\odot }$. We study the abundance of satellites, density, and shape profiles and try to infer qualitative differences between velocity-dependent and velocity-independent scatterings as well as between frequent and rare self-interactions. We find that a strongly velocity-dependent cross-section can significantly amplify the diversity of rotation curves, independent of the angular dependence of the differential cross-section. We further find that the abundance of satellites in general depends on both the velocity dependence and the scattering angle, although the latter is less important for strongly velocity-dependent cross-sections.


(1611)Galaxy shapes in Magneticum. I. Connecting stellar and dark matter shapes to dynamical and morphological galaxy properties and the large-scale structure
  • Lucas M. Valenzuela,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Benjamin A. Seidel
abstract + abstract -

Despite being a fundamental property of galaxies that dictates the form of the potential, the 3D shape is intrinsically difficult to determine from observations. The improving quality of triaxial modeling methods in recent years has made it possible to measure these shapes more accurately. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the stellar and dark matter (DM) shapes of galaxies and the connections between them as well as with other galaxy properties. Using the hydrodynamical cosmological simulation Magneticum Box4, we computed the stellar and DM shapes of galaxies at different radii. We determined their morphologies, their projected morphological and kinematic parameters, and their fractions of in-situ formed stars. The DM follows the stellar component in shape and orientation at $3R_{1/2}$, indicating that DM is heavily influenced by the baryonic potential in the inner parts of the halo. The outer DM halo is independent of the inner properties such as morphology, however, and is more closely related to the large-scale anisotropy of the gas inflow. The stellar shapes of galaxies are correlated with morphology: ellipticals feature more spherical and prolate shapes than disk galaxies. Galaxies with more rotational support are flatter, and the stellar shapes are connected to the mass distribution. In particular, more extended elliptical galaxies have larger triaxialities. Finally, the shapes can be used to constrain the in-situ fraction of stars when combined with the stellar mass. The found relations show that shapes depend on the details of the accretion history. The similarities between the inner DM and stellar shapes signal the importance of baryonic matter for DM in galaxies and will help improve dynamical models in the future. At large radii the DM shape is completely decoupled from the central galaxy and is coupled more to the large-scale inflow.


(1610)Data availability and requirements relevant for the Ariel space mission and other exoplanet atmosphere applications
  • Katy L. Chubb,
  • Séverine Robert,
  • Clara Sousa-Silva,
  • Sergei N. Yurchenko,
  • Nicole F. Allard
  • +50
  • Vincent Boudon,
  • Jeanna Buldyreva,
  • Benjamin Bultel,
  • Athena Coustenis,
  • Aleksandra Foltynowicz,
  • Iouli E. Gordon,
  • Robert J. Hargreaves,
  • Christiane Helling,
  • Christian Hill,
  • Helgi Rafn Hrodmarsson,
  • Tijs Karman,
  • Helena Lecoq-Molinos,
  • Alessandra Migliorini,
  • Michaël Rey,
  • Cyril Richard,
  • Ibrahim Sadiek,
  • Frédéric Schmidt,
  • Andrei Sokolov,
  • Stefania Stefani,
  • Jonathan Tennyson,
  • Olivia Venot,
  • Sam O. M. Wright,
  • Rosa Arenales-Lope,
  • Joanna K. Barstow,
  • Andrea Bocchieri,
  • Nathalie Carrasco,
  • Dwaipayan Dubey,
  • Oleg Egorov,
  • Antonio García Muñoz,
  • Ehsan,
  • Gharib-Nezhad,
  • Leonardos Gkouvelis,
  • Fabian Grübel,
  • Patrick Gerard Joseph Irwin,
  • Antonín Knížek,
  • David A. Lewis,
  • Matt G. Lodge,
  • Sushuang Ma,
  • Zita Martins,
  • Karan Molaverdikhani,
  • Giuseppe Morello,
  • Andrei Nikitin,
  • Emilie Panek,
  • Miriam Rengel,
  • Giovanna Rinaldi,
  • Jack W. Skinner,
  • Giovanna Tinetti,
  • Tim A. van Kempen,
  • Jingxuan Yang,
  • Tiziano Zingales
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The goal of this white paper is to provide a snapshot of the data availability and data needs primarily for the Ariel space mission, but also for related atmospheric studies of exoplanets and brown dwarfs. It covers the following data-related topics: molecular and atomic line lists, line profiles, computed cross-sections and opacities, collision-induced absorption and other continuum data, optical properties of aerosols and surfaces, atmospheric chemistry, UV photodissociation and photoabsorption cross-sections, and standards in the description and format of such data. These data aspects are discussed by addressing the following questions for each topic, based on the experience of the "data-provider" and "data-user" communities: (1) what are the types and sources of currently available data, (2) what work is currently in progress, and (3) what are the current and anticipated data needs. We present a GitHub platform for Ariel-related data, with the goal to provide a go-to place for both data-users and data-providers, for the users to make requests for their data needs and for the data-providers to link to their available data. Our aim throughout the paper is to provide practical information on existing sources of data whether in databases, theoretical, or literature sources.


MIAPbP
(1609)Stellar Variability and Distance Indicators in the Near-infrared in Nearby Galaxies. I. RR Lyrae and Anomalous Cepheids in Draco dwarf spheroidal
  • Anupam Bhardwaj,
  • Marina Rejkuba,
  • Chow-Choong Ngeow,
  • Marcella Marconi,
  • Vincenzo Ripepi
  • +2
  • Abhinna Sundar Samantaray,
  • Harinder P. Singh
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Draco dwarf Spheroidal galaxy (dSph) is one of the nearest and the most dark matter dominated satellites of the Milky Way. We obtained multi-epoch near-infrared (NIR, $JHK_s$) observations of the central region of Draco dSph covering a sky area of $\sim 21'\times21'$ using the WIRCam instrument at the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Homogeneous $JHK_s$ time-series photometry for 212 RR Lyrae (173 fundamental-mode, 24 first-overtone, and 15 mixed-mode variables) and 5 Anomalous Cepheids in Draco dSph is presented and used to derive their period-luminosity relations at NIR wavelengths for the first-time. The small scatter of $\sim 0.05$~mag in these empirical relations for RR Lyrae stars is consistent with those in globular clusters and suggests a very small metallicity spread, up to $\sim0.2$~dex, among these centrally located variables. Based on empirically calibrated NIR period-luminosity-metallicity relations for RR Lyrae in globular clusters, we determined a distance modulus to Draco dSph of $\mu_\textrm{RRL} = 19.557 \pm 0.026$ mag. The calibrated $K_s$-band period-luminosity relations for Anomalous Cepheids in the Draco dSph and the Large Magellanic Cloud exhibit statistically consistent slopes but systematically different zero-points, hinting at possible metallicity dependence of $\sim-0.3$ mag~dex$^{-1}$. Finally, the apparent magnitudes of the tip of the red giant branch in $I$ and $J$ bands also agree well with their absolute calibrations with the adopted RR Lyrae distance to Draco. Our recommended $\sim1.5\%$ precise RR Lyrae distance, $D_\textrm{Draco} = 81.55 \pm 0.98 \textrm{(statistical)} \pm 1.17 \textrm{(systematic)}$~kpc, is the most accurate and precise distance to Draco dSph galaxy.


LRSM
(1608)Position-dependent light yield in short, coated SCSF-78 scintillating fibers
  • Martin J. Losekamm,
  • Stephan Paul,
  • Thomas Pöschl
Radiation Measurements (04/2024) doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2024.107116
abstract + abstract -

In fibers made from organic plastic scintillators, a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic effects results in the attenuation of light and thus in a position-dependent light yield. The trapping of photons can further be affected if fibers are coated with or wrapped in a light-absorbing or reflecting material to suppress optical cross-talk. These effects have frequently been studied for long (> 0.5 m) fibers, yet little data is available for shorter ones. We experimentally studied the position-dependent light yield of single-cladded Kuraray SCSF-78 fibers with lengths of < 10 cm and tested the effect of different cross-talk-preventing materials. Contrary to the often acceptable simplification that light is transmitted in the fiber core alone, we found that photons trapped by the protective cladding significantly contribute to the light transmission in short fibers. In this paper, we perform an in-depth characterization of the position-dependent light yield of fibers sputter-coated with aluminum and wrapped in aluminum foil using a double-exponential attenuation function. Finally, we compare our findings to a simple photon transport model.

 


CN-8
RU-E
(1607)Design principles for fast and efficient self-assembly processes
  • Florian M. Gartner,
  • Erwin Frey
arXiv e-prints (03/2024) e-Print:2403.00213
abstract + abstract -

Self-assembly is a fundamental concept in biology and of significant interest to nanotechnology. Significant progress has been made in characterizing and controlling the properties of the resulting structures, both experimentally and theoretically. However, much less is known about kinetic constraints and determinants of dynamical properties like time efficiency, although these constraints can become severe limiting factors of self-assembly processes. Here we investigate how the time efficiency and other dynamical properties of reversible self-assembly depend on the morphology (shape) of the building blocks for systems in which the binding energy between the constituents is large. As paradigmatic examples, we stochastically simulate the self-assembly of constituents with triangular, square, and hexagonal morphology into two-dimensional structures of a specified size. We find that the constituents' morphology critically determines the assembly time and how it scales with the size of the target structure. Our analysis reveals three key structural parameters defined by the morphology: The nucleation size and attachment order, which describe the effective order of the chemical reactions by which clusters nucleate and grow, respectively, and the growth exponent, which determines how the growth rate of an emerging structure scales with its size. Using this characterization, we formulate an effective theory of the self-assembly kinetics, which we show exhibits an inherent scale invariance. This allows us to identify general scaling laws that describe the minimal assembly time as a function of the size of the target structure. We show how these insights on the kinetics of self-assembly processes can be used to design assembly schemes that could significantly increase the time efficiency and robustness of artificial self-assembly processes.


IDSL
RU-E
(1606)High-Fidelity RNA Copying via 2′,3′-Cyclic Phosphate Ligation
  • Adriana Calaça Serrão,
  • Sreekar Wunnava,
  • Avinash V. Dass,
  • Lennard Ufer,
  • Philipp Schwintek
  • +2
  • Christof B. Mast,
  • and Dieter Braun
  • (less)
J. Am. Chem. Soc. (03/2024) doi:10.1021/jacs.3c10813
abstract + abstract -

Templated ligation offers an efficient approach to replicate long strands in an RNA world. The 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate (>P) is a prebiotically available activation that also forms during RNA hydrolysis. Using gel electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography, we found that the templated ligation of RNA with >P proceeds in simple low-salt aqueous solutions with 1 mM MgCl2 under alkaline pH ranging from 9 to 11 and temperatures from −20 to 25 °C. No additional catalysts were required. In contrast to previous reports, we found an increase in the number of canonical linkages to 50%. The reaction proceeds in a sequence-specific manner, with an experimentally determined ligation fidelity of 82% at the 3′ end and 91% at the 5′ end of the ligation site. With splinted oligomers, five ligations created a 96-mer strand, demonstrating a pathway for the ribozyme assembly. Due to the low salt requirements, the ligation conditions will be compatible with strand separation. Templated ligation mediated by 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate in alkaline conditions therefore offers a performant replication and elongation reaction for RNA on early Earth.


CN-5
PhD Thesis
(1605)On simulations of cosmic rays in the large-scale structure of the universe
  • Ludwig Böss - Advisor: Harald Lesch
Thesis (03/2024) doi:10.5282/edoc.33280
abstract + abstract -

Cosmic rays (CRs) in the shape of relativistic protons and electrons are the source of non-thermal radiation in a plethora of astrophysical systems. Their emission provides insights into the strength and structure of magnetic fields, cosmic shock waves, and non-thermal pressure components in the interstellar or intergalactic medium. In the large-scale structure of the Universe CR electrons are the likely source of synchrotron emission from Radio Halos, Radio Relics, and AGN jets. CR protons on the other hand should be detectable via diffuse gamma-rays from their interaction with the thermal background gas, however, this emission has not yet been found. Estimating the gamma-ray emission from this process is required to study the non-thermal pressure support in clusters, as well as finding observational windows for potential detection of Dark Matter interaction. Simulations of the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, the so-called Cosmic Web, give insights into the origin and evolution of the largest gravitationally bound structures in the Universe. Even state-of-the-art simulations of cosmological structure formation lack the resolution to simulate the effect cosmic rays have on their environment from first principles. We therefore require a careful sub-grid description of cosmic ray physics that can be included in such simulations to model the effect cosmic rays may have on the evolution of cosmic structure.

 


(1604)Numerical challenges for energy conservation in N-body simulations of collapsing self-interacting dark matter haloes
  • Moritz S. Fischer,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Hai-Bo Yu
abstract + abstract -

Dark matter (DM) haloes can be subject to gravothermal collapse if DM is not collisionless but has strong self-interactions. When the scattering can efficiently transfer heat from the centre to the outskirts, the central region of the halo collapses and reaches densities much higher than those for collisionless DM. This phenomenon is potentially observable in studies of strong lensing. Current theoretical efforts are motivated by observations of surprisingly dense substructures. A comparison with them requires accurate predictions. One method to obtain such predictions is to use N-body simulations. The collapsed haloes are extreme systems that pose severe challenges to state-of-the-art codes used to model self-interacting dark matter (SIDM). We investigate the root of such problems with a focus on energy non-conservation. We run N-body simulations with and without DM self-interactions of an isolated DM-only halo and change numerical parameters relevant to the accuracy of the simulation. We find that not only the numerical scheme for the DM self-interactions can lead to energy non-conservation but also the modelling of gravitational interaction and the time integration are problematic. The issues we found are: (a) particles changing their time step in a non-time-reversible manner; (b) the asymmetry in the tree-based gravitational force evaluation; (c) SIDM velocity kicks break the symplectic nature and time symmetry. Tuning the parameters of the simulation to achieve a high accuracy allows for conserving energy not only at early stages of the evolution but also at late ones. However, the cost of the simulations becomes prohibitively large. Some problems making the simulations of the gravothermal collapse phase inaccurate, can be overcome by choosing appropriate numerical schemes. However, others remain challenging. Our findings motivate further work on addressing these challenges.


(1603)A nearby polluted white dwarf with a 6.2 h spin period
  • J. Farihi,
  • A. Robert,
  • N. Walters
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (03/2024) doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slae014
abstract + abstract -

This letter reports the first detection of a periodic light curve whose modulation is unambiguously due to rotation in a polluted white dwarf. TESS observations of WD 2138-332, at a distance of 16.1 pc, reveal a 0.39 per cent amplitude modulation with a 6.19 h period. While this rotation is relatively rapid for isolated white dwarfs, it falls within the range of spin periods common to those with detectable magnetic fields, where WD 2138-332 is notably both metal-rich and weakly magnetic. Within the local 20 pc volume of white dwarfs, multisector TESS data find no significant periodicities among the remaining 16 polluted objects (five of which are also magnetic), whereas six of 23 magnetic and metal-free targets have light curves consistent with rotation periods between 0.7 and 35 h (three of which are new discoveries). This indicates the variable light curve of WD 2138-332 is primarily a result of magnetism, as opposed to an inhomogeneous distribution of metals. From 13 magnetic and metallic degenerates with acceptable TESS data, a single detection of periodicity suggests that polluted white dwarfs are not rotating as rapidly as their magnetic counterparts, and planet ingestion is thus unlikely to be a significant channel for rapid rotation.


(1602)Final Moments II: Observational Properties and Physical Modeling of CSM-Interacting Type II Supernovae
  • W. V. Jacobson-Galán,
  • L. Dessart,
  • K. W. Davis,
  • C. D. Kilpatrick,
  • R. Margutti
  • +50
  • R. J. Foley,
  • R. Chornock,
  • G. Terreran,
  • D. Hiramatsu,
  • M. Newsome,
  • E. Padilla Gonzalez,
  • C. Pellegrino,
  • D. A. Howell,
  • A. V. Filippenko,
  • J. P. Anderson,
  • C. R. Angus,
  • K. Auchettl,
  • K. A. Bostroem,
  • T. G. Brink,
  • R. Cartier,
  • D. A. Coulter,
  • T. de Boer,
  • M. R. Drout,
  • N. Earl,
  • K. Ertini,
  • J. R. Farah,
  • D. Farias,
  • C. Gall,
  • H. Gao,
  • M. A. Gerlach,
  • F. Guo,
  • A. Haynie,
  • G. Hosseinzadeh,
  • A. L. Ibik,
  • S. W. Jha,
  • D. O. Jones,
  • D. Langeroodi,
  • N LeBaron,
  • E. A. Magnier,
  • A. L. Piro,
  • S. I. Raimundo,
  • A. Rest,
  • S. Rest,
  • R. Michael Rich,
  • C. Rojas-Bravo,
  • H. Sears,
  • K. Taggart,
  • V. A. Villar,
  • R. J. Wainscoat,
  • X-F. Wang,
  • A. R. Wasserman,
  • S. Yan,
  • Y. Yang,
  • J. Zhang,
  • W. Zheng
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present ultraviolet/optical/near-infrared observations and modeling of Type II supernovae (SNe II) whose early-time ($\delta t < 2$ days) spectra show transient, narrow emission lines from shock ionization of confined ($r < 10^{15}$ cm) circumstellar material (CSM). The observed electron-scattering broadened line profiles (i.e., IIn-like) of HI, He I/II, C III/IV, and N III/IV/V from the CSM persist on a characteristic timescale ($t_{\rm IIn}$) that marks a transition to a lower-density CSM and the emergence of Doppler-broadened features from the fast-moving SN ejecta. Our sample, the largest to date, consists of 39 SNe with early-time IIn-like features in addition to 35 "comparison" SNe with no evidence of early-time IIn-like features, all with ultraviolet observations. The total sample consists of 50 unpublished objects with 474 previously unpublished spectra and 50 multiband light curves, collected primarily through the Young Supernova Experiment and Global Supernova Project collaborations. For all sample objects, we find a significant correlation between peak ultraviolet brightness and both $t_{\rm IIn}$ and the rise time, as well as evidence for enhanced peak luminosities in SNe II with IIn-like features. We quantify mass-loss rates and CSM density for the sample through matching of peak multiband absolute magnitudes, rise times, $t_{\rm IIn}$ and optical SN spectra with a grid of radiation hydrodynamics and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (nLTE) radiative-transfer simulations. For our grid of models, all with the same underlying explosion, there is a trend between the duration of the electron-scattering broadened line profiles and inferred mass-loss rate: $t_{\rm IIn} \approx 3.8[\dot{M}/(0.01 \textrm{M}_{\odot} \textrm{yr}^{-1})]$ days.


(1601)Discovery of Magnetically Guided Metal Accretion onto a Polluted White Dwarf
  • Stefano Bagnulo,
  • Jay Farihi,
  • John D. Landstreet,
  • Colin P. Folsom
The Astrophysical Journal (03/2024) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ad2619
abstract + abstract -

Dynamically active planetary systems orbit a significant fraction of white dwarf stars. These stars often exhibit surface metals accreted from debris disks, which are detected through infrared excess or transiting structures. However, the full journey of a planetesimal from star-grazing orbit to final dissolution in the host star is poorly understood. Here, we report the discovery that the cool metal-polluted star WD 0816–310 has cannibalized heavy elements from a planetary body similar in size to Vesta, and where accretion and horizontal mixing processes have clearly been controlled by the stellar magnetic field. Our observations unveil periodic and synchronized variations in metal line strength and magnetic field intensity, implying a correlation between the local surface density of metals and the magnetic field structure. Specifically, the data point to a likely persistent concentration of metals near a magnetic pole. These findings demonstrate that magnetic fields may play a fundamental role in the final stages of exoplanetary bodies that are recycled into their white dwarf hosts.


(1600)Bar-driven Gas Dynamics of M31
  • Zi-Xuan Feng,
  • Zhi Li,
  • Juntai Shen,
  • Ortwin Gerhard,
  • R. P. Saglia
  • +3
  • Matias Blaña,
  • Hui Li,
  • Yingjie Jing
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (03/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad13ee
abstract + abstract -

The large-scale gaseous shocks in the bulge of M31 can be naturally explained by a rotating stellar bar. We use gas dynamical models to provide an independent measurement of the bar pattern speed in M31. The gravitational potentials of our simulations are from a set of made-to-measure models constrained by stellar photometry and kinematics. If the inclination of the gas disk is fixed at i = 77°, we find that a low pattern speed of 16–20 km s‑1 kpc‑1 is needed to match the observed position and amplitude of the shock features, as shock positions are too close to the bar major axis in high Ω b models. The pattern speed can increase to 20–30 km s‑1 kpc‑1 if the inner gas disk has a slightly smaller inclination angle compared with the outer one. Including subgrid physics such as star formation and stellar feedback has minor effects on the shock amplitude, and does not change the shock position significantly. If the inner gas disk is allowed to follow a varying inclination similar to the H I and ionized gas observations, the gas models with a pattern speed of 38 km s‑1 kpc‑1, which is consistent with stellar-dynamical models, can match both the shock features and the central gas features.


(1599)A likelihood framework for cryogenic scintillating calorimeters used in the CRESST dark matter search
  • CRESST Collaboration,
  • G. Angloher,
  • S. Banik,
  • G. Benato,
  • A. Bento
  • +55
  • A. Bertolini,
  • R. Breier,
  • C. Bucci,
  • J. Burkhart,
  • L. Canonica,
  • A. D'Addabbo,
  • S. Di Lorenzo,
  • L. Einfalt,
  • A. Erb,
  • F. v. Feilitzsch,
  • S. Fichtinger,
  • D. Fuchs,
  • A. Garai,
  • V. M. Ghete,
  • P. Gorla,
  • P. V. Guillaumon,
  • S. Gupta,
  • D. Hauff,
  • M. Ješkovský,
  • J. Jochum,
  • M. Kaznacheeva,
  • A. Kinast,
  • H. Kluck,
  • H. Kraus,
  • S. Kuckuk,
  • A. Langenkämper,
  • M. Mancuso,
  • L. Marini,
  • B. Mauri,
  • L. Meyer,
  • V. Mokina,
  • M. Olmi,
  • T. Ortmann,
  • C. Pagliarone,
  • L. Pattavina,
  • F. Petricca,
  • W. Potzel,
  • P. Povinec,
  • F. Pröbst,
  • F. Pucci,
  • F. Reindl,
  • J. Rothe,
  • K. Schäffner,
  • J. Schieck,
  • D. Schmiedmayer,
  • S. Schönert,
  • C. Schwertner,
  • M. Stahlberg,
  • L. Stodolsky,
  • C. Strandhagen,
  • R. Strauss,
  • I. Usherov,
  • F. Wagner,
  • V. Wagner,
  • V. Zema
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Cryogenic scintillating calorimeters are ultrasensitive particle detectors for rare event searches, particularly for the search for dark matter and the measurement of neutrino properties. These detectors are made from scintillating target crystals generating two signals for each particle interaction. The phonon (heat) signal precisely measures the deposited energy independent of the type of interacting particle. The scintillation light signal yields particle discrimination on an event-by-event basis. This paper presents a likelihood framework modeling backgrounds and a potential dark matter signal in the two-dimensional plane spanned by phonon and scintillation light energies. We apply the framework to data from CaWO$_4$-based detectors operated in the CRESST dark matter search. For the first time, a single likelihood framework is used in CRESST to model the data and extract results on dark matter in one step by using a profile likelihood ratio test. Our framework simultaneously fits (neutron) calibration data and physics (background) data and allows combining data from multiple detectors. Although tailored to CaWO$_4$-targets and the CRESST experiment, the framework can easily be expanded to other materials and experiments using scintillating cryogenic calorimeters for dark matter search and neutrino physics.


(1598)Hybrid bias and displacement emulators for field-level modelling of galaxy clustering in real and redshift space
  • Marcos Pellejero Ibañez,
  • Raul E. Angulo,
  • Drew Jamieson,
  • Yin Li
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (03/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae489
abstract + abstract -

Recently, hybrid bias expansions have emerged as a powerful approach to modelling the way in which galaxies are distributed in the Universe. Similarly, field-level emulators have recently become possible, thanks to advances in machine learning and N-body simulations. In this paper, we explore whether both techniques can be combined to provide a field-level model for the clustering of galaxies in real and redshift space. Specifically, here we will demonstrate that field-level emulators are able to accurately predict all the operators of a second-order hybrid bias expansion. The precision achieved in real and redshift space is similar to that obtained for the non-linear matter power spectrum. This translates to roughly 1-2 per cent precision for the power spectrum of a BOSS (Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey) and a Euclid-like galaxy sample up to $k\sim 0.6\ h\, {\rm Mpc}^{-1}$. Remarkably, this combined approach also delivers precise predictions for field-level galaxy statistics. Despite all these promising results, we detect several areas where further improvements are required. Therefore, this work serves as a road map for the developments required for a more complete exploitation of upcoming large-scale structure surveys.


(1597)Neural Simulation-Based Inference of the Neutron Star Equation of State directly from Telescope Spectra
  • Len Brandes,
  • Chirag Modi,
  • Aishik Ghosh,
  • Delaney Farrell,
  • Lee Lindblom
  • +4
  • Lukas Heinrich,
  • Andrew W. Steiner,
  • Fridolin Weber,
  • Daniel Whiteson
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Neutron stars provide a unique opportunity to study strongly interacting matter under extreme density conditions. The intricacies of matter inside neutron stars and their equation of state are not directly visible, but determine bulk properties, such as mass and radius, which affect the star's thermal X-ray emissions. However, the telescope spectra of these emissions are also affected by the stellar distance, hydrogen column, and effective surface temperature, which are not always well-constrained. Uncertainties on these nuisance parameters must be accounted for when making a robust estimation of the equation of state. In this study, we develop a novel methodology that, for the first time, can infer the full posterior distribution of both the equation of state and nuisance parameters directly from telescope observations. This method relies on the use of neural likelihood estimation, in which normalizing flows use samples of simulated telescope data to learn the likelihood of the neutron star spectra as a function of these parameters, coupled with Hamiltonian Monte Carlo methods to efficiently sample from the corresponding posterior distribution. Our approach surpasses the accuracy of previous methods, improves the interpretability of the results by providing access to the full posterior distribution, and naturally scales to a growing number of neutron star observations expected in the coming years.


(1596)Dynamical generation of the scalar f<SUB>0</SUB>(500 ), f<SUB>0</SUB>(980 ), and K<SUB>0</SUB><SUP>*</SUP>(700 ) resonances in the D<SUB>s</SUB><SUP>+</SUP>→K<SUP>+</SUP>π<SUP>+</SUP>π<SUP>-</SUP> reaction
  • L. R. Dai,
  • E. Oset
Physical Review D (03/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.109.054008
abstract + abstract -

We develop a model aimed at understanding the three mass distributions of pairs of mesons in the Cabibbo-suppressed Ds+→K+π+π- decay recently measured with high statistics by the BESIII collaboration. The largest contributions to the process come from the Ds+→K+ρ0 and Ds+→K*0π+ decay modes, but the Ds+→K0*(1430 )π+ and Ds+→K+f0(1370 ) modes also play a moderate role and all of them are introduced empirically. Instead, the contribution of the f0(500 ), f0(980 ), and K0*(700 ) resonances is introduced dynamically by looking at the decay modes at the quark level, hadronizing q q ¯ pairs to give two mesons, and allowing these mesons to interact, for which we follow the chiral unitary approach, to finally produce the K+π+π- final state. While the general features of the mass distributions are fairly obtained, we pay special attention to the specific effects created by the light scalar resonances, which are visible in the low mass region of the π+π-(f0(500 )) and K+π-(K0*(700 )) mass distributions and a narrow peak for π+π- distribution corresponding to f0(980 ) excitation. The contribution of these three resonances is generated by only one parameter. We see the agreement found in these regions as further support for the nature of the light scalar states as dynamically generated from the interaction of pseudoscalar mesons.


(1595)HOLISMOKES -- XII. Time-delay Measurements of Strongly Lensed Type Ia Supernovae using a Long Short-Term Memory Network
  • S. Huber,
  • S. H. Suyu
abstract + abstract -

Strongly lensed Type Ia supernovae (LSNe Ia) are a promising probe to measure the Hubble constant ($H_0$) directly. To use LSNe Ia for cosmography, a time-delay measurement between the multiple images, a lens-mass model, and a mass reconstruction along the line of sight are required. In this work, we present the machine learning network LSTM-FCNN which is a combination of a Long Short-Term Memory Network (LSTM) and a fully-connected neural network (FCNN). The LSTM-FCNN is designed to measure time delays on a sample of LSNe Ia spanning a broad range of properties, which we expect to find with the upcoming Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) and for which follow-up observations are planned. With follow-up observations in $i$ band (cadence of one to three days with a single-epoch $5\sigma$ depth of 24.5 mag), we reach a bias-free delay measurement with a precision around 0.7 days over a large sample of LSNe Ia. The LSTM-FCNN is far more general than previous machine learning approaches such as the Random Forest (RF), where a RF has to be trained for each observational pattern separately, and yet the LSTM-FCNN outperforms the RF by a factor of roughly three. Therefore, the LSTM-FCNN is a very promising approach to achieve robust time delays in LSNe Ia, which is important for a precise and accurate constraint on $H_0$


(1594)Quantum Many-Body Scars for Arbitrary Integer Spin in $2+1$D~Abelian Gauge Theories
  • Thea Budde,
  • Marina Krstić Marinković,
  • Joao C. Pinto Barros
abstract + abstract -

The existence of Quantum Many-Body Scars, high-energy eigenstates that evade the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis, has been established across different quantum many-body systems, including gauge theories corresponding to spin-1/2 Quantum Link Models. We systematically identify scars for pure gauge theories with arbitrarily large integer spin $S$ in $2+1$D, concretely for Truncated Link Models, where the electric field is restricted to $2S+1$ states per link. Through an explicit analytic construction, we show that the presence of scars is widespread in $2+1$D gauge theories for arbitrary integer spin. We confirm these findings numerically for small truncated spin and $S=1$ Quantum Link Models. The proposed analytic construction establishes the presence of scars far beyond volumes and spins that can be probed with existing numerical methods.


CN-5
RU-D
(1593)Environmental dependence of AGN activity and star formation in galaxy clusters from Magneticum simulations
  • G. Rihtaršič,
  • V. Biffi,
  • D. Fabjan,
  • K. Dolag
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347444
abstract + abstract -

Context. The environment inside and on the outskirts of galaxy clusters has a profound impact on the star formation rate and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in cluster galaxies. While the overall star formation and AGN suppression in the inner cluster regions has been thoroughly studied in the past, recent X-ray studies also indicate that conditions on the cluster outskirts may promote AGN activity.
Aims: We investigate how the environment and the properties of host galaxies impact the levels of AGN activity and star formation in galaxy clusters. We aim to identify significant trends in different galaxy populations and suggest possible explanations.
Methods: We studied galaxies with stellar mass log M*(M) > 10.15 in galaxy clusters with mass M500 > 1013 M extracted from box2b (640 comoving Mpc h−1) of the Magneticum Pathfinder suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations at redshifts 0.25 and 0.90. We examined the influence of stellar mass, distance to the nearest neighbouring galaxy, cluster-centric radius, substructure membership, and large-scale surroundings on the fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN, star formation rate, and the ratio between star-forming and quiescent galaxies.
Results: We find that in low-mass galaxies, AGN activity and star formation are similarly affected by the environment and decline towards the cluster centre. In massive galaxies, the impact is different; star-formation level increases in the inner regions and peaks between 0.5 and 1 R500 with a rapid decline in the centre, whereas AGN activity declines in the inner regions and rapidly rises below R500 towards the centre. We suggest that this increase is a result of the larger black hole masses relative to stellar masses in the cluster centre. After disentangling the contributions of neighbouring cluster regions, we find an excess of AGN activity in massive galaxies on the cluster outskirts (∼3 R500). We also find that the local density, substructure membership, and stellar mass strongly influence star formation and AGN activity but verify that they cannot fully account for the observed radial trends.


(1592)Rotational Evolution of Classical T Tauri Stars: Models and Observations
  • Javier Serna,
  • Giovanni Pinzón,
  • Jesús Hernández,
  • Ezequiel Manzo-Martínez,
  • Karina Mauco
  • +15
  • Carlos G. Román-Zúñiga,
  • Nuria Calvet,
  • Cesar Briceño,
  • Ricardo López-Valdivia,
  • Marina Kounkel,
  • Guy S. Stringfellow,
  • Keivan G. Stassun,
  • Marc Pinsonneault,
  • Lucia Adame,
  • Lyra Cao,
  • Kevin Covey,
  • Amelia Bayo,
  • Alexandre Roman-Lopes,
  • Christian Nitschelm,
  • Richard R. Lane
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We developed a grid of stellar rotation models for low-mass and solar-type Classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) ($0.3M_{\odot}<M_{\ast}<1.2M_{\odot}$). These models incorporate the star-disk interaction and magnetospheric ejections to investigate the evolution of the stellar rotation rate as a function of the mass of the star $M_{\ast}$, the magnetic field ($B_{\ast}$), and stellar wind ($\dot{M}_{wind}$). We compiled and determined stellar parameters for 208 CTTS, such as projected rotational velocity $v\sin(i)$, mass accretion rate $\dot{M}_{acc}$, stellar mass $M_{\ast}$, ages, and estimated rotational periods using TESS data. We also estimated a representative value of the mass-loss rate for our sample using the $[\text{O}\text{ I}]$ spectral line. Our results confirm that $v\sin(i)$ measurements in CTTS agree with the rotation rates provided by our spin models in the accretion-powered stellar winds (APSW) picture. In addition, we used the Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) technique to explore the connection between the model parameters and the observational properties of CTTS. We find that the evolution of $v\sin(i)$ with age might be regulated by variations in (1) the intensity of $B_{\ast}$ and (2) the fraction of the accretion flow ejected in magnetic winds, removing angular momentum from these systems. The youngest stars in our sample ($\sim $1 Myr) show a median branching ratio $\dot{M}_{wind}/\dot{M}_{acc}\sim$ $0.16$ and median $B_{\ast}\sim$ 2000 G, in contrast to $\sim 0.01$ and 1000 G, respectively, for stars with ages $\gtrsim 3$ Myr.


(1591)FAUST XII. Accretion streamers and jets in the VLA 1623-2417 protocluster
  • C. Codella,
  • L. Podio,
  • M. De Simone,
  • C. Ceccarelli,
  • S. Ohashi
  • +21
  • C. J. Chandler,
  • N. Sakai,
  • J. E. Pineda,
  • D. M. Segura-Cox,
  • E. Bianchi,
  • N. Cuello,
  • A. López-Sepulcre,
  • D. Fedele,
  • P. Caselli,
  • S. Charnley,
  • D. Johnstone,
  • Z. E. Zhang,
  • M. J. Maureira,
  • Y. Zhang,
  • G. Sabatini,
  • B. Svoboda,
  • I. Jiménez-Serra,
  • L. Loinard,
  • S. Mercimek,
  • N. Murillo,
  • S. Yamamoto
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (03/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae472
abstract + abstract -

The ALMA interferometer has played a key role in revealing a new component of the Sun-like star forming process: the molecular streamers, i.e. structures up to thousands of au long funnelling material non-axisymmetrically to discs. In the context of the FAUST ALMA LP, the archetypical VLA1623-2417 protostellar cluster has been imaged at 1.3 mm in the SO(56-45), SO(66-55), and SiO(5-4) line emission at the spatial resolution of 50 au. We detect extended SO emission, peaking towards the A and B protostars. Emission blue-shifted down to 6.6 km s-1 reveals for the first time a long (~ 2000 au) accelerating streamer plausibly feeding the VLA1623 B protostar. Using SO, we derive for the first time an estimate of the excitation temperature of an accreting streamer: 33 ± 9 K. The SO column density is ~ 1014 cm-2, and the SO/H2 abundance ratio is ~ 10-8. The total mass of the streamer is 3 × 10-3M, while its accretion rate is 3-5 × 10-7M yr-1. This is close to the mass accretion rate of VLA1623 B, in the 0.6-3 × 10-7M yr-1 range, showing the importance of the streamer in contributing to the mass of protostellar discs. The highest blue- and red-shifted SO velocities behave as the SiO(5-4) emission, the latter species detected for the first time in VLA1623-2417: the emission is compact (100-200 au), and associated only with the B protostar. The SO excitation temperature is ~ 100 K, supporting the occurrence of shocks associated with the jet, traced by SiO.


(1590)Dynamical friction and evolution of black holes in cosmological simulations: a new implementation in OpenGadget3
  • Alice Damiano,
  • Milena Valentini,
  • Stefano Borgani,
  • Luca Tornatore,
  • Giuseppe Murante
  • +3
  • Antonio Ragagnin,
  • Cinthia Ragone-Figueroa,
  • Klaus Dolag
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We implement a sub-resolution prescription for the unresolved dynamical friction onto black holes (BHs) in the OpenGadget3 code. We carry out cosmological simulations of a volume of 16 cMpc3 and zoom-ins of a galaxy group and of a galaxy cluster. The advantages of our new technique are assessed in comparison to commonly adopted methods to hamper spurious BH displacements, i.e. repositioning onto a local minimum of the gravitational potential and ad-hoc boosting of the BH particle dynamical mass. The newly-introduced dynamical friction correction provides centering of BHs on host halos which is at least comparable with the other techniques. It predicts half as many merger events with respect to the repositioning prescription, with the advantage of being less prone to leave sub-structures without any central BH. Simulations featuring our dynamical friction prescription produce a smaller (by up to 50% with respect to repositioning) population of wandering BHs and final BH masses in good agreement with observations. As for individual BH-BH interactions, our dynamical friction model captures the gradual inspiraling of orbits before the merger occurs. By contrast, the repositioning scheme, in its most classical renditions considered, describes extremely fast mergers, while the dynamical mass misrepresents the BHs' dynamics, introducing numerical scattering between the orbiting BHs. Given its performances in describing the centering of BHs within host galaxies and the orbiting of BH pair before their merging, our dynamical friction correction opens interesting applications for an accurate description of the evolution of BH demography within cosmological simulations of galaxy formation at different cosmic epochs and within different environments.


(1589)Small but mighty: High-resolution spectroscopy of ultra-hot Jupiter atmospheres with compact telescopes. Transmission spectrum of KELT-9 b with Wendelstein's FOCES spectrograph
  • N. W. Borsato,
  • H. J. Hoeijmakers,
  • D. Cont,
  • D. Kitzmann,
  • J. Ehrhardt
  • +7
  • C. Gössl,
  • C. Ries,
  • B. Prinoth,
  • K. Molaverdikhani,
  • B. Ercolano,
  • H. Kellerman,
  • Kevin Heng
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347684
abstract + abstract -

When observing transmission spectra produced by the atmospheres of ultra-hot Jupiters (UHJs), large telescopes are typically the instrument of choice given the very weak signal of the planet's atmopshere. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate that, for favourable targets, smaller telescopes are fully capable of conducting high-resolution cross-correlation spectroscopy. We apply the cross-correlation technique to data from the 2.1 m telescope at the Wendelstein Observatory, using its high-resolution spectrograph FOCES, in order to demonstrate its efficacy in resolving the atmosphere of the UHJ KELT-9 b. Using three nights of observations with the FOCES spectrograph and one with the HARPS-N spectrograph, we conduct a performance comparison between FOCES and HARPS-N. This comparison considers both single-transit and combined observations over the three nights. We then consider the potential of 2 m class telescopes by generalising our results to create a transit emulator capable of evaluating the potential of telescopes of this size. With FOCES, we detected seven species in the atmosphere of KELT-9b: Ti II, Fe I, Fe II, Na I, Mg I, Na II, Cr II, and Sc II. Although HARPS-N surpasses FOCES in performance thanks to the mirror of the TNG, our results reveal that smaller telescope classes are capable of resolving the atmospheres of UHJs given sufficient observing time. This broadens the potential scope of such studies, demonstrating that smaller telescopes can be used to investigate phenomena such as temporal variations in atmospheric signals and the atmospheric loss characteristics of these close-in planets.


(1588)Observational constraints on the origin of the elements. VIII. Constraining the barium, strontium, and yttrium chemical evolution in metal-poor stars
  • G. Guiglion,
  • M. Bergemann,
  • N. Storm,
  • J. Lian,
  • G. Cescutti
  • +1
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202348522
abstract + abstract -

Context. The chemical evolution history of slow neutron-capture elements in the Milky Way is still a matter of debate, especially in the metal-poor regime ([Fe/H] < −1).
Aims: Based on Gaia-ESO spectroscopic data, a recent study investigated the chemical evolution of neutron-capture elements in the regime [Fe/H] > −1. Here, we aim to complement this study down to [Fe/H] = −3, and focus on Ba, Y, and Sr, along with the abundance ratios of [Ba/Y] and [Sr/Y], which give comprehensive views on s-process nucleosynthesis channels.
Methods: We measured the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) abundances of Ba, Y, and Sr in 323 Galactic metal-poor stars using high-resolution optical spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios. We used the spectral fitting code TSFitPy together with 1D model atmospheres, using previously determined LTE and NLTE atmospheric parameters.
Results: We find that the NLTE effects are on the order of ∼ − 0.1 to ∼0.2 dex, depending on the element. We find that stars enhanced (deficient) in [Ba/Fe] and [Y/Fe] are also enhanced (deficient) in [Sr/Fe], suggesting a common evolution channel for these three elements. We find that the ratio between heavy and light s-process elements [Ba/Y] varies weakly with [Fe/H] even in the metal-poor regime, which is consistent with the behaviour in the metal-rich regime. The [Ba/Y] scatter at a given metallicity is larger than the abundance measurement uncertainties. Homogeneous chemical evolution models with different yield prescriptions are not able to accurately reproduce the [Ba/Y] scatter in the low-[Fe/H] regime. Adopting the stochastic chemical evolution model by Cescutti & Chiappini allows us to reproduce the observed scatter in the abundance pattern of [Ba/Y] and [Ba/Sr]. Based on our observations, we have ruled out the need for an arbitrary scaling of the r-process contribution, as previously suggested by the authors behind the construction of the model.
Conclusions: We show how important it is to properly include NLTE effects when measuring chemical abundances, especially in the metal-poor regime. This work demonstrates that the choice of the Galactic chemical evolution model (stochastic versus one-zone) is key when comparing models to observations. Upcoming large-scale spectroscopic surveys such as 4MOST and WEAVE are poised to deliver high-quality data for many thousands of metal-poor stars and this work gives a typical case study of what could be achieved with such surveys in the future.

Full table of [Ba/Fe], [Sr/Fe], and [Y/Fe] LTE and NLTE abundances, uncertainties, and individual line abundances is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via https://cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/683/A73.


(1587)Enhancement of $p$-wave dark matter annihilation by quasi-bound states
  • Martin Beneke,
  • Tobias Binder,
  • Lorenzo De Ros,
  • Mathias Garny
abstract + abstract -

We scrutinize the Sommerfeld enhancement in dark matter pair annihilation for $p$-wave and higher-$\ell$ partial waves. For the Yukawa potential these feature a super-resonant Breit-Wigner peak in their velocity-dependence close to Sommerfeld resonances as well as a universal scaling with velocity for all $\ell\geq 1$ that differs from the $s$-wave case. We provide a quantum mechanical explanation for these phenomena in terms of quasi-bound states sustained by the centrifugal barrier of the partial-wave potential, and give approximate WKB expressions capturing the main effects. The impact of quasi-bound states is exemplified for wino dark matter and models with light mediators, with a focus on indirect detection signals. We note that quasi-bound states can also explain similar peaks in the bound-state formation and self-scattering cross sections.


(1586)Fast flavor conversions at the edge of instability
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Georg Raffelt
abstract + abstract -

A dense neutrino gas exhibiting angular crossings in the electron lepton number is unstable and develops fast flavor conversions. Instead of assuming an unstable configuration from the onset, we imagine that the system is externally driven toward instability. We use the simplest model of two neutrino beams initially of different flavor that either suddenly appear or one or both slowly build up. Flavor conversions commence well before the putative unstable state is fully attained, and the final outcome depends on how the system is driven. Our results suggest that in an astrophysical setting, one should focus less on flavor instabilities in the neutrino radiation field and more on the external dynamics that leads to the formation of the unstable state.


(1585)The SPHERE view of the Orion star-forming region
  • P. -G. Valegard,
  • C. Ginski,
  • A. Derkink,
  • A. Garufi,
  • C. Dominik
  • +15
  • A. Ribas,
  • J. P. Williams,
  • M. Benisty,
  • T. Birnstiel,
  • S. Facchini,
  • G. Columba,
  • M. Hogerheijde,
  • R. G. Van Holstein,
  • J. Huang,
  • M. Kenworthy,
  • C. F. Manara,
  • P. Pinilla,
  • Ch. Rab,
  • R. Sulaiman,
  • A. Zurlo
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present SPHERE/IRDIS H-band data for a sample of 23 stars in the Orion Star forming region observed within the DESTINYS (Disk Evolution Study Through Imaging of Nearby Young Stars) program. We use polarization differential imaging in order to detect scattered light from circumstellar dust. From the scattered light observations we characterize the disk orientation, radius and contrast. We analyse the disks in context of the stellar parameters and the environment of the Orion star-forming region. We use ancillary X-shooter spectroscopic observations to characterize the central stars in the systems. We furthermore use a combination of new and archival ALMA mm-continuum observations to characterize the dust masses present in the circumstellar disks. Within our sample we detect extended circumstellar disks in 10 of 23 systems. Of these, three are exceptionally extended (V351 Ori, V599 Ori and V1012 Ori) and show scattered light asymmetries which may indicate perturbations by embedded planets or (in the case of V599 Ori) by an outer stellar companion. Our high resolution imaging observations are also sensitive to close (sub)stellar companions and we detect 9 such objects in our sample of which 5 were previously unknown. We find in particular a possible sub-stellar companion (either a very low mass star or a high mass brown dwarf) 137 au from the star RY Ori. We find a strong anti-correlation between disk detection and multiplicity, with only 2 of our 10 disk detections located in stellar multiple systems. We also find a correlation between scattered light contrast and the millimetre flux suggesting that disks that have a high dust content are typically bright in near-infrared scattered light. Conversely we do not find significant correlations between scattered light contrast of the disks and the stellar mass or age.


(1584)Scalable ATLAS pMSSM computational workflows using containerised REANA reusable analysis platform
  • Marco Donadoni,
  • Matthew Feickert,
  • Lukas Heinrich,
  • Yang Liu,
  • Audrius Mečionis
  • +4
  • Vladyslav Moisieienkov,
  • Tibor Šimko,
  • Giordon Stark,
  • Marco Vidal García
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

In this paper we describe the development of a streamlined framework for large-scale ATLAS pMSSM reinterpretations of LHC Run-2 analyses using containerised computational workflows. The project is looking to assess the global coverage of BSM physics and requires running O(5k) computational workflows representing pMSSM model points. Following ATLAS Analysis Preservation policies, many analyses have been preserved as containerised Yadage workflows, and after validation were added to a curated selection for the pMSSM study. To run the workflows at scale, we utilised the REANA reusable analysis platform. We describe how the REANA platform was enhanced to ensure the best concurrent throughput by internal service scheduling changes. We discuss the scalability of the approach on Kubernetes clusters from 500 to 5000 cores. Finally, we demonstrate a possibility of using additional ad-hoc public cloud infrastructure resources by running the same workflows on the Google Cloud Platform.


(1583)The elusive atmosphere of WASP-12 b. High-resolution transmission spectroscopy with CARMENES
  • S. Czesla,
  • M. Lampón,
  • D. Cont,
  • F. Lesjak,
  • J. Orell-Miquel
  • +17
  • J. Sanz-Forcada,
  • E. Nagel,
  • L. Nortmann,
  • K. Molaverdikhani,
  • M. López-Puertas,
  • F. Yan,
  • A. Quirrenbach,
  • J. A. Caballero,
  • E. Pallé,
  • J. Aceituno,
  • P. J. Amado,
  • Th. Henning,
  • S. Khalafinejad,
  • D. Montes,
  • A. Reiners,
  • I. Ribas,
  • A. Schweitzer
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202348107
abstract + abstract -

To date, the hot Jupiter WASP-12 b has been the only planet with confirmed orbital decay. The late F-type host star has been hypothesized to be surrounded by a large structure of circumstellar material evaporated from the planet. We obtained two high-resolution spectral transit time series with CARMENES and extensively searched for absorption signals by the atomic species Na, H, Ca, and He using transmission spectroscopy, thereby covering the He I λ10833 Å triplet with high resolution for the first time. We apply SYSREM for atomic line transmission spectroscopy, introduce the technique of signal protection to improve the results for individual absorption lines, and compare the outcomes to those of established methods. No transmission signals were detected and the most stringent upper limits as of yet were derived for the individual indicators. Nonetheless, we found variation in the stellar Hα and He I λ10833 Å lines, the origin of which remains uncertain but is unlikely to be activity. To constrain the enigmatic activity state of WASP-12, we analyzed XMM-Newton X-ray data and found the star to be moderately active at most. We deduced an upper limit for the X-ray luminosity and the irradiating X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) flux of WASP-12 b. Based on the XUV flux upper limit and the lack of the He I λ10833 Å signal, our hydrodynamic models slightly favor a moderately irradiated planet with a thermospheric temperature of ≲12 000 K, and a conservative upper limit of ≲4 × 1012 g s−1 on the mass-loss rate. Our study does not provide evidence for an extended planetary atmosphere or absorption by circumstellar material close to the planetary orbit.


(1582)Galaxy dispersion measured by Fast Radio Bursts as a probe of baryonic feedback models
  • Alexander Theis,
  • Steffen Hagstotz,
  • Robert Reischke,
  • Jochen Weller
abstract + abstract -

Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are a sensitive probe of the electron distribution in both the large-scale structure and their host galaxies through the dispersion measure (DM) of the radio pulse. Baryonic feedback models are crucial for modelling small scales for ongoing cosmological surveys that are expected to change the electron distribution in galaxies in a way that can be probed by FRB observations. In this paper, we explore the impact of baryonic feedback on FRB hosts using numerical simulations and make a detailed study of the host galaxy dispersion as a function of redshift, galaxy type, feedback model and how these properties vary in independent simulation codes. We find that the host galaxy dispersion varies dramatically between different implementations of baryonic feedback, allowing FRBs with host identification to be a valuable probe of feedback physics and thus provide necessary priors for upcoming analysis of the statistical properties of the large-scale structure. We further find that any dependency on the exact location of events within the halo is small. While there exists an evolution of the dispersion measure with redshift and halo mass, it is largely driven by varying star formation rates of the halo. Spectral information from FRB hosts can therefore be used to put priors on the host galaxy dispersion measure, and FRBs can be used to distinguish between competing models of baryonic feedback in future studies.


(1581)RABBITS - I. The crucial role of nuclear star formation in driving the coalescence of supermassive black hole binaries
  • Shihong Liao,
  • Dimitrios Irodotou,
  • Peter H. Johansson,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Francesco Paolo Rizzuto
  • +3
  • Jessica M. Hislop,
  • Alexander Rawlings,
  • Ruby J. Wright
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (03/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae360
abstract + abstract -

In this study of the 'Resolving supermAssive Black hole Binaries In galacTic hydrodynamical Simulations' (RABBITS) series, we focus on the hardening and coalescing process of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries in galaxy mergers. For simulations including different galaxy formation processes (i.e. gas cooling, star formation, SMBH accretion, stellar, and AGN feedback), we systematically control the effect of stochastic eccentricity by fixing it to similar values during the SMBH hardening phase. We find a strong correlation between the SMBH merger time-scales and the presence of nuclear star formation. Throughout the galaxy merging process, gas condenses at the centre due to cooling and tidal torques, leading to nuclear star formation. These recently formed stars, which inherit low angular momenta from the gas, contribute to the loss cone and assist in the SMBH hardening via three-body interactions. Compared to non-radiative hydrodynamical runs, the SMBH merger time-scales measured from the runs including cooling, stellar, and SMBH physical processes tend to be shortened by a factor of ~1.7. After fixing the eccentricity to the range of e ~ 0.6-0.8 during the hardening phase, the simulations with AGN feedback reveal merger time-scales of ~100-500 Myr for disc mergers and ~1-2 Gyr for elliptical mergers. With a semi-analytical approach, we find that the torque interaction between the binary and its circumbinary disc has minimal impact on the shrinking of the binary orbit in our retrograde galaxy merger. Our results are useful in improving the modelling of SMBH merger time-scales and gravitational-wave event rates.


(1580)PAPERCLIP: Associating Astronomical Observations and Natural Language with Multi-Modal Models
  • Siddharth Mishra-Sharma,
  • Yiding Song,
  • Jesse Thaler
abstract + abstract -

We present PAPERCLIP (Proposal Abstracts Provide an Effective Representation for Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training), a method which associates astronomical observations imaged by telescopes with natural language using a neural network model. The model is fine-tuned from a pre-trained Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) model using successful observing proposal abstracts and corresponding downstream observations, with the abstracts optionally summarized via guided generation using large language models (LLMs). Using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as an example, we show that the fine-tuned model embodies a meaningful joint representation between observations and natural language through tests targeting image retrieval (i.e., finding the most relevant observations using natural language queries) and description retrieval (i.e., querying for astrophysical object classes and use cases most relevant to a given observation). Our study demonstrates the potential for using generalist foundation models rather than task-specific models for interacting with astronomical data by leveraging text as an interface.


(1579)A deep learning model for the density profiles of subhaloes in IllustrisTNG
  • Luisa Lucie-Smith,
  • Giulia Despali,
  • Volker Springel
abstract + abstract -

We present a machine-learning-based model for the total density profiles of subhaloes with masses $M \gtrsim 7\times 10^8\,h^{-1}{\rm M}_\odot$ in the IllustrisTNG100 simulation. The model is based on an interpretable variational encoder (IVE) which returns the independent factors of variation in the density profiles within a low-dimensional representation, as well as the predictions for the density profiles themselves. The IVE returns accurate and unbiased predictions on all radial ranges, including the outer region profile where the subhaloes experience tidal stripping; here its fit accuracy exceeds that of the commonly used Einasto profile. The IVE discovers three independent degrees of freedom in the profiles, which can be interpreted in terms of the formation history of the subhaloes. In addition to the two parameters controlling the normalization and inner shape of the profile, the IVE discovers a third parameter that accounts for the impact of tidal stripping onto the subhalo outer profile; this parameter is sensitive to the mass loss experienced by the subhalo after its infall onto its parent halo. Baryonic physics in the IllustrisTNG galaxy formation model does not impact the number of degrees of freedom identified in the profile compared to the pure dark matter expectations, nor their physical interpretation. Our newly proposed profile fit can be used in strong lensing analyses or other observational studies which aim to constrain cosmology from small-scale structures.


(1578)Accretion tori around rotating neutron stars -- Paper I: Structure, shape and size
  • Monika Matuszková,
  • Gabriel Török,
  • Debora Lančová,
  • Kateřina Klimovičová,
  • Jiří Horák
  • +5
  • Martin Urbanec,
  • Eva Šrámková,
  • Odele Straub,
  • Gabriela Urbancová,
  • Vladimír Karas
  • (less)
arXiv e-prints (03/2024) e-Print:2403.16226
abstract + abstract -

We present a full general relativistic analytic solution for a radiation-pressure supported equilibrium fluid torus orbiting a rotating neutron star (NS). Previously developed analytical methods are thoroughly applied in the Hartle-Thorne geometry, including the effects of both the NS's angular momentum and quadrupole moment. The structure, size and shape of the torus are explored, focusing especially on the critically thick solution - the cusp tori. For the astrophysically relevant range of NS parameters, we examine how our findings differ from those obtained for the Schwarzschild spacetime. The solutions for rotating stars display signatures of the interplay between relativistic and Newtonian effects where the impact of NS angular momentum and quadrupole moment are almost counterbalanced at the given radius. Nevertheless, the spacetime parameters still strongly influence the size of tori, which can be shown in a coordinate-independent way. Finally, we discuss the importance of the size of the central neutron star, determining whether or not the surrounding torus may exist. We provide a set of tools in a Wolfram Mathematica code, which poses a basis allowing for a further investigation of the impact of the NSs' superdense matter equation of state on the spectral and temporal behaviour of accretion tori.


(1577)The Origins of Gas Accreted by Supermassive Black Holes: The Importance of Recycled Gas
  • Ena Choi,
  • Rachel S. Somerville,
  • Jeremiah P. Ostriker,
  • Michaela Hirschmann,
  • Thorsten Naab
The Astrophysical Journal (03/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad245a
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the fueling mechanisms of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) by analyzing 10 zoom-in cosmological simulations of massive galaxies, with stellar masses 1011–12 M and SMBH masses 108.9–9.7 M at z = 0, featuring various major and minor merger events. By tracing the gas history in these simulations, we categorize the gas accreted by the central SMBHs based on its origin. Gas that belonged to a different galaxy before accretion onto the BH is labeled as (i) "external," while smoothly accreted cosmic gas is classified as (ii) "smooth." Gas produced within the primary halo through stellar evolution and subsequently accreted by the SMBH is classified as (iii) "recycled." Our analysis, which includes stellar feedback, reveals that the primary fuel source for SMBHs is the recycled gas from dying stars. This recycled gas from stars in the inner region of the galaxy readily collapses toward the center, triggering starbursts and simultaneously fueling the SMBH. Galaxy mergers also play a crucial role in fueling SMBHs in massive galaxies, as SMBHs in massive halos tend to accrete a higher fraction of external gas from mergers compared to smoothly accreted gas. However, on average, it takes approximately 1.85 Gyr for external gas to enter the main galaxy and accrete onto the SMBH. Considering the presence of various other gas triggers for active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity alongside this time delay, the association between AGNs and mergers may not always be obvious.


(1576)FROST-CLUSTERS -- I. Hierarchical star cluster assembly boosts intermediate-mass black hole formation
  • Antti Rantala,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Natalia Lahén
abstract + abstract -

Observations and high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations indicate that massive star clusters assemble hierarchically from sub-clusters with a universal power-law cluster mass function. We study the consequences of such assembly for the formation of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) at low metallicities ($Z=0.01\;Z_\mathrm{\odot}$) with our updated N-body code BIFROST based on the hierarchical fourth-order forward integrator. BIFROST integrates few-body systems using secular and regularized techniques including post-Newtonian equations of motion up to order PN3.5 and gravitational-wave recoil kicks for BHs. Single stellar evolution is treated using the fast population synthesis code SEVN. We evolve three cluster assembly regions with $N_\mathrm{tot} = 1.70$--$2.35 \times 10^6$ stars following a realistic IMF in $\sim$1000 sub-clusters for $t=50$ Myr. IMBHs with masses up to $m_\bullet \sim 2200\:M_\mathrm{\odot}$ form rapidly mainly via the collapse of very massive stars (VMSs) assembled through repeated collisions of massive stars followed by growth through tidal disruption events and BH mergers. No IMBHs originate from the stars in the initially most massive clusters. We explain this by suppression of hard massive star binary formation at high velocity dispersions and the competition between core collapse and massive star life-times. Later the IMBHs form subsystems resulting in gravitational-wave BH-BH, IMBH-BH and IMBH-IMBH mergers with a $m_\bullet\sim1000\:M_\mathrm{\odot}$ gravitational-wave detection being the observable prediction. Our simulations indicate that the hierarchical formation of massive star clusters in metal poor environments naturally results in formation of potential seeds for supermassive black holes.


(1575)Deep Generative Models for Ultra-High Granularity Particle Physics Detector Simulation: A Voyage From Emulation to Extrapolation
  • Baran Hashemi
abstract + abstract -

Simulating ultra-high-granularity detector responses in Particle Physics represents a critical yet computationally demanding task. This thesis aims to overcome this challenge for the Pixel Vertex Detector (PXD) at the Belle II experiment, which features over 7.5M pixel channels-the highest spatial resolution detector simulation dataset ever analysed with generative models. This thesis starts off by a comprehensive and taxonomic review on generative models for simulating detector signatures. Then, it presents the Intra-Event Aware Generative Adversarial Network (IEA-GAN), a new geometry-aware generative model that introduces a relational attentive reasoning and Self-Supervised Learning to approximate an "event" in the detector. This study underscores the importance of intra-event correlation for downstream physics analyses. Building upon this, the work drifts towards a more generic approach and presents YonedaVAE, a Category Theory-inspired generative model that tackles the open problem of Out-of-Distribution (OOD) simulation. YonedaVAE introduces a learnable Yoneda embedding to capture the entirety of an event based on its sensor relationships, formulating a Category theoretical language for intra-event relational reasoning. This is complemented by introducing a Self-Supervised learnable prior for VAEs and an Adaptive Top-q sampling mechanism, enabling the model to sample point clouds with variable intra-category cardinality in a zero-shot manner. Variable Intra-event cardinality has not been approached before and is vital for simulating irregular detector geometries. Trained on an early experiment data, YonedaVAE can reach a reasonable OOD simulation precision of a later experiment with almost double luminosity. This study introduces, for the first time, the results of using deep generative models for ultra-high granularity detector simulation in Particle Physics.


(1574)Accretion tori around rotating neutron stars -- Paper II: Oscillations and precessions
  • Monika Matuszková,
  • Gabriel Török,
  • Kateřina Klimovičová,
  • Jiří Horák,
  • Odele Straub
  • +5
  • Eva Šrámková,
  • Debora Lančová,
  • Martin Urbanec,
  • Gabriela Urbancová,
  • Vladimír Karas
  • (less)
arXiv e-prints (03/2024) e-Print:2403.16231
abstract + abstract -

The four characteristic oscillation frequencies of accretion flows are, in addition to the Keplerian orbital frequency, often discussed in the context of the time variability of the black hole and neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). These are namely the frequencies of the axisymmetric radial and vertical epicyclic oscillations, and the frequencies of non-axisymmetric oscillations corresponding to the periastron (radial) and Lense-Thirring (vertical) precessions. In this context, we investigate the effect of the quadrupole moment of a slowly rotating NS and provide complete formulae for calculating these oscillation and precession frequencies, as well as their convenient approximations. Simple formulae corresponding to the geodesic limit of a slender torus (and test particle motion) and the limit of a marginally overflowing torus (torus exhibiting a critical cusp) are presented, and furthermore, more general approximate formulae are included to allow calculations for arbitrarily thick tori. We provide the Wolfram Mathematica code used for our calculations together with C++ and PYTHON codes for calculations of the frequencies. Our formulae can be used for various calculations describing the astrophysical signatures of the NSs' superdense matter equation of state. For instance, we demonstrate that, even for a given fixed number of free parameters, a model accounting for fluid flow precession better matches the frequencies of twin-peak quasiperiodic oscillations observed in NS LMXBs than a model using geodesic precession.


(1573)KiDS-1000 cosmology: Combined second- and third-order shear statistics
  • Pierre A. Burger,
  • Lucas Porth,
  • Sven Heydenreich,
  • Laila Linke,
  • Niek Wielders
  • +8
  • Peter Schneider,
  • Marika Asgari,
  • Tiago Castro,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Joachim Harnois-Déraps,
  • Hendrik Hildebrandt,
  • Konrad Kuijken,
  • Nicolas Martinet
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347986
abstract + abstract -


Aims: In this work, we perform the first cosmological parameter analysis of the fourth release of Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS-1000) data with second- and third-order shear statistics. This paper builds on a series of studies aimed at describing the roadmap to third-order shear statistics.
Methods: We derived and tested a combined model of the second-order shear statistic, namely, the COSEBIs and the third-order aperture mass statistics «ℳap3» in a tomographic set-up. We validated our pipeline with N-body mock simulations of the KiDS-1000 data release. To model the second- and third-order statistics, we used the latest version of HMCODE2020 for the power spectrum and BIHALOFIT for the bispectrum. Furthermore, we used an analytic description to model intrinsic alignments and hydro-dynamical simulations to model the effect of baryonic feedback processes. Lastly, we decreased the dimension of the data vector significantly by considering only equal smoothing radii for the «ℳap3» part of the data vector. This makes it possible to carry out a data analysis of the KiDS-1000 data release using a combined analysis of COSEBIs and third-order shear statistics.
Results: We first validated the accuracy of our modelling by analysing a noise-free mock data vector, assuming the KiDS-1000 error budget, finding a shift in the maximum of the posterior distribution of the matter density parameter, ΔΩm < 0.02 σΩm, and of the structure growth parameter, ΔS8 < 0.05 σS8. Lastly, we performed the first KiDS-1000 cosmological analysis using a combined analysis of second- and third-order shear statistics, where we constrained Ωm = 0.248−0.055+0.062 and S8 = σ8√(Ωm/0.3 )= 0.772 ± 0.022. The geometric average on the errors of Ωm and S8 of the combined statistics decreases, compared to the second-order statistic, by a factor of 2.2.


(1572)Minimal decaying dark matter: from cosmological tensions to neutrino signatures
  • Lea Fuß,
  • Mathias Garny,
  • Alejandro Ibarra
arXiv e-prints (03/2024) e-Print:2403.15543
abstract + abstract -

The invisible decay of cold dark matter into a slightly lighter dark sector particle on cosmological time-scales has been proposed as a solution to the $S_8$ tension. In this work we discuss the possible embedding of this scenario within a particle physics framework, and we investigate its phenomenology. We identify a minimal dark matter decay setup that addresses the $S_8$ tension, while avoiding the stringent constraints from indirect dark matter searches. In our scenario, the dark sector contains two singlet fermions $N_{1,2}$, quasi-degenerate in mass, and carrying lepton number so that the heaviest state ($N_2$) decays into the lightest ($N_1$) and two neutrinos via a higher-dimensional operator $N_2\to \bar N_1\nu\nu$. The conservation of lepton number, and the small phase-space available for the decay, forbids the decay channels into hadrons and strongly suppresses the decays into photons or charged leptons. We derive complementary constraints on the model parameters from neutrino detectors, freeze-in dark matter production via $\nu\nu\to N_1N_2$, collider experiments and blazar observations, and we show that the upcoming JUNO neutrino observatory could detect signals of dark matter decay for model parameters addressing the $S_8$ tension if the dark matter mass is below $\simeq 1$ GeV.


(1571)Topological Kolmogorov complexity and the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism
  • Vittorio Vitale,
  • Tiago Mendes-Santos,
  • Alex Rodriguez,
  • Marcello Dalmonte
Physical Review E (03/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.109.034102
abstract + abstract -

Topology plays a fundamental role in our understanding of many-body physics, from vortices and solitons in classical field theory to phases and excitations in quantum matter. Topological phenomena are intimately connected to the distribution of information content that, differently from ordinary matter, is now governed by nonlocal degrees of freedom. However, a precise characterization of how topological effects govern the complexity of a many-body state, i.e., its partition function, is presently unclear. In this paper, we show how topology and complexity are directly intertwined concepts in the context of classical statistical mechanics. We concretely present a theory that shows how the Kolmogorov complexity of a classical partition function sampling carries unique, distinctive features depending on the presence of topological excitations in the system. We confront two-dimensional Ising, Heisenberg, and XY models on several topologies and study the corresponding samplings as high-dimensional manifolds in configuration space, quantifying their complexity via the intrinsic dimension. While for the Ising and Heisenberg models the intrinsic dimension is independent of the real-space topology, for the XY model it depends crucially on temperature: across the Berezkinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition, complexity becomes topology dependent. In the BKT phase, it displays a characteristic dependence on the homology of the real-space manifold, and, for g -torii, it follows a scaling that is solely genus dependent. We argue that this behavior is intimately connected to the emergence of an order parameter in data space, the conditional connectivity, which displays scaling behavior. Our approach paves the way for an understanding of topological phenomena emergent from many-body interactions from the perspective of Kolmogorov complexity.


(1570)Search for giant planets in M67 V: a warm Jupiter orbiting the turn-off star S1429
  • Luis Thomas,
  • Roberto Saglia,
  • Luca Pasquini,
  • Anna Brucalassi,
  • Piercarlo Bonifacio
  • +7
  • José Renan de Medeiros,
  • Izan de Castro Leão,
  • Bruno Leonardo Canto Martins,
  • Henrik Lukas Ruh,
  • Luigi Rolly Bedin,
  • Mattia Libralato,
  • Katia Biazzo
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Planets orbiting members of open or globular clusters offer a great opportunity to study exoplanet populations systematically as stars within clusters provide a mostly homogeneous sample at least in chemical composition and stellar age. However, even though there have been coordinated efforts to search for exoplanets in stellar clusters, only a small number of planets has been detected. One successful example is the seven-year radial velocity (RV) survey "Search for giant planets in M67" of 88 stars in the open cluster M67 which led to the discovery of five giant planets, including three close-in ($P < 10$ days) hot-Jupiters. In this work, we continue and extend the observation of stars in M67 with the aim to search for additional planets. We conducted spectroscopic observations with the HPF, HARPS, HARPS-North, and SOPHIE spectrographs of 11 stars in M67. Six of our targets showed a variation or long-term trends in their RV during the original survey, while the other five were not observed in the original sample bringing the total number of stars to 93. An analysis of the radial velocities revealed one additional planet around the turn-off point star S1429 and gave solutions for the orbits of stellar companions around S2207 and YBP2018. S1429 b is a warm Jupiter on a likely circular orbit with a period of $77.48_{-0.19}^{+0.18}$ days and a minimum mass $\text{M} \sin i = 1.80 \pm 0.2$ M$_\text{J}$. We update the hot-Jupiter occurrence rate in M67 to include the five new stars, deriving $4.2_{-2.3}^{+4.1} \%$ when considering all stars, and $5.4_{-3.0}^{+5.1} \%$ if binary star systems are removed.


(1569)Tensor-force effects on nuclear matter in relativistic ab initio theory
  • Sibo Wang,
  • Hui Tong,
  • Chencan Wang,
  • Qiang Zhao,
  • Peter Ring
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

Within the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory in the full Dirac space, the tensor-force effects on infinite nuclear matter are elucidated by subtracting the matrix elements of tensor forces from the realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction. The tensor-force effects for the binding energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) as well as the symmetry energy are attractive and are more pronounced around the empirical saturation density, while the tensor forces have little impact on the pure neutron matter. By tuning the tensor-force strength, an infinite (negative) scattering length in the spin-triplet channel is found. This locates the dilute SNM with only the $^3S_1$-$^3D_1$ channel interaction at the unitary limit. Its ground-state energy is found proportional to the energy of a free Fermi gas with a scaling factor 0.38, revealing good universal properties. This work paves the way to study the tensor-force effects in neutron stars as well as finite nuclei from realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and highlights the role of the tensor force on the deviation of the nuclear physics to the unitary limit.


CN-3
CN-4
RU-C
(1568)The Lyman-α forest catalog from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument Early Data Release
  • César Ramírez-Pérez,
  • Ignasi Pérez-Ràfols,
  • Andreu Font-Ribera,
  • M. Abdul Karim,
  • E. Armengaud
  • +65
  • J. Bautista,
  • S. F. Beltran,
  • L. Cabayol-Garcia,
  • Z. Cai,
  • S. Chabanier,
  • E. Chaussidon,
  • J. Chaves-Montero,
  • A. Cuceu,
  • R. de la Cruz,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • A. X. Gonzalez-Morales,
  • C. Gordon,
  • H. K. Herrera-Alcantar,
  • V. Iršič,
  • M. Ishak,
  • N. G. Karaçaylı,
  • Zarija Lukić,
  • C. J. Manser,
  • P. Montero-Camacho,
  • L. Napolitano,
  • G. Niz,
  • M. Pieri,
  • C. Ravoux,
  • F. Sinigaglia,
  • T. Tan,
  • M. Walther,
  • B. Wang,
  • J. Aguilar,
  • S. Ahlen,
  • S. Bailey,
  • D. Brooks,
  • T. Claybaugh,
  • K. Dawson,
  • A. de la Macorra,
  • G. Dhungana,
  • P. Doel,
  • K. Fanning,
  • J. E. Forero-Romero,
  • S. Gontcho A Gontcho,
  • J. Guy,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • R. Kehoe,
  • T. Kisner,
  • M. Landriau,
  • L. Le Guillou,
  • M. E. Levi,
  • C. Magneville,
  • P. Martini,
  • A. Meisner,
  • R. Miquel,
  • J. Moustakas,
  • E. Mueller,
  • A. Muñoz-Gutiérrez,
  • J. Nie,
  • N. Palanque-Delabrouille,
  • W. J. Percival,
  • G. Rossi,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • E. F. Schlafly,
  • D. Schlegel,
  • H. Seo,
  • G. Tarlé,
  • B. A. Weaver,
  • C. Yèche,
  • Z. Zhou
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present and validate the catalog of Lyman-α forest fluctuations for 3D analyses using the Early Data Release (EDR) from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey. We used 88,511 quasars collected from DESI Survey Validation (SV) data and the first two months of the main survey (M2). We present several improvements to the method used to extract the Lyman-α absorption fluctuations performed in previous analyses from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In particular, we modify the weighting scheme and show that it can improve the precision of the correlation function measurement by more than 20%. This catalog can be downloaded from this https URL and it will be used in the near future for the first DESI measurements of the 3D correlations in the Lyman-α forest.


(1567)Renormalization of the next-to-leading-power $\gamma\gamma \to h $ and $gg\to h$ soft quark functions
  • Martin Beneke,
  • Yao Ji,
  • Xing Wang
abstract + abstract -

We calculate directly in position space the one-loop renormalization kernels of the soft operators $O_\gamma$ and $O_g$ that appear in the soft-quark contributions to, respectively, the subleading-power $\gamma\gamma\to h$ and $gg\to h$ form factors mediated by the $b$-quark. We present an IR/rapidity divergence-free definition for $O_g$ and demonstrate that with a correspondent definition of the collinear function, a consistent factorization theorem is recovered. Using conformal symmetry techniques, we establish a relation between the evolution kernels of the leading-twist heavy-light light-ray operator, whose matrix element defines the $B$-meson light-cone distribution amplitude (LCDA), and $O_\gamma$ to all orders in perturbation theory. Application of this relation allows us to bootstrap the kernel of $O_\gamma$ to the two-loop level. We construct an ansatz for the kernel of $O_g$ at higher orders. We test this ansatz against the consistency requirement at two-loop and find they differ only by a particular constant.


RU-D
(1566)At the end of cosmic noon: Short gas depletion times in unobscured quasars at z ∼ 1
  • M. Frias Castillo,
  • M. Rybak,
  • J. Hodge,
  • P. van der Werf,
  • L. J. Abbo
  • +6
  • F. J. Ballieux,
  • S. Ward,
  • C. Harrison,
  • G. Calistro Rivera,
  • J. P. McKean,
  • H. R. Stacey
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347596
abstract + abstract -

Unobscured quasars (QSOs) are predicted to be the final stage in the evolutionary sequence from gas-rich mergers to gas-depleted, quenched galaxies. Studies of this population, however, find a high incidence of far-infrared-luminous sources-suggesting significant dust-obscured star formation-but direct observations of the cold molecular gas fuelling this star formation are still necessary. We present a NOEMA study of CO(2-1) emission, tracing the cold molecular gas, in ten lensed z = 1 − 1.5 unobscured QSOs. We detected CO(2-1) in seven of our targets, four of which also show continuum emission (λrest = 1.3 mm). After subtracting the foreground galaxy contribution to the photometry, spectral energy distribution fitting yielded stellar masses of 109 − 11 M, with star formation rates of 25−160 M yr−1 for the host galaxies. These QSOs have lower LCO' than star-forming galaxies with the same LIR, and show depletion times spanning a large range (50−900 Myr), but with a median of just 90(αCO/4) Myr. We find molecular gas masses in the range ≤2−40 × 109CO/4) M, which suggest gas fractions above ∼50% for most of the targets. Despite the presence of an unobscured QSO, the host galaxies are able to retain significant amounts of cold gas. However, with a median depletion time of ∼90 Myr, the intense burst of star formation taking place in these targets will quickly deplete their molecular gas reservoirs in the absence of gas replenishment, resulting in a quiescent host galaxy. The non-detected QSOs are three of the four radio-loud QSOs in the sample, and their properties indicate that they are likely already transitioning into quiescence. Recent cosmological simulations tend to overestimate the depletion times expected for these z ∼ 1 QSO-host galaxies, which is likely linked to their difficulty producing starbursts across the general high-redshift galaxy population.


(1565)The treasure behind the haystack: MUSE analysis of five recently discovered globular clusters
  • F. Gran,
  • G. Kordopatis,
  • M. Zoccali,
  • V. Hill,
  • I. Saviane
  • +8
  • C. Navarrete,
  • A. Rojas-Arriagada,
  • J. Carballo-Bello,
  • J. Hartke,
  • E. Valenti,
  • R. Contreras Ramos,
  • M. De Leo,
  • S. Fabbro
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347915
abstract + abstract -

Context. After the second data release of Gaia, the number of new globular cluster candidates has increased significantly. However, most of them need to be properly characterised, both spectroscopically and photometrically, by means of radial velocities, metallicities, and deeper photometric observations.
Aims: Our goal is to provide an independent confirmation of the cluster nature of Gran 4, a recently discovered globular cluster, with follow-up spectroscopic observations. The derived radial velocity for individual stars, coupled with proper motions, allows us to isolate cluster members from field stars, while the analysis of their spectra allows us to derive metallicities. By including in the analysis the recently confirmed clusters Gran 1, 2, 3, and 5, we aim to completely characterise recently discovered globular clusters.
Methods: Using Gaia DR3 and VVV catalogue data and MUSE at VLT observations, we selected cluster members based on their proper motions, radial velocities and their position in colour-magnitude diagrams. Furthermore, full spectral synthesis was performed on the cluster members, extracting surface parameters and metallicity from MUSE spectra. Finally, a completeness estimation was performed on the total globular cluster population of the Milky Way.
Results: We confirm the nature of Gran 4, a newly discovered globular cluster behind the Galactic bulge, with a mean radial velocity of RV = −265.28 ± 3.92 km s−1 and a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]= − 1.72 ± 0.32 dex. Additionally, independent measurements of the metallicities were derived for Gran 1, 2, 3, and 5. We also revise the observational lower mass limit for a globular cluster to survive in the bulge and disc environment. We estimate that ∼12 − 26 globular clusters have still to be discovered on the other side of the Galaxy (i.e., behind the bulge, bar and disk), up to 20 kpc.

Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programmes 0103.D-0386(A) and 105.20MY.001 (PI: F. Gran).


(1564)Measurement induced transitions in non-Markovian free fermion ladders
  • Mikheil Tsitsishvili,
  • Dario Poletti,
  • Marcello Dalmonte,
  • Giuliano Chiriacò
SciPost Physics Core (03/2024) doi:10.21468/SciPostPhysCore.7.1.011
abstract + abstract -

Recently there has been an intense effort to understand measurement induced transitions, but we still lack a good understanding of non-Markovian effects on these phenomena. To that end, we consider two coupled chains of free fermions, one acting as the system of interest, and one as a bath. The bath chain is subject to Markovian measurements, resulting in an effective non-Markovian dissipative dynamics acting on the system chain which is still amenable to numerical studies in terms of quantum trajectories. Within this setting, we study the entanglement within the system chain, and use it to characterize the phase diagram depending on the ladder hopping parameters and on the measurement probability. For the case of pure state evolution, the system is in an area law phase when the internal hopping of the bath chain is small, while a non-area law phase appears when the dynamics of the bath is fast. The non-area law exhibits a logarithmic scaling of the entropy compatible with a conformal phase, but also displays linear corrections for the finite system sizes we can study. For the case of mixed state evolution, we instead observe regions with both area, and non-area scaling of the entanglement negativity. We quantify the non-Markovianity of the system chain dynamics and find that for the regimes of parameters we study, a stronger non-Markovianity is associated to a larger entanglement within the system.


(1563)Constraining the pΛ interaction from a combined analysis of scattering data and correlation functions
  • D. L. Mihaylov,
  • J. Haidenbauer,
  • V. Mantovani Sarti
Physics Letters B (03/2024) doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2024.138550
abstract + abstract -

This work provides the first combined analysis of low-energy pΛ scattering, considering both cross section and correlation data. The obtained results establish the most stringent constraints to date on the two-body pΛ interaction, pointing to a weaker attraction than so far accepted. The best set of scattering lengths for the spin singlet and triplet are found to range from f0 ,f1 = (2.1 , 1.56) to (3.34 , 1.18) fm. With a chiral NY potential fine-tuned to those scattering parameters, the in-medium properties of the Λ are explored and a potential depth of UΛ = - 36.3 ± 1.3(stat)-6.2+2.5 (syst) MeV is found at nuclear matter saturation density.


(1562)Cavity Detection of Gravitational Waves: Where Do We Stand?
  • Claudio Gatti,
  • Luca Visinelli,
  • Michael Zantedeschi
abstract + abstract -

High frequency gravitational waves (HFGWs) are predicted in various exotic scenarios involving both cosmological and astrophysical sources. These elusive signals have recently sparked the interest of a diverse community of researchers, due to the possibility of HFGW detection in the laboratory through graviton-photon conversion in strong magnetic fields. Notable examples include the redesign of the resonant cavities currently under development to detect the cosmic axion. In this work, we derive the sensitivities of some existing and planned resonant cavities to detect a HFGW background. As a concrete scenario, we consider the collective signals that originate from the merging of compact objects, such as two primordial black holes (PBHs) in the asteroid mass window. Our findings improve over existing work by explicitly discussing and quantifying the loss in the experimental reach due to the actual coherence of the source. We elucidate on the approach we adopt in relation with recent literature on the topic. Most notably, we give a recipe for the estimate of the stochastic background that focuses on the presence of the signal in the cavity at all times and showing that, in the relevant PBH mass region, the signal is dominated by coherent binary mergers.


(1561)Collisions and collective flavor conversion: Integrating out the fast dynamics
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Ian Padilla-Gay,
  • Georg G. Raffelt
Physical Review D (03/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.109.063021
abstract + abstract -

In dense astrophysical environments, notably core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers, neutrino-neutrino forward scattering can spawn flavor conversion on very short scales. Scattering with the background medium can impact collective flavor conversion in various ways, either damping oscillations or possibly setting off novel collisional flavor instabilities (CFIs). A key feature in this process is the slowness of collisions compared to the much faster dynamics of neutrino-neutrino refraction. Assuming spatial homogeneity, we leverage this hierarchy of scales to simplify the description accounting only for the slow dynamics driven by collisions. We illustrate our new approach both in the case of CFIs and in the case of fast instabilities damped by collisions. In both cases, our strategy provides new equations, the slow-dynamics equations, that simplify the description of flavor conversion and allow us to qualitatively understand the final state of the system after the instability, either collisional or fast, has saturated.


(1560)TIPSY: Trajectory of Infalling Particles in Streamers around Young stars. Dynamical analysis of the streamers around S CrA and HL Tau
  • Aashish Gupta,
  • Anna Miotello,
  • Jonathan P. Williams,
  • Til Birnstiel,
  • Michael Kuffmeier
  • +1
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202348007
abstract + abstract -

Context. Elongated trails of infalling gas, often referred to as "streamers," have recently been observed around young stellar objects (YSOs) at different evolutionary stages. This asymmetric infall of material can significantly alter star and planet formation processes, especially in the more evolved YSOs.
Aims: In order to ascertain the infalling nature of observed streamer-like structures and then systematically characterize their dynamics, we developed the code TIPSY (Trajectory of Infalling Particles in Streamers around Young stars).
Methods: Using TIPSY, the streamer molecular line emission is first isolated from the disk emission. Then the streamer emission, which is effectively a point cloud in three-dimensional (3D) position-position-velocity space, is simplified to a curve-like representation. The observed streamer curve is then compared to the theoretical trajectories of infalling material. The best-fit trajectories are used to constrain streamer features, such as the specific energy, the specific angular momenta, the infall timescale, and the 3D morphology.
Results: We used TIPSY to fit molecular-line ALMA observations of streamers around a Class II binary system, S CrA, and a Class I/II protostar, HL Tau. Our results indicate that both of the streamers are consistent with infalling motion. For the S CrA streamer, we could constrain the dynamical parameters well and find it to be on a bound elliptical trajectory. On the other hand, the fitting uncertainties are substantially higher for the HL Tau streamer, likely due to the smaller spatial scales of the observations. TIPSY results and mass estimates suggest that S CrA and HL Tau are accreting material at a rate of ≳27 Mjupiter Myr-1 and ≳5 Mjupiter Myr-1, respectively, which can significantly increase the mass budget available to form planets.
Conclusions: TIPSY can be used to assess whether the morphology and kinematics of observed streamers are consistent with infalling motion and to characterize their dynamics, which is crucial for quantifying their impact on the protostellar systems.

3D plots associated to Figs. 2 and 3 are available at https://www.aanda.org


(1559)LiteBIRD Science Goals and Forecasts: Primordial Magnetic Fields
  • D. Paoletti,
  • J. Rubino-Martin,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • D. Molinari,
  • J. Chluba
  • +95
  • F. Finelli,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • J. Errard,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • A. I. Lonappan,
  • A. Tartari,
  • E. Allys,
  • A. Anand,
  • J. Aumont,
  • M. Ballardini,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • N. Bartolo,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • M. Bortolami,
  • T. Brinckmann,
  • E. Calabrese,
  • P. Campeti,
  • A. Carones,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • K. Cheung,
  • L. Clermont,
  • F. Columbro,
  • G. Conenna,
  • A. Coppolecchia,
  • F. Cuttaia,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • S. Della Torre,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • G. Galloni,
  • M. Galloway,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • T. Ghigna,
  • S. Giardiello,
  • C. Gimeno-Amo,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • F. Grupp,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • L. T. Hergt,
  • E. Hivon,
  • K. Ichiki,
  • H. Ishino,
  • K. Kohri,
  • E. Komatsu,
  • N. Krachmalnicoff,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • M. Lembo,
  • F. Levrier,
  • M. López-Caniego,
  • G. Luzzi,
  • E. Martínez-González,
  • S. Masi,
  • S. Matarrese,
  • S. Micheli,
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • M. Monelli,
  • L. Montier,
  • G. Morgante,
  • L. Mousset,
  • R. Nagata,
  • T. Namikawa,
  • P. Natoli,
  • A. Novelli,
  • I. Obata,
  • A. Occhiuzzi,
  • K. Odagiri,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • G. Pascual-Cisneros,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • G. Piccirilli,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • M. Ruiz-Granda,
  • Y. Sakurai,
  • D. Scott,
  • S. L. Stever,
  • R. M. Sullivan,
  • Y. Takase,
  • K. Tassis,
  • L. Terenzi,
  • M. Tristram,
  • L. Vacher,
  • B. van Tent,
  • P. Vielva,
  • I. K. Wehus,
  • G. Weymann-Despres,
  • M. Zannoni,
  • Y. Zhou
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present detailed forecasts for the constraints on primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) that will be obtained with the LiteBIRD satellite. The constraints are driven by the effects of PMFs on the CMB anisotropies: the gravitational effects of magnetically-induced perturbations; the effects on the thermal and ionization history of the Universe; the Faraday rotation imprint on the CMB polarization; and the non-Gaussianities induced in polarization anisotropies. LiteBIRD represents a sensitive probe for PMFs and by exploiting all the physical effects, it will be able to improve the current limit coming from Planck. In particular, thanks to its accurate $B$-mode polarization measurement, LiteBIRD will improve the constraints on infrared configurations for the gravitational effect, giving $B_{\rm 1\,Mpc}^{n_{\rm B} =-2.9} < 0.8$ nG at 95% C.L., potentially opening the possibility to detect nanogauss fields with high significance. We also observe a significant improvement in the limits when marginalized over the spectral index, $B_{1\,{\rm Mpc}}^{\rm marg}< 2.2$ nG at 95% C.L. From the thermal history effect, which relies mainly on $E$-mode polarization data, we obtain a significant improvement for all PMF configurations, with the marginalized case, $\sqrt{\langle B^2\rangle}^{\rm marg}<0.50$ nG at 95% C.L. Faraday rotation constraints will take advantage of the wide frequency coverage of LiteBIRD and the high sensitivity in $B$ modes, improving the limits by orders of magnitude with respect to current results, $B_{1\,{\rm Mpc}}^{n_{\rm B} =-2.9} < 3.2$ nG at 95% C.L. Finally, non-Gaussianities of the $B$-mode polarization can probe PMFs at the level of 1 nG, again significantly improving the current bounds from Planck. Altogether our forecasts represent a broad collection of complementary probes, providing conservative limits on PMF characteristics that will be achieved with LiteBIRD.


(1558)JWST Photometric Time-Delay and Magnification Measurements for the Triply-Imaged Type Ia "Supernova H0pe" at z = 1.78
  • J. D. R. Pierel,
  • B. L. Frye,
  • M. Pascale,
  • G. B. Caminha,
  • W. Chen
  • +60
  • S. Dhawan,
  • D. Gilman,
  • M. Grayling,
  • S. Huber,
  • P. Kelly,
  • S. Thorp,
  • N. Arendse,
  • S. Birrer,
  • M. Bronikowski,
  • R. Canameras,
  • D. Coe,
  • S. H. Cohen,
  • C. J. Conselice,
  • S. P. Driver,
  • J. C. J. Dsilva,
  • M. Engesser,
  • N. Foo,
  • C. Gall,
  • N. Garuda,
  • C. Grillo,
  • N. A. Grogin,
  • J. Henderson,
  • J. Hjorth,
  • R. A. Jansen,
  • J. Johansson,
  • P. S. Kamieneski,
  • A. M. Koekemoer,
  • C. Larison,
  • M. A. Marshall,
  • L. A. Moustakas,
  • M. Nonino,
  • R.,
  • Iii Ortiz,
  • T. Petrushevska,
  • N. Pirzkal,
  • A. Robotham,
  • R. E.,
  • Jr. Ryan,
  • S. Schuldt,
  • L. G. Strolger,
  • J. Summers,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • T. Treu,
  • C. N. A. Willmer,
  • R. A. Windhorst,
  • H. Yan,
  • A. Zitrin,
  • A. Acebron,
  • S. Chakrabarti,
  • D. A. Coulter,
  • O. D. Fox,
  • X. Huang,
  • S. W. Jha,
  • G. Li,
  • P. A. Mazzali,
  • A. K. Meena,
  • I. Perez-Fournon,
  • F. Poidevin,
  • A. Rest,
  • A. G. Riess
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Supernova (SN) H0pe is a gravitationally lensed, triply-imaged, Type Ia SN (SN Ia) discovered in James Webb Space Telescope imaging of the PLCK G165.7+67.0 cluster of galaxies. Well-observed multiply-imaged SNe provide a rare opportunity to constrain the Hubble constant ($H_0$), by measuring the relative time delay between the images and modeling the foreground mass distribution. SN H0pe is located at $z=1.783$, and is the first SN Ia with sufficient light curve sampling and long enough time delays for an $H_0$ inference. Here we present photometric time-delay measurements and SN properties of SN H0pe. Using JWST/NIRCam photometry we measure time delays of $\Delta t_{ab}=-116.6^{+10.8}_{-9.3}$ and $\Delta t_{cb}=-48.6^{+3.6}_{-4.0}$ observer-frame days relative to the last image to arrive (image 2b; all uncertainties are $1\sigma$), which corresponds to a $\sim5.6\%$ uncertainty contribution for $H_0$ assuming $70 \rm{km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}}$. We also constrain the absolute magnification of each image to $\mu_{a}=4.3^{+1.6}_{-1.8}$, $\mu_{b}=7.6^{+3.6}_{-2.6}$, $\mu_{c}=6.4^{+1.6}_{-1.5}$ by comparing the observed peak near-IR magnitude of SN H0pe to the non-lensed population of SNe Ia.


(1557)Prospects of nuclear-coupled-dark-matter detection via correlation spectroscopy of I$_2^+$ and Ca$^+$
  • Eric Madge,
  • Gilad Perez,
  • Ziv Meir
abstract + abstract -

The nature of dark matter (DM) and its interaction with the Standard Model (SM) is one of the biggest open questions in physics nowadays. The vast majority of theoretically-motivated Ultralight-DM (ULDM) models predict that ULDM couples dominantly to the SM strong/nuclear sector. This coupling leads to oscillations of nuclear parameters that are detectable by comparing clocks with different sensitivities to these nature's constants. Vibrational transitions of molecular clocks are more sensitive to a change in the nuclear parameters than the electronic transitions of atomic clocks. Here, we propose the iodine molecular ion, I$_2^+$, as a sensitive detector for such a class of ULDM models. The iodine's dense spectrum allows us to match its transition frequency to that of an optical atomic clock (Ca$^+$) and perform correlation spectroscopy between the two clock species. With this technique, we project a few-orders-of-magnitude improvement over the most sensitive clock comparisons performed to date. We also briefly consider the robustness of the corresponding "Earth-bound" under modifications of the $Z_N$-QCD axion model.


(1556)FAUST XIII. Dusty cavity and molecular shock driven by IRS7B in the Corona Australis cluster
  • G. Sabatini,
  • L. Podio,
  • C. Codella,
  • Y. Watanabe,
  • M. De Simone
  • +52
  • E. Bianchi,
  • C. Ceccarelli,
  • C. J. Chandler,
  • N. Sakai,
  • B. Svoboda,
  • L. Testi,
  • Y. Aikawa,
  • N. Balucani,
  • M. Bouvier,
  • P. Caselli,
  • E. Caux,
  • L. Chahine,
  • S. Charnley,
  • N. Cuello,
  • F. Dulieu,
  • L. Evans,
  • D. Fedele,
  • S. Feng,
  • F. Fontani,
  • T. Hama,
  • T. Hanawa,
  • E. Herbst,
  • T. Hirota,
  • A. Isella,
  • I. Jímenez-Serra,
  • D. Johnstone,
  • B. Lefloch,
  • R. Le Gal,
  • L. Loinard,
  • H. Baobab Liu,
  • A. López-Sepulcre,
  • L. T. Maud,
  • M. J. Maureira,
  • F. Menard,
  • A. Miotello,
  • G. Moellenbrock,
  • H. Nomura,
  • Y. Oba,
  • S. Ohashi,
  • Y. Okoda,
  • Y. Oya,
  • J. Pineda,
  • A. Rimola,
  • T. Sakai,
  • D. Segura-Cox,
  • Y. Shirley,
  • C. Vastel,
  • S. Viti,
  • N. Watanabe,
  • Y. Zhang,
  • Z. E. Zhang,
  • S. Yamamoto
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The origin of the chemical diversity observed around low-mass protostars probably resides in the earliest history of these systems. We aim to investigate the impact of protostellar feedback on the chemistry and grain growth in the circumstellar medium of multiple stellar systems. In the context of the ALMA Large Program FAUST, we present high-resolution (50 au) observations of CH$_3$OH, H$_2$CO, and SiO and continuum emission at 1.3 mm and 3 mm towards the Corona Australis star cluster. Methanol emission reveals an arc-like structure at $\sim$1800 au from the protostellar system IRS7B along the direction perpendicular to the major axis of the disc. The arc is located at the edge of two elongated continuum structures that define a cone emerging from IRS7B. The region inside the cone is probed by H$_2$CO, while the eastern wall of the arc shows bright emission in SiO, a typical shock tracer. Taking into account the association with a previously detected radio jet imaged with JVLA at 6 cm, the molecular arc reveals for the first time a bow shock driven by IRS7B and a two-sided dust cavity opened by the mass-loss process. For each cavity wall, we derive an average H$_2$ column density of $\sim$7$\times$10$^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$, a mass of $\sim$9$\times$10$^{-3}$ M$_\odot$, and a lower limit on the dust spectral index of $1.4$. These observations provide the first evidence of a shock and a conical dust cavity opened by the jet driven by IRS7B, with important implications for the chemical enrichment and grain growth in the envelope of Solar System analogues.


MIAPbP
(1555)Convective scale and subadiabatic layers in simulations of rotating compressible convection
  • P. J. Käpylä
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202348325
abstract + abstract -

Context. Rotation is thought to influence the size of convective eddies and the efficiency of convective energy transport in the deep convection zones of stars. Rotationally constrained convection has been invoked to explain the lack of large-scale power in observations of solar flows.
Aims: Our main aims are to quantify the effects of rotation on the scale of convective eddies and velocity as well as the depths of convective overshoot and subadiabatic Deardorff layers.
Methods: We ran moderately turbulent three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of rotating convection in local Cartesian domains. The rotation rate and luminosity of the simulations were varied in order to probe the dependency of the results on Coriolis, Mach, and Richardson numbers measuring the influences of rotation, compressibility, and stiffness of the radiative layer. The results were compared with theoretical scaling results that assume a balance between Coriolis, inertial, and buoyancy (Archimedean) forces, also referred to as the CIA balance.
Results: The horizontal scale of convective eddies decreases as rotation increases, and it ultimately reaches a rotationally constrained regime consistent with the CIA balance. Using a new measure of the rotational influence on the system, we found that even the deep parts of the solar convection zone are not in the rotationally constrained regime. The simulations captured the slowly and rapidly rotating scaling laws predicted by theory, and the Sun appears to be in between these two regimes. Both the overshooting depth and the extent of the Deardorff layer decrease as rotation becomes more rapid. For sufficiently rapid rotation, the Deardorff layer is absent due to the symmetrisation of upflows and downflows. However, for the most rapidly rotating cases, the overshooting increases again due to unrealistically large Richardson numbers that allow convective columns to penetrate deep into the radiative layer.
Conclusions: Relating the simulations with the Sun suggests that the convective scale, even in the deep parts of the Sun, is only mildly affected by rotation and that some other mechanism is needed to explain the lack of strong large-scale flows in the Sun. Taking the current results at face value, the overshoot and Deardorff layers are estimated to span roughly 5% of the pressure scale height at the base of the convection zone in the Sun.


MIAPbP
(1554)Stochastic ultralight dark matter fluctuations in pulsar timing arrays
  • Hyungjin Kim,
  • Andrea Mitridate
Physical Review D (03/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.109.055017
abstract + abstract -

Metric perturbations induced by ultralight dark matter (ULDM) fields have long been identified as a potential target for pulsar timing array (PTA) observations. Previous works have focused on the coherent oscillation of metric perturbations at the characteristic frequency set by the ULDM mass. In this work, we show that ULDM fields source low-frequency stochastic metric fluctuations and that these low-frequency fluctuations can produce distinctive detectable signals in PTA data. Using the NANOGrav 12.5-yr dataset and synthetic datasets mimicking present and future PTA capabilities, we show that the current and future PTA observations provide the strongest probe of ULDM density within the Solar System for masses in the range of 10-18 eV −10-16 eV .


CN-7
RU-A
(1553)Microscopic optical potential from the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory I. proton-nucleus scattering
  • Pianpian Qin,
  • Sibo Wang,
  • Hui Tong,
  • Qiang Zhao,
  • Chencan Wang
  • +2
abstract + abstract -

A relativistic microscopic optical model potential for nucleon-nucleus scattering is developed based on the \emph{ab initio} relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (RBHF) theory with the improved local density approximation, which is abbreviated as the RBOM potential. Both real and imaginary parts of the single-particle potentials in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter at various densities are determined uniquely in the full Dirac space. The density distributions of the target nuclei are calculated by the covariant energy density functional theory with the density functional PC-PK1. The central and spin-orbit terms of the optical potentials are quantitatively consistent with the relativistic phenomenological optical potentials. The performance of the RBOM potential is evaluated by considering proton scattering with incident energy E≤200 MeV on five target nuclei, $\prescript{208}{}{\text{Pb}}$, $\prescript{120}{}{\text{Sn}}$, $\prescript{90}{}{\text{Zr}}$, $\prescript{48}{}{\text{Ca}}$, and $\prescript{40}{}{\text{Ca}}$. Scattering observables including the elastic scattering angular distributions, analyzing powers, spin rotation functions, and reaction cross sections are analyzed. Theoretical predictions show good agreements with the experimental data and the results derived from phenomenological optical potentials. We anticipate that the RBOM potential can provide reference for other phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials, as well as reliable descriptions for nucleon scattering on exotic nuclei in the era of rare-isotope beams.


(1552)Breakdown of Hawking Evaporation opens new Mass Window for Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter Candidate
  • Valentin Thoss,
  • Andreas Burkert,
  • Kazunori Kohri
abstract + abstract -

The energy injection through Hawking evaporation has been used to put strong constraints on primordial black holes as a dark matter candidate at masses below $10^{17}\,\rm{g}$. However, Hawking's semiclassical approximation breaks down at latest after half-decay. Beyond this point, the evaporation could be significantly suppressed as was shown in recent work. In this study, we review existing cosmological and astrophysical bounds on primordial black holes taking this effect into account. We show that the constraints disappear completely for a reasonable range of parameters, which opens a new window below $10^{10}\,\rm{g}$ for light primordial black holes as a dark matter candidate.


(1551)Physics-informed neural networks for predicting the asymptotic outcome of fast neutrino flavor conversions
  • Sajad Abbar,
  • Meng-Ru Wu,
  • Zewei Xiong
Physical Review D (02/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.109.043024
abstract + abstract -

In the most extreme astrophysical environments, such as core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and neutron star mergers (NSMs), neutrinos can undergo fast flavor conversions (FFCs) on exceedingly short scales. Intensive simulations have demonstrated that FFCs can attain equilibrium states in certain models. In this study, we utilize physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) to predict the asymptotic outcomes of FFCs, by specifically targeting the first two moments of neutrino angular distributions. This makes our approach suitable for state-of-the-art CCSN and NSM simulations. Through effective feature engineering and the incorporation of customized loss functions that penalize discrepancies in the predicted total number of νe and ν¯e, our PINNs demonstrate remarkable accuracies, with an error margin of ≲3 %. Our study represents a substantial leap forward in the potential incorporation of FFCs into simulations of CCSNe and NSMs, thereby enhancing our understanding of these extraordinary astrophysical events.


(1550)Observed kinematics of the Milky Way nuclear stellar disk region
  • M. Zoccali,
  • A. Rojas-Arriagada,
  • E. Valenti,
  • R. Contreras Ramos,
  • A. Valenzuela-Navarro
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

The nuclear region of the Milky Way is believed to host a nuclear stellar disk, co-spatial with the gaseous central molecular zone. Previous kinematical studies detected faster rotation for the stars belonging to the nuclear stellar disk, compared to the surrounding regions. We analyze the rotation velocity of stars at the nuclear stellar disk, and compare them with its analog in a few control fields just outside this region. We limit our analysis to stars in the red clump of the color magnitude diagram, in order to be able to relate their mean de-reddened luminosity with distance along the line of sight. We used a proper motion catalog, obtained from point spread function photometry on VVV images, to construct maps of the transverse velocity for these stars. We complemented our analysis with radial velocities from the 17th data release of the APOGEE survey. We find that the main difference between the nuclear stellar disk region and its surroundings is that at the former we see only stars moving eastward, which we believe are located in front of the Galactic center. On the contrary, in every other direction, we see the brightest red clump stars moving eastward, and the faintest ones moving westward, as expected for a rotating disk. We interpret these observations as being produced by the central molecular zone, hiding stars behind itself. What we observe is compatible with being produced by just the absence of the component at the back, without requiring the presence of a cold, fast rotating disk. This component is also not clearly detected in the newest release of the APOGEE catalog. In other words, we find no clear signature of the nuclear stellar disk as a distinct kinematical component.


(1549)Evidence for axion miniclusters with an increased central density
  • Benedikt Eggemeier,
  • Ananthu Krishnan Anilkumar,
  • Klaus Dolag
abstract + abstract -

We identify axion miniclusters collapsing in the radiation-dominated era and follow them to redshift $z=99$ with N-body simulations. We find that the majority of the densest miniclusters end up in the center of larger minicluster halos at late times. Soon after their formation, the miniclusters exhibit NFW profiles but they subsequently develop a steeper inner slope approaching $\rho\sim r^{-2}$ on small scales. Using the so far most highly resolved axion structure formation simulation with $2048^3$ particles we examine the structure of previously studied minicluster halos. While the density profiles of their subhalos are NFW-like we confirm that a modified NFW profile with a steeper inner slope provides a better description for minicluster halos with masses above $\sim 10^{-12}\,M_\odot$. We show that miniclusters with a higher central density might be in contrast to pure NFW halos dense enough to induce gravitational microlensing. Likewise, more compact minicluster halos will have immediate implications for direct and indirect axion detection.


(1548)Winds of change: the nuclear and galaxy-scale outflows and the X-ray variability of 2MASS 0918+2117
  • P. Baldini,
  • G. Lanzuisi,
  • M. Brusa,
  • A. Merloni,
  • K. Gkimisi
  • +19
  • M. Perna,
  • I. E. Lopez,
  • E. Bertola,
  • Z. Igo,
  • S. Waddell,
  • B. Musiimenta,
  • C. Aydar,
  • R. Arcodia,
  • G. A. Matzeu,
  • A. Luminari,
  • J. Buchner,
  • C. Vignali,
  • M. Dadina,
  • A. Comastri,
  • G. Cresci,
  • S. Marchesi,
  • R. Gilli,
  • F. Tombesi,
  • R. Serafinelli
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Powerful outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGN) can significantly impact the gas reservoirs of their host galaxies. However, it is still unclear how these outflows can propagate from the very central regions of galaxies to their outskirts, and whether nuclear winds can be driven by and/or be responsible for drastic spectral transitions. In this work we test feedback propagation models on the case test of 2MASS 0918+2117 (2M0918), a z=0.149 X-ray variable AGN, which showed tentative evidence for nuclear ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) in a 2005 XMM-Newton observation. We also investigate whether UFOs can be related to the observed X-ray variability. We observed 2M0918 with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR in 2020 to confirm the presence and characterize the UFOs. We perform a kinematic analysis of the 2005 SDSS optical spectrum to reveal and measure the properties of galaxy-scale ionized outflows. Furthermore, we construct 20-year-long lightcurves of observed flux, line-of-sight column density, and intrinsic accretion rate from the spectra of the first 4 SRG/eROSITA all-sky surveys and archival observations from Chandra and XMM-Newton.We significantly detect UFOs with v$\sim$0.16c and galaxy-scale ionized outflows with velocities of $\sim$ 700 km/s. We also find that the drastic X-ray variability (factors >10) can be explained both in terms of variable obscuration and variable intrinsic luminosity.Comparing the energetics of the two outflow phases, 2M0918 is consistent with momentum-driven wind propagation. 2M0918 expands the sample of AGN with both UFOs and ionized gas winds from 5 to 6, and brings the sample of AGN hosting multiscale outflows to 19, contributing to a clearer picture of feedback physics. From the variations in accretion rate, column density, and ionization level of the obscurer, we propose a scenario that connects obscurers, an accretion enhancement, and the emergence of UFOs


(1547)The q<SUP>2</SUP> moments in inclusive semileptonic B decays
  • G. Finauri,
  • P. Gambino
Journal of High Energy Physics (02/2024) doi:10.1007/JHEP02(2024)206
abstract + abstract -

We compute the first moments of the q2 distribution in inclusive semileptonic B decays as functions of the lower cut on q2, confirming a number of results given in the literature and adding the O (αs2β0 ) BLM contributions. We then include the q2-moments recently measured by Belle and Belle II in a global fit to the moments. The new data are compatible with the other measurements and slightly decrease the uncertainty on the nonperturbative parameters and on |Vcb|. Our updated value is |Vcb| = (41.97 ± 0.48) × 10−3.


(1546)El Gordo needs El Anzuelo: Probing the structure of cluster members with multi-band extended arcs in JWST data
  • A. Galan,
  • G. B. Caminha,
  • J. Knollmüller,
  • J. Roth,
  • S. H. Suyu
abstract + abstract -

Gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters involves hundreds of galaxies over a large redshift range and increases the likelihood of rare phenomena (supernovae, microlensing, dark substructures, etc.). Characterizing the mass and light distributions of foreground and background objects often requires a combination of high-resolution data and advanced modeling techniques. We present the detailed analysis of El Anzuelo, a prominent quintuply imaged dusty star forming galaxy ($z_{\rm s}=2.29$), mainly lensed by three members of the massive galaxy cluster ACT-CL$\,$J0102$-$4915, also known as El Gordo ($z_{\rm d}=0.87$). We leverage JWST/NIRCam data containing previously unseen lensing features using a Bayesian, multi-wavelength, differentiable and GPU-accelerated modeling framework that combines Herculens (lens modeling) and NIFTy (field model and inference) software packages. For one of the deflectors, we complement lensing constraints with stellar kinematics measured from VLT/MUSE data. In our lens model, we explicitly include the mass distribution of the cluster, locally corrected by a constant shear field. We find that the two main deflectors (L1 and L2) have logarithmic mass density slopes steeper than isothermal, with $\gamma_{\rm L1} = 2.23\pm0.05$ and $\gamma_{\rm L2} = 2.21\pm0.04$. We argue that such steep density profiles can arise due to tidally truncated mass distributions, which we probe thanks to the cluster lensing boost and the strong asymmetry of the lensing configuration. Moreover, our three-dimensional source model captures most of the surface brightness of the lensed galaxy, revealing a clump of at most $400$ parsecs at the source redshift, visible at wavelengths $\lambda_{\rm rest}\gtrsim0.6$ $\mu$m. Finally, we caution on using point-like features within extended arcs to constrain galaxy-scale lens models before securing them with extended arc modeling.


(1545)Is Betelgeuse Really Rotating? Synthetic ALMA Observations of Large-scale Convection in 3D Simulations of Red Supergiants
  • Jing-Ze Ma,
  • Andrea Chiavassa,
  • Selma E. de Mink,
  • Ruggero Valli,
  • Stephen Justham
  • +1
The Astrophysical Journal (02/2024) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ad24fd
abstract + abstract -

The evolved stages of massive stars are poorly understood, but invaluable constraints can be derived from spatially resolved observations of nearby red supergiants, such as Betelgeuse. Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of Betelgeuse showing a dipolar velocity field have been interpreted as evidence for a projected rotation rate of about 5 km s‑1. This is 2 orders of magnitude larger than predicted by single-star evolution, which led to suggestions that Betelgeuse is a binary merger. We propose instead that large-scale convective motions can mimic rotation, especially if they are only partially resolved. We support this claim with 3D CO5BOLD simulations of nonrotating red supergiants that we postprocessed to predict ALMA images and SiO spectra. We show that our synthetic radial velocity maps have a 90% chance of being falsely interpreted as evidence for a projected rotation rate of 2 km s‑1 or larger for our fiducial simulation. We conclude that we need at least another ALMA observation to firmly establish whether Betelgeuse is indeed rapidly rotating. Such observations would also provide insight into the role of angular momentum and binary interaction in the late evolutionary stages. The data will further probe the structure and complex physical processes in the atmospheres of red supergiants, which are immediate progenitors of supernovae and are believed to be essential in the formation of gravitational-wave sources.


(1544)Collective neutrino-antineutrino oscillations in dense neutrino environments?
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Georg G. Raffelt,
  • Günter Sigl
Physical Review D (02/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.109.043031
abstract + abstract -

The paradigm-changing possibility of collective neutrino-antineutrino oscillations was recently advanced in analogy to collective flavor oscillations. However, the amplitude for the backward scattering process νp1ν¯p2→νp2ν¯p1 is helicity suppressed and vanishes for massless neutrinos, implying that there is no off-diagonal refractive index between ν and ν ¯ of a single flavor of massless neutrinos. For a nonvanishing mass, collective helicity oscillations are possible, representing de facto ν -ν ¯ oscillations in the Majorana case. However, such phenomena are suppressed by the smallness of neutrino masses as discussed in the previous literature.


CN-3
CN-4
RU-C
(1543)The impact of the WHIM on the IGM thermal state determined from the low-z Lyman α forest
  • Teng Hu,
  • Vikram Khaire,
  • Joseph F. Hennawi,
  • Jose Onorbe,
  • Michael Walther
  • +2
abstract + abstract -

At z≲1, shock heating caused by large-scale velocity flows and possibly violent feedback from galaxy formation, converts a significant fraction of the cool gas (T∼104 K) in the intergalactic medium (IGM) into warm-hot phase (WHIM) with T>105K, resulting in a significant deviation from the previously tight power-law IGM temperature-density relationship, T=T0(ρ/ρ¯)γ−1. This study explores the impact of the WHIM on measurements of the low-z IGM thermal state, [T0,γ], based on the b-NHI distribution of the Lyman-α forest. Exploiting a machine learning-enabled simulation-based inference method trained on Nyx hydrodynamical simulations, we demonstrate that [T0, γ] can still be reliably measured from the b-NHI distribution at z=0.1, notwithstanding the substantial WHIM in the IGM. To investigate the effects of different feedback, we apply this inference methodology to mock spectra derived from the IllustrisTNG and Illustris simulations at z=0.1. The results suggest that the underlying [T0,γ] of both simulations can be recovered with biases as low as |Δlog(T0/K)|≲0.05 dex, |Δγ|≲0.1, smaller than the precision of a typical measurement. Given the large differences in the volume-weighted WHIM fractions between the three simulations (Illustris 38\%, IllustrisTNG 10\%, Nyx 4\%) we conclude that the b-NHI distribution is not sensitive to the WHIM under realistic conditions. Finally, we investigate the physical properties of the detectable Lyman-α absorbers, and discover that although their T and Δ distributions remain mostly unaffected by feedback, they are correlated with the photoionization rate used in the simulation.


CN-4
RU-C
(1542)Dark Energy Survey: A 2.1% measurement of the angular Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation scale at redshift zeff=0.85 from the final dataset
  • DES Collaboration: T. M. C. Abbott,
  • M. Adamow,
  • M. Aguena,
  • S. Allam,
  • O. Alves
  • +102
  • A. Amon,
  • F. Andrade-Oliveira,
  • J. Asorey,
  • S. Avila,
  • D. Bacon,
  • K. Bechtol,
  • G. M. Bernstein,
  • E. Bertin,
  • J. Blazek,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D. L. Burke,
  • H. Camacho,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • D. Carollo,
  • J. Carretero,
  • F. J. Castander,
  • R. Cawthon,
  • K. C. Chan,
  • C. Chang,
  • C. Conselice,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • M. Crocce,
  • L. N. da Costa,
  • M. E. S. Pereira,
  • T. M. Davis,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • N. Deiosso,
  • S. Desai,
  • H. T. Diehl,
  • S. Dodelson,
  • C. Doux,
  • A. Drlica-Wagner,
  • J. Elvin-Poole,
  • S. Everett,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • A. Ferté,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • G. Giannini,
  • R. A. Gruendl,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • W. G. Hartley,
  • S. R. Hinton,
  • D. L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D. Huterer,
  • D. J. James,
  • S. Kent,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • O. Lahav,
  • S. Lee,
  • C. Lidman,
  • H. Lin,
  • J. L. Marshall,
  • P. Martini,
  • J. Mena-Fernández,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • J. J. Mohr,
  • J. Myles,
  • R. C. Nichol,
  • R. L. C. Ogando,
  • A. Palmese,
  • W. J. Percival,
  • A. Pieres,
  • A. A. Plazas Malagón,
  • A. Porredon,
  • J. Prat,
  • M. Rodríguez-Monroy,
  • A. K. Romer,
  • A. Roodman,
  • R. Rosenfeld,
  • A. J. Ross,
  • E. S. Rykoff,
  • M. Sako,
  • S. Samuroff,
  • C. Sánchez,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • D. Sanchez Cid,
  • B. Santiago,
  • M. Schubnell,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • E. Sheldon,
  • M. Smith,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M. E. C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • C. To,
  • L. Toribio San Cipriano ,
  • M. A. Troxel,
  • B. E. Tucker,
  • D. L. Tucker,
  • A. R. Walker,
  • N. Weaverdyck,
  • J. Weller,
  • P. Wiseman,
  • B. Yanny
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present the angular diameter distance measurement obtained with the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation feature from galaxy clustering in the completed Dark Energy Survey, consisting of six years (Y6) of observations. We use the Y6 BAO galaxy sample, optimized for BAO science in the redshift range 0.6<z<1.2, with an effective redshift at zeff=0.85 and split into six tomographic bins. The sample has nearly 16 million galaxies over 4,273 square degrees. Our consensus measurement constrains the ratio of the angular distance to sound horizon scale to DM(zeff)/rd = 19.51±0.41 (at 68.3% confidence interval), resulting from comparing the BAO position in our data to that predicted by Planck ΛCDM via the BAO shift parameter α=(DM/rd)/(DM/rd)Planck. To achieve this, the BAO shift is measured with three different methods, Angular Correlation Function (ACF), Angular Power Spectrum (APS), and Projected Correlation Function (PCF) obtaining α= 0.952±0.023, 0.962±0.022, and 0.955±0.020, respectively, which we combine to α= 0.957±0.020, including systematic errors. When compared with the ΛCDM model that best fits Planck data, this measurement is found to be 4.3% and 2.1σ below the angular BAO scale predicted. To date, it represents the most precise angular BAO measurement at z>0.75 from any survey and the most precise measurement at any redshift from photometric surveys. The analysis was performed blinded to the BAO position and it is shown to be robust against analysis choices, data removal, redshift calibrations and observational systematics.


CN-4
RU-C
(1541)Dark Energy Survey: Galaxy Sample for the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation Measurement from the Final Dataset
  • J. Mena-Fernández,
  • M. Rodríguez-Monroy,
  • S. Avila,
  • A. Porredon,
  • K. C. Chan
  • +83
  • H. Camacho,
  • N. Weaverdyck,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • L. Toribio San Cipriano,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • R. Cawthon,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • J. Elvin-Poole,
  • G. Giannini,
  • M. Adamow,
  • K. Bechtol,
  • A. Drlica-Wagner,
  • R. A. Gruendl,
  • W. G. Hartley,
  • A. Pieres,
  • A. J. Ross,
  • E. S. Rykoff,
  • E. Sheldon,
  • B. Yanny,
  • T. M. C. Abbott,
  • M. Aguena,
  • S. Allam,
  • O. Alves,
  • A. Amon,
  • F. Andrade-Oliveira,
  • J. Annis,
  • D. Bacon,
  • J. Blazek,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • D. Brooks,
  • J. Carretero,
  • F. J. Castander,
  • C. Conselice,
  • M. Crocce,
  • L. N. da Costa,
  • M. E. S. Pereira,
  • T. M. Davis,
  • N. Deiosso,
  • S. Desai,
  • H. T. Diehl,
  • S. Dodelson,
  • C. Doux,
  • S. Everett,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • S. R. Hinton,
  • D. L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D. Huterer,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • O. Lahav,
  • S. Lee,
  • C. Lidman,
  • H. Lin,
  • J. L. Marshall,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • J. Myles,
  • R. L. C. Ogando,
  • A. Palmese,
  • W. J. Percival,
  • A. A. Plazas Malagón,
  • A. Roodman,
  • R. Rosenfeld,
  • S. Samuroff,
  • D. Sanchez Cid,
  • B. Santiago,
  • M. Schubnell,
  • M. Smith,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M. E. C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • C. To,
  • D. L. Tucker,
  • A. R. Walker,
  • J. Weller,
  • P. Wiseman,
  • M. Yamamoto
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

In this paper we present and validate the galaxy sample used for the analysis of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Y6 data. The definition is based on a color and redshift-dependent magnitude cut optimized to select galaxies at redshifts higher than 0.6, while ensuring a high-quality photo-z determination. The optimization is performed using a Fisher forecast algorithm, finding the optimal i-magnitude cut to be given by i<19.64+2.894zph. For the optimal sample, we forecast an increase in precision in the BAO measurement of ∼25% with respect to the Y3 analysis. Our BAO sample has a total of 15,937,556 galaxies in the redshift range 0.6<zph<1.2, and its angular mask covers 4,273.42 deg2 to a depth of i=22.5. We validate its redshift distributions with three different methods: directional neighborhood fitting algorithm (DNF), which is our primary photo-z estimation; direct calibration with spectroscopic redshifts from VIPERS; and clustering redshift using SDSS galaxies. The fiducial redshift distribution is a combination of these three techniques performed by modifying the mean and width of the DNF distributions to match those of VIPERS and clustering redshift. In this paper we also describe the methodology used to mitigate the effect of observational systematics, which is analogous to the one used in the Y3 analysis. This paper is one of the two dedicated to the analysis of the BAO signal in DES Y6. In its companion paper, we present the angular diameter distance constraints obtained through the fitting to the BAO scale.


(1540)On Superparticles and their Partition Functions
  • Eugenia Boffo,
  • Pietro Antonio Grassi,
  • Ondrej Hulik,
  • Ivo Sachs
abstract + abstract -

We describe a family of twisted partition functions for the relativistic spinning particle models. For suitable choices of fugacities this computes a refined Euler characteristics that counts the dimension of the physical states for arbitrary picture and, furthermore, encodes the complete BV-spectrum of the effective space-time gauge theory originating from this model upon second quantization. The relation between twisted world-line partition functions and the spectrum of the space-time theory is most easily seen on-shell but we will give an off-shell description as well. Finally we discuss the construction of a space-time action in terms of the world-line fields in analogy to string field theory.


(1539)The Orbital Structure and Selection Effects of the Galactic Center S-star Cluster
  • A. Burkert,
  • S. Gillessen,
  • D. N. C. Lin,
  • X. Zheng,
  • P. Schoeller
  • +2
The Astrophysical Journal (02/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad17bb
abstract + abstract -

The orbital distribution of the S-star cluster surrounding the supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way is analyzed. A tight dependence of the pericenter distance r p on orbital eccentricity e is found, $\mathrm{log}({r}_{{\rm{p}}})\sim (1-{e}_{\star })$ , which cannot be explained simply by a random distribution of semimajor axis and eccentricities. No stars are found in the region with high e and large $\mathrm{log}({r}_{{\rm{p}}})$ or in the region with low e and small $\mathrm{log}({r}_{{\rm{p}}})$ . Although the sample is still small, the G-clouds show a very similar distribution. The likelihood $P(\mathrm{log}({r}_{{\rm{p}}}),(1-{e}_{\star }))$ to determine the orbital parameters of S-stars is determined. P is very small for stars with large e and large $\mathrm{log}({r}_{{\rm{p}}})$ . S-stars might exist in this region. To determine their orbital parameters, one however needs observations over a longer time period. On the other hand, if stars would exist in the region of low $\mathrm{log}({r}_{{\rm{p}}})$ and small e , their orbital parameters should by now have been determined. That this region is unpopulated therefore indicates that no S-stars exist with these orbital characteristics, providing constraints for their formation. We call this region, defined by $\mathrm{log}({r}_{{\rm{p}}}/\mathrm{AU})\lt 1.57+2.6(1-{e}_{\star })$ , the zone of avoidance. Finally, it is shown that the observed frequency of eccentricities and pericenter distances is consistent with a random sampling of $\mathrm{log}({r}_{{\rm{p}}})$ and e if one takes into account the fact that no stars exist in the zone of avoidance and that orbital parameters cannot yet be determined for stars with large r p and large e .


(1538)Probing beyond the standard model physics with double-beta decays
  • Elisabetta Bossio,
  • Matteo Agostini
Journal of Physics G Nuclear Physics (02/2024) doi:10.1088/1361-6471/ad11f9
abstract + abstract -

Nuclear double-beta decays are a unique probe to search for new physics beyond the standard model. Hypothesized particles, non-standard interactions, or the violation of fundamental symmetries would affect the decay kinematics, creating detectable and characteristic experimental signatures. In particular, the energy distribution of the electrons emitted in the decay gives an insight into the decay mechanism and has been studied in several isotopes and experiments. No deviations from the prediction of the standard model have been reported yet. However, several new experiments are underway or in preparation and will soon increase the sensitivity of these beyond-the-standard-model physics searches, exploring uncharted parts of the parameter space. This review brings together phenomenological and experimental aspects related to new-physics searches in double-beta decay experiments, focusing on the testable models, the most-sensitive detection techniques, and the discovery opportunities of this field.


(1537)Probing the roles of orientation and multiscale gas distributions in shaping the obscuration of active galactic nuclei through cosmic time
  • Alba V. Alonso-Tetilla,
  • Francesco Shankar,
  • Fabio Fontanot,
  • Nicola Menci,
  • Milena Valentini
  • +12
  • Johannes Buchner,
  • Brivael Laloux,
  • Andrea Lapi,
  • Annagrazia Puglisi,
  • David M. Alexander,
  • Viola Allevato,
  • Carolina Andonie,
  • Silvia Bonoli,
  • Michaela Hirschmann,
  • Iván E. López,
  • Sandra I. Raimundo,
  • Cristina Ramos Almeida
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (02/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad3265
abstract + abstract -

The origin of obscuration in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is still an open debate. In particular, it is unclear what drives the relative contributions to the line-of-sight column densities from galaxy-scale and torus-linked obscuration. The latter source is expected to play a significant role in Unification Models, while the former is thought to be relevant in both Unification and Evolutionary models. In this work, we make use of a combination of cosmological semi-analytic models and semi-empirical prescriptions for the properties of galaxies and AGN, to study AGN obscuration. We consider a detailed object-by-object modelling of AGN evolution, including different AGN light curves (LCs), gas density profiles, and also AGN feedback-induced gas cavities. Irrespective of our assumptions on specific AGN LC or galaxy gas fractions, we find that, on the strict assumption of an exponential profile for the gas component, galaxy-scale obscuration alone can hardly reproduce the fraction of log (NH/cm-2) ≥ 24 sources at least at z ≲ 3. This requires an additional torus component with a thickness that decreases with luminosity to match the data. The torus should be present in all evolutionary stages of a visible AGN to be effective, although galaxy-scale gas obscuration may be sufficient to reproduce the obscured fraction with 22 < log (NH/cm-2) < 24 (Compton-thin, CTN) if we assume extremely compact gas disc components. The claimed drop of CTN fractions with increasing luminosity does not appear to be a consequence of AGN feedback, but rather of gas reservoirs becoming more compact with decreasing stellar mass.


RU-B
(1536)Effective field theories for dark matter pairs in the early universe: center-of-mass recoil effects
  • Simone Biondini,
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Gramos Qerimi,
  • Antonio Vairo
abstract + abstract -

For non-relativistic thermal dark matter, close-to-threshold effects largely dominate the evolution of the number density for most of the times after thermal freeze-out, and hence affect the cosmological relic density. A precise evaluation of the relevant interaction rates in a thermal medium representing the early universe includes accounting for the relative motion of the dark matter particles and the thermal medium. We consider a model of dark fermions interacting with a plasma of dark gauge bosons, which is equivalent to thermal QED. The temperature is taken to be smaller than the dark fermion mass and the inverse of the typical size of the dark fermion-antifermion bound states, which allows for the use of non-relativistic effective field theories. For the annihilation cross section, bound-state formation cross section, bound-state dissociation width and bound-state transition width of dark matter fermion-antifermion pairs, we compute the leading recoil effects in the reference frame of both the plasma and the center-of-mass of the fermion-antifermion pair. We explicitly verify the Lorentz transformations among these quantities. We evaluate the impact of the recoil corrections on the dark matter energy density. Our results can be directly applied to account for the relative motion of quarkonia in the quark-gluon plasma formed in heavy-ion collisions. They may be also used to precisely assess thermal effects in atomic clocks based on atomic transitions; the present work provides a first field theory derivation of time dilation for these processes in vacuum and in a medium.


(1535)Evolution of eccentric stellar discs around supermassive black holes: the complex disc disruption dynamics and the milliparsec stars
  • Antti Rantala,
  • Thorsten Naab
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (02/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad3977
abstract + abstract -

We study the 10 Myr evolution of parsec-scale stellar discs with initial masses of Mdisc = 1.0-$7.5 \times 10^4\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ and eccentricities einit = 0.1-0.9 around supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Our disc models are embedded in a spherical background potential and have top-heavy single and binary star initial mass functions (IMF) with slopes of 0.25-1.7. The systems are evolved with the N-body code BIFROST, including post-Newtonian (PN) equations of motion and simplified stellar evolution. All discs are unstable and evolve on Myr time-scales towards similar eccentricity distributions peaking at e ~ 0.3-0.4. Models with high einit also develop a very eccentric (e ≳ 0.9) stellar population. For higher disc masses Mdisc ≳ 3 × 104 M, the disc disruption dynamics is more complex than the standard secular eccentric disc instability with opposite precession directions at different disc radii - a precession direction instability. We present an analytical model describing this behaviour. A milliparsec population of N ~ 10-100 stars forms around the SMBH in all models. For low einit, stars migrate inward while for einit ≳ 0.6 stars are captured by the Hills mechanism. Without PN, after 6 Myr, the captured stars have a sub-thermal eccentricity distribution. We show that including PN effects prevents this thermalization by suppressing resonant relaxation effects and cannot be ignored. The number of tidally disrupted stars is similar or larger than the number of milliparsec stars. None of the simulated models can simultaneously reproduce the kinematic and stellar population properties of the Milky Way centre clockwise disc and the S-cluster.


C2PAP
CN-2
RU-D
(1534)The interplay between forming planets and photoevaporating discs II: Wind-driven gas redistribution
  • Michael L. Weber,
  • Giovanni Picogna,
  • Barbara Ercolano
abstract + abstract -

Disc winds and planet-disc interactions are two crucial mechanisms that define the structure, evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary discs. While winds are capable of removing material from discs, eventually leading to their dispersal, massive planets can shape their disc by creating sub-structures such as gaps and spiral arms. We study the interplay between an X-ray photoevaporative disc wind and the substructures generated due to planet-disc interactions to determine how their mutual interactions affect the disc's and the planet's evolution. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of viscous ($\alpha = 6.9\cdot10^{-4}$) discs that host a Jupiter-like planet and undergo X-ray photoevaporation. We trace the gas flows within the disc and wind and measure the accretion rate onto the planet, as well as the gravitational torque that is acting on it. Our results show that the planetary gap takes away the wind's pressure support, allowing wind material to fall back into the gap. This opens new pathways for material from the inner disc (and part of the outer disc) to be redistributed through the wind towards the gap. Consequently, the gap becomes shallower, and the flow of mass across the gap in both directions is significantly increased, as well as the planet's mass-accretion rate (by factors $\approx 5$ and $\approx 2$, respectively). Moreover, the wind-driven redistribution results in a denser inner disc and less dense outer disc, which, combined with the recycling of a significant portion of the inner wind, leads to longer lifetimes of the inner disc, contrary to the expectation in a planet-induced photoevaporation (PIPE) scenario that has been proposed in the past.


(1533)Light curves and spectra for theoretical models of high-velocity red-giant star collisions
  • Luc Dessart,
  • Taeho Ryu,
  • Pau Amaro Seoane,
  • Andrew M. Taylor
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202348228
abstract + abstract -

High-velocity stellar collisions driven by a supermassive black hole (BH) or BH-driven disruptive collisions in dense, nuclear clusters can rival the energetics of supergiant star explosions following the gravitational collapse of their iron core. Starting from a sample of red-giant star collisions simulated with the hydrodynamics code AREPO, we generated photometric and spectroscopic observables using the nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium time-dependent radiative transfer code CMFGEN. Collisions from more extended giants or more violent collisions (with higher velocities or smaller impact parameters) yield bolometric luminosities on the order of 1043 erg s−1 at 1 d, evolving on a timescale of a week to a bright plateau at ∼1041 erg s−1 before plunging precipitously after 20-40 d at the end of the optically thick phase. This luminosity falls primarily in the UV in the first few days, thus when it is at its maximum, and shifts to the optical thereafter. Collisions at lower velocities or from less extended stars produce ejecta that are fainter but can remain optically thick for up to 40 d if they have a low expansion rate. This collision debris shows a similar spectral evolution as that observed or modeled for Type II supernovae from blue-supergiant star explosions, differing only in the more rapid transition to the nebular phase. Such BH-driven disruptive collisions should be detectable by high-cadence surveys in the UV such as ULTRASAT.


(1532)A Survey for Radio Emission from White Dwarfs in the VLA Sky Survey
  • Ingrid Pelisoli,
  • Laura Chomiuk,
  • Jay Strader,
  • T. R. Marsh,
  • Elias Aydi
  • +20
  • Kristen C. Dage,
  • Rebecca Kyer,
  • Isabella Molina,
  • Teresa Panurach,
  • Ryan Urquhart,
  • Thomas J. Maccarone,
  • R. Michael Rich,
  • Antonio C. Rodriguez,
  • E. Breedt,
  • A. J. Brown,
  • V. S. Dhillon,
  • M. J. Dyer,
  • Boris. T. Gaensicke,
  • J. A. Garbutt,
  • M. J. Green,
  • M. R. Kennedy,
  • P. Kerry,
  • S. P. Littlefair,
  • James Munday,
  • S. G. Parsons
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Radio emission has been detected from tens of white dwarfs, in particular in accreting systems. Additionally, radio emission has been predicted as a possible outcome of a planetary system around a white dwarf. We searched for 3 GHz radio continuum emission in 846,000 candidate white dwarfs previously identified in Gaia using the Very Large Array Sky Survey (VLASS) Epoch 1 Quick Look Catalogue. We identified 13 candidate white dwarfs with a counterpart in VLASS within 2". Five of those were found not to be white dwarfs in follow-up or archival spectroscopy, whereas seven others were found to be chance alignments with a background source in higher-resolution optical or radio images. The remaining source, WDJ204259.71+152108.06, is found to be a white dwarf and M-dwarf binary with an orbital period of 4.1 days and long-term stochastic optical variability, as well as luminous radio and X-ray emission. For this binary, we find no direct evidence of a background contaminant, and a chance alignment probability of only ~2 per cent. However, other evidence points to the possibility of an unfortunate chance alignment with a background radio and X-ray emitting quasar, including an unusually poor Gaia DR3 astrometric solution for this source. With at most one possible radio emitting white dwarf found, we conclude that strong (> 1-3 mJy) radio emission from white dwarfs in the 3 GHz band is virtually nonexistent outside of interacting binaries.


(1531)SRF Cavity as Galactic Dark Photon Telescope
  • Yifan Chen,
  • Chunlong Li,
  • Yuxiang Liu,
  • Yuxin Liu,
  • Jing Shu
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

Dark photons, aside from constituting non-relativistic dark matter, can also be generated relativistically through the decay or annihilation of other dark matter candidates, contributing to a galactic dark photon background. The production of dark photons tends to favor specific polarization modes, determined by the microscopic coupling between dark matter and dark photons. We leverage data obtained from previous searches for dark photon dark matter using a superconducting radio-frequency cavity to explore galactic dark photon fluxes. The interplay of anisotropic directions and Earth's rotation introduces a diurnal modulation of signals within the cavities, manifesting distinct variation patterns for longitudinal and transverse modes. Our findings highlight the efficacy of superconducting radio-frequency cavities, characterized by significantly high-quality factors, as powerful telescopes for detecting galactic dark photons, unveiling a novel avenue in the indirect search for dark matter through multi-messenger astronomy.


(1530)The role of mobility in epidemics near criticality
  • Beatrice Nettuno,
  • Davide Toffenetti,
  • Christoph Metzl,
  • Linus Weigand,
  • Florian Raßhofer
  • +2
abstract + abstract -

The general epidemic process (GEP), also known as susceptible-infected-recovered model (SIR), describes how an epidemic spreads within a population of susceptible individuals who acquire permanent immunization upon recovery. This model exhibits a second-order absorbing state phase transition, commonly studied assuming immobile healthy individuals. We investigate the impact of mobility on disease spreading near the extinction threshold by introducing two generalizations of GEP, where the mobility of susceptible and recovered individuals is examined independently. In both cases, including mobility violates GEP's rapidity reversal symmetry and alters the number of absorbing states. The critical dynamics of the models are analyzed through a perturbative renormalization group approach and large-scale stochastic simulations using a Gillespie algorithm. The renormalization group analysis predicts both models to belong to the same novel universality class describing the critical dynamics of epidemic spreading when the infected individuals interact with a diffusive species and gain immunization upon recovery. At the associated renormalization group fixed point, the immobile species decouples from the dynamics of the infected species, dominated by the coupling with the diffusive species. Numerical simulations in two dimensions affirm our renormalization group results by identifying the same set of critical exponents for both models. Violation of the rapidity reversal symmetry is confirmed by breaking the associated hyperscaling relation. Our study underscores the significance of mobility in shaping population spreading dynamics near the extinction threshold.


(1529)Multi-year characterisation of the broad-band emission from the intermittent extreme BL Lac 1ES 2344+514
  • MAGIC Collaboration,
  • H. Abe,
  • S. Abe,
  • V. A. Acciari,
  • I. Agudo
  • +236
  • T. Aniello,
  • S. Ansoldi,
  • L. A. Antonelli,
  • A. Arbet Engels,
  • C. Arcaro,
  • M. Artero,
  • K. Asano,
  • D. Baack,
  • A. Babić,
  • A. Baquero,
  • U. Barres de Almeida,
  • I. Batković,
  • J. Baxter,
  • J. Becerra González,
  • E. Bernardini,
  • J. Bernete,
  • A. Berti,
  • J. Besenrieder,
  • C. Bigongiari,
  • A. Biland,
  • O. Blanch,
  • G. Bonnoli,
  • Ž. Bošnjak,
  • I. Burelli,
  • G. Busetto,
  • A. Campoy-Ordaz,
  • A. Carosi,
  • R. Carosi,
  • M. Carretero-Castrillo,
  • A. J. Castro-Tirado,
  • Y. Chai,
  • A. Cifuentes,
  • S. Cikota,
  • E. Colombo,
  • J. L. Contreras,
  • J. Cortina,
  • S. Covino,
  • G. D'Amico,
  • F. D'Ammando,
  • V. D'Elia,
  • P. Da Vela,
  • F. Dazzi,
  • A. De Angelis,
  • B. De Lotto,
  • A. Del Popolo,
  • M. Delfino,
  • J. Delgado,
  • C. Delgado Mendez,
  • D. Depaoli,
  • F. Di Pierro,
  • L. Di Venere,
  • D. Dominis Prester,
  • D. Dorner,
  • M. Doro,
  • D. Elsaesser,
  • G. Emery,
  • J. Escudero,
  • L. Fariña,
  • A. Fattorini,
  • L. Foffano,
  • L. Font,
  • S. Fukami,
  • Y. Fukazawa,
  • R. J. García López,
  • S. Gasparyan,
  • M. Gaug,
  • J. G. Giesbrecht Paiva,
  • N. Giglietto,
  • F. Giordano,
  • P. Gliwny,
  • R. Grau,
  • J. G. Green,
  • D. Hadasch,
  • A. Hahn,
  • L. Heckmann,
  • J. Herrera,
  • D. Hrupec,
  • M. Hütten,
  • R. Imazawa,
  • T. Inada,
  • R. Iotov,
  • K. Ishio,
  • I. Jiménez Martínez,
  • J. Jormanainen,
  • D. Kerszberg,
  • G. W. Kluge,
  • Y. Kobayashi,
  • P. M. Kouch,
  • H. Kubo,
  • J. Kushida,
  • M. Láinez Lezáun,
  • A. Lamastra,
  • F. Leone,
  • E. Lindfors,
  • L. Linhoff,
  • S. Lombardi,
  • F. Longo,
  • M. López-Moya,
  • A. López-Oramas,
  • S. Loporchio,
  • A. Lorini,
  • B. Machado de Oliveira Fraga,
  • P. Majumdar,
  • M. Makariev,
  • G. Maneva,
  • N. Mang,
  • M. Manganaro,
  • M. Mariotti,
  • M. Martínez,
  • M. Martínez-Chicharro,
  • A. Mas-Aguilar,
  • D. Mazin,
  • S. Menchiari,
  • S. Mender,
  • D. Miceli,
  • T. Miener,
  • J. M. Miranda,
  • R. Mirzoyan,
  • M. Molero González,
  • E. Molina,
  • H. A. Mondal,
  • A. Moralejo,
  • D. Morcuende,
  • T. Nakamori,
  • C. Nanci,
  • V. Neustroev,
  • C. Nigro,
  • L. Nikolić,
  • K. Nishijima,
  • T. Njoh Ekoume,
  • K. Noda,
  • S. Nozaki,
  • Y. Ohtani,
  • A. Okumura,
  • J. Otero-Santos,
  • S. Paiano,
  • M. Palatiello,
  • D. Paneque,
  • R. Paoletti,
  • J. M. Paredes,
  • D. Pavlović,
  • M. Persic,
  • M. Pihet,
  • G. Pirola,
  • F. Podobnik,
  • P. G. Prada Moroni,
  • E. Prandini,
  • G. Principe,
  • C. Priyadarshi,
  • W. Rhode,
  • M. Ribó,
  • J. Rico,
  • C. Righi,
  • N. Sahakyan,
  • T. Saito,
  • K. Satalecka,
  • F. G. Saturni,
  • B. Schleicher,
  • K. Schmidt,
  • F. Schmuckermaier,
  • J. L. Schubert,
  • T. Schweizer,
  • A. Sciaccaluga,
  • J. Sitarek,
  • A. Spolon,
  • A. Stamerra,
  • J. Strišković,
  • D. Strom,
  • Y. Suda,
  • H. Tajima,
  • R. Takeishi,
  • F. Tavecchio,
  • P. Temnikov,
  • K. Terauchi,
  • T. Terzić,
  • M. Teshima,
  • L. Tosti,
  • S. Truzzi,
  • A. Tutone,
  • S. Ubach,
  • J. van Scherpenberg,
  • S. Ventura,
  • V. Verguilov,
  • I. Viale,
  • C. F. Vigorito,
  • V. Vitale,
  • R. Walter,
  • C. Wunderlich,
  • T. Yamamoto,
  • Multi-wavelength Collaborators,
  • M. Perri,
  • F. Verrecchia,
  • C. Leto,
  • S. Das,
  • R. Chatterjee,
  • C. M. Raiteri,
  • M. Villata,
  • E. Semkov,
  • S. Ibryamov,
  • R. Bachev,
  • A. Strigachev,
  • G. Damljanovic,
  • O. Vince,
  • M. D. Jovanovic,
  • M. Stojanovic,
  • V. M. Larionov,
  • T. S. Grishina,
  • E. N. Kopatskaya,
  • E. G. Larionova,
  • D. A. Morozova,
  • S. S. Savchenko,
  • I. S. Troitskiy,
  • Y. V. Troitskaya,
  • A. A. Vasilyev,
  • W. P. Chen,
  • W. J. Hou,
  • C. S. Lin,
  • A. Tsai,
  • S. G. Jorstad,
  • Z. R. Weaver,
  • J. A. Acosta-Pulido,
  • M. I. Carnerero,
  • D. Carosati,
  • S. O. Kurtanidze,
  • O. M. Kurtanidze,
  • B. Jordan,
  • R. Z. Ivanidze,
  • K. Gazeas,
  • K. Vrontaki,
  • T. Hovatta,
  • I. Liodakis,
  • A. C. S. Readhead,
  • S. Kiehlmann,
  • W. Zheng,
  • A. V. Filippenko,
  • V. Fallah Ramazani
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347845
abstract + abstract -


Aims: The BL Lac 1ES 2344+514 is known for temporary extreme properties characterised by a shift of the synchrotron spectral energy distribution (SED) peak energy νsynch, p above 1 keV. While those extreme states have only been observed during high flux levels thus far, additional multi-year observing campaigns are required to achieve a coherent picture. Here, we report the longest investigation of the source from radio to very high energy (VHE) performed so far, focussing on a systematic characterisation of the intermittent extreme states.
Methods: We organised a monitoring campaign covering a 3-year period from 2019 to 2021. More than ten instruments participated in the observations in order to cover the emission from radio to VHE. In particular, sensitive X-ray measurements by XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and AstroSat took place simultaneously with multi-hour MAGIC observations, providing an unprecedented constraint of the two SED components for this blazar.
Results: While our results confirm that 1ES 2344+514 typically exhibits νsynch, p > 1 keV during elevated flux periods, we also find periods where the extreme state coincides with low flux activity. A strong spectral variability thus happens in the quiescent state, and is likely caused by an increase in the electron acceleration efficiency without a change in the electron injection luminosity. On the other hand, we also report a strong X-ray flare (among the brightest for 1ES 2344+514) without a significant shift of νsynch, p. During this particular flare, the X-ray spectrum is among the softest of the campaign. It unveils complexity in the spectral evolution, where the common harder-when-brighter trend observed in BL Lacs is violated. By combining Swift-XRT and Swift-UVOT measurements during a low and hard X-ray state, we find an excess of the UV flux with respect to an extrapolation of the X-ray spectrum to lower energies. This UV excess implies that at least two regions significantly contribute to the infrared/optical/ultraviolet/X-ray emission. Using the simultaneous MAGIC, XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and AstroSat observations, we argue that a region possibly associated with the 10 GHz radio core may explain such an excess. Finally, we investigate a VHE flare, showing an absence of simultaneous variability in the 0.3−2 keV band. Using time-dependent leptonic modelling, we show that this behaviour, in contradiction to single-zone scenarios, can instead be explained by a two-component model.


(1528)Evidence for saturated and disrupted magnetic braking from samples of detached close binaries with M and K dwarfs
  • Diogo Belloni,
  • Matthias R. Schreiber,
  • Maxwell Moe,
  • Kareem El-Badry,
  • Ken J. Shen
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347931
abstract + abstract -

Context. Recent observations of close detached eclipsing M and K dwarf binaries have provided substantial support for magnetic saturation when stars rotate sufficiently fast, leading to a magnetic braking (MB) torque proportional to the spin of the star.
Aims: We investigated here how strong MB torques need to be to reproduce the observationally inferred relative numbers of white dwarf plus M dwarf post-common-envelope binaries under the assumption of magnetic saturation.
Methods: We carried out binary population simulations with the BSE code adopting empirically derived inter-correlated main-sequence binary distributions as initial binary populations and compared the simulation outcomes with observations.
Results: We found that the dearth of extreme mass ratio binaries in the inter-correlated initial distributions is key to reproduce the large fraction of post-common-envelope binaries hosting low-mass M dwarfs (∼0.1 − 0.2 M). In addition, orbital angular momentum loss rates due to MB should be high for M dwarfs with radiative cores and orders of magnitude smaller for fully convective stars to explain the observed dramatic change of the fraction of short-period binaries at the fully convective boundary.
Conclusions: We conclude that saturated but disrupted, that is, dropping drastically at the fully convective boundary, MB can explain the observations of both close main-sequence binaries containing M and K dwarfs and post-common-envelope binaries. Whether a similar prescription can explain the spin down rates of single stars and of binaries containing more massive stars needs to be tested.


(1527)Star clusters forming in a low metallicity starburst -- rapid self-enrichment by (very) massive stars
  • Natalia Lahén,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Dorottya Szécsi
abstract + abstract -

Massive ($\gtrsim9$ M$_\odot$) and very massive ($\gtrsim100$ M$_\odot$) stars are expected to release large amounts of energy and metal-enriched material throughout their relatively short lives. Their stellar winds may play an important role in the metal-enrichment during the formation of star clusters. With novel high-resolution hydrodynamical GRIFFIN-project simulations, we investigate the rapid recycling of stellar wind-material during the formation of massive star clusters up to $M_\mathrm{cluster}\sim2\times10^5$ M$_\odot$ in a low-metallicity dwarf galaxy starburst. The simulation realises new stars from a stellar initial mass function (IMF) between $0.08$ M$_\odot$ and $\sim400$ M$_\odot$and follows stellar winds, radiation and supernova-feedback of single massive stars with evolution tracks. Star clusters form on timescales less than $\sim5$ Myr, and their supernova-material is very inefficiently recycled. Stellar wind-material, however, is trapped in massive clusters resulting in the formation of stars self-enriched in Na, Al, and N within only a few Myr. Wind-enriched (second population) stars can be centrally concentrated in the most massive clusters ($\gtrsim10^4$ M$_\odot$) and the locked wind-material increases approximately as $M_\mathrm{cluster}^{2}$. These trends resemble the characteristics of observed second population stars in globular clusters. We fit scaling relations to the log-normal distributed wind-mass fractions and extrapolate to possible globular cluster progenitors of $M_\mathrm{cluster}=10^7$ M$_\odot$ to investigate whether a dominant second population could form. This can only happen if the IMF is well sampled, single massive stars produce at least a factor of a few more enriched winds e.g. through a top-heavy IMF, and a significant fraction of the first population (unenriched) stars is lost during cluster evolution.


(1526)Upper Limits on the Cosmic Neutrino Background from Cosmic Rays
  • Mar Císcar-Monsalvatje,
  • Gonzalo Herrera,
  • Ian M. Shoemaker
abstract + abstract -

Extragalactic and galactic cosmic rays scatter with the cosmic neutrino background during propagation to Earth, yielding a flux of relic neutrinos boosted to larger energies. If an overdensity of relic neutrinos is present in galaxies, and neutrinos are massive enough, this flux might be detectable by high-energy neutrino experiments. For a lightest neutrino of mass $m_{\nu} \sim 0.1$ eV, we find an upper limit on the local relic neutrino overdensity of $\sim 10^{13}$ and an upper limit on the relic neutrino overdensity at TXS 0506+056 of $\sim 10^{10}$. Future experiments like GRAND or IceCube-Gen2 could improve these bounds by orders of magnitude.


(1525)The Radcliffe Wave is Oscillating
  • Ralf Konietzka,
  • Alyssa A. Goodman,
  • Catherine Zucker,
  • Andreas Burkert,
  • João Alves
  • +4
  • Michael Foley,
  • Cameren Swiggum,
  • Maria Koller,
  • Núria Miret-Roig
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Our Sun lies within 300 pc of the 2.7-kpc-long sinusoidal chain of dense gas clouds known as the Radcliffe Wave. The structure's wave-like shape was discovered using 3D dust mapping, but initial kinematic searches for oscillatory motion were inconclusive. Here we present evidence that the Radcliffe Wave is oscillating through the Galactic plane while also drifting radially away from the Galactic Center. We use measurements of line-of-sight velocity for 12CO and 3D velocities of young stellar clusters to show that the most massive star-forming regions spatially associated with the Radcliffe Wave (including Orion, Cepheus, North America, and Cygnus X) move as if they are part of an oscillating wave driven by the gravitational acceleration of the Galactic potential. By treating the Radcliffe Wave as a coherently oscillating structure, we can derive its motion independently of the local Galactic mass distribution, and directly measure local properties of the Galactic potential as well as the Sun's vertical oscillation period. In addition, the measured drift of the Radcliffe Wave radially outward from the Galactic Center suggests that the cluster whose supernovae ultimately created today's expanding Local Bubble may have been born in the Radcliffe Wave.


CN-1
(1524)The SRG/eROSITA all-sky survey. First X-ray catalogues and data release of the western Galactic hemisphere
  • A. Merloni,
  • G. Lamer,
  • T. Liu,
  • M. E. Ramos-Ceja,
  • H. Brunner
  • +140
  • E. Bulbul,
  • K. Dennerl,
  • V. Doroshenko,
  • M. J. Freyberg,
  • S. Friedrich,
  • E. Gatuzz,
  • A. Georgakakis,
  • F. Haberl,
  • Z. Igo,
  • I. Kreykenbohm,
  • A. Liu,
  • C. Maitra,
  • A. Malyali,
  • M. G. F. Mayer,
  • K. Nandra,
  • P. Predehl,
  • J. Robrade,
  • M. Salvato,
  • J. S. Sanders,
  • I. Stewart,
  • D. Tubín-Arenas,
  • P. Weber,
  • J. Wilms,
  • R. Arcodia,
  • E. Artis,
  • J. Aschersleben,
  • A. Avakyan,
  • C. Aydar,
  • Y. E. Bahar,
  • F. Balzer,
  • W. Becker,
  • K. Berger,
  • T. Boller,
  • W. Bornemann,
  • M. Brüggen,
  • M. Brusa,
  • J. Buchner,
  • V. Burwitz,
  • F. Camilloni,
  • N. Clerc,
  • J. Comparat,
  • D. Coutinho,
  • S. Czesla,
  • S. M. Dannhauer,
  • L. Dauner,
  • T. Dauser,
  • J. Dietl,
  • K. Dolag,
  • T. Dwelly,
  • K. Egg,
  • E. Ehl,
  • S. Freund,
  • P. Friedrich,
  • R. Gaida,
  • C. Garrel,
  • V. Ghirardini,
  • A. Gokus,
  • G. Grünwald,
  • S. Grandis,
  • I. Grotova,
  • D. Gruen,
  • A. Gueguen,
  • S. Hämmerich,
  • N. Hamaus,
  • G. Hasinger,
  • K. Haubner,
  • D. Homan,
  • J. Ider Chitham,
  • W. M. Joseph,
  • A. Joyce,
  • O. König,
  • D. M. Kaltenbrunner,
  • A. Khokhriakova,
  • W. Kink,
  • C. Kirsch,
  • M. Kluge,
  • J. Knies,
  • S. Krippendorf,
  • M. Krumpe,
  • J. Kurpas,
  • P. Li,
  • Z. Liu,
  • N. Locatelli,
  • M. Lorenz,
  • S. Müller,
  • E. Magaudda,
  • C. Mannes,
  • H. McCall,
  • N. Meidinger,
  • M. Michailidis,
  • K. Migkas,
  • D. Muñoz-Giraldo,
  • B. Musiimenta,
  • N. T. Nguyen-Dang,
  • Q. Ni,
  • A. Olechowska,
  • N. Ota,
  • F. Pacaud,
  • T. Pasini,
  • E. Perinati,
  • A. M. Pires,
  • C. Pommranz,
  • G. Ponti,
  • K. Poppenhaeger,
  • G. Pühlhofer,
  • A. Rau,
  • M. Reh,
  • T. H. Reiprich,
  • W. Roster,
  • S. Saeedi,
  • A. Santangelo,
  • M. Sasaki,
  • J. Schmitt,
  • P. C. Schneider,
  • T. Schrabback,
  • N. Schuster,
  • A. Schwope,
  • R. Seppi,
  • M. M. Serim,
  • S. Shreeram,
  • E. Sokolova-Lapa,
  • H. Starck,
  • B. Stelzer,
  • J. Stierhof,
  • V. Suleimanov,
  • C. Tenzer,
  • I. Traulsen,
  • J. Trümper,
  • K. Tsuge,
  • T. Urrutia,
  • A. Veronica,
  • S. G. H. Waddell,
  • R. Willer,
  • J. Wolf,
  • M. C. H. Yeung,
  • A. Zainab,
  • F. Zangrandi,
  • X. Zhang,
  • Y. Zhang,
  • X. Zheng
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347165
abstract + abstract -

The eROSITA telescope array aboard the Spektrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) satellite began surveying the sky in December 2019, with the aim of producing all-sky X-ray source lists and sky maps of an unprecedented depth. Here we present catalogues of both point-like and extended sources using the data acquired in the first six months of survey operations (eRASS1; completed June 2020) over the half sky whose proprietary data rights lie with the German eROSITA Consortium. We describe the observation process, the data analysis pipelines, and the characteristics of the X-ray sources. With nearly 930 000 entries detected in the most sensitive 0.2-2.3 keV energy range, the eRASS1 main catalogue presented here increases the number of known X-ray sources in the published literature by more than 60%, and provides a comprehensive inventory of all classes of X-ray celestial objects, covering a wide range of physical processes. A smaller catalogue of 5466 sources detected in the less sensitive but harder 2.3-5 keV band is the result of the first true imaging survey of the entire sky above 2 keV. We present methods to identify and flag potential spurious sources in the catalogues, which we applied for this work, and we tested and validated the astrometric accuracy via cross-comparison with other X-ray and multi-wavelength catalogues. We show that the number counts of X-ray sources in eRASSl are consistent with those derived over narrower fields by past X-ray surveys of a similar depth, and we explore the number counts variation as a function of the location in the sky. Adopting a uniform all-sky flux limit (at 50% completeness) of F05-2 keV > 5 × 10−14 erg s−1 cm−2, we estimate that the eROSITA all-sky survey resolves into individual sources about 20% of the cosmic X-ray background in the 1-2 keV range. The catalogues presented here form part of the first data release (DR1) of the SRG/eROSITA all-sky survey. Beyond the X-ray catalogues, DR1 contains all detected and calibrated event files, source products (light curves and spectra), and all-sky maps. Illustrative examples of these are provided.

The catalogue is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via https://cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/682/A34


(1523)The boundary of cosmic filaments
  • Wei Wang,
  • Peng Wang,
  • Hong Guo,
  • Xi Kang,
  • Noam I. Libeskind
  • +10
  • Daniela Galarraga-Espinosa,
  • Volker Springel,
  • Rahul Kannan,
  • Lars Hernquist,
  • Rudiger Pakmor,
  • Haoran Yu,
  • Sownak Bose,
  • Quan Guo,
  • Luo Yu,
  • Cesar Hernandez-Aguayo
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

For decades, the boundary of cosmic filaments have been a subject of debate. In this work, we determine the physically-motivated radii of filaments by constructing stacked galaxy number density profiles around the filament spines. We find that the slope of the profile changes with distance to the filament spine, reaching its minimum at approximately 1 Mpc at z = 0 in both state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations and observational data. This can be taken as the average value of the filament radius. Furthermore, we note that the average filament radius rapidly decreases from z = 4 to z = 1, and then slightly increases. Moreover, we find that the filament radius depends on the filament length, the distance from connected clusters, and the masses of the clusters. These results suggest a two-phase formation scenario of cosmic filaments. The filaments experience rapid contraction before z = 1, but their density distribution has remained roughly stable since then. The subsequent mass transport along the filaments to the connected clusters is likely to have contributed to the formation of the clusters themselves.


(1522)Merge and Strip -- Dwarf Galaxies in Clusters Can Be Formed by Galaxy Mergers
  • Anna Ivleva,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus,
  • Lucas M. Valenzuela,
  • Klaus Dolag
arXiv e-prints (02/2024) e-Print:2402.09060
abstract + abstract -

Recent observations of galaxy mergers inside galaxy cluster environments report high star formation rates in the ejected tidal tails, which point towards currently developing tidal dwarf galaxies. We test whether these dwarf objects could get stripped from the galaxy potential by the galaxy cluster and thus populate it with dwarf galaxies. To this end, we perform three high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of mergers between spiral galaxies in a cluster environment, varying the initial orbit of the infalling galaxies with respect to the cluster center. We demonstrate that cluster environments are indeed capable of stripping tidal dwarf galaxies from the host potential in all tested setups. In the three orbit scenarios, we find 3, 7, and 8 tidal dwarf galaxies per merger, respectively, which survive longer than 1 Gyr after the merger event. Exposed to ram pressure, these gas dominated dwarf galaxies exhibit high star formation rates while also losing gas to the environment. Experiencing a strong headwind due to their motion through the intracluster medium, they quickly lose momentum and start spiraling towards the cluster center, reaching distances on the order of ~Mpc from their progenitor. About 4 Gyr after the merger event, we still find several intact dwarf galaxies, demonstrating that such objects can prevail for a significant fraction of the Hubble time. Comparing their contribution to the observed galaxy mass function in clusters, our results indicate that ~30% of dwarf galaxies in clusters could have been formed by stripping from galaxy mergers.


CN-3
(1521)New Mass Window for Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter from Memory Burden Effect
  • Ana Alexandre,
  • Gia Dvali,
  • Emmanouil Koutsangelas
abstract + abstract -

The mass ranges allowed for Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) to constitute all of Dark Matter (DM) are broadly constrained. However, these constraints rely on the standard semiclassical approximation which assumes that the evaporation process is self-similar. Quantum effects such as memory burden take the evaporation process out of the semiclassical regime latest by half-decay time. What happens beyond this time is currently not known. However, theoretical evidence based on prototype models indicates that the evaporation slows down thereby extending the lifetime of a black hole. This modifies the mass ranges constrained, in particular, by BBN and CMB spectral distortions. We show that previous constraints are largely relaxed when the PBH lifetime is extended, making it possible for PBHs to constitute all of DM in previously excluded mass ranges. In particular, this is the case for PBHs lighter than $10^9$g which enter the memory burden stage before BBN and are still present today as DM.