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(1806)Measurement of nuclear interaction cross sections towards neutron-skin thickness determination
  • L. Ponnath,
  • T. Aumann,
  • C. A. Bertulani,
  • R. Gernhäuser,
  • M. Heil
  • +94
  • T. Almusidi,
  • H. Alvarez-Pol,
  • L. Atar,
  • L. Atkins,
  • Y. Ayyad,
  • J. Benlliure,
  • K. Boretzky,
  • M. J. G. Borge,
  • L. T. Bott,
  • G. Bruni,
  • B. Brückner,
  • P. Cabanelas,
  • C. Caesar,
  • E. Casarejos,
  • J. Cederkall,
  • A. Corsi,
  • D. Cortina-Gil,
  • J. A. Dueñas,
  • M. Duer,
  • Z. Elekes,
  • S. Escribano Rodriguez,
  • L. Fabbietti,
  • A. Falduto,
  • M. Feijoo,
  • M. Feijoo Fontan,
  • L. M. Fonseca,
  • A. Frotscher,
  • D. Galaviz,
  • E. Galiana,
  • G. García-Jiménez,
  • I. Gašparic̀,
  • E. I. Geraci,
  • A. Gillibert,
  • B. Gnoffo,
  • D. González Caamaño,
  • A. Graña González,
  • K. Göbel,
  • A. -L. Hartig,
  • A. Heinz,
  • T. Hensel,
  • M. Holl,
  • A. Horvat,
  • A. Jedele,
  • D. Jelavic̀ Malenica,
  • T. Jenegger,
  • H. T. Johansson,
  • B. Jonson,
  • N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki,
  • A. Kelic-Heil,
  • O. A. Kiselev,
  • P. Klenze,
  • D. Kresan,
  • T. Kröll,
  • E. Kudaibergenova,
  • D. Kurtulgil,
  • D. Körper,
  • M. Labiche,
  • C. Langer,
  • I. Lihtar,
  • Yu. A. Litvinov,
  • B. Löher,
  • J. Mayer,
  • S. Murillo Morales,
  • E. Nacher,
  • T. Nilsson,
  • A. Obertelli,
  • V. Panin,
  • J. Park,
  • S. Paschalis,
  • A. Perea,
  • M. Petri,
  • S. Pirrone,
  • T. Pohl,
  • R. Reifarth,
  • H. -B. Rhee,
  • J. L. Rodriguez-Sanchez,
  • L. Rose,
  • D. M. Rossi,
  • P. Russotto,
  • D. Savran,
  • H. Scheit,
  • H. Simon,
  • S. Storck-Dutine,
  • A. M. Stott,
  • C. Sürder,
  • R. Taniuchi,
  • O. Tengblad,
  • P. Teubig,
  • L. Trache,
  • M. Trimarchi,
  • H. T. Törnqvist,
  • L. Varga,
  • V. Wagner,
  • F. Wamers
  • (less)
Physics Letters B (08/2024) doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2024.138780
abstract + abstract -

The accuracy of reaction theories used to extract properties of exotic nuclei from scattering experiments is often unknown or not quantified, but of utmost importance when, e.g., constraining the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter from observables as the neutron-skin thickness. In order to test the Glauber multiple-scattering model, the total interaction cross section of Image 1 on carbon targets was measured at initial beam energies of 400, 550, 650, 800, and 1000 MeV/nucleon. The measurements were performed during the first experiment of the newly constructed R3B (Reaction with Relativistic Radioactive Beams) experiment after the start of FAIR Phase-0 at the GSI/FAIR facility with beam energies of 400, 550, 650, 800, and 1000 MeV/nucleon. The combination of the large-acceptance dipole magnet GLAD and a newly designed and highly efficient Time-of-Flight detector enabled a precise transmission measurement with several target thicknesses for each initial beam energy with an experimental uncertainty of ±0.4%. A comparison with the Glauber model revealed a discrepancy of around 3.1% at higher beam energies, which will serve as a crucial baseline for the model-dependent uncertainty in future fragmentation experiments.


(1805)Time-Delay Cosmography: Measuring the Hubble Constant and Other Cosmological Parameters with Strong Gravitational Lensing
  • S. Birrer,
  • M. Millon,
  • D. Sluse,
  • A. J. Shajib,
  • F. Courbin
  • +4
  • S. Erickson,
  • L. V. E. Koopmans,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • T. Treu
  • (less)
Space Science Reviews (08/2024) doi:10.1007/s11214-024-01079-w
abstract + abstract -

Multiply lensed images of a same source experience a relative time delay in the arrival of photons due to the path length difference and the different gravitational potentials the photons travel through. This effect can be used to measure absolute distances and the Hubble constant (H0) and is known as time-delay cosmography. The method is independent of the local distance ladder and early-universe physics and provides a precise and competitive measurement of H0. With upcoming observatories, time-delay cosmography can provide a 1% precision measurement of H0 and can decisively shed light on the current reported `Hubble tension'. This manuscript details the general methodology developed over the past decades in time-delay cosmography, discusses recent advances and results, and, foremost, provides a foundation and outlook for the next decade in providing accurate and ever more precise measurements with increased sample size and improved observational techniques.


(1804)Relevance of the coupled channels in the $\phi$p and $\rho^0$p Correlation Functions
  • A. Feijoo,
  • M. Korwieser,
  • L. Fabbietti
abstract + abstract -

The vector meson-baryon interaction in a coupled channel scheme is revisited within the correlation function framework. As illustrative cases to reveal the important role played by the coupled channels, we focus on the $\phi$p and $\rho^0$p systems given their complex dynamics and the presence of quasi-bound states or resonances in the vicinity of their thresholds. We show that the $\phi$p femtoscopic data provide novel information about a $N^*$ state present in the experimental region and anticipate the relevance of a future $\rho^0$p correlation function measurement in order to pin down the $S=0, Q=+1$ vector meson-baryon interaction as well as to disclose the characterizing features of the $N^*(1700)$ state.


(1803)Efficient Forward-Mode Algorithmic Derivatives of Geant4
  • Max Aehle,
  • Xuan Tung Nguyen,
  • Mihály Novák,
  • Tommaso Dorigo,
  • Nicolas R. Gauger
  • +3
  • Jan Kieseler,
  • Markus Klute,
  • Vassil Vassilev
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We have applied an operator-overloading forward-mode algorithmic differentiation tool to the Monte-Carlo particle simulation toolkit Geant4. Our differentiated version of Geant4 allows computing mean pathwise derivatives of user-defined outputs of Geant4 applications with respect to user-defined inputs. This constitutes a major step towards enabling gradient-based optimization techniques in high-energy physics, as well as other application domains of Geant4. This is a preliminary report on the technical aspects of applying operator-overloading AD to Geant4, as well as a first analysis of some results obtained by our differentiated Geant4 prototype. We plan to follow up with a more refined analysis.


(1802)Formation of long-period post-common-envelope binaries. II. Explaining the self-lensing binary KOI 3278
  • Diogo Belloni,
  • Matthias R. Schreiber,
  • Monica Zorotovic
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202449320
abstract + abstract -

Context. The vast majority of close binaries containing a compact object, including the progenitors of supernovae Ia and at least a substantial fraction of all accreting black holes in the Galaxy, form through common-envelope (CE) evolution. Despite this importance, we struggle to even understand the energy budget of CE evolution. For decades, observed long-period post-CE binaries have been interpreted as evidence of additional energies contributing during CE evolution. We have recently shown that this argument is based on simplified assumptions for all long-period post-CE binaries containing massive white dwarfs (WDs). The only remaining post-CE binary star that has been claimed to require contributions from additional energy sources to understand its formation is KOI 3278.
Aims: Here, we address in detail the potential evolutionary history of KOI 3278. In particular, we investigate whether extra energy sources, such as recombination energy, are indeed required to explain its existence.
Methods: We used the 1D stellar evolution code MESA to carry out binary evolution simulations and searched for potential formation pathways for KOI 3278 that are able to explain its observed properties.
Results: We find that KOI 3278 can be explained if the WD progenitor filled its Roche lobe during a helium shell flash. In this case, the orbital period of KOI 3278 can be reproduced if the CE binding energy is calculated taking into account gravitational energy and thermodynamic internal energy. While the CE evolution that led to the formation of KOI 3278 must have been efficient - that is, most of the available orbital energy must have been used to unbind the CE - recombination energy is not required.
Conclusions: We conclude that currently not a single observed post-CE binary requires one to assume that energy sources other than gravitational and thermodynamic energy are contributing to CE evolution. KOI 3278, however, remains an intriguing post-CE binary as, unlike its siblings, understanding its existence requires highly efficient CE ejection.


(1801)Cosmology with galaxy cluster properties using machine learning
  • Lanlan Qiu,
  • Nicola R. Napolitano,
  • Stefano Borgani,
  • Fucheng Zhong,
  • Xiaodong Li
  • +8
  • Mario Radovich,
  • Weipeng Lin,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Crescenzo Tortora,
  • Yang Wang,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus,
  • Sirui Wu,
  • Giuseppe Longo
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202346683
abstract + abstract -

Context. Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitating structures in the universe, and their mass assembly is sensitive to the underlying cosmology. Their mass function, baryon fraction, and mass distribution have been used to infer cosmological parameters despite the presence of systematics. However, the complexity of the scaling relations among galaxy cluster properties has never been fully exploited, limiting their potential as a cosmological probe.
Aims: We propose the first machine learning (ML) method using galaxy cluster properties from hydrodynamical simulations in different cosmologies to predict cosmological parameters combining a series of canonical cluster observables, such as gas mass, gas bolometric luminosity, gas temperature, stellar mass, cluster radius, total mass, and velocity dispersion at different redshifts.
Methods: The ML model was trained on mock "measurements" of these observable quantities from Magneticum multi-cosmology simulations to derive unbiased constraints on a set of cosmological parameters. These include the mass density parameter, Ωm, the power spectrum normalization, σ8, the baryonic density parameter, Ωb, and the reduced Hubble constant, h0.
Results: We tested the ML model on catalogs of a few hundred clusters taken, in turn, from each simulation and found that the ML model can correctly predict the cosmology from where they have been picked. The cumulative accuracy depends on the cosmology, ranging from 21% to 75%. We demonstrate that this is sufficient to derive unbiased constraints on the main cosmological parameters with errors on the order of ~14% for Ωm, ~8% for σ8, ~6% for Ωb, and ~3% for h0.
Conclusions: This proof-of-concept analysis, though based on a limited variety of multi-cosmology simulations, shows that ML can efficiently map the correlations in the multidimensional space of the observed quantities to the cosmological parameter space and narrow down the probability that a given sample belongs to a given cosmological parameter combination. More large-volume, mid-resolution, multi-cosmology hydro-simulations need to be produced to expand the applicability to a wider cosmological parameter range. However, this first test is exceptionally promising, as it shows that these ML tools can be applied to cluster samples from multiwavelength observations from surveys such as Rubin/LSST, CSST, Euclid, and Roman in optical and near-infrared bands, and eROSITA in X-rays, to the constrain cosmology and effect of baryonic feedback.


(1800)Shockingly Bright Warm Carbon Monoxide Molecular Features in the Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A Revealed by JWST
  • J. Rho,
  • S. -H. Park,
  • R. Arendt,
  • M. Matsuura,
  • D. Milisavljevic
  • +34
  • T. Temim,
  • I. De Looze,
  • W. P. Blair,
  • A. Rest,
  • O. Fox,
  • A. P. Ravi,
  • B. -C. Koo,
  • M. Barlow,
  • A. Burrows,
  • R. Chevalier,
  • G. Clayton,
  • R. Fesen,
  • C. Fransson,
  • C. Fryer,
  • H. L. Gomez,
  • H. -T. Janka,
  • F. Kirchschlager,
  • J. M. Laming,
  • S. Orlando,
  • D. Patnaude,
  • G. Pavlov,
  • P. Plucinsky,
  • B. Posselt,
  • F. Priestley,
  • J. Raymond,
  • N. Sartorio,
  • F. Schmidt,
  • P. Slane,
  • N. Smith,
  • N. Sravan,
  • J. Vink,
  • K. Weil,
  • J. Wheeler,
  • S. C. Yoon
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (07/2024) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ad5186
abstract + abstract -

We present JWST NIRCam (F356W and F444W filters) and MIRI (F770W) images and NIRSpec Integral Field Unit (IFU) spectroscopy of the young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) to probe the physical conditions for molecular CO formation and destruction in supernova ejecta. We obtained the data as part of a JWST survey of Cas A. The NIRCam and MIRI images map the spatial distributions of synchrotron radiation, Ar-rich ejecta, and CO on both large and small scales, revealing remarkably complex structures. The CO emission is stronger at the outer layers than the Ar ejecta, which indicates the re-formation of CO molecules behind the reverse shock. NIRSpec-IFU spectra (3–5.5 μm) were obtained toward two representative knots in the NE and S fields that show very different nucleosynthesis characteristics. Both regions are dominated by the bright fundamental rovibrational band of CO in the two R and P branches, with strong [Ar VI] and relatively weaker, variable strength ejecta lines of [Si IX], [Ca IV], [Ca V], and [Mg IV]. The NIRSpec-IFU data resolve individual ejecta knots and filaments spatially and in velocity space. The fundamental CO band in the JWST spectra reveals unique shapes of CO, showing a few tens of sinusoidal patterns of rovibrational lines with pseudocontinuum underneath, which is attributed to the high-velocity widths of CO lines. Our results with LTE modeling of CO emission indicate a temperature of ∼1080 K and provide unique insight into the correlations between dust, molecules, and highly ionized ejecta in supernovae and have strong ramifications for modeling dust formation that is led by CO cooling in the early Universe.


(1799)Simulating nearby disc galaxies on the main star formation sequence. I. Bar formation and the building of the central gas reservoir
  • Pierrick Verwilghen,
  • Eric Emsellem,
  • Florent Renaud,
  • Milena Valentini,
  • Jiayi Sun
  • +12
  • Sarah Jeffreson,
  • Ralf S. Klessen,
  • Mattia C. Sormani,
  • Ashley T. Barnes,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Kathryn Grasha,
  • Fu-Heng Liang,
  • Sharon Meidt,
  • Justus Neumann,
  • Miguel Querejeta,
  • Eva Schinnerer,
  • Thomas G. Williams
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202348772
abstract + abstract -

Past studies have long emphasised the key role played by galactic stellar bars in the context of disc secular evolution, via the redistribution of gas and stars, the triggering of star formation, and the formation of prominent structures such as rings and central mass concentrations. However, the exact physical processes acting on those structures, as well as the timescales associated with the building and consumption of central gas reservoirs are still not well understood. We are building a suite of hydro-dynamical RAMSES simulations of isolated, low-redshift galaxies that mimic the properties of the PHANGS sample. The initial conditions of the models reproduce the observed stellar mass, disc scale length, or gas fraction, and this paper presents a first subset of these models. Most of our simulated galaxies develop a prominent bar structure, which itself triggers central gas fuelling and the building of an over-density with a typical scale of 100−1000 pc. We confirm that if the host galaxy features an ellipsoidal component, the formation of the bar and gas fuelling are delayed. We show that most of our simulations follow a common time evolution, when accounting for mass scaling and the bar formation time. In our simulations, the stellar mass of 1010 M seems to mark a change in the phases describing the time evolution of the bar and its impact on the interstellar medium. In massive discs (M ≥ 1010 M), we observe the formation of a central gas reservoir with star formation mostly occurring within a restricted starburst region, leading to a gas depletion phase. Lower-mass systems (M < 1010 M) do not exhibit such a depletion phase, and show a more homogeneous spread of star-forming regions along the bar structure, and do not appear to host inner bar-driven discs or rings. Our results seem to be supported by observations, and we briefly discuss how this new suite of simulations can help our understanding of the secular evolution of main sequence disc galaxies.


(1798)MeerKAT discovery of a double radio relic and odd radio circle: connecting cluster and galaxy merger shocks
  • Bärbel S. Koribalski,
  • Angie Veronica,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Thomas H. Reiprich,
  • Marcus Brüggen
  • +9
  • Ian Heywood,
  • Heinz Andernach,
  • Ralf-Jürgen Dettmar,
  • Matthias Hoeft,
  • Xiaoyuan Zhang,
  • Esra Bulbul,
  • Christian Garrel,
  • Gyula I. G. Józsa,
  • Jayanne English
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1254
abstract + abstract -

We present the serendipitous discovery of (1) a large double radio relic associated with the galaxy cluster PSZ2 G277.93 + 12.34 and (2) a new odd radio circle, ORC J1027-4422, both found in the same deep MeerKAT 1.3 GHz wide-band radio continuum image. The angular separation of the two arc-shaped cluster relics is ~16 arcmin or ~2.6 Mpc for a cluster redshift of z ≈ 0.158. The thin southern relic, which shows several ridges/shocks including one possibly moving inwards, has a linear extent of ~1.64 Mpc. In contrast, the northern relic is about twice as wide, twice as bright, but only has a largest linear size of ~0.66 Mpc. Complementary SRG/eROSITA X-ray images reveal extended emission from hot intracluster gas between the two relics and around the narrow-angle tail (NAT) radio galaxy PMN J1033-4335 (z ≈ 0.153) located just east of the northern relic. The radio morphologies of the NAT galaxy and the northern relic, which are also detected with the Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) at 888 MHz, suggest both are moving in the same outward direction. The discovery of ORC J1027-4422 in a different part of the same MeerKAT image makes it the fourth known single ORC. It has a diameter of ~90 arcsec corresponding to 400 kpc at a tentative redshift of z ≈ 0.3 and remains undetected in X-ray emission. Supported by simulations, we discuss similarities between outward moving galaxy and cluster merger shocks as the formation mechanisms for ORCs and radio relics, respectively.


(1797)Vortex-p: a Helmholtz-Hodge and Reynolds decomposition algorithm for particle-based simulations
  • David Vallés-Pérez,
  • Susana Planelles,
  • Vicent Quilis,
  • Frederick Groth,
  • Tirso Marin-Gilabert
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

Astrophysical turbulent flows display an intrinsically multi-scale nature, making their numerical simulation and the subsequent analyses of simulated data a complex problem. In particular, two fundamental steps in the study of turbulent velocity fields are the Helmholtz-Hodge decomposition (compressive+solenoidal; HHD) and the Reynolds decomposition (bulk+turbulent; RD). These problems are relatively simple to perform numerically for uniformly-sampled data, such as the one emerging from Eulerian, fix-grid simulations; but their computation is remarkably more complex in the case of non-uniformly sampled data, such as the one stemming from particle-based or meshless simulations. In this paper, we describe, implement and test vortex-p, a publicly available tool evolved from the vortex code, to perform both these decompositions upon the velocity fields of particle-based simulations, either from smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), moving-mesh or meshless codes. The algorithm relies on the creation of an ad-hoc adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) set of grids, on which the input velocity field is represented. HHD is then addressed by means of elliptic solvers, while for the RD we adapt an iterative, multi-scale filter. We perform a series of idealised tests to assess the accuracy, convergence and scaling of the code. Finally, we present some applications of the code to various SPH and meshless finite-mass (MFM) simulations of galaxy clusters performed with OpenGadget3, with different resolutions and physics, to showcase the capabilities of the code.


(1796)Percolation Statistics in the MillenniumTNG Simulations
  • Eniko Regos,
  • Volker Springel,
  • Sownak Bose,
  • Boryana Hadzhiyska,
  • Cesar Hernandez-Aguayo
abstract + abstract -

The statistical analysis of cosmic large-scale structure is most often based on simple two-point summary statistics, like the power spectrum or the two-point correlation function of a sample of galaxies or other types of tracers. In contrast, topological measures of clustering are also sensitive to higher-order correlations, and thus offer the prospect to access additional information that may harbor important constraining power. We here revisit one such geometric measure of the cosmic web in the form of the so-called percolation analysis, using the recent MillenniumTNG simulation suite of the LCDM paradigm. We analyze continuum percolation statistics both for high resolution dark matter particle distributions, as well as for galaxy mock catalogues from a semi-analytic galaxy formation model within a periodic simulation volume of 3000 Mpc on a side. For comparison, we also investigate the percolation statistics of random particle sets and neutrino distributions with two different summed particle masses. We find that the percolation statistics of the dark matter distribution evolves strongly with redshift and thus clustering strength, yielding progressively lower percolation threshold towards later times. However, there is a sizable residual dependence on numerical resolution which we interpret as a residual influence of different levels of shot noise. This is corroborated by our analysis of galaxy mock catalogues whose results depend on sampling density more strongly than on galaxy selection criteria. While this limits the discriminative power of percolation statistics, our results suggest that it still remains useful as a complementary cosmological test when controlled for sampling density.


(1795)Constraints on the formation history and composition of Kepler planets from their distribution of orbital period ratios
  • Di-Chang Chen,
  • Christoph Mordasini,
  • Ji-Wei Xie,
  • Ji-Lin Zhou,
  • Alexandre Emsenhuber
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202449371
abstract + abstract -

Context. The Kepler high-precision planetary sample has revealed a `radius valley' separating compact super-Earths from sub-Neptunes with lower densities. Super-Earths are generally assumed to be rocky planets that were probably born in situ, while the composition and formation of sub-Neptunes remains debated. Numerous statistical studies have explored planetary and stellar properties and their correlations to provide observational clues. However, no conclusive result on the origin of the radius valley or the composition of sub-Neptunes has been derived to date.
Aims: To provide more constraints, our aim is to investigate the distributions of the orbital spacing of sub-Neptunes and super-Earth planets in Kepler systems and compare their distributions with theoretical predictions of planet pairs of different formation pathways and compositions in synthetic planetary systems.
Methods: Based on the Kepler planetary sample, we derived the distributions of period ratios of sub-Neptune and super-Earth planet pairs. Using synthetic planetary systems generated by the Generation III Bern Model, we also obtained theoretical predictions of period ratio distributions of planet pairs of different compositions and origins.
Results: We find that Kepler sub-Neptune pairs show a significant preference to be near first-order mean motion resonances by a factor of 1.7−0.3+0.3. This is smaller than the model predictions for `water-rich' pairs but larger than that of `water-poor' pairs by confidence levels of ~2σ. Kepler super-Earth pairs show no significant preference for mean motion resonances from a random distribution. The derived normalised fraction of near first-order resonances of actual Kepler super-Earth pairs is consistent with that of synthetic water-poor planet pairs but significantly (≳3σ) smaller than that of synthetic water-rich planet pairs.
Conclusions: The orbital migration has been more important for sub-Neptunes than for super-Earths, suggesting a partial ex situ formation of the former and an origin of the radius valley caused in part by distinct formation pathways. However, the model comparisons also show that sub-Neptunes in Kepler multiple systems are not likely (~2σ) to all be water-rich planets born ex situ but a mixture of the two (in situ and ex situ) pathways. Whereas, Kepler super-Earth planets are predominantly composed of water-poor planets that were born inside the ice line, likely through a series of giant impacts without large-scale migration.


(1794)Vertical shear instability with dust evolution and consistent cooling times. On the importance of the initial dust distribution
  • Thomas Pfeil,
  • Til Birnstiel,
  • Hubert Klahr
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202449323
abstract + abstract -

Context. Gas in protoplanetary disks mostly cools via thermal accommodation with dust particles. Thermal relaxation is thus highly sensitive to the local dust size distributions and the spatial distribution of the grains. So far, the interplay between thermal relaxation and gas turbulence has not been dynamically modeled in hydrodynamic simulations of protoplanetary disks with dust.
Aims: We aim to study the effects of the vertical shear instability (VSI) on the thermal relaxation times, and vice versa. We are particularly interested in the influence of the initial dust grain size on the VSI and whether the emerging turbulence is sustained over long timescales.
Methods: We ran three axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of a protoplanetary disk including four dust fluids that initially resemble MRN size distributions of different initial grain sizes. From the local dust densities, we calculated the thermal accommodation timescale of dust and gas and used the result as the thermal relaxation time of the gas in our simulation. We included the effect of dust growth by applying the monodisperse dust growth rate and the typical growth limits.
Results: We find that the emergence of the VSI is strongly dependent on the initial dust grain size. Coagulation also counteracts the emergence of hydrodynamic turbulence in our simulations, as shown by others before. Starting a simulation with larger grains (100 μm) generally leads to a less turbulent outcome. While the inner disk regions (within ∼70 au) develop turbulence in all three simulations, we find that the simulations with larger particles do not develop VSI in the outer disk.
Conclusions: Our simulations with dynamically calculated thermal accommodation times based on the drifting and settling dust distribution show that the VSI, once developed in a disk, can be sustained over long timescales, even if grain growth is occurring. The VSI corrugates the dust layer and even diffuses the smaller grains into the upper atmosphere, where they can cool the gas. Whether the instability can emerge for a specific stratification depends on the initial dust grain sizes and the initial dust scale height. If the grains are initially ≳100 μm and if the level of turbulence is initially assumed to be low, we find no VSI turbulence in the outer disk regions.


(1793)A String Theoretic Derivation of Gibbons-Hawking Entropy
  • Gia Dvali
abstract + abstract -

We describe an attempt of string theoretic derivation of the Gibbons-Hawking entropy. Despite not admitting a de Sitter vacuum, the string theory, by the power of open-close correspondence, captures the Gibbons-Hawking entropy as the entropy of Chan-Paton species on a de Sitter-like state obtained via $D$-branes. Moreover, this derivation sheds a new light at the origin of the area-form, since the equality takes place for a critical 't Hooft coupling for which the species entropy of open strings saturates the area-law unitarity bound.


(1792)FROST-CLUSTERS - I. Hierarchical star cluster assembly boosts intermediate-mass black hole formation
  • Antti Rantala,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Natalia Lahén
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1413
abstract + abstract -

Observations and high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations indicate that massive star clusters assemble hierarchically from subclusters with a universal power-law cluster mass function. We study the consequences of such assembly for the formation of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) at low metallicities (Z = 0.01 Z) with our updated N-body code BIFROST based on the hierarchical fourth-order forward integrator. BIFROST integrates few-body systems using secular and regularized techniques including post-Newtonian equations of motion up to order PN3.5 and gravitational-wave recoil kicks for BHs. Single stellar evolution is treated using the fast population synthesis code SEVN. We evolve three cluster assembly regions with Ntot = 1.70-2.35 × 106 stars following a realistic IMF in ~1000 subclusters for t = 50 Myr. IMBHs with masses up to m ~ 2200 M form rapidly mainly via the collapse of very massive stars (VMSs) assembled through repeated collisions of massive stars followed by growth through tidal disruption events and BH mergers. No IMBHs originate from the stars in the initially most massive clusters. We explain this by suppression of hard massive star binary formation at high velocity dispersions and the competition between core collapse and massive star lifetimes. Later the IMBHs form subsystems resulting in gravitational-wave BH-BH, IMBH-BH, and IMBH-IMBH mergers with a m ~ 1000 M gravitational-wave detection being the observable prediction. Our simulations indicate that the hierarchical formation of massive star clusters in metal poor environments naturally results in formation of potential seeds for supermassive black holes.


(1791)A deep-learning model for the density profiles of subhaloes in IllustrisTNG
  • Luisa Lucie-Smith,
  • Giulia Despali,
  • Volker Springel
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1487
abstract + abstract -

We present a machine-learning-based model for the total density profiles of subhaloes with masses $M \gtrsim 7\times 10^8\, h^{-1}{\rm M}_\odot$ in the IllustrisTNG100 simulation. The model is based on an interpretable variational encoder (IVE) which returns the independent factors of variation in the density profiles within a low-dimensional representation, as well as the predictions for the density profiles themselves. The IVE returns accurate and unbiased predictions on all radial ranges, including the outer region profile where the subhaloes experience tidal stripping; here its fit accuracy exceeds that of the commonly used Einasto profile. The IVE discovers three independent degrees of freedom in the profiles, which can be interpreted in terms of the formation history of the subhaloes. In addition to the two parameters controlling the normalization and inner shape of the profile, the IVE discovers a third parameter that accounts for the impact of tidal stripping on to the subhalo outer profile; this parameter is sensitive to the mass loss experienced by the subhalo after its infall on to its parent halo. Baryonic physics in the IllustrisTNG galaxy formation model does not impact the number of degrees of freedom identified in the profile compared to the pure dark matter expectations, nor their physical interpretation. Our newly proposed profile fit can be used in strong lensing analyses or other observational studies which aim to constrain cosmology from small-scale structures.


CN-3
RU-B
(1790)Constraints on self-interaction cross-sections of dark matter in universal bound states from direct detection
  • The CRESST Collaboration: G. Angloher ,
  • S. Banik ,
  • G. Benato ,
  • A. Bento ,
  • A. Bertolini
  • +54
  • R. Breier ,
  • C. Bucci ,
  • J. Burkhart ,
  • E. Cipelli ,
  • L. Canonica ,
  • A. D'addabbo ,
  • S. Di Lorenzo ,
  • L. Einfalt ,
  • A. Erb ,
  • F.V. Feilitzsch ,
  • S. Fichtinger ,
  • D. Fuchs ,
  • A. Garai ,
  • V.M. Ghete ,
  • P. Gorla ,
  • P.V. Guillaumon ,
  • S. Gupta ,
  • D. Hauff ,
  • M. Ješkovský ,
  • J. Jochum ,
  • M. Kaznacheeva ,
  • A. Kinast ,
  • S. Kuckuk ,
  • H. Kluck ,
  • H. Kraus ,
  • A. Langenkämper ,
  • M. Mancuso ,
  • L. Marini ,
  • B. Mauri ,
  • L. Meyer ,
  • V. Mokina ,
  • M. Olmi ,
  • T. Ortmann ,
  • C. Pagliarone ,
  • L. Pattavina ,
  • F. Petricca ,
  • W. Potzel ,
  • P. Povinec ,
  • F. Pröbst ,
  • F. Pucci ,
  • F. Reindl ,
  • J. Rothe ,
  • K. Schäffner ,
  • J. Schieck ,
  • S. Schönert ,
  • C. Schwertner ,
  • M. Stahlberg ,
  • L. Stodolsky ,
  • C. Strandhagen ,
  • R. Strauss ,
  • I. Usherov,
  • F. Wagner,
  • V. Wagner,
  • V. Zema
  • (less)
arXiv e-prints (07/2024) e-Print:2407.04004
abstract + abstract -

Lambda- Cold Dark Matter (LambdaCDM) has been successful at explaining the large-scale structures in the universe but faces severe issues on smaller scales when compared to observations. Introducing self-interactions between dark matter particles claims to provide a solution to the small-scale issues in the LambdaCDM simulations while being consistent with the observations at large scales. The existence of the energy region in which these self-interactions between dark matter particles come close to saturating the S-wave unitarity bound can result in the formation of dark matter bound states called darkonium. In this scenario, all the low energy scattering properties are determined by a single parameter, the inverse scattering length gamma. In this work, we set bounds on gamma by studying the impact of darkonium on the observations at direct detection experiments using data from CRESST-III and XENON1T. The exclusion limits on gamma are then subsequently converted to exclusion limits on the self-interaction cross-section and compared with the constraints from astrophysics and N-body simulations.


(1789)The Galactic Bulge exploration III.: Calcium Triplet Metallicities for RR Lyrae Stars
  • Andrea Kunder,
  • Zdenek Prudil,
  • Claire Skaggs,
  • Henrique Reggiani,
  • David M. Nataf
  • +3
  • Joanne Hughes,
  • Kevin R. Covey,
  • Kathryn Devine
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

RR Lyrae stars are excellent tracers of stellar populations for old, metal-poor components in the Milky Way Galaxy and the Local Group. Their luminosities have a metallicity-dependence, but determining spectroscopic [Fe/H] metallicities for RR Lyrae stars, especially at distances outside the solar neighbourhood, is challenging. Using 40 RRLs with metallicities derived from both Fe(II) and Fe(I) abundances, we verify the calibration between the [Fe/H] of RR Lyrae stars from the Calcium triplet. Our calibration is applied to all RR Lyrae stars with Gaia RVS spectra in Gaia DR3 as well as to 80 stars in the inner Galaxy from the BRAVA-RR survey. The co-added Gaia RVS RR Lyrae spectra provide RR Lyrae metallicities with an uncertainty of 0.25~dex, which is a factor of two improvement over the Gaia photometric RR Lyrae metallicities. Within our Galactic bulge RR Lyrae star sample, we find a dominant fraction with low energies without a prominent rotating component. Due to the large fraction of such stars, we interpret these stars as belonging to the $in-situ$ metal-poor Galactic bulge component, although we can not rule out that a fraction of these belong to an ancient accretion event such as Kraken/Heracles.


(1788)Formation of long-period post-common envelope binaries. I. No extra energy is needed to explain oxygen-neon white dwarfs paired with AFGK-type main-sequence stars
  • Diogo Belloni,
  • Monica Zorotovic,
  • Matthias R. Schreiber,
  • Steven G. Parsons,
  • Maxwell Moe
  • +1
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202449235
abstract + abstract -

Context. It has been claimed for more than a decade that energies other than orbital and thermodynamic internal are required to explain post-common envelope (CE) binaries with sufficiently long orbital periods (≳1 d) hosting AFGK-type main-sequence stars (∼0.5 − 2.0 M) paired with oxygen-neon white dwarfs (≳1.1 M). This would imply a completely different energy budget during CE evolution for these post-CE binaries in comparison to the remaining systems hosting M dwarfs and/or less massive white dwarfs.
Aims: In this first in a series of papers related to long-period post-CE binaries, we investigated whether extra energy is required to explain the currently known post-CE binaries with sufficiently long orbital periods consisting of oxygen-neon white dwarfs with AFGK-type main-sequence star companions.
Methods: We carried out binary population simulations with the BSE code adopting empirically derived inter-correlated main-sequence binary distributions for the initial binary population and assuming that the only energy, in addition to orbital, that help to unbind the CE is thermal energy. We also searched for the formation pathways of the currently known systems from the zero-age main-sequence binary to their present-day observed properties.
Results: Unlike what has been claimed for a long time, we show that all such post-CE binaries can be explained by assuming inefficient CE evolution, which is consistent with results achieved for the remaining post-CE binaries. There is therefore no need for an extra energy source. We also found that for CE efficiency close to 100%, post-CE binaries hosting oxygen-neon white dwarfs with orbital periods as long as one thousand days can be explained. For all known systems we found formation pathways consisting of CE evolution triggered when a highly evolved (i.e. when the envelope mass is comparable to the core mass), thermally pulsing, asymptotic giant branch star fills its Roche lobe at an orbital period of several thousand days. Due to the sufficiently low envelope mass and sufficiently long orbital period, the resulting post-CE orbital period can easily be several tens of days.
Conclusions: We conclude that the known post-CE binaries with oxygen-neon white dwarfs and AFGK-type main-sequence stars can be explained without invoking any energy source other than orbital and thermal energy. Our results strengthen the idea that the most common formation pathway of the overall population of post-CE binaries hosting white dwarfs is through inefficient CE evolution.


(1787)Toward Cosmological Simulations of the Magnetized Intracluster Medium with Resolved Coulomb Collision Scale
  • Ulrich P. Steinwandel,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Ludwig M. Böss,
  • Tirso Marin-Gilabert
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad39ee
abstract + abstract -

We present the first results of one extremely high-resolution, nonradiative magnetohydrodynamical cosmological zoom-in simulation of a massive cluster with a virial mass of M vir = 2.0 × 1015 solar masses. We adopt a mass resolution of 4 × 105 M with a maximum spatial resolution of around 250 pc in the central regions of the cluster. We follow the detailed amplification process in a resolved small-scale turbulent dynamo in the intracluster medium (ICM) with strong exponential growth until redshift 4, after which the field grows weakly in the adiabatic compression limit until redshift 2. The energy in the field is slightly reduced as the system approaches redshift zero in agreement with adiabatic decompression. The field structure is highly turbulent in the center and shows field reversals on a length scale of a few tens of kiloparsecs and an anticorrelation between the radial and angular field components in the central region that is ordered by small-scale turbulent dynamo action. The large-scale field on megaparsec scales is almost isotropic, indicating that the structure formation process in massive galaxy cluster formation suppresses any memory of both the initial field configuration and the amplified morphology via the turbulent dynamo. We demonstrate that extremely high-resolution simulations of the magnetized ICM are within reach that can simultaneously resolve the small-scale magnetic field structure, which is of major importance for the injection of and transport of cosmic rays in the ICM. This work is a major cornerstone for follow-up studies with an on-the-fly treatment of cosmic rays to model in detail electron-synchrotron and gamma-ray emissions.


(1786)The M33 synoptic stellar survey. III. Miras and LPVs in griJHK<SUB>S</SUB>
  • Tarini Konchady,
  • Lucas M. Macri,
  • Xiaomeng Yan,
  • Jianhua Z. Huang
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1140
abstract + abstract -

We present the results of a search for Miras and long-period variables (LPVs) in M33 using griJHKS archival observations from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We use multiband information and machine learning techniques to identify and characterize these variables. We recover ~1300 previously discovered Mira candidates and identify ~13 000 new Miras and LPVs. We detect for the first time a clear first-overtone pulsation sequence among Mira candidates in this galaxy. We use O-rich, fundamental-mode Miras in the LMC and M33 to derive a distance modulus for the latter of μ = 24.629 ± 0.046 mag.


(1785)The inverted pendulum as a classical analog of the EFT paradigm
  • Martin Beneke,
  • Matthias König,
  • Martin Link
Physica Scripta (06/2024) doi:10.1088/1402-4896/ad4184
abstract + abstract -

The inverted pendulum is a mechanical system with a rapidly oscillating pivot point. Using techniques similar in spirit to the methodology of effective field theories, we derive an effective Lagrangian that allows for the systematic computation of corrections to the so-called Kapitza equation. The derivation of the effective potential of the system requires non-trivial matching conditions, which need to be determined order by order in the power-counting of the problem. The convergence behavior of the series is investigated on the basis of high-order results obtained by this method. The results from this analysis can be used to determine the regions of parameter space, in which the inverted position of the pendulum is stable or unstable to high precision.


(1784)On the role of $J/{\psi}$ production in electron-ion collisions
  • Zexuan Chu,
  • Jinhui Chen,
  • Xiang-Peng Wang,
  • Hongxi Xing
abstract + abstract -

Within the framework of non-relativistic QCD (NRQCD) effective field theory, we study the leptoproduction of $J/{\psi}$ at next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD for both unpolarized and polarized electron-ion collisions. We demonstrate that the $J/{\psi}$-tagged deep inelastic scattering in the future Electron-Ion Collider can be served as a golden channel for the reasons including constraining NRQCD long distance matrix elements, probing the nuclear gluon distribution functions, as well as investigating the gluon helicity distribution inside a longitudinal polarized proton.


(1783)Constraining f (R ) gravity using future galaxy cluster abundance and weak-lensing mass calibration datasets
  • Sophie M. L. Vogt,
  • Sebastian Bocquet,
  • Christopher T. Davies,
  • Joseph J. Mohr,
  • Fabian Schmidt
Physical Review D (06/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.109.123503
abstract + abstract -

We present forecasts for constraints on the Hu and Sawicki f (R ) modified gravity model using realistic mock data representative of future cluster and weak lensing surveys. We create mock thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect selected cluster samples for SPT-3G and CMB-S4 and the corresponding weak gravitational lensing data from next-generation weak-lensing (ngWL) surveys like Euclid and Rubin. We employ a state-of-the-art Bayesian likelihood approach that includes all observational effects and systematic uncertainties to obtain constraints on the f (R ) gravity parameter log10|fR 0|. In this analysis we vary the cosmological parameters [Ωmνh2,h ,As,ns,log10|fR 0|], which allows us to account for possible degeneracies between cosmological parameters and f (R ) modified gravity. The analysis accounts for f (R ) gravity via its effect on the halo mass function which is enhanced on cluster mass scales compared to the expectations within general relativity (GR). Assuming a fiducial GR model, the upcoming cluster dataset SPT -3 G ×ngWL is expected to obtain an upper limit of log10|fR 0|<-5.95 at 95% credibility, which significantly improves upon the current best bounds. The CMB -S 4 ×ngWL dataset is expected to improve this even further to log10|fR 0|<-6.23 . Furthermore, f (R ) gravity models with log10|fR 0|≥-6 , which have larger numbers of clusters, would be distinguishable from GR with both datasets. We also report degeneracies between log10|fR 0| and Ωm as well as σ8 for log10|fR 0|>-6 and log10|fR 0|>-5 respectively. Our forecasts indicate that future cluster abundance studies of f (R ) gravity will enable substantially improved constraints that are competitive with other cosmological probes.


CN-7
RU-A
(1782)Microscopic optical potential from the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory: Proton-nucleus scattering
  • Pianpian Qin,
  • Sibo Wang,
  • Hui Tong,
  • Qiang Zhao,
  • Chencan Wang
  • +2
Physical Review C (06/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.109.064603
abstract + abstract -

A relativistic microscopic optical model potential for nucleon-nucleus scattering is developed based on the ab initio relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (RBHF) theory with the improved local density approximation, which is abbreviated as the RBOM potential. Both real and imaginary parts of the single-particle potentials in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter at various densities are determined uniquely in the full Dirac space. The density distributions of the target nuclei are calculated by the covariant energy density functional theory with the density functional PC-PK1. The central and spin-orbit terms of the optical potentials are quantitatively consistent with the relativistic phenomenological optical potentials. The performance of the RBOM potential is evaluated by considering proton scattering with incident energy E ≤200 MeV on five target nuclei, 208Pb, 120Sn, 90Zr, 48Ca, and 40Ca. Scattering observables including the elastic scattering angular distributions, analyzing powers, spin rotation functions, and reaction cross sections are analyzed. Theoretical predictions show good agreements with the experimental data and the results derived from phenomenological optical potentials. We anticipate that the RBOM potential can provide reference for other phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials, as well as reliable descriptions for nucleon scattering on exotic nuclei in the era of rare-isotope beams.


(1781)Shockingly Bright Warm Carbon Monoxide Molecular Features in the Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A Revealed by JWST
  • J. Rho,
  • S. -H. Park,
  • R. Arendt,
  • M. Matsuura,
  • D. Milisavljevic
  • +34
  • T. Temim,
  • I. De Looze,
  • W. P. Blair,
  • A. Rest,
  • O. Fox,
  • A. P. Ravi,
  • B. -C. Koo,
  • M. Barlow,
  • A. Burrows,
  • R. Chevalier,
  • G. Clayton,
  • R. Fesen,
  • C. Fransson,
  • C. Fryer,
  • H. L. Gomez,
  • H. -T. Janka,
  • F. Kirchschlarger,
  • J. M. Laming,
  • S. Orlando,
  • D. Patnaude,
  • G. Pavlov,
  • P. Plucinsky,
  • B. Posselt,
  • F. Priestley,
  • J. Raymond,
  • N. Sartorio,
  • F. Schmidt,
  • P. Slane,
  • N. Smith,
  • N. Sravan,
  • J. Vink,
  • K. Weil,
  • J. Wheeler,
  • S. C. Yoon
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present JWST NIRCam (F356W and F444W filters) and MIRI (F770W) images and NIRSpec- IFU spectroscopy of the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). We obtained the data as part of a JWST survey of Cas A. The NIRCam and MIRI images map the spatial distributions of synchrotron radiation, Ar-rich ejecta, and CO on both large and small scales, revealing remarkably complex structures. The CO emission is stronger at the outer layers than the Ar ejecta, which indicates the reformation of CO molecules behind the reverse shock. NIRSpec-IFU spectra (3 - 5.5 microns) were obtained toward two representative knots in the NE and S fields. Both regions are dominated by the bright fundamental rovibrational band of CO in the two R and P branches, with strong [Ar VI] and relatively weaker, variable strength ejecta lines of [Si IX], [Ca IV], [Ca V] and [Mg IV]. The NIRSpec-IFU data resolve individual ejecta knots and filaments spatially and in velocity space. The fundamental CO band in the JWST spectra reveals unique shapes of CO, showing a few tens of sinusoidal patterns of rovibrational lines with pseudo-continuum underneath, which is attributed to the high-velocity widths of CO lines. The CO also shows high J lines at different vibrational transitions. Our results with LTE modeling of CO emission indicate a temperature of 1080 K and provide unique insight into the correlations between dust, molecules, and highly ionized ejecta in supernovae, and have strong ramifications for modeling dust formation that is led by CO cooling in the early Universe.


(1780)Transient fading X-ray emission detected during the optical rise of a tidal disruption event
  • A. Malyali,
  • A. Rau,
  • C. Bonnerot,
  • A. J. Goodwin,
  • Z. Liu
  • +7
  • G. E. Anderson,
  • J. Brink,
  • D. A. H. Buckley,
  • A. Merloni,
  • J. C. A. Miller-Jones,
  • I. Grotova,
  • A. Kawka
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae927
abstract + abstract -

We report on the SRG/eROSITA detection of ultra-soft ($kT=47^{+5}_{-5}$ eV) X-ray emission (LX =$2.5^{+0.6}_{-0.5} \times 10^{43}$ erg s-1) from the tidal disruption event (TDE) candidate AT 2022dsb ~14 d before peak optical brightness. As the optical luminosity increases after the eROSITA detection, then the 0.2-2 keV observed flux decays, decreasing by a factor of ~39 over the 19 d after the initial X-ray detection. Multi-epoch optical spectroscopic follow-up observations reveal transient broad Balmer emission lines and a broad He II 4686 Å emission complex with respect to the pre-outburst spectrum. Despite the early drop in the observed X-ray flux, the He II 4686 Å complex is still detected for ~40 d after the optical peak, suggesting the persistence of an obscured hard ionizing source in the system. Three outflow signatures are also detected at early times: (i) blueshifted H α emission lines in a pre-peak optical spectrum, (ii) transient radio emission, and (iii) blueshifted Ly α absorption lines. The joint evolution of this early-time X-ray emission, the He II 4686 Å complex, and these outflow signatures suggests that the X-ray emitting disc (formed promptly in this TDE) is still present after optical peak, but may have been enshrouded by optically thick debris, leading to the X-ray faintness in the months after the disruption. If the observed early-time properties in this TDE are not unique to this system, then other TDEs may also be X-ray bright at early times and become X-ray faint upon being veiled by debris launched shortly after the onset of circularization.


CN-6
(1779)Wakefield-driven filamentation of warm beams in plasma
  • Erwin Walter,
  • John P. Farmer,
  • Martin S. Weidl,
  • Alexander Pukhov,
  • Frank Jenko
abstract + abstract -

Charged and quasi-neutral beams propagating through an unmagnetised plasma are subject to numerous collisionless instabilities on the small scale of the plasma skin depth. The electrostatic two-stream instability, driven by longitudinal and transverse wakefields, dominates for dilute beams. This leads to modulation of the beam along the propagation direction and, for wide beams, transverse filamentation. A three-dimensional spatiotemporal two-stream theory for warm beams with a finite extent is developed. Unlike the cold beam limit, diffusion due to a finite emittance gives rise to a dominant wavenumber, and a cut-off wavenumber above which filamentation is suppressed. Particle-in-cell simulations give excellent agreement with the theoretical model. This work provides deeper insights into the effect of diffusion on filamentation of finite beams, crucial for comprehending plasma-based accelerators in laboratory and cosmic settings.


(1778)A survey for radio emission from white dwarfs in the VLA Sky Survey
  • Ingrid Pelisoli,
  • Laura Chomiuk,
  • Jay Strader,
  • T. R. Marsh,
  • Elias Aydi
  • +20
  • Kristen C. Dage,
  • Rebecca Kyer,
  • Isabella Molina,
  • Teresa Panurach,
  • Ryan Urquhart,
  • Thomas J. Maccarone,
  • R. Michael Rich,
  • Antonio C. Rodriguez,
  • E. Breedt,
  • A. J. Brown,
  • V. S. Dhillon,
  • M. J. Dyer,
  • Boris T. Gaensicke,
  • J. A. Garbutt,
  • M. J. Green,
  • M. R. Kennedy,
  • P. Kerry,
  • S. P. Littlefair,
  • James Munday,
  • S. G. Parsons
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1275
abstract + abstract -

Radio emission has been detected from tens of white dwarfs, in particular in accreting systems. Additionally, radio emission has been predicted as a possible outcome of a planetary system around a white dwarf. We searched for 3 GHz radio continuum emission in 846 000 candidate white dwarfs previously identified in Gaia using the Very Large Array Sky Survey (VLASS) Epoch 1 Quick Look Catalogue. We identified 13 candidate white dwarfs with a counterpart in VLASS within 2 arcsec. Five of those were found not to be white dwarfs in follow-up or archival spectroscopy, whereas seven others were found to be chance alignments with a background source in higher resolution optical or radio images. The remaining source, WDJ204259.71+152108.06, is found to be a white dwarf and M-dwarf binary with an orbital period of 4.1 d and long-term stochastic optical variability, as well as luminous radio and X-ray emission. For this binary, we find no direct evidence of a background contaminant, and a chance alignment probability of only ≈2 per cent. However, other evidence points to the possibility of an unfortunate chance alignment with a background radio and X-ray emitting quasar, including an unusually poor Gaia DR3 astrometric solution for this source. With at most one possible radio emitting white dwarf found, we conclude that strong (≳1-3 mJy) radio emission from white dwarfs in the 3 GHz band is virtually non-existent outside of interacting binaries.


(1777)TDCOSMO. XVII. Measurement of the Hubble Constant from the Lensed Quasar WGD$\,$2038$-$4008
  • Kenneth C. Wong,
  • Frédéric Dux,
  • Anowar J. Shajib,
  • Sherry H. Suyu,
  • Martin Millon
  • +15
  • Pritom Mozumdar,
  • Patrick R. Wells,
  • Adriano Agnello,
  • Simon Birrer,
  • Elizabeth J. Buckley-Geer,
  • Frédéric Courbin,
  • Christopher D. Fassnacht,
  • Joshua Frieman,
  • Aymeric Galan,
  • Huan Lin,
  • Philip J. Marshall,
  • Jason Poh,
  • Stefan Schuldt,
  • Dominique Sluse,
  • Tommaso Treu
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Time-delay cosmography is a powerful technique to constrain cosmological parameters, particularly the Hubble constant ($H_{0}$). The TDCOSMO collaboration is performing an ongoing analysis of lensed quasars to constrain cosmology using this method. In this work, we obtain constraints from the lensed quasar~WGD$\,$2038$-$4008~using new time-delay measurements and previous mass models by TDCOSMO. This is the first TDCOSMO lens to incorporate multiple lens modeling codes and the full time-delay covariance matrix into the cosmological inference. The models are fixed before the time delay is measured, and the analysis is performed blinded with respect to the cosmological parameters to prevent unconscious experimenter bias. We obtain $D_{\Delta t} = 1.68^{+0.40}_{-0.38}$ Gpc using two families of mass models, a power-law describing the total mass distribution, and a composite model of baryons and dark matter, although the composite model is disfavored due to kinematics constraints. In a flat $\Lambda$CDM cosmology, we constrain the Hubble constant to be $H_{0} = 65^{+23}_{-14}\, \rm km\ s^{-1}\,Mpc^{-1}$. The dominant source of uncertainty comes from the time delays, due to the low variability of the quasar. Future long-term monitoring, especially in the era of the Vera C. Rubin Observatory's Legacy Survey of Space and Time, could catch stronger quasar variability and further reduce the uncertainties. This system will be incorporated into an upcoming hierarchical analysis of the entire TDCOSMO sample, and improved time delays and spatially-resolved stellar kinematics could strengthen the constraints from this system in the future.


(1776)Radial X-ray profiles of simulated galaxies: Contributions from hot gas and XRBs
  • Stephan Vladutescu-Zopp,
  • Veronica Biffi,
  • Klaus Dolag
abstract + abstract -

Theoretical models of structure formation predict the presence of a hot gaseous atmosphere around galaxies. While this hot circum-galactic medium (CGM) has been observationally confirmed through UV absorption lines, the detection of its direct X-ray emission remains scarce. We investigate theoretical predictions of the intrinsic CGM X-ray surface brightness (SB) using simulated galaxies and connect them to their global properties such as gas temperature, hot gas fraction and stellar mass. We select a sample of galaxies from the ultra-high resolution ($48\ \rm{cMpc\, h^{-1}}$) cosmological volume of the Magneticum Pathfinder set of hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. We classify them as star-forming (SF) or quiescent (QU) based on their specific star-formation rate. For each galaxy we generate X-ray mock data using the X-ray photon simulator PHOX, from which we obtain SB profiles out to the virial radius for different X-ray emitting components, namely gas, active galactic nuclei and X-ray binaries (XRBs). We fit a $\beta$-profile to each galaxy and observe trends between its slope and global quantities of the simulated galaxy. We find marginal differences between the average total SB profile of the CGM in SF and QU galaxies, with the contribution from hot gas being the largest ($>50\%$) at radii $r>0.05\,R_{\rm{vir}}$. The contribution from X-ray binaries (XRBs) equals the gas contribution for small radii and is non-zero for large radii. The galaxy population shows positive correlations between global properties and normalization of the SB profile. The slope of fitted $\beta$-profiles correlates strongly with the total gas luminosity, which in turn shows strong connections to the current accretion rate of the central super-massive black hole (SMBH).


(1775)Star Formation by Supernova Implosion
  • Leonard Elias Cornelius Romano,
  • Andreas Burkert,
  • Manuel Behrendt
abstract + abstract -

Recent hydrodynamical simulations of the late stages of supernova remnant (SNR) evolution have revealed that as they merge with the ambient medium, SNRs implode, leading to the formation of dense clouds in their center. While being highly chemically enriched by their host SNR, these clouds appear to have similar properties as giant molecular clouds, which are believed to be the main site of star formation. Here, we develop a simple model, in order to estimate the efficiency of the star formation that might be triggered by the implosion of SNRs. We separately consider two cases, cyclic star formation, maintained by the episodic driving of feedback from new generations of stars; and a single burst of star formation, triggered by a single explosion. We find that in the cyclic case, star formation is inefficient, with implosion-triggered star-formation contributing a few percent of the observed star-formation efficiency per free-fall timescale. In the single-burst case, higher star-formation efficiencies can be obtained. However, while the implosion-triggered process might not contribute much to the overall star-formation, due to the high chemical enrichment of the birth clouds, it can explain the formation of a significant fraction of metal-rich stars.


(1774)Search for giant planets in M 67 V: A warm Jupiter orbiting the turn-off star S1429
  • Luis Thomas,
  • Roberto Saglia,
  • Luca Pasquini,
  • Anna Brucalassi,
  • Piercarlo Bonifacio
  • +7
  • José Renan de Medeiros,
  • Izan de Castro Leão,
  • Bruno Leonardo Canto Martins,
  • Henrik Lukas Ruh,
  • Luigi Rolly Bedin,
  • Mattia Libralato,
  • Katia Biazzo
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202449233
abstract + abstract -

Context. Planets orbiting members of open or globular clusters offer a great opportunity to study exoplanet populations systematically, as stars within clusters provide a mostly homogeneous sample, at least in chemical composition and stellar age. However, even though there have been coordinated efforts to search for exoplanets in stellar clusters, only a small number of planets have been detected. One successful example is the seven-year radial velocity (RV) survey `Search for giant planets in M 67' of 88 stars in the open cluster M 67, which led to the discovery of five giant planets, including three close-in (P < 10 days) hot-Jupiters.
Aims: In this work, we continue and extend the observation of stars in M 67, with the aim being to search for additional planets.
Methods: We conducted spectroscopic observations with the Habitable Planet Finder (HPF), HARPS, HARPS-North, and SOPHIE spectrographs of 11 stars in M 67. Six of our targets showed a variation or long-term trends in their RV during the original survey, while the other five were not observed in the original sample, bringing the total number of stars to 93.
Results: An analysis of the RVs reveals one additional planet around the turn-off point star S1429 and provides solutions for the orbits of stellar companions around S2207 and YBP2018. S1429 b is a warm-Jupiter on a likely circular orbit with a period of [77.48-0.19+0.18] days and a minimum mass of M sin i = 1.80 ± 0.2 MJ. We update the hot-Jupiter occurrence rate in M 67 to include the five new stars, deriving [4.2-2.3+4.1 %] when considering all stars, and [5.4-3.0+5.1 %] if binary star systems are removed.


(1773)The LiteBIRD mission to explore cosmic inflation
  • T. Ghigna,
  • A. Adler,
  • K. Aizawa,
  • H. Akamatsu,
  • R. Akizawa
  • +154
  • E. Allys,
  • A. Anand,
  • J. Aumont,
  • J. Austermann,
  • S. Azzoni,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • M. Ballardini,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • N. Bartolo,
  • S. Basak,
  • A. Basyrov,
  • S. Beckman,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • M. Bortolami,
  • F. Bouchet,
  • T. Brinckmann,
  • P. Campeti,
  • E. Carinos,
  • A. Carones,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • K. Cheung,
  • Y. Chinone,
  • L. Clermont,
  • F. Columbro,
  • A. Coppolecchia,
  • D. Curtis,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • T. de Haan,
  • E. de la Hoz,
  • M. De Petris,
  • S. Della Torre,
  • G. Delle Monache,
  • E. Di Giorgi,
  • C. Dickinson,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • J. J. Díaz García,
  • M. Dobbs,
  • T. Dotani,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • J. Errard,
  • T. Essinger-Hileman,
  • N. Farias,
  • E. Ferreira,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • G. Galloni,
  • M. Galloway,
  • K. Ganga,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • R. T. Génova-Santos,
  • S. Giardiello,
  • C. Gimeno-Amo,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • R. González González,
  • L. Grandsire,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • N. W. Halverson,
  • P. Hargrave,
  • S. E. Harper,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • L. T. Hergt,
  • D. Herranz,
  • E. Hivon,
  • R. A. Hlozek,
  • T. D. Hoang,
  • J. Hubmayr,
  • K. Ichiki,
  • K. Ikuma,
  • H. Ishino,
  • G. Jaehnig,
  • B. Jost,
  • K. Kohri,
  • K. Konishi,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • C. Leloup,
  • F. Levrier,
  • A. I. Lonappan,
  • G. Luzzi,
  • J. Macias-Perez,
  • B. Maffei,
  • E. Marchitelli,
  • E. Martínez-González,
  • S. Masi,
  • S. Matarrese,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • S. Micheli,
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • M. Monelli,
  • L. Montier,
  • G. Morgante,
  • L. Mousset,
  • Y. Nagano,
  • R. Nagata,
  • P. Natoli,
  • A. Novelli,
  • F. Noviello,
  • I. Obata,
  • A. Occhiuzzi,
  • K. Odagiri,
  • R. Omae,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • G. Pascual-Cisneros,
  • G. Patanchon,
  • V. Pavlidou,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • M. Piat,
  • G. Piccirilli,
  • M. Pinchera,
  • G. Pisano,
  • L. Porcelli,
  • N. Raffuzzi,
  • C. Raum,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • J. Rubino-Martin,
  • M. Ruiz-Granda,
  • Y. Sakurai,
  • G. Savini,
  • D. Scott,
  • Y. Sekimoto,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • S. L. Stever,
  • R. M. Sullivan,
  • A. Suzuki,
  • R. Takaku,
  • H. Takakura,
  • S. Takakura,
  • Y. Takase. A. Tartari,
  • K. Tassis,
  • K. L. Thompson,
  • M. Tomasi,
  • M. Tristram,
  • C. Tucker,
  • L. Vacher,
  • B. van Tent,
  • P. Vielva,
  • K. Watanuki,
  • I. K. Wehus,
  • B. Westbrook,
  • G. Weymann-Despres,
  • B. Winter,
  • E. J. Wollack,
  • A. Zacchei,
  • M. Zannoni,
  • Y. Zhou,
  • the LiteBIRD Collaboration
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

LiteBIRD, the next-generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment, aims for a launch in Japan's fiscal year 2032, marking a major advancement in the exploration of primordial cosmology and fundamental physics. Orbiting the Sun-Earth Lagrangian point L2, this JAXA-led strategic L-class mission will conduct a comprehensive mapping of the CMB polarization across the entire sky. During its 3-year mission, LiteBIRD will employ three telescopes within 15 unique frequency bands (ranging from 34 through 448 GHz), targeting a sensitivity of 2.2\,$\mu$K-arcmin and a resolution of 0.5$^\circ$ at 100\,GHz. Its primary goal is to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ with an uncertainty $\delta r = 0.001$, including systematic errors and margin. If $r \geq 0.01$, LiteBIRD expects to achieve a $>5\sigma$ detection in the $\ell=$2-10 and $\ell=$11-200 ranges separately, providing crucial insight into the early Universe. We describe LiteBIRD's scientific objectives, the application of systems engineering to mission requirements, the anticipated scientific impact, and the operations and scanning strategies vital to minimizing systematic effects. We will also highlight LiteBIRD's synergies with concurrent CMB projects.


(1772)Ray-tracing vs. Born approximation in full-sky weak lensing simulations of the MillenniumTNG project
  • Fulvio Ferlito,
  • Christopher T. Davies,
  • Volker Springel,
  • Martin Reinecke,
  • Alessandro Greco
  • +5
  • Ana Maria Delgado,
  • Simon D. M. White,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Sownak Bose,
  • Lars Hernquist
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Weak gravitational lensing is a powerful tool for precision tests of cosmology. As the expected deflection angles are small, predictions based on non-linear N-body simulations are commonly computed with the Born approximation. Here we examine this assumption using ${\small DORIAN}$, a newly developed full-sky ray-tracing scheme applied to high-resolution mass-shell outputs of the two largest simulations in the MillenniumTNG suite, each with a 3000 Mpc box containing almost 1.1 trillion cold dark matter particles in addition to 16.7 billion particles representing massive neutrinos. We examine simple two-point statistics like the angular power spectrum of the convergence field, as well as statistics sensitive to higher order correlations such as peak and minimum statistics, void statistics, and Minkowski functionals of the convergence maps. Overall, we find only small differences between the Born approximation and a full ray-tracing treatment. While these are negligibly small at power-spectrum level, some higher order statistics show more sizable effects; ray-tracing is necessary to achieve percent level precision. At the resolution reached here, full-sky maps with 0.8 billion pixels and an angular resolution of 0.43 arcmin, we find that interpolation accuracy can introduce appreciable errors in ray-tracing results. We therefore implemented an interpolation method based on nonuniform fast Fourier transforms (NUFFT) along with more traditional methods. Bilinear interpolation introduces significant smoothing, while nearest grid point sampling agrees well with NUFFT, at least for our fiducial source redshift, $z_s=1.0$, and for the 1 arcmin smoothing we use for higher-order statistics.


(1771)A low-mass helium star progenitor model for the Type Ibn SN 2020nxt
  • Qinan Wang,
  • Anika Goel,
  • Luc Dessart,
  • Ori D. Fox,
  • Melissa Shahbandeh
  • +53
  • Sofia Rest,
  • Armin Rest,
  • Jose H. Groh,
  • Andrew Allan,
  • Claes Fransson,
  • Nathan Smith,
  • Griffin Hosseinzadeh,
  • Alexei V. Filippenko,
  • Jennifer Andrews,
  • K. Azalee Bostroem,
  • Thomas G. Brink,
  • Peter Brown,
  • Jamison Burke,
  • Roger Chevalier,
  • Geoffrey C. Clayton,
  • Mi Dai,
  • Kyle W. Davis,
  • Ryan J. Foley,
  • Sebastian Gomez,
  • Chelsea Harris,
  • Daichi Hiramatsu,
  • D. Andrew Howell,
  • Connor Jennings,
  • Saurabh W. Jha,
  • Mansi M. Kasliwal,
  • Patrick L. Kelly,
  • Erik C. Kool,
  • Evelyn Liu,
  • Emily Ma,
  • Curtis McCully,
  • Adam M. Miller,
  • Yukei Murakami,
  • Estefania Padilla Gonzalez,
  • Craig Pellegrino,
  • Derek Perera,
  • Justin Pierel,
  • César Rojas-Bravo,
  • Matthew R. Siebert,
  • Jesper Sollerman,
  • Tamás Szalai,
  • Samaporn Tinyanont,
  • Schuyler D. Van Dyk,
  • WeiKang Zheng,
  • Kenneth C. Chambers,
  • David A. Coulter,
  • Thomas de Boer,
  • Nicholas Earl,
  • Diego Farias,
  • Christa Gall,
  • Peter McGill,
  • Conor L. Ransome,
  • Kirsty Taggart,
  • V. Ashley Villar
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1038
abstract + abstract -

A growing number of supernovae (SNe) are now known to exhibit evidence for significant interaction with a dense, pre-existing, circumstellar medium (CSM). SNe Ibn comprise one such class that can be characterized by both rapidly evolving light curves and persistent narrow He I lines. The origin of such a dense CSM in these systems remains a pressing question, specifically concerning the progenitor system and mass-loss mechanism. In this paper, we present multiwavelength data of the Type Ibn SN 2020nxt, including HST/STIS ultraviolet spectra. We fit the data with recently updated CMFGEN models designed to handle configurations for SNe Ibn. The UV coverage yields strong constraints on the energetics and, when combined with the CMFGEN models, offer new insight on potential progenitor systems. We find the most successful model is a ≲4 M helium star that lost its $\sim 1\, {\rm M}_\odot$ He-rich envelope in the years preceding core collapse. We also consider viable alternatives, such as a He white dwarf merger. Ultimately, we conclude at least some SNe Ibn do not arise from single, massive (>30 M) Wolf-Rayet-like stars.


(1770)Exploring the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-178b. Constraints on atmospheric chemistry and dynamics from a joint retrieval of VLT/CRIRES$^+$ and space photometric data
  • D. Cont,
  • L. Nortmann,
  • F. Yan,
  • F. Lesjak,
  • S. Czesla
  • +12
  • A. Lavail,
  • A. Reiners,
  • N. Piskunov,
  • A. Hatzes,
  • L. Boldt-Christmas,
  • O. Kochukhov,
  • T. Marquart,
  • E. Nagel,
  • A. D. Rains,
  • M. Rengel,
  • U. Seemann,
  • D. Shulyak
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Despite recent progress in the spectroscopic characterization of individual exoplanets, the atmospheres of key ultra-hot Jupiters (UHJs) still lack comprehensive investigations. These include WASP-178b, one of the most irradiated UHJs known to date. We observed the dayside emission signal of this planet with CRIRES$^+$ in the spectral K-band. By applying the cross-correlation technique and a Bayesian retrieval framework to the high-resolution spectra, we identified the emission signature of $^{12}$CO (S/N = 8.9) and H$_2$O (S/N = 4.9), and a strong atmospheric thermal inversion. A joint retrieval with space-based secondary eclipse measurements from TESS and CHEOPS allows us to refine our results on the thermal profile and thus to constrain the atmospheric chemistry, yielding a solar to super-solar metallicity (1.4$\pm$1.6 dex) and a solar C/O ratio (0.6$\pm$0.2). We infer a significant excess of spectral line broadening and identify a slight Doppler-shift between the $^{12}$CO and H$_2$O signals. These findings provide strong evidence for a super-rotating atmospheric flow pattern and suggest the possible existence of chemical inhomogeneities across the planetary dayside hemisphere. In addition, the inclusion of photometric data in our retrieval allows us to account for stellar light reflected by the planetary atmosphere, resulting in an upper limit on the geometric albedo (0.23). The successful characterization of WASP-178b's atmosphere through a joint analysis of CRIRES$^+$, TESS, and CHEOPS observations highlights the potential of combined studies with space- and ground-based instruments and represents a promising avenue for advancing our understanding of exoplanet atmospheres.


(1769)The interplay between forming planets and photoevaporating discs. II. Wind-driven gas redistribution
  • M. L. Weber,
  • G. Picogna,
  • B. Ercolano
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202348596
abstract + abstract -

Context. Disc winds and planet-disc interactions are two crucial mechanisms that define the structure, evolution, and dispersal of protoplanetary discs. While winds are capable of removing material from discs, eventually leading to their dispersal, massive planets can shape their disc by creating sub-structures such as gaps and spiral arms.
Aims: We studied the interplay between an X-ray photoevaporative disc wind and the sub-structures generated due to planet-disc interactions to determine how their mutual interactions affect the disc's and the planet's evolution.
Methods: We performed 3D hydrodynamic simulations of viscous discs (α = 6.9 × 10−4) that host a Jupiter-like planet and undergo X-ray photoevaporation. We traced the gas flows within the disc and wind and measured the rate of accretion onto the planet, as well as the gravitational torque that is acting on it.
Results: Our results show that the planetary gap removes the wind's pressure support, allowing wind material to fall back into the gap. This opens new pathways for material from the inner disc (and part of the outer disc) to be redistributed through the wind towards the gap. Consequently, the gap becomes shallower and the flow of mass across the gap in both directions is significantly increased, as is the planet's mass-accretion rate (by factors of ≈5 and ≈2, respectively). Moreover, the wind-driven redistribution results in a denser inner disc and a less dense outer disc, which, combined with the recycling of a significant portion of the inner wind, leads to longer lifetimes for the inner disc, contrary to the expectation in a planet-induced photoevaporation scenario that has been proposed in the past.


(1768)The Spectra of IceCube Neutrino (SIN) candidate sources -- V. Modeling and interpretation of multiwavelength and neutrino data
  • Xavier Rodrigues,
  • Martina Karl,
  • Paolo Padovani,
  • Paolo Giommi,
  • Simona Paiano
  • +3
  • Renato Falomo,
  • Maria Petropoulou,
  • Foteini Oikonomou
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

A correlation has been reported between the arrival directions of high-energy IceCube events and gamma-ray blazars classified as intermediate- and high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacs. Subsequent studies have investigated the optical properties of these sources, analyzed public multiwavelength data, and constrained their individual neutrino emission based on public IceCube data. In this work, we provide a theoretical interpretation of public multiwavelength and neutrino point source data for the 32 BL Lac objects in the sample previously associated with an IceCube alert event. We have performed particle interaction modeling using open-source numerical simulation software. We constrained the model parameters using a novel and unique approach that simultaneously describes the host galaxy contribution, the observed synchrotron peak, the multiwavelength fluxes, and the IceCube point source constraints. We show that a single-zone leptohadronic model can describe the multiwavelength fluxes from the 32 IceCube candidates. In some cases, the model suggests that hadronic emission may contribute a considerable fraction of the gamma-ray flux. The required power in relativistic protons ranges from a few percent to a factor of ten of the Eddington luminosity, which is energetically less demanding compared to other leptohadronic blazar models in recent literature. The model can describe the 68% confidence level IceCube flux for a large fraction of the masquerading BL Lacs in the sample, including TXS 0506+056; whereas, for true BL Lacs, the model predicts a low neutrino flux in the IceCube sensitivity range. The predicted neutrino flux peaks between a few PeV and 100 PeV and scales positively with the flux in the GeV, MeV, X-ray, and optical bands. Based on these results, we provide a list of the brightest neutrino emitters, which can be used for future searches targeting the 10-100 PeV regime.


(1767)Position-dependent light yield in short, coated SCSF-78 scintillating fibers
  • Martin J. Losekamm,
  • Stephan Paul,
  • Thomas Pöschl
Radiation Measurements (06/2024) doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2024.107116
abstract + abstract -

In fibers made from organic plastic scintillators, a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic effects results in the attenuation of light and thus in a position-dependent light yield. The trapping of photons can further be affected if fibers are coated with or wrapped in a light-absorbing or reflecting material to suppress optical cross-talk. These effects have frequently been studied for long (>0.5m) fibers, yet little data is available for shorter ones. We experimentally studied the position-dependent light yield of single-cladded Kuraray SCSF-78 fibers with lengths of <10cm and tested the effect of different cross-talk-preventing materials. Contrary to the often acceptable simplification that light is transmitted in the fiber core alone, we found that photons trapped by the protective cladding significantly contribute to the light transmission in short fibers. In this paper, we perform an in-depth characterization of the position-dependent light yield of fibers sputter-coated with aluminum and wrapped in aluminum foil using a double-exponential attenuation function. Finally, we compare our findings to a simple photon transport model.


(1766)Born-Oppenheimer Potentials for $SU(3)$ Gauge Theory
  • Fareed Alasiri,
  • Eric Braaten,
  • Abhishek Mohapatra
abstract + abstract -

We develop parameterizations of 8 of the lowest Born-Oppenheimer potentials for quarkonium hybrid mesons as functions of the separation $r$ of the static quark and antiquark sources. The parameters are determined by fitting results calculated using pure $SU(3)$ lattice gauge theory. The parameterizations have the correct limiting behavior at small $r$, where the potentials form multiplets associated with gluelumps. They have the correct limiting behavior at large $r$, where the potentials form multiplets associated with excitations of a relativistic string. There is a narrow avoided crossing in the small-$r$ region between two potentials with the same Born-Oppenheimer quantum numbers.


(1765)A Census of Sun's Ancestors and their Contributions to the Solar System Chemical Composition
  • F. Fiore,
  • F. Matteucci,
  • E. Spitoni,
  • M. Molero,
  • P. Salucci
  • +2
abstract + abstract -

In this work we compute the rates and numbers of different types of stars and phenomena (SNe, novae, white dwarfs, merging neutron stars, black holes) that contributed to the chemical composition of the Solar System. Stars die and restore the newly formed elements into the interstellar gas. This process is called "chemical evolution". In particular, we analyse the death rates of stars of all masses, dying either quiescently or explosively. These rates and total star numbers are computed in the context of a revised version of the two-infall model for the chemical evolution of the Milky Way, which reproduces fairly well the observed abundance patterns of several chemical species, as well as the global solar metallicity. We compute also the total number of stars ever born and still alive as well as the number of stars born up to the formation of the Solar System and with a mass and metallicity like the Sun. This latter number will account for all the possible existing Solar Systems which can host life in the solar vicinity. Among all the stars (from 0.8 to 100 M$_{\odot}$) born and died from the beginning up to the Solar System formation epoch, which contributed to its chemical composition, 93.00$\%$ are represented by stars dying as single white dwarfs (without interacting significantly with a companion star) and originating in the mass range 0.8-8 M$_{\odot}$, while 5.24$\%$ are neutron stars and 0.73$\%$ are black holes, both originating from SNe core-collapse (M>8 M$_{\odot}$); 0.64$\%$ are Type Ia SNe and 0.40$\%$ are nova systems, both originating from the same mass range as the white dwarfs. The number of stars similar to the Sun born from the beginning up to the Solar System formation, with metallicity in the range 12+log(Fe/H)= 7.50 $\pm$ 0.04 dex is 3.1732$\cdot$ 10$^{7}$, and in particular our Sun is the 2.6092$\cdot$ 10$^7$-th star of this kind, born in the solar vicinity.


(1764)The SRG/eROSITA All-Sky Survey: X-ray beacons at late cosmic dawn
  • J. Wolf,
  • M. Salvato,
  • S. Belladitta,
  • R. Arcodia,
  • S. Ciroi
  • +10
  • F. Di Mille,
  • T. Sbarrato,
  • J. Buchner,
  • S. Hämmerich,
  • J. Wilms,
  • W. Collmar,
  • T. Dwelly,
  • A. Merloni,
  • T. Urrutia,
  • K. Nandra
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The SRG/eROSITA All-Sky Survey (eRASS) is expected to contain ~100 quasars that emitted their light when the universe was less than a billion years old, i.e. at z>5.6. By selection, these quasars populate the bright end of the AGN X-ray luminosity function and their count offers a powerful demographic diagnostic of the parent super-massive black hole population. Of the >~ 400 quasars that have been discovered at z>5.6 to date, less than 15 % have been X-ray detected. We present a pilot survey to uncover the elusive X-ray luminous end of the distant quasar population. We have designed a quasar selection pipeline based on optical, infrared and X-ray imaging data from DES DR2, VHS DR5, CatWISE2020 and the eRASS. The core selection method relies on SED template fitting. We performed optical follow-up spectroscopy with the Magellan/LDSS3 instrument for the redshift confirmation of a subset of candidates. We have further obtained a deeper X-ray image of one of our candidates with Chandra ACIS-S. We report the discovery of five new quasars in the redshift range 5.6 < z < 6.1. Two of these quasars are detected in eRASS and are by selection X-ray ultra-luminous. These quasars are also detected at radio frequencies. The first one is a broad absorption line quasar which shows significant X-ray dimming over 3.5 years, i.e. about 6 months in the quasar rest frame. The second radio-detected quasar is a jetted source with compact morphology. We show that a blazar configuration is likely for this source, making it the second most distant blazar known to date. With our pilot study, we demonstrate the power of eROSITA as a discovery machine for luminous quasars in the epoch of reionization. The X-ray emission of the two eROSITA detected quasars are likely to be driven by different high-energetic emission mechanisms a diversity which will be further explored in a future systematic full-hemisphere survey.


(1763)The LOFAR - eFEDS survey: The incidence of radio and X-ray AGN and the disk-jet connection
  • Z. Igo,
  • A. Merloni,
  • D. Hoang,
  • J. Buchner,
  • T. Liu
  • +13
  • M. Salvato,
  • R. Arcodia,
  • S. Bellstedt,
  • M. Brüggen,
  • J. H. Croston,
  • F. de Gasperin,
  • A. Georgakakis,
  • M. J. Hardcastle,
  • K. Nandra,
  • Q. Ni,
  • T. Pasini,
  • T. Shimwell,
  • J. Wolf
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202349069
abstract + abstract -

Context. Radio jets are present in a diverse sample of AGN. However, the mechanisms of jet powering are not fully understood, and it remains unclear to what extent they obey mass-invariant scaling relations similar to those found for the triggering and fuelling of X-ray-selected AGN.
Aims: We use the multi-wavelength data in the eFEDS field observed by eROSITA/Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) and LOFAR to study the incidence of X-ray and radio AGN as a function of several stellar mass (M*)-normalised AGN power indicators.
Methods: From the LOFAR - eFEDS survey, we defined a new sample of radio AGN, with optical counterparts from Legacy Survey DR9, according to a radio-excess relative to their host star formation rate. We further divided the sample into compact and complex radio morphologies. In this work, we used the subset matching to the well-characterised, highly complete spectroscopic GAMA09 galaxies (0 < z < 0.4). We release this value-added LOFAR - eFEDS catalogue*. We calculated the fraction of GAMA09 galaxies hosting radio, X-ray, and both radio and X-ray AGN as functions of the specific black hole kinetic (λJet) and radiative (λEdd) power.
Results: Despite the soft-X-ray eROSITA-selected sample, the incidence of X-ray AGN as a function of λEdd shows the same mass-invariance and power law slope (−0.65) as that found in previous studies once corrected for completeness. Across the M* range probed, the incidence of compact radio AGN as a function of λJet is described by a power law with constant slope, showing that it is not only high mass galaxies hosting high power jets and vice versa. This slope is steeper than that of the X-ray incidence, which has a value of around −1.5. Furthermore, higher-mass galaxies are more likely to host radio AGN across the λJet range, indicating some residual mass dependence of jet powering. Upon adding complex radio morphologies, including 34 FRIIs, three of which are giant radio galaxies, the incidence not only shows a larger mass dependence but also a jet power dependence, being clearly boosted at high λJet values. Importantly, the latter effect cannot be explained by such radio AGN residing in more dense environments (or more massive dark matter haloes). The similarity in the incidence of quiescent and star-forming radio AGN reveals that radio AGN are not only found in "red and dead" galaxies. Overall, our incidence analysis reveals some fundamental statistical properties of radio AGN samples, but highlights open questions regarding the use of a single radio luminosity-jet power conversion. We explore how different mass and accretion rate dependencies of the incidence can explain the observed results for varying disk-jet coupling models.

The source catalogue is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via https://cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/686/A43 or on the LOFAR Surveys DR website: https://lofar-surveys.org/efeds.html


(1762)Multiple chemical tracers finally unveil the intricate NGC 1333 IRAS 4A outflow system. FAUST XVI
  • Layal Chahine,
  • Cecilia Ceccarelli,
  • Marta De Simone,
  • Claire J. Chandler,
  • Claudio Codella
  • +52
  • Linda Podio,
  • Ana López-Sepulcre,
  • Nami Sakai,
  • Laurent Loinard,
  • Mathilde Bouvier,
  • Paola Caselli,
  • Charlotte Vastel,
  • Eleonora Bianchi,
  • Nicolás Cuello,
  • Francesco Fontani,
  • Doug Johnstone,
  • Giovanni Sabatini,
  • Tomoyuki Hanawa,
  • Ziwei E. Zhang,
  • Yuri Aikawa,
  • Gemma Busquet,
  • Emmanuel Caux,
  • Aurore Durán,
  • Eric Herbst,
  • François Ménard,
  • Dominique Segura-Cox,
  • Brian Svoboda,
  • Nadia Balucani,
  • Steven Charnley,
  • François Dulieu,
  • Lucy Evans,
  • Davide Fedele,
  • Siyi Feng,
  • Tetsuya Hama,
  • Tomoya Hirota,
  • Andrea Isella,
  • Izaskun Jímenez-Serra,
  • Bertrand Lefloch,
  • Luke T. Maud,
  • María José Maureira,
  • Anna Miotello,
  • George Moellenbrock,
  • Hideko Nomura,
  • Yasuhiro Oba,
  • Satoshi Ohashi,
  • Yuki Okoda,
  • Yoko Oya,
  • Jaime Pineda,
  • Albert Rimola,
  • Takeshi Sakai,
  • Yancy Shirley,
  • Leonardo Testi,
  • Serena Viti,
  • Naoki Watanabe,
  • Yoshimasa Watanabe,
  • Yichen Zhang,
  • Satoshi Yamamoto
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1320
abstract + abstract -

The exploration of outflows in protobinary systems presents a challenging yet crucial endeavour, offering valuable insights into the dynamic interplay between protostars and their evolution. In this study, we examine the morphology and dynamics of jets and outflows within the IRAS 4A protobinary system. This analysis is based on ALMA observations of SiO(5-4), H2CO(30, 3-20, 3), and HDCO(41, 4-31, 3) with a spatial resolution of ~150 au. Leveraging an astrochemical approach involving the use of diverse tracers beyond traditional ones has enabled the identification of novel features and a comprehensive understanding of the broader outflow dynamics. Our analysis reveals the presence of two jets in the redshifted emission, emanating from IRAS 4A1 and IRAS 4A2, respectively. Furthermore, we identify four distinct outflows in the region for the first time, with each protostar, 4A1 and 4A2, contributing to two of them. We characterize the morphology and orientation of each outflow, challenging previous suggestions of bends in their trajectories. The outflow cavities of IRAS 4A1 exhibit extensions of 10 and 13 arcsec with position angles (PA) of 0° and -12°, respectively, while those of IRAS 4A2 are more extended, spanning 18 and 25 arcsec with PAs of 29° and 26°. We propose that the misalignment of the cavities is due to a jet precession in each protostar, a notion supported by the observation that the more extended cavities of the same source exhibit lower velocities, indicating they may stem from older ejection events.


(1761)Lensed Type Ia Supernova "Encore" at z = 2: The First Instance of Two Multiply Imaged Supernovae in the Same Host Galaxy
  • J. D. R. Pierel,
  • A. B. Newman,
  • S. Dhawan,
  • M. Gu,
  • B. A. Joshi
  • +58
  • T. Li,
  • S. Schuldt,
  • L. G. Strolger,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • G. B. Caminha,
  • S. H. Cohen,
  • J. M. Diego,
  • J. C. J. DŚilva,
  • S. Ertl,
  • B. L. Frye,
  • G. Granata,
  • C. Grillo,
  • A. M. Koekemoer,
  • J. Li,
  • A. Robotham,
  • J. Summers,
  • T. Treu,
  • R. A. Windhorst,
  • A. Zitrin,
  • S. Agarwal,
  • A. Agrawal,
  • N. Arendse,
  • S. Belli,
  • C. Burns,
  • R. Cañameras,
  • S. Chakrabarti,
  • W. Chen,
  • T. E. Collett,
  • D. A. Coulter,
  • R. S. Ellis,
  • M. Engesser,
  • N. Foo,
  • O. D. Fox,
  • C. Gall,
  • N. Garuda,
  • S. Gezari,
  • S. Gomez,
  • K. Glazebrook,
  • J. Hjorth,
  • X. Huang,
  • S. W. Jha,
  • P. S. Kamieneski,
  • P. Kelly,
  • C. Larison,
  • L. A. Moustakas,
  • M. Pascale,
  • I. Pérez-Fournon,
  • T. Petrushevska,
  • F. Poidevin,
  • A. Rest,
  • M. Shahbandeh,
  • A. J. Shajib,
  • M. Siebert,
  • C. Storfer,
  • M. Talbot,
  • Q. Wang,
  • T. Wevers,
  • Y. Zenati
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2024) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ad4648
abstract + abstract -

A bright (m F150W,AB = 24 mag), z = 1.95 supernova (SN) candidate was discovered in JWST/NIRCam imaging acquired on 2023 November 17. The SN is quintuply imaged as a result of strong gravitational lensing by a foreground galaxy cluster, detected in three locations, and remarkably is the second lensed SN found in the same host galaxy. The previous lensed SN was called "Requiem," and therefore the new SN is named "Encore." This makes the MACS J0138.0‑2155 cluster the first known system to produce more than one multiply imaged SN. Moreover, both SN Requiem and SN Encore are Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia), making this the most distant case of a galaxy hosting two SNe Ia. Using parametric host fitting, we determine the probability of detecting two SNe Ia in this host galaxy over a ∼10 yr window to be ≈3%. These observations have the potential to yield a Hubble constant (H 0) measurement with ∼10% precision, only the third lensed SN capable of such a result, using the three visible images of the SN. Both SN Requiem and SN Encore have a fourth image that is expected to appear within a few years of ∼2030, providing an unprecedented baseline for time-delay cosmography.


RU-C
(1760)LiteBIRD science goals and forecasts: improving sensitivity to inflationary gravitational waves with multitracer delensing
  • T. Namikawa,
  • A. I. Lonappan,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • N. Bartolo,
  • D. Beck
  • +118
  • K. Benabed,
  • A. Challinor,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • J. Errard,
  • S. Farrens,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • N. Krachmalnicoff,
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • E. Martínez-González,
  • V. Pettorino,
  • G. Piccirilli,
  • M. Ruiz-Granda,
  • B. Sherwin,
  • J. Starck,
  • P. Vielva,
  • R. Akizawa,
  • A. Anand,
  • J. Aumont,
  • R. Aurlien,
  • S. Azzoni,
  • M. Ballardini,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • D. Blinov,
  • M. Bortolami,
  • T. Brinckmann,
  • E. Calabrese,
  • P. Campeti,
  • A. Carones,
  • F. Carralot,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • K. Cheung,
  • L. Clermont,
  • F. Columbro,
  • G. Conenna,
  • A. Coppolecchia,
  • F. Cuttaia,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • T. de Haan,
  • M. De Petris,
  • S. Della Torre,
  • E. Di Giorgi,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • F. Finelli,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • G. Galloni,
  • M. Galloway,
  • M. Georges,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • T. Ghigna,
  • S. Giardiello,
  • C. Gimeno-Amo,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • L. T. Hergt,
  • E. Hivon,
  • K. Kohri,
  • E. Komatsu,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • C. Leloup,
  • M. Lembo,
  • M. López-Caniego,
  • G. Luzzi,
  • B. Maffei,
  • S. Masi,
  • M. Massa,
  • S. Matarrese,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • S. Micheli,
  • A. Moggi,
  • M. Monelli,
  • L. Montier,
  • G. Morgante,
  • B. Mot,
  • L. Mousset,
  • R. Nagata,
  • P. Natoli,
  • A. Novelli,
  • I. Obata,
  • A. Occhiuzzi,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • G. Pascual-Cisneros,
  • V. Pavlidou,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • M. Pinchera,
  • G. Pisano,
  • G. Polenta,
  • G. Puglisi,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • A. Rizzieri,
  • J. Rubino-Martin,
  • Y. Sakurai,
  • D. Scott,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • S. L. Stever,
  • Y. Takase,
  • H. Tanimura,
  • A. Tartari,
  • K. Tassis,
  • L. Terenzi,
  • M. Tristram,
  • L. Vacher,
  • B. van Tent,
  • I. K. Wehus,
  • G. Weymann-Despres,
  • M. Zannoni,
  • Y. Zhou,
  • LiteBIRD Collaboration
  • (less)
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (06/2024) doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2024/06/010
abstract + abstract -

We estimate the efficiency of mitigating the lensing B-mode polarization, the so-called delensing, for the LiteBIRD experiment with multiple external data sets of lensing-mass tracers. The current best bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, is limited by lensing rather than Galactic foregrounds. Delensing will be a critical step to improve sensitivity to r as measurements of r become more and more limited by lensing. In this paper, we extend the analysis of the recent LiteBIRD forecast paper to include multiple mass tracers, i.e., the CMB lensing maps from LiteBIRD and CMB-S4-like experiment, cosmic infrared background, and galaxy number density from Euclid- and LSST-like survey. We find that multi-tracer delensing will further improve the constraint on r by about 20%. In LiteBIRD, the residual Galactic foregrounds also significantly contribute to uncertainties of the B-modes, and delensing becomes more important if the residual foregrounds are further reduced by an improved component separation method.


(1759)DESI complete calibration of the colour-redshift relation (DC3R2): results from early DESI data
  • J. McCullough,
  • D. Gruen,
  • A. Amon,
  • A. Roodman,
  • D. Masters
  • +45
  • A. Raichoor,
  • D. Schlegel,
  • R. Canning,
  • F. J. Castander,
  • J. DeRose,
  • R. Miquel,
  • J. Myles,
  • J. A. Newman,
  • A. Slosar,
  • J. Speagle,
  • M. J. Wilson,
  • J. Aguilar,
  • S. Ahlen,
  • S. Bailey,
  • D. Brooks,
  • T. Claybaugh,
  • S. Cole,
  • K. Dawson,
  • A. de la Macorra,
  • P. Doel,
  • J. E. Forero-Romero,
  • S. Gontcho A Gontcho,
  • J. Guy,
  • R. Kehoe,
  • A. Kremin,
  • M. Landriau,
  • L. Le Guillou,
  • M. Levi,
  • M. Manera,
  • P. Martini,
  • A. Meisner,
  • J. Moustakas,
  • J. Nie,
  • W. J. Percival,
  • C. Poppett,
  • F. Prada,
  • M. Rezaie,
  • G. Rossi,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • H. Seo,
  • G. Tarlé,
  • B. A. Weaver,
  • Z. Zhou,
  • H. Zou,
  • DESI Collaboration
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1316
abstract + abstract -

We present initial results from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) complete calibration of the colour-redshift relation (DC3R2) secondary target survey. Our analysis uses 230 k galaxies that overlap with KiDS-VIKING ugriZYJHKs photometry to calibrate the colour-redshift relation and to inform photometric redshift (photo-z) inference methods of future weak lensing surveys. Together with emission line galaxies (ELGs), luminous red galaxies (LRGs), and the Bright Galaxy Survey (BGS) that provide samples of complementary colour, the DC3R2 targets help DESI to span 56 per cent of the colour space visible to Euclid and LSST with high confidence spectroscopic redshifts. The effects of spectroscopic completeness and quality are explored, as well as systematic uncertainties introduced with the use of common Self-Organizing Maps trained on different photometry than the analysis sample. We further examine the dependence of redshift on magnitude at fixed colour, important for the use of bright galaxy spectra to calibrate redshifts in a fainter photometric galaxy sample. We find that noise in the KiDS-VIKING photometry introduces a dominant, apparent magnitude dependence of redshift at fixed colour, which indicates a need for carefully chosen deep drilling fields, and survey simulation to model this effect for future weak lensing surveys.


RU-C
(1758)LiteBIRD science goals and forecasts. A case study of the origin of primordial gravitational waves using large-scale CMB polarization
  • P. Campeti,
  • E. Komatsu,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • M. Ballardini,
  • N. Bartolo
  • +106
  • A. Carones,
  • J. Errard,
  • F. Finelli,
  • R. Flauger,
  • S. Galli,
  • G. Galloni,
  • S. Giardiello,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • L. T. Hergt,
  • K. Kohri,
  • C. Leloup,
  • J. Lesgourgues,
  • J. Macias-Perez,
  • E. Martínez-González,
  • S. Matarrese,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • L. Montier,
  • T. Namikawa,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • D. Poletti,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • B. van Tent,
  • M. Tristram,
  • L. Vacher,
  • N. Vittorio,
  • G. Weymann-Despres,
  • A. Anand,
  • J. Aumont,
  • R. Aurlien,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • A. Basyrov,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • D. Blinov,
  • M. Bortolami,
  • T. Brinckmann,
  • E. Calabrese,
  • F. Carralot,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • L. Clermont,
  • F. Columbro,
  • G. Conenna,
  • A. Coppolecchia,
  • F. Cuttaia,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • M. De Petris,
  • S. Della Torre,
  • E. Di Giorgi,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • M. Galloway,
  • M. Georges,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • T. Ghigna,
  • C. Gimeno-Amo,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • J. E. Gudmundsson,
  • N. Krachmalnicoff,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • M. Lembo,
  • A. I. Lonappan,
  • S. Masi,
  • M. Massa,
  • S. Micheli,
  • A. Moggi,
  • M. Monelli,
  • G. Morgante,
  • B. Mot,
  • L. Mousset,
  • R. Nagata,
  • P. Natoli,
  • A. Novelli,
  • I. Obata,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • V. Pavlidou,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • M. Pinchera,
  • G. Pisano,
  • G. Puglisi,
  • N. Raffuzzi,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • A. Rizzieri,
  • M. Ruiz-Granda,
  • G. Savini,
  • D. Scott,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • S. L. Stever,
  • N. Stutzer,
  • R. M. Sullivan,
  • A. Tartari,
  • K. Tassis,
  • L. Terenzi,
  • K. L. Thompson,
  • P. Vielva,
  • I. K. Wehus,
  • Y. Zhou,
  • LiteBIRD Collaboration
  • (less)
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (06/2024) doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2024/06/008
abstract + abstract -

We study the possibility of using the LiteBIRD satellite B-mode survey to constrain models of inflation producing specific features in CMB angular power spectra. We explore a particular model example, i.e. spectator axion-SU(2) gauge field inflation. This model can source parity-violating gravitational waves from the amplification of gauge field fluctuations driven by a pseudoscalar "axionlike" field, rolling for a few e-folds during inflation. The sourced gravitational waves can exceed the vacuum contribution at reionization bump scales by about an order of magnitude and can be comparable to the vacuum contribution at recombination bump scales. We argue that a satellite mission with full sky coverage and access to the reionization bump scales is necessary to understand the origin of the primordial gravitational wave signal and distinguish among two production mechanisms: quantum vacuum fluctuations of spacetime and matter sources during inflation. We present the expected constraints on model parameters from LiteBIRD satellite simulations, which complement and expand previous studies in the literature. We find that LiteBIRD will be able to exclude with high significance standard single-field slow-roll models, such as the Starobinsky model, if the true model is the axion-SU(2) model with a feature at CMB scales. We further investigate the possibility of using the parity-violating signature of the model, such as the TB and EB angular power spectra, to disentangle it from the standard single-field slow-roll scenario. We find that most of the discriminating power of LiteBIRD will reside in BB angular power spectra rather than in TB and EB correlations.


RU-C
(1757)LiteBIRD science goals and forecasts: a full-sky measurement of gravitational lensing of the CMB
  • A. I. Lonappan,
  • T. Namikawa,
  • G. Piccirilli,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • M. Ruiz-Granda
  • +118
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • N. Bartolo,
  • D. Beck,
  • K. Benabed,
  • A. Challinor,
  • J. Errard,
  • S. Farrens,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • N. Krachmalnicoff,
  • E. Martínez-González,
  • V. Pettorino,
  • B. Sherwin,
  • J. Starck,
  • P. Vielva,
  • R. Akizawa,
  • A. Anand,
  • J. Aumont,
  • R. Aurlien,
  • S. Azzoni,
  • M. Ballardini,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • D. Blinov,
  • M. Bortolami,
  • T. Brinckmann,
  • E. Calabrese,
  • P. Campeti,
  • A. Carones,
  • F. Carralot,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • K. Cheung,
  • L. Clermont,
  • F. Columbro,
  • G. Conenna,
  • A. Coppolecchia,
  • F. Cuttaia,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • M. De Petris,
  • S. Della Torre,
  • E. Di Giorgi,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • F. Finelli,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • G. Galloni,
  • M. Galloway,
  • M. Georges,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • R. T. Génova-Santos,
  • T. Ghigna,
  • S. Giardiello,
  • C. Gimeno-Amo,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • L. T. Hergt,
  • E. Hivon,
  • K. Kohri,
  • E. Komatsu,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • C. Leloup,
  • M. Lembo,
  • M. López-Caniego,
  • G. Luzzi,
  • J. Macias-Perez,
  • B. Maffei,
  • S. Masi,
  • M. Massa,
  • S. Matarrese,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • S. Micheli,
  • A. Moggi,
  • M. Monelli,
  • L. Montier,
  • G. Morgante,
  • B. Mot,
  • L. Mousset,
  • R. Nagata,
  • P. Natoli,
  • A. Novelli,
  • I. Obata,
  • A. Occhiuzzi,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • G. Pascual-Cisneros,
  • V. Pavlidou,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • M. Pinchera,
  • G. Pisano,
  • G. Polenta,
  • G. Puglisi,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • A. Rizzieri,
  • Y. Sakurai,
  • D. Scott,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • S. L. Stever,
  • Y. Takase,
  • H. Tanimura,
  • A. Tartari,
  • K. Tassis,
  • L. Terenzi,
  • M. Tristram,
  • L. Vacher,
  • B. van Tent,
  • I. K. Wehus,
  • G. Weymann-Despres,
  • M. Zannoni,
  • Y. Zhou,
  • LiteBIRD Collaboration
  • (less)
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (06/2024) doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2024/06/009
abstract + abstract -

We explore the capability of measuring lensing signals in LiteBIRD full-sky polarization maps. With a 30 arcmin beam width and an impressively low polarization noise of 2.16 μK-arcmin, LiteBIRD will be able to measure the full-sky polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) very precisely. This unique sensitivity also enables the reconstruction of a nearly full-sky lensing map using only polarization data, even considering its limited capability to capture small-scale CMB anisotropies. In this paper, we investigate the ability to construct a full-sky lensing measurement in the presence of Galactic foregrounds, finding that several possible biases from Galactic foregrounds should be negligible after component separation by harmonic-space internal linear combination. We find that the signal-to-noise ratio of the lensing is approximately 40 using only polarization data measured over 80% of the sky. This achievement is comparable to Planck's recent lensing measurement with both temperature and polarization and represents a four-fold improvement over Planck's polarization-only lensing measurement. The LiteBIRD lensing map will complement the Planck lensing map and provide several opportunities for cross-correlation science, especially in the northern hemisphere.


(1756)An Alternative to Homotopy Transfer for $A_\infty$-Algebras
  • C. A. Cremonini,
  • V. E. Marotta
abstract + abstract -

In this work, we propose a novel approach to the homotopy transfer procedure starting from a set of homotopy data such that the first differential complex is a differential graded module over the second one. We show that the module structure may be used to induce an $A_\infty$-algebra on the second differential complex, constructed in a similar fashion to the homotopy transfer $A_\infty$-algebra. We prove that, under certain conditions, the $A_\infty$-algebras obtained with this procedure are quasi-isomorphic to the homotopy transfer one. On the other hand, when the side conditions do not hold, we find that there are cases where the existence of an $A_\infty$-quasi-isomorphism with the homotopy transfer $A_\infty$-algebra is obstructed. In other words, we obtain a new $A_\infty$-algebra on the second complex, inequivalent to the homotopy transfer one. Lastly, we prove that these $A_\infty$-algebras are not infinitesimal Hochschild deformations of the homotopy transfer $A_\infty$-algebra.


(1755)Anomalous soft photons: status and perspectives
  • R. Bailhache,
  • D. Bonocore,
  • P. Braun-Munzinger,
  • X. Feal,
  • S. Floerchinger
  • +13
  • J. Klein,
  • K. Köhler,
  • P. Lebiedowicz,
  • C. M. Peter,
  • R. Rapp,
  • K. Reygers,
  • W. Schäfer,
  • H. S. Scheid,
  • K. Schweda,
  • J. Stachel,
  • H. van Hees,
  • C. A. van Veen,
  • M. Völkl
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

This report summarizes the work of the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force on "Real and Virtual Photon Production at Ultra-Low Transverse Momentum and Low Mass at the LHC". We provide an overview of the soft-photon puzzle, i.e., of the long-standing discrepancy between experimental data and predictions based on Low's soft-photon theorem, also referred to as "anomalous" soft photon production, and we review the current theoretical understanding of soft radiation and soft theorems. We also focus on low-mass dileptons as a tool for determining the electrical conductivity of the medium produced in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. We discuss how both topics can be addressed with the planned ALICE 3 detector at the LHC.


(1754)Ultra-high-granularity detector simulation with intra-event aware generative adversarial network and self-supervised relational reasoning
  • Baran Hashemi,
  • Nikolai Hartmann,
  • Sahand Sharifzadeh,
  • James Kahn,
  • Thomas Kuhr
Nature Communications (06/2024) doi:10.1038/s41467-024-49104-4
abstract + abstract -

Simulating high-resolution detector responses is a computationally intensive process that has long been challenging in Particle Physics. Despite the ability of generative models to streamline it, full ultra-high-granularity detector simulation still proves to be difficult as it contains correlated and fine-grained information. To overcome these limitations, we propose Intra-Event Aware Generative Adversarial Network (IEA-GAN). IEA-GAN presents a Transformer-based Relational Reasoning Module that approximates an event in detector simulation, generating contextualized high-resolution full detector responses with a proper relational inductive bias. IEA-GAN also introduces a Self-Supervised intra-event aware loss and Uniformity loss, significantly enhancing sample fidelity and diversity. We demonstrate IEA-GAN's application in generating sensor-dependent images for the ultra-high-granularity Pixel Vertex Detector (PXD), with more than 7.5 M information channels at the Belle II Experiment. Applications of this work span from Foundation Models for high-granularity detector simulation, such as at the HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC), to simulation-based inference and fine-grained density estimation.


(1753)Matter Power Spectra in Modified Gravity: A Comparative Study of Approximations and $N$-Body Simulations
  • Benjamin Bose,
  • Ashim Sen Gupta,
  • Bartolomeo Fiorini,
  • Guilherme Brando,
  • Farbod Hassani
  • +7
  • Tessa Baker,
  • Lucas Lombriser,
  • Baojiu Li,
  • Cheng-Zong Ruan,
  • Cesar Hernandez-Aguayo,
  • Luis Atayde,
  • Noemi Frusciante
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Testing gravity and the concordance model of cosmology, $\Lambda$CDM, at large scales is a key goal of this decade's largest galaxy surveys. Here we present a comparative study of dark matter power spectrum predictions from different numerical codes in the context of three popular theories of gravity that induce scale-independent modifications to the linear growth of structure: nDGP, Cubic Galileon and K-mouflage. In particular, we compare the predictions from full $N$-body simulations, two $N$-body codes with approximate time integration schemes, a parametrised modified $N$-body implementation and the analytic halo model reaction approach. We find the modification to the $\Lambda$CDM spectrum is in $2\%$ agreement for $z\leq1$ and $k\leq 1~h/{\rm Mpc}$ over all gravitational models and codes, in accordance with many previous studies, indicating these modelling approaches are robust enough to be used in forthcoming survey analyses under appropriate scale cuts. We further make public the new code implementations presented, specifically the halo model reaction K-mouflage implementation and the relativistic Cubic Galileon implementation.


(1752)The Glow of Axion Quark Nugget Dark Matter: (I) Large Scale Structures
  • Fereshteh Majidi,
  • Xunyu Liang,
  • Ludovic Van Waerbeke,
  • Ariel Zhitnitsky,
  • Michael Sekatchev
  • +3
  • Julian S. Sommer,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Tiago Castro
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Axion quark nuggets (AQNs) are hypothetical objects with a mass greater than a few grams and sub-micrometer size, formed during the quark-hadron transition. Originating from the axion field, they offer a possible resolution of the similarity between visible and dark components of the Universe. These composite objects behave as cold dark matter, interacting with ordinary matter and resulting in pervasive electromagnetic radiation throughout the Universe. This work aims to predict the electromagnetic signature in large-scale structures from the AQN-baryon interaction, accounting for thermal and non-thermal radiations. We use Magneticum hydrodynamical simulations to describe the distribution and dynamics of gas and dark matter at cosmological scales. We calculate the electromagnetic signature from radio, starting at $\nu \sim$ 1 GHz, up to a few keV X-ray energies. We find that the AQNs signature is characterized by monopole and fluctuation signals. The amplitude of both signals strongly depends on the average AQN mass and the ionization level of the baryonic environment. We identify a most optimistic scenario with a signal often near the sensitivity limit of existing instruments, such as FIRAS and the South Pole Telescope for high-resolution. Fluctuations in the Extra-galactic Background Light caused by the AQN can be tested with space-based imagers Euclid and James Webb Space Telescope. We also identify a minimal configuration, still out of reach of existing instruments, but future experiments might be able to pose constraints on the AQN model. We conclude that this is a viable dark matter model, which does not violate the canons of cosmology, nor existing observations. The best chances for testing this model reside in 1) ultra-deep IR and optical surveys, 2) spectral distorsions of the CMB and 3) low-frequency (1 GHz < $\nu $ < 100 GHz) and high-resolution ($\ell > 10^4$) observations.


(1751)The Glow of Axion Quark Nugget Dark Matter: (II) Galaxy Clusters
  • Julian S. Sommer,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Ludwig M. Böss,
  • Ildar Khabibullin,
  • Xunyu Liang
  • +6
  • Ludovic Van Waerbeke,
  • Ariel Zhitnitsky,
  • Fereshteh Majidi,
  • Jenny G. Sorce,
  • Benjamin Seidel,
  • Elena Hernández-Martínez
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

(abridged) We analyze the emission of axion quark nuggets in a large sample of 161 simulated galaxy clusters using the SLOW simulation. These clusters are divided into a sub-sample of 150 galaxy clusters, ordered in five mass bins ranging from $0.8$ to $31.7 \times 10^{14} \,M_\odot$, along with 11 cross-identified galaxy clusters from observations. We investigate dark matter-baryonic matter interactions in galaxy clusters in their present stage at redshift $z=0$ by assuming all dark matter consists of axion quark nuggets. The resulting electromagnetic signatures are compared to thermal Bremsstrahlung and non-thermal cosmic ray synchrotron emission in each galaxy cluster. We further investigate individual frequency bands imitating the observable range of the WMAP, Planck, Euclid, and XRISM telescopes for the most promising cross-identified galaxy clusters hosting detectable signatures of axion quark nugget emission. We propose that the Fornax and Virgo clusters represent the most promising candidates to search for axion quark nugget emission signatures.


(1750)Beyond the Local Void: A comprehensive view on the origins of the Amaterasu particle
  • Nadine Bourriche,
  • Francesca Capel
abstract + abstract -

We use the reconstructed properties of the Amaterasu particle, the second-highest energy cosmic ray ever detected, to map out three-dimensional constraints on the location of its unknown source. We highlight possible astrophysical sources that are compatible with these regions and requirements. Among these, M82, a powerful starburst galaxy, stands out as a strong candidate due to its position and proximity. To derive our constraints, we use CRPropa 3 to model all relevant propagation effects, including deflections in the Galactic and extra-Galactic magnetic fields. We consider key input quantities such as source distance, position, energy, and the strength and coherence length of the extra-Galactic magnetic field as free parameters. We then infer constraints on these parameters by applying approximate Bayesian computation. We present our results, demonstrating the impact of different assumptions for the arrival mass of the Amaterasu particle and the systematic uncertainties on the energy scale.


(1749)Winds of change: The nuclear and galaxy-scale outflows and the X-ray variability of 2MASS 0918+2117
  • P. Baldini,
  • G. Lanzuisi,
  • M. Brusa,
  • A. Merloni,
  • K. Gkimisi
  • +19
  • M. Perna,
  • I. E. López,
  • E. Bertola,
  • Z. Igo,
  • S. Waddell,
  • B. Musiimenta,
  • C. Aydar,
  • R. Arcodia,
  • G. A. Matzeu,
  • A. Luminari,
  • J. Buchner,
  • C. Vignali,
  • M. Dadina,
  • A. Comastri,
  • G. Cresci,
  • S. Marchesi,
  • R. Gilli,
  • F. Tombesi,
  • R. Serafinelli
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202349071
abstract + abstract -

Context. In this work, we test feedback propagation models on the test case of 2MASS 0918+2117 (2M0918), a z = 0.149 X-ray variable AGN that shows tentative evidence for nuclear ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) in a 2005 XMM-Newton observation. We also investigate whether UFOs can be related to the observed X-ray variability.
Aims: We observed 2M0918 with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR in 2020 to confirm the presence of and characterize the UFOs. We performed a kinematic analysis of the publicly available 2005 SDSS optical spectrum to reveal and measure the properties of galaxy-scale ionized outflows. Furthermore, we constructed 20-year-long light curves of observed flux, line-of-sight column density, and intrinsic accretion rate from the spectra of the first four SRG/eROSITA all-sky surveys and archival observations from Chandra and XMM-Newton.
Methods: We detect UFOs with v ∼ 0.16c and galaxy-scale ionized outflows with velocities of ∼700 km s−1. We also find that the drastic X-ray variability (factors > 10) can be explained in terms of variable obscuration and variable intrinsic luminosity.
Results: Comparing the energetics of the two outflow phases, 2M0918 is consistent with momentum-driven wind propagation. 2M0918 expands the sample of AGN with both UFOs and ionized gas winds from 5 to 6 and brings the sample of AGN hosting multiscale outflows to 19, contributing to a clearer picture of feedback physics. From the variations in accretion rate, column density, and ionization level of the obscuring medium, we propose a scenario that connects obscurers, an accretion enhancement, and the emergence of UFOs.


(1748)Statistical relations between spectropolarimetric observables and the polar strength of the stellar dipolar magnetic field
  • O. Kochukhov
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202449459
abstract + abstract -

Global magnetic fields of early-type stars are commonly characterised by the mean longitudinal magnetic field <Bz> and the mean field modulus , derived from the circular polarisation and intensity spectra, respectively. Observational studies often report a root mean square (rms) of <Bz> and an average value of . In this work, I used numerical simulations to establish statistical relationships between these cumulative magnetic observables and the polar strength, Bd, of a dipolar magnetic field. I show that in the limit of many measurements randomly distributed in rotational phase, <Bz>rms = 0.179−0.043+0.031 Bd and avg = 0.691−0.023+0.020 Bd. The same values can be recovered with only three measurements, provided that the observations are distributed uniformly in the rotational phase. These conversion factors are suitable for ensemble analyses of large stellar samples, where each target is covered by a small number of magnetic measurements.


(1747)A stream come true: Connecting tidal tails, shells, streams, and planes with galaxy kinematics and formation history
  • Lucas M. Valenzuela,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244758
abstract + abstract -

Context. The rapidly improving quality and resolution of both low surface brightness observations and cosmological simulations of galaxies enable us to address the important question of how the formation history is imprinted in the outer unrelaxed regions of galaxies, and to inspect the correlations of these imprints with another tracer of galaxy formation, the internal kinematics.
Aims: Using the hydrodynamical cosmological simulation called Magneticum Pathfinder, we identified tidal tails, shells, streams, and satellite planes, and connected them to the amount of rotational support and the formation histories of the host galaxies. This presents the first combined statistical census considering all these four types of features in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations.
Methods: Tidal features were visually classified from a three-dimensional rendering of the simulated galaxies by several scientists independently. Only features that were identified by at least half of the participating individuals were considered to be existing features. The data on satellite planes and kinematic properties of the simulated galaxies were taken from previous work. The results were compared to observations, especially from the MATLAS survey.
Results: Generally, prominent features are much more common around elliptical than around disk galaxies. Shells are preferentially found around kinematically slowly rotating galaxies in both simulations and observations, while streams can be found around all types of galaxies, with a slightly higher probability to be present around less rotationally supported galaxies. Tails and satellite planes, however, appear independently of the internal kinematics of the central galaxy, indicating that they are formed through processes that have not (yet) affected the internal kinematics. Prolate rotators have the overall highest probability to exhibit tidal features, but the highest likelihood for a specific type of feature is found for galaxies with kinematically distinct cores (KDCs), nearly 20% of which exhibit streams.
Conclusions: As shells are formed through radial merger events while streams are remnants of circular merger infall, this suggests that the orbital angular momentum of the merger event plays a more crucial role in transforming the host galaxy than previously anticipated. The existence of a shell around a given slow rotator furthermore is a sign of a radial merger formation for this particular slow rotator because one-third of the galaxies with a shell were transformed into slow rotators by the merger event that also caused the shells. The appearance of a stream around a KDC is a direct indicator for the multiple merger formation pathway of that KDC as opposed to the major merger pathway.


(1746)Protostellar disk accretion in turbulent filaments
  • S. Heigl,
  • E. Hoemann,
  • A. Burkert
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202449154
abstract + abstract -

Context. Recent observations of protostellar cores suggest that most of the material in the protostellar phase is accreted along streamers. Streamers in this context are defined as velocity coherent funnels of denser material potentially connecting the large-scale environment to the small scales of the forming accretion disk.
Aims: Using simulations that simultaneously resolve the driving of turbulence on the filament scale as well as the collapse of the core down to protostellar disk scales, we aim to understand the effect of the turbulent velocity field on the formation of overdensities in the accretion flow.
Methods: We performed a three-dimensional numerical study on a core collapse within a turbulent filament using the RAMSES code and analysed the properties of overdensities in the accretion flow.
Results: We find that overdensities are formed naturally by the initial turbulent velocity field inherited from the filament and subsequent gravitational collimation. This leads to streams that are not really filamentary but show a sheet-like morphology. Moreover, they have the same radial infall velocities as the low density material. As a main consequence of the turbulent initial condition, the mass accretion onto the disk does not follow the predictions for solid body rotation. Instead, most of the mass is funneled by the overdensities to intermediate disk radii.


(1745)The UCHUU-GLAM BOSS and eBOSS LRG lightcones: Exploring clustering and covariance errors
  • Julia Ereza,
  • Francisco Prada,
  • Anatoly Klypin,
  • Tomoaki Ishiyama,
  • Alex Smith
  • +4
  • Carlton M. Baugh,
  • Baojiu Li,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • José Ruedas
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1543
abstract + abstract -

This study investigates the clustering and bias of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG) in the BOSS-LOWZ, -CMASS, -COMB, and eBOSS samples, using two types of simulated lightcones: (i) high-fidelity lightcones from UCHUU N-body simulation, employing SHAM technique to assign LRG to (sub)halos, and (ii) 16000 covariance lightcones from GLAM-UCHUU N-body simulations, including LRG using HOD data from UCHUU. Our results indicate that UCHUU and GLAM lightcones closely replicate BOSS/eBOSS data, reproducing correlation function and power spectrum across scales from redshifts 0.2 to 1.0, from 2 to 150h-1Mpc in configuration space, from 0.005 to 0.7hMpc-1 in Fourier space, and across different LRG stellar masses. Furthermore, comparing with existing MD-PATCHY and EZMOCK BOSS/eBOSS lightcones based on approximate methods, our GLAM-UCHUU lightcones provide more precise clustering estimates. We identify significant deviations from observations within 20h-1Mpc scales in MD-PATCHY and EZMOCK, with our covariance matrices indicating that these methods underestimate errors by between 10% and 60%. Lastly, we explore the impact of cosmology on galaxy clustering. Our findings suggest that, given the current level of uncertainties in BOSS/eBOSS data, distinguishing models with and without massive neutrino effects on LSS is challenging. This paper highlights the UCHUU and GLAM-UCHUU simulations' robustness in verifying the accuracy of Planck cosmological parameters, providing a strong foundation for enhancing lightcone construction in future LSS surveys. We also demonstrate that generating thousands of galaxy lightcones is feasible using N-body simulations with adequate mass and force resolution.


(1744)Rotational Evolution of Classical T Tauri Stars: Models and Observations
  • Javier Serna,
  • Giovanni Pinzón,
  • Jesús Hernández,
  • Ezequiel Manzo-Martínez,
  • Karina Mauco
  • +15
  • Carlos G. Román-Zúñiga,
  • Nuria Calvet,
  • Cesar Briceño,
  • Ricardo López-Valdivia,
  • Marina Kounkel,
  • Guy S. Stringfellow,
  • Keivan G. Stassun,
  • Marc Pinsonneault,
  • Lucia Adame,
  • Lyra Cao,
  • Kevin Covey,
  • Amelia Bayo,
  • Alexandre Roman-Lopes,
  • Christian Nitschelm,
  • Richard R. Lane
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad3a6b
abstract + abstract -

We developed a grid of stellar rotation models for low-mass and solar-type classical T Tauri stars (CTTS; 0.3M < M * < 1.2M ). These models incorporate the star–disk interaction and magnetospheric ejections to investigate the evolution of the stellar rotation rate as a function of the mass of the star M *, the magnetic field (B *), and stellar wind ( ). We compiled and determined stellar parameters for 208 CTTS, such as projected rotational velocity , mass accretion rate , stellar mass M *, ages, and estimated rotational periods using Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) data. We also estimated a representative value of the mass-loss rate for our sample using the [O I] λ 6300 spectral line. Our results confirm that measurements in CTTS agree with the rotation rates provided by our spin models in the accretion-powered stellar winds picture. In addition, we used the approximate Bayesian computation technique to explore the connection between the model parameters and the observational properties of CTTS. We find that the evolution of with age might be regulated by variations in (1) the intensity of B * and (2) the fraction of the accretion flow ejected in magnetic winds, removing angular momentum from these systems. The youngest stars in our sample (∼1 Myr) show a median branching ratio and median B * ∼ 2000 G, in contrast to ∼0.01 and 1000 G, respectively, for stars with ages ≳3 Myr.


(1743)Two-Loop QED Corrections to the Scattering of Four Massive Leptons
  • Maximilian Delto,
  • Claude Duhr,
  • Lorenzo Tancredi,
  • Yu Jiao Zhu
Physical Review Letters (06/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.132.231904
abstract + abstract -

We study two-loop corrections to the scattering amplitude of four massive leptons in quantum electrodynamics. These amplitudes involve previously unknown elliptic Feynman integrals, which we compute analytically using the differential equation method. In doing so, we uncover the details of the elliptic geometry underlying this scattering amplitude and show how to exploit its properties to obtain compact, easy-to-evaluate series expansions that describe the scattering of four massive leptons in QED in the kinematical regions relevant for Bhabha and Møller scattering processes.


(1742)SPT-SZ MCMF: An extension of the SPT-SZ catalog over the DES region
  • M. Klein,
  • J. J. Mohr,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • M. Aguena,
  • S. W. Allen
  • +102
  • O. Alves,
  • B. Ansarinejad,
  • M. L. N. Ashby,
  • D. Bacon,
  • M. Bayliss,
  • B. A. Benson,
  • L. E. Bleem,
  • M. Brodwin,
  • D. Brooks,
  • E. Bulbul,
  • D. L. Burke,
  • R. E. A. Canning,
  • J. E. Carlstrom,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • J. Carretero,
  • C. L. Chang,
  • C. Conselice,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • A. T. Crites,
  • L. N. da Costa,
  • M. E. S. Pereira,
  • T. M. Davis,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • T. de Haan,
  • M. A. Dobbs,
  • P. Doel,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • A. M. Flores,
  • J. Frieman,
  • E. M. George,
  • G. Giannini,
  • M. D. Gladders,
  • A. H. Gonzalez,
  • S. Grandis,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R. A. Gruendl,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • N. W. Halverson,
  • S. R. Hinton,
  • G. P. Holder,
  • D. L. Hollowood,
  • W. L. Holzapfel,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • J. D. Hrubes,
  • N. Huang,
  • D. J. James,
  • G. Khullar,
  • K. Kim,
  • L. Knox,
  • R. Kraft,
  • F. Kéruzoré,
  • A. T. Lee,
  • D. Luong-Van,
  • G. Mahler,
  • A. Mantz,
  • D. P. Marrone,
  • J. L. Marshall,
  • M. McDonald,
  • J. J. McMahon,
  • J. Mena-Fernández,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • S. S. Meyer,
  • R. Miquel,
  • J. Myles,
  • S. Padin,
  • A. Pieres,
  • A. A. Plazas Malagón,
  • C. Pryke,
  • C. L. Reichardt,
  • K. Reil,
  • J. Roberson,
  • A. K. Romer,
  • C. Romero,
  • J. E. Ruhl,
  • B. R. Saliwanchik,
  • L. Salvati,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • A. Saro,
  • K. K. Schaffer,
  • T. Schrabback,
  • M. Schubnell,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • K. Sharon,
  • E. Shirokoff,
  • M. Smith,
  • T. Somboonpanyakul,
  • B. Stalder,
  • S. A. Stanford,
  • A. A. Stark,
  • V. Strazzullo,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M. E. C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • C. To,
  • K. Vanderlinde,
  • J. D. Vieira,
  • A. von der Linden,
  • N. Weaverdyck,
  • R. Williamson,
  • P. Wiseman,
  • M. Young
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1359
abstract + abstract -

We present an extension to a Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) selected cluster catalog based on observations from the South Pole Telescope (SPT); this catalog extends to lower signal-to-noise than the previous SPT-SZ catalog and therefore includes lower mass clusters. Optically derived redshifts, centres, richnesses and morphological parameters together with catalog contamination and completeness statistics are extracted using the multi-component matched filter algorithm (MCMF) applied to the S/N>4 SPT-SZ candidate list and the Dark Energy Survey (DES) photometric galaxy catalog. The main catalog contains 811 sources above S/N=4, has 91% purity and is 95% complete with respect to the original SZE selection. It contains in total 50% more clusters and twice as many clusters above z = 0.8 in comparison to the original SPT-SZ sample. The MCMF algorithm allows us to define subsamples of the desired purity with traceable impact on catalog completeness. As an example, we provide two subsamples with S/N>4.25 and S/N>4.5 for which the sample contamination and cleaning-induced incompleteness are both as low as the expected Poisson noise for samples of their size. The subsample with S/N>4.5 has 98% purity and 96% completeness and is part of our new combined SPT cluster and DES weak-lensing cosmological analysis. We measure the number of false detections in the SPT-SZ candidate list as function of S/N, finding that it follows that expected from assuming Gaussian noise, but with a lower amplitude compared to previous estimates from simulations.


(1741)Galaxy spectroscopy without spectra: Galaxy properties from photometric images with conditional diffusion models
  • Lars Doorenbos,
  • Eva Sextl,
  • Kevin Heng,
  • Stefano Cavuoti,
  • Massimo Brescia
  • +4
  • Olena Torbaniuk,
  • Giuseppe Longo,
  • Raphael Sznitman,
  • Pablo Márquez-Neila
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Modern spectroscopic surveys can only target a small fraction of the vast amount of photometrically cataloged sources in wide-field surveys. Here, we report the development of a generative AI method capable of predicting optical galaxy spectra from photometric broad-band images alone. This method draws from the latest advances in diffusion models in combination with contrastive networks. We pass multi-band galaxy images into the architecture to obtain optical spectra. From these, robust values for galaxy properties can be derived with any methods in the spectroscopic toolbox, such as standard population synthesis techniques and Lick indices. When trained and tested on 64x64-pixel images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the global bimodality of star-forming and quiescent galaxies in photometric space is recovered, as well as a mass-metallicity relation of star-forming galaxies. The comparison between the observed and the artificially created spectra shows good agreement in overall metallicity, age, Dn4000, stellar velocity dispersion, and E(B-V) values. Photometric redshift estimates of our generative algorithm can compete with other current, specialized deep-learning techniques. Moreover, this work is the first attempt in the literature to infer velocity dispersion from photometric images. Additionally, we can predict the presence of an active galactic nucleus up to an accuracy of 82%. With our method, scientifically interesting galaxy properties, normally requiring spectroscopic inputs, can be obtained in future data sets from large-scale photometric surveys alone. The spectra prediction via AI can further assist in creating realistic mock catalogs.


(1740)Wide Area VISTA Extra-galactic Survey (WAVES): Unsupervised star-galaxy separation on the WAVES-Wide photometric input catalogue using UMAP and ${\rm{\scriptsize HDBSCAN}}$
  • Todd L. Cook,
  • Behnood Bandi,
  • Sam Philipsborn,
  • Jon Loveday,
  • Sabine Bellstedt
  • +11
  • Simon P. Driver,
  • Aaron S. G. Robotham,
  • Maciej Bilicki,
  • Gursharanjit Kaur,
  • Elmo Tempel,
  • Ivan Baldry,
  • Daniel Gruen,
  • Marcella Longhetti,
  • Angela Iovino,
  • Benne W. Holwerda,
  • Ricardo Demarco
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Star-galaxy separation is a crucial step in creating target catalogues for extragalactic spectroscopic surveys. A classifier biased towards inclusivity risks including spurious stars, wasting fibre hours, while a more conservative classifier might overlook galaxies, compromising completeness and hence survey objectives. To avoid bias introduced by a training set in supervised methods, we employ an unsupervised machine learning approach. Using photometry from the Wide Area VISTA Extragalactic Survey (WAVES)-Wide catalogue comprising 9-band $u-K_s$ data, we create a feature space with colours, fluxes, and apparent size information extracted by ${\rm P{\scriptsize RO} F{\scriptsize OUND}}$. We apply the non-linear dimensionality reduction method UMAP (Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection) combined with the classifier ${\rm{\scriptsize HDBSCAN}}$ to classify stars and galaxies. Our method is verified against a baseline colour and morphological method using a truth catalogue from Gaia, SDSS, GAMA, and DESI. We correctly identify 99.72% of galaxies within the AB magnitude limit of $Z = 21.2$, with an F1 score of 0.9970 across the entire ground truth sample, compared to 0.9871 from the baseline method. Our method's higher purity (0.9966) compared to the baseline (0.9780) increases efficiency, identifying 11% fewer galaxy or ambiguous sources, saving approximately 70,000 fibre hours on the 4MOST instrument. We achieve reliable classification statistics for challenging sources including quasars, compact galaxies, and low surface brightness galaxies, retrieving 95.1%, 84.6%, and 99.5% of them respectively. Angular clustering analysis validates our classifications, showing consistency with expected galaxy clustering, regardless of the baseline classification.


(1739)The VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea eXtended (VVVX) ESO public survey: Completion of the observations and legacy
  • R. K. Saito,
  • M. Hempel,
  • J. Alonso-García,
  • P. W. Lucas,
  • D. Minniti
  • +141
  • S. Alonso,
  • L. Baravalle,
  • J. Borissova,
  • C. Caceres,
  • A. N. Chené,
  • N. J. G. Cross,
  • F. Duplancic,
  • E. R. Garro,
  • M. Gómez,
  • V. D. Ivanov,
  • R. Kurtev,
  • A. Luna,
  • D. Majaess,
  • M. G. Navarro,
  • J. B. Pullen,
  • M. Rejkuba,
  • J. L. Sanders,
  • L. C. Smith,
  • P. H. C. Albino,
  • M. V. Alonso,
  • E. B. Amôres,
  • R. Angeloni,
  • J. I. Arias,
  • M. Arnaboldi,
  • B. Barbuy,
  • A. Bayo,
  • J. C. Beamin,
  • L. R. Bedin,
  • A. Bellini,
  • R. A. Benjamin,
  • E. Bica,
  • C. J. Bonatto,
  • E. Botan,
  • V. F. Braga,
  • D. A. Brown,
  • J. B. Cabral,
  • D. Camargo,
  • A. Caratti o Garatti,
  • J. A. Carballo-Bello,
  • M. Catelan,
  • C. Chavero,
  • M. A. Chijani,
  • J. J. Clariá,
  • G. V. Coldwell,
  • C. Contreras Peña,
  • R. Contreras Ramos,
  • J. M. Corral-Santana,
  • C. C. Cortés,
  • M. Cortés-Contreras,
  • P. Cruz,
  • I. V. Daza-Perilla,
  • V. P. Debattista,
  • B. Dias,
  • L. Donoso,
  • R. D'Souza,
  • J. P. Emerson,
  • S. Federle,
  • V. Fermiano,
  • J. Fernandez,
  • J. G. Fernández-Trincado,
  • T. Ferreira,
  • C. E. Ferreira Lopes,
  • V. Firpo,
  • C. Flores-Quintana,
  • L. Fraga,
  • D. Froebrich,
  • D. Galdeano,
  • I. Gavignaud,
  • D. Geisler,
  • O. E. Gerhard,
  • W. Gieren,
  • O. A. Gonzalez,
  • L. V. Gramajo,
  • F. Gran,
  • P. M. Granitto,
  • M. Griggio,
  • Z. Guo,
  • S. Gurovich,
  • M. Hilker,
  • H. R. A. Jones,
  • R. Kammers,
  • M. A. Kuhn,
  • M. S . N. Kumar,
  • R. Kundu,
  • M. Lares,
  • M. Libralato,
  • E. Lima,
  • T. J. Maccarone,
  • P. Marchant Cortés,
  • E. L. Martin,
  • N. Masetti,
  • N. Matsunaga,
  • F. Mauro,
  • I. McDonald,
  • A. Mejías,
  • V. Mesa,
  • F. P. Milla-Castro,
  • J. H. Minniti,
  • C. Moni Bidin,
  • K. Montenegro,
  • C. Morris,
  • V. Motta,
  • F. Navarete,
  • C. Navarro Molina,
  • F. Nikzat,
  • J. L. Nilo Castellón,
  • C. Obasi,
  • M. Ortigoza-Urdaneta,
  • T. Palma,
  • C. Parisi,
  • K. Pena Ramírez,
  • L. Pereyra,
  • N. Perez,
  • I. Petralia,
  • A. Pichel,
  • G. Pignata,
  • S. Ramírez Alegría,
  • A. F. Rojas,
  • D. Rojas,
  • A. Roman-Lopes,
  • A. C. Rovero,
  • S. Saroon,
  • E. O. Schmidt,
  • A. C. Schröder,
  • M. Schultheis,
  • M. A. Sgró,
  • E. Solano,
  • M. Soto,
  • B. Stecklum,
  • D. Steeghs,
  • M. Tamura,
  • P. Tissera,
  • A. A. R. Valcarce,
  • C. A. Valotto,
  • S. Vasquez,
  • C. Villalon,
  • S. Villanova,
  • F. Vivanco Cádiz,
  • R. Zelada Bacigalupo,
  • A. Zijlstra,
  • M. Zoccali
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The ESO public survey VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) surveyed the inner Galactic bulge and the adjacent southern Galactic disk from $2009-2015$. Upon its conclusion, the complementary VVV eXtended (VVVX) survey has expanded both the temporal as well as spatial coverage of the original VVV area, widening it from $562$ to $1700$ sq. deg., as well as providing additional epochs in $JHK_{\rm s}$ filters from $2016-2023$. With the completion of VVVX observations during the first semester of 2023, we present here the observing strategy, a description of data quality and access, and the legacy of VVVX. VVVX took $\sim 2000$ hours, covering about 4% of the sky in the bulge and southern disk. VVVX covered most of the gaps left between the VVV and the VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS) areas and extended the VVV time baseline in the obscured regions affected by high extinction and hence hidden from optical observations. VVVX provides a deep $JHK_{\rm s}$ catalogue of $\gtrsim 1.5\times10^9$ point sources, as well as a $K_{\rm s}$ band catalogue of $\sim 10^7$ variable sources. Within the existing VVV area, we produced a $5D$ map of the surveyed region by combining positions, distances, and proper motions of well-understood distance indicators such as red clump stars, RR Lyrae, and Cepheid variables. In March 2023 we successfully finished the VVVX survey observations that started in 2016, an accomplishment for ESO Paranal Observatory upon 4200 hours of observations for VVV+VVVX. The VVV+VVVX catalogues complement those from the Gaia mission at low Galactic latitudes and provide spectroscopic targets for the forthcoming ESO high-multiplex spectrographs MOONS and 4MOST.


(1738)Finetuning foundation models for joint analysis optimization in High Energy Physics
  • Matthias Vigl,
  • Nicole Hartman,
  • Lukas Heinrich
Machine Learning: Science and Technology (06/2024) doi:10.1088/2632-2153/ad55a3
abstract + abstract -

In this work we demonstrate that significant gains in performance and data efficiency can be achieved in High Energy Physics (HEP) by moving beyond the standard paradigm of sequential optimization or reconstruction and analysis components. We conceptually connect HEP reconstruction and analysis to modern machine learning workflows such as pretraining, finetuning, domain adaptation and high-dimensional embedding spaces and quantify the gains in the example usecase of searches of heavy resonances decaying via an intermediate di-Higgs system to four b-jets. To our knowledge this is the first example of a low-level feature extraction network finetuned for a downstream HEP analysis objective.


(1737)Parity-Odd Power Spectra: Concise Statistics for Cosmological Parity Violation
  • Drew Jamieson,
  • Angelo Caravano,
  • Jiamin Hou,
  • Zachary Slepian,
  • Eiichiro Komatsu
abstract + abstract -

We introduce the Parity-Odd Power (POP) spectra, a novel set of observables for probing parity violation in cosmological $N$-point statistics. POP spectra are derived from composite fields obtained by applying nonlinear transformations, involving also gradients, curls, and filtering functions, to a scalar field. This compresses the parity-odd trispectrum into a power spectrum. These new statistics offer several advantages: they are computationally fast to construct, estimating their covariance is less demanding compared to estimating that of the full parity-odd trispectrum, and they are simple to model theoretically. We measure the POP spectra on simulations of a scalar field with a specific parity-odd trispectrum shape. We compare these measurements to semi-analytic theoretical calculations and find agreement. We also explore extensions and generalizations of these parity-odd observables.


(1736)Density Fluctuations in the Intracluster Medium: An Attempt to Constrain Viscosity with Cosmological Simulations
  • Tirso Marin-Gilabert,
  • Ulrich P. Steinwandel,
  • Milena Valentini,
  • David Vallés-Pérez,
  • Klaus Dolag
abstract + abstract -

The impact of viscosity in the Intracluster Medium (ICM) is still an open question in astrophysics. To address this problem, we have run a set of cosmological simulations of three galaxy clusters with a mass larger than $M_{\mathrm{Vir}} > 10^{15} $M$_{\odot}$ at $z=0$ using the SPMHD-code OpenGadget3. We aim to quantify the influence of viscosity and constrain its value in the ICM. Our results show significant morphological differences at small scales, temperature variations, and density fluctuations induced by viscosity. We observe a suppression of instabilities at small scales, resulting in a more filamentary structure and a larger amount of small structures due to the lack of mixing with the medium. The conversion from kinetic to internal energy leads to an increase of the virial temperature of the cluster of $\sim$5% - 10%, while the denser regions remain cold. The amplitude of density fluctuations is found to increase with viscosity, as well as the velocity fluctuations. However, comparison with observational data indicates consistency with observed density fluctuations, challenging the direct constraint of viscosity solely through density fluctuations. Furthermore, the ratio of density to velocity fluctuations remains close to 1 regardless of the amount of viscosity, in agreement with the theoretical expectations. Our results show for the first time in a cosmological simulation of a galaxy cluster the effect of viscosity in the ICM, a study that is currently missing in the literature.


(1735)Hint to Supersymmetry from GR Vacuum
  • Gia Dvali,
  • Archil Kobakhidze,
  • Otari Sakhelashvili
abstract + abstract -

The $S$-matrix formulation of gravity suggests that the $\theta$-vacuum structure must not be sustained by the theory. We point out that, when applied to the vacuum of general relativity, this criterion hints to supersymmetry. The topological susceptibility of gravitational vacuum induced by Eguchi-Hanson instantons can be eliminated neither by spin-$1/2$ fermions nor by an axion coupled via them since such fermions do not provide instanton zero modes. Instead, the job is done by a spin-$3/2$ fermion, hence realizing a local supersymmetry. This scenario also necessitates the spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry and predicts the existence of axion of $R$-symmetry which gets mass exclusively from the gravitational instantons. The $R$-axion can be a viable dark matter candidate. Matching between the index and the anomaly imposes a constraint that spin-$1/2$ fermions should not contribute to the chiral gravitational anomaly.


(1734)Sequential giant planet formation initiated by disc substructure
  • Tommy Chi Ho Lau,
  • Til Birnstiel,
  • Joanna Drążkowska,
  • Sebastian Markus Stammler
abstract + abstract -

Planet formation models are necessary to understand the origins of diverse planetary systems. Circumstellar disc substructures have been proposed as preferred locations of planet formation but a complete formation scenario has not been covered by a single model so far. We aim to study the formation of giant planets facilitated by disc substructure and starting with sub-micron-sized dust. We connect dust coagulation and drift, planetesimal formation, $N$-body gravity, pebble accretion, planet migration, planetary gas accretion and gap opening in one consistent modelling framework. We find rapid formation of multiple gas giants from the initial disc substructure. The migration trap near the substructure allows the formation of cold gas giants. A new pressure maximum is created at the outer edge of the planetary gap, which triggers the next generation of planet formation resulting in a compact chain of giant planets. A high planet formation efficiency is achieved as the first gas giants are effective in preventing dust from drifting further inwards, which preserves materials for planet formation. Sequential planet formation is a promising framework to explain the formation of chains of gas and ice giants.


(1733)The formation of the magnetic symbiotic star FN Sgr
  • Diogo Belloni,
  • Joanna Mikołajewska,
  • Matthias R. Schreiber
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202449602
abstract + abstract -

Context. There are several symbiotic stars (e.g., BF Cyg, Z And, and FN Sgr) in which periodic signals of tens of minutes have been detected. These periods have been interpreted as the spin period of magnetic white dwarfs that accrete through a magnetic stream originating from a truncated accretion disc.
Aims: To shed light on the origin of magnetic symbiotic stars, we investigated the system FN Sgr in detail. We searched for a reasonable formation pathway to explain its stellar and binary parameters including the magnetic field of the accreting white dwarf.
Methods: We used the MESA code to carry out pre-CE and post-CE binary evolution and determined the outcome of CE evolution assuming the energy formalism. For the origin and evolution of the white dwarf magnetic field, we adopted the crystallization scenario.
Results: We found that FN Sgr can be explained as follows. First, a non-magnetic white dwarf is formed through CE evolution. Later, during post-CE evolution, the white dwarf starts to crystallize and a weak magnetic field is generated. After a few hundred million years, the magnetic field penetrates the white dwarf surface and becomes detectable. Meanwhile, its companion evolves and becomes an evolved red giant. Subsequently, the white dwarf accretes part of the angular momentum from the red giant stellar winds. As a result, the white dwarf spin period decreases and its magnetic field reaches super-equipartition, getting amplified due to a rotation- and crystallization-driven dynamo. The binary then evolves into a symbiotic star, with a magnetic white dwarf accreting from an evolved red giant through atmospheric Roche-lobe overflow.
Conclusions: We conclude that the rotation- and crystallization-driven dynamo scenario, or any age-dependent scenario, can explain the origin of magnetic symbiotic stars reasonably well. This adds another piece to the pile of evidence supporting this scenario. If our formation channel is correct, our findings suggest that white dwarfs in most symbiotic stars formed through CE evolution might be magnetic, provided that the red giant has spent ≳3 Gyr as a main-sequence star.


(1732)A Dust-Trapping Ring in the Planet-Hosting Disk of Elias 2-24
  • Adolfo S. Carvalho,
  • Laura M. Perez,
  • Anibal Sierra,
  • Maria Jesus Mellado,
  • Lynne A. Hillenbrand
  • +10
  • Sean Andrews,
  • Myriam Benisty,
  • Tilman Birnstiel,
  • John M. Carpenter,
  • Viviana V. Guzman,
  • Jane Huang,
  • Andrea Isella,
  • Nicolas Kurtovic,
  • Luca Ricci,
  • David J. Wilner
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Rings and gaps are among the most widely observed forms of substructure in protoplanetary disks. A gap-ring pair may be formed when a planet carves a gap in the disk, which produces a local pressure maximum following the gap that traps inwardly drifting dust grains and appears as a bright ring due to the enhanced dust density. A dust-trapping ring would provide a promising environment for solid growth and possibly planetesimal production via the streaming instability. We present evidence of dust trapping in the bright ring of the planet-hosting disk Elias 2-24, from the analysis of 1.3 mm and 3 mm ALMA observations at high spatial resolution (0.029 arcsec, 4.0 au). We leverage the high spatial resolution to demonstrate that larger grains are more efficiently trapped and place constraints on the local turbulence ($8 \times 10^{-4} < \alpha_\mathrm{turb} < 0.03$) and the gas-to-dust ratio ($\Sigma_g / \Sigma_d < 30$) in the ring. Using a scattering-included marginal probability analysis we measure a total dust disk mass of $M_\mathrm{dust} = 13.8^{+0.7}_{-0.5} \times 10^{-4} \ M_\odot$. We also show that at the orbital radius of the proposed perturber, the gap is cleared of material down to a flux contrast of 10$^{-3}$ of the peak flux in the disk.


(1731)Systematic comparison of neural networks used in discovering strong gravitational lenses
  • Anupreeta More,
  • Raoul Cañameras,
  • Anton T. Jaelani,
  • Yiping Shu,
  • Yuichiro Ishida
  • +4
  • Kenneth C. Wong,
  • Kaiki Taro Inoue,
  • Stefan Schuldt,
  • Alessandro Sonnenfeld
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1597
abstract + abstract -

Efficient algorithms are being developed to search for strong gravitational lens systems owing to increasing large imaging surveys. Neural networks have been successfully used to discover galaxy-scale lens systems in imaging surveys such as the Kilo Degree Survey, Hyper-Suprime Cam (HSC) Survey and Dark Energy Survey over the last few years. Thus, it has become imperative to understand how some of these networks compare, their strengths and the role of the training datasets as most of the networks make use of supervised learning algorithms. In this work, we present the first-of-its-kind systematic comparison and benchmarking of networks from four teams that have analysed the HSC Survey data. Each team has designed their training samples and developed neural networks independently but coordinated apriori in reserving specific datasets strictly for test purposes. The test sample consists of mock lenses, real (candidate) lenses and real non-lenses gathered from various sources to benchmark and characterise the performance of each of the network. While each team's network performed much better on their own constructed test samples compared to those from others, all networks performed comparable on the test sample with real (candidate) lenses and non-lenses. We also investigate the impact of swapping the training samples amongst the teams while retaining the same network architecture. We find that this resulted in improved performance for some networks. These results have direct implications on measures to be taken for lens searches with upcoming imaging surveys such as the Rubin-Legacy Survey of Space and Time, Roman and Euclid.


(1730)Constraining modified gravity with weak lensing peaks
  • Christopher T. Davies,
  • Joachim Harnois-Déraps,
  • Baojiu Li,
  • Benjamin Giblin,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

It is well established that maximizing the information extracted from upcoming and ongoing stage-IV weak-lensing surveys requires higher-order summary statistics that complement the standard two-point statistics. In this work, we focus on weak-lensing peak statistics to test two popular modified gravity models, $f(R)$ and nDGP, using the FORGE and BRIDGE weak-lensing simulations, respectively. From these simulations we measure the peak statistics as a function of both cosmological and modified gravity parameters simultaneously. Our findings indicate that the peak abundance is sensitive to the strength of modified gravity, while the peak two-point correlation function is sensitive to the nature of the screening mechanism in a modified gravity model. We combine these simulated statistics with a Gaussian Process Regression emulator and a Gaussian likelihood to generate stage-IV forecast posterior distributions for the modified gravity models. We demonstrate that, in a systematics-free case, peak statistics can constrain $\log_{10}(f_{R0}) = -6$ to 2% precision, and $\log_{10}(H_0 r_c) = 0.5$ to 25% precision. Finally, we find that our weakest models, $\log_{10}(f_{R0})$ < 6.17 and $\log_{10}(H_0 r_c)$ > 1, can be ruled out at the two sigma level with an area of $300 \rm{deg}^2$ and $1000 \rm{deg}^2$, respectively, with the upcoming stage-IV data.


(1729)Quantum computational resources for lattice QCD in the strong-coupling limit
  • Michael Fromm,
  • Lucas Katschke,
  • Owe Philipsen,
  • Wolfgang Unger
abstract + abstract -

We consider the strong coupling limit of lattice QCD with massless staggered quarks and study the resource requirements for quantum simulating the theory in its Hamiltonian formulation. The bosonic Hilbert space of the color-singlet degrees of freedom grows quickly with the number of quark flavors, making it a suitable testing ground for resource considerations across different platforms. In particular, in addition to the standard model of computation with qubits, we consider mapping the theory to qudits $(d>2)$ and qumodes, as used on trapped-ion systems and photonic devices, respectively.


(1728)Dark Neutrino Moments From Light Loops
  • Gonzalo Herrera,
  • Ian M. Shoemaker
abstract + abstract -

Active and sterile neutrinos may acquire "dark moments" via one-loop diagrams with a massless dark photon and new light particles in the loop. Due to the kinetic mixing between the dark photon and the Standard Model photon, neutrinos would obtain effective electromagnetic moments. This mechanism allows for enhanced electromagnetic moments that can evade constraints on particles directly charged under electromagnetism. We show that in a wide region of parameter space, the model features testable predictions for the anapole and magnetic moment of active and sterile neutrinos with dark matter direct detection experiments sensitive to the solar neutrino flux.


(1727)Boil-off of red supergiants: mass loss and type II-P supernovae
  • Jim Fuller,
  • Daichi Tsuna
The Open Journal of Astrophysics (06/2024) doi:10.33232/001c.120130
abstract + abstract -

The mass loss mechanism of red supergiant stars is not well understood, even though it has crucial consequences for their stellar evolution and the appearance of supernovae that occur upon core-collapse. We argue that outgoing shock waves launched near the photosphere can support a dense chromosphere between the star's surface and the dust formation radius at several stellar radii. We derive analytic expressions for the time-averaged density profile of the chromosphere, and we use these to estimate mass loss rates due to winds launched by radiation pressure at the dust formation radius. These mass loss rates are similar to recent observations, possibly explaining the upward kink in mass loss rates of luminous red supergiants. Our models predict that low-mass red supergiants lose less mass than commonly assumed, while high-mass red supergiants lose more. The chromospheric mass of our models is $$0.01 solar masses, most of which lies within a few stellar radii. This can help explain the early light curves and spectra of type-II P supernovae without requiring extreme pre-supernova mass loss. We discuss implications for stellar evolution, type II-P supernovae, SN 2023ixf, and Betelgeuse.


(1726)Bias-free estimation of signals on top of unknown backgrounds
  • Johannes Diehl,
  • Jakob Knollmüller,
  • Oliver Schulz
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A (06/2024) doi:10.1016/j.nima.2024.169259
abstract + abstract -

We present a method for obtaining unbiased signal estimates in the presence of a significant unknown background, eliminating the need for a parametric model for the background itself. Our approach is based on a minimal set of conditions for observation and background estimators, which are typically satisfied in practical scenarios. To showcase the effectiveness of our method, we apply it to simulated data from the planned dielectric axion haloscope MADMAX.


(1725)Characterizing tidal features around galaxies in cosmological simulations
  • A. Khalid,
  • S. Brough,
  • G. Martin,
  • L. C. Kimmig,
  • C. D. P. Lagos
  • +2
  • R. -S. Remus,
  • C. Martinez-Lombilla
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1064
abstract + abstract -

Tidal features provide signatures of recent mergers and offer a unique insight into the assembly history of galaxies. The Vera C. Rubin Observatory's Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) will enable an unprecedentedly large survey of tidal features around millions of galaxies. To decipher the contributions of mergers to galaxy evolution it will be necessary to compare the observed tidal features with theoretical predictions. Therefore, we use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations NEWHORIZON, EAGLE, ILLUSTRISTNG, and MAGNETICUM to produce LSST-like mock images of z ~ 0 galaxies (z ~ 0.2 for NEWHORIZON) with $M_{\scriptstyle \star ,\text{ 30 pkpc}}\ge 10^{9.5}$ M$_{\scriptstyle \odot }$. We perform a visual classification to identify tidal features and classify their morphology. We find broadly good agreement between the simulations regarding their overall tidal feature fractions: $f_{{\small NewHorizon}}=0.40\pm 0.06$, $f_{{\small EAGLE}}=0.37\pm 0.01$, $f_{{\small TNG}}=0.32\pm 0.01$, and $f_{{\small Magneticum}}=0.32\pm 0.01$, and their specific tidal feature fractions. Furthermore, we find excellent agreement regarding the trends of tidal feature fraction with stellar and halo mass. All simulations agree in predicting that the majority of central galaxies of groups and clusters exhibit at least one tidal feature, while the satellite members rarely show such features. This agreement suggests that gravity is the primary driver of the occurrence of visually identifiable tidal features in cosmological simulations, rather than subgrid physics or hydrodynamics. All predictions can be verified directly with LSST observations.


(1724)RABBITS - II. The impact of AGN feedback on coalescing supermassive black holes in disc and elliptical galaxy mergers
  • Shihong Liao,
  • Dimitrios Irodotou,
  • Peter H. Johansson,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Francesco Paolo Rizzuto
  • +3
  • Jessica M. Hislop,
  • Ruby J. Wright,
  • Alexander Rawlings
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1123
abstract + abstract -

In this study of the 'Resolving supermAssive Black hole Binaries In galacTic hydrodynamical Simulations' (RABBITS) series, we investigate the orbital evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) during galaxy mergers. We simulate both disc and elliptical galaxy mergers using the KETJU code, which can simultaneously follow galaxy (hydro-)dynamics and small-scale SMBH dynamics with post-Newtonian corrections. With our SMBH binary subgrid model, we show how active galactic nuclei (AGNs) feedback affects galaxy properties and SMBH coalescence. We find that simulations without AGN feedback exhibit excessive star formation, resulting in merger remnants that deviate from observed properties. Kinetic AGN feedback proves more effective than thermal AGN feedback in expelling gas from the centre and quenching star formation. The different central galaxy properties, which are a result of distinct AGN feedback models, lead to varying rates of SMBH orbital decay. In the dynamical friction phase, galaxies with higher star formation and higher SMBH masses possess denser centres, become more resistant to tidal stripping, experience greater dynamical friction, and consequently form SMBH binaries earlier. As AGN feedback reduces gas densities in the centres, dynamical friction by stars dominates over gas. In the SMBH hardening phase, compared to elliptical mergers, disc mergers exhibit higher central densities of newly formed stars, resulting in accelerated SMBH hardening and shorter merger time-scales (i.e. $\lesssim 500$ Myr versus $\gtrsim 1$ Gyr). Our findings highlight the importance of AGN feedback and its numerical implementation in understanding the SMBH coalescing process, a key focus for low-frequency gravitational wave observatories.


(1723)A novel cryogenic VUV spectrofluorometer for the characterization of wavelength shifters
  • Andreas Leonhardt,
  • Maximilian Goldbrunner,
  • Brennan Hackett,
  • Stefan Schönert
Journal of Instrumentation (05/2024) doi:10.1088/1748-0221/19/05/C05020
abstract + abstract -

We present a novel cryogenic VUV spectrofluorometer designed to characterize wavelength shifters (WLS) crucial for experiments based on liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light detection. Wavelength shifters like 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) are used in these experiments to shift the VUV scintillation light to the visible region. Precise knowledge of the optical properties of the WLS at liquid argon's temperature (87 K) and LAr scintillation wavelength (128 nm) is necessary to model and understand the detector response. The cryogenic VUV spectrofluorometer was commissioned to measure the emission spectra and relative wavelength shifting efficiency (WLSE) of samples between 300 K to 87 K for VUV (120 nm to 190 nm) and UV (310 nm) excitation. New mitigation techniques for surface effects on cold WLS were established. As part of this work, the TPB-based wavelength shifting reflector (WLSR) featured in the neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment LEGEND-200 was characterized. The WLSE was observed to increase by (54 ± 5) % from room temperature (RT) to 87 K. PEN installed in LEGEND-200 was also characterized, and a first measurement of the relative WLSE and emission spectrum at RT and 87 K is presented. The WLSE of amorphous PEN was found to be enhanced by at least (37 ± 4) % for excitation with 128 nm and by (52 ± 3) % for UV excitation at 87 K compared to RT.


(1722)A sequence of Type Ib, IIb, II-L, and II-P supernovae from binary-star progenitors with varying initial separations
  • Luc Dessart,
  • Claudia P. Gutiérrez,
  • Andrea Ercolino,
  • Harim Jin,
  • Norbert Langer
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202349066
abstract + abstract -

Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that massive stars do not typically evolve in isolation but instead follow a tumultuous journey with a companion star on their way to core collapse. While Roche-lobe overflow appears instrumental for the production of a large fraction of Type Ib and Ic supernovae (SNe), variations in the initial orbital period, Pinit, of massive interacting binaries may also produce a wide diversity of case B, BC, or C systems, with pre-SN stars endowed from minute to massive H-rich envelopes. Focusing here on the explosion of the primary donor star, originally 12.6 M, we used radiation hydrodynamics and nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium time-dependent radiative transfer to document the gas and radiation properties of such SNe, covering Types Ib, IIb, II-L, and II-P. Variations in Pinit are the root cause of the wide diversity of our SN light curves, which present single-peak, double-peak, fast-declining, or plateau-like morphologies in the V band. The different ejecta structures, expansion rates, and relative abundances (e.g., H, He, and 56Ni) can lead to a great deal of diversity in terms of spectral line shapes (absorption versus emission strength and width) and evolution. We emphasize that Hα is a key tracer of these modulations, and that He I 7065 Å is an enduring optical diagnostic for the presence of He. Our grid of simulations fares well against representative Type Ib, IIb, and II-P SNe, but interaction with circumstellar material, which is ignored in this work, is likely at the origin of the tension between our Type II-L SN models and observations (e.g., of SN 2006Y). Remaining discrepancies in the rise time to bolometric maximum of our models call for a proper account of both small-scale and large-scale structures in core-collapse SN ejecta. Discrepant Type II-P SN models, with a high plateau brightness but small spectral line widths, can be fixed by adopting more compact red-supergiant star progenitors.


(1721)TeV pion bumps in the gamma-ray spectra of flaring blazars
  • M. Petropoulou,
  • A. Mastichiadis,
  • G. Vasilopoulos,
  • D. Paneque,
  • J. Becerra González
  • +1
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347809
abstract + abstract -

Context. Very high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) observations of the blazar Mrk 501 with MAGIC in 2014 provided evidence for an unusual narrow spectral feature at about 3 TeV during an extreme X-ray flaring activity. The one-zone synchrotron-self Compton scenario, widely used in blazar broadband spectral modeling, fails to explain the narrow TeV component.
Aims: Motivated by this rare observation, we propose an alternative model for the production of narrow features in the VHE spectra of flaring blazars. These spectral features may result from the decay of neutral pions (π0 bumps) that are in turn produced via interactions of protons (of tens of TeV energy) with energetic photons, whose density increases during hard X-ray flares.
Methods: We explored the conditions needed for the emergence of narrow π0 bumps in VHE blazar spectra during X-ray flares reaching synchrotron energies ∼100 keV using time-dependent radiative transfer calculations. We focused on high-synchrotron peaked (HSP) blazars, which comprise the majority of VHE-detected extragalactic sources.
Results: We find that synchrotron-dominated flares with peak energies ≳100 keV can be ideal periods for the search of π0 bumps in the VHE spectra of HSP blazars. The flaring region is optically thin to photopion production, its energy content is dominated by the relativistic proton population, and the inferred jet power is highly super-Eddington. Application of the model to the spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 on MJD 56857.98 shows that the VHE spectrum of the flare is described well by the sum of a synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) component and a distinct π0 bump centered at 3 TeV. Spectral fitting of simulated SSC+π0 spectra for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) show that a π0 bump could be detected at a 5σ significance level with a 30-min exposure.
Conclusions: A harder VHE γ-ray spectrum than the usual SSC prediction or, more occasionally, a distinct narrow bump at VHE energies during hard X-ray flares, can be suggestive of a relativistic hadronic component in blazar jets that otherwise would remain hidden. The production of narrow features or spectral hardenings due to π0 decay in the VHE spectra of blazars is testable with the advent of CTA.


(1720)Toward Early-type Eclipsing Binaries as Extragalactic Milestones. III. Physical Properties of the O-type Eclipsing Binary OGLE LMC-ECL-21568 in a Quadruple System
  • Mónica Taormina,
  • R. -P. Kudritzki,
  • B. Pilecki,
  • G. Pietrzyński,
  • I. B. Thompson
  • +6
  • J. Puls,
  • M. Górski,
  • B. Zgirski,
  • D. Graczyk,
  • W. Gieren,
  • G. Hajdu
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (05/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad3af0
abstract + abstract -

We present the results from a complex study of an eclipsing O-type binary (Aa+Ab) with the orbital period of P A = 3.2254367 days that forms part of a higher-order multiple system in a configuration of (A+B)+C. We derived masses of the Aa+Ab binary of M 1 = 19.02 ± 0.12 and M 2 = 17.50 ± 0.13 M , the radii of R 1 = 7.70 ± 0.05 and R 2 = 6.64 ± 0.06 R , and temperatures of T 1 = 34,250 ± 500 K and T 2 = 33,750 ± 500 K. From the analysis of the radial velocities, we found a spectroscopic orbit of A in the outer A+B system with P A+B = 195.8 days (P A+B/P A ≈ 61). In the O ‑ C analysis, we confirmed this orbit and found another component orbiting the A+B system with P AB+C = 2550 days (P AB+C/P A+B ≈ 13). From the total mass of the inner binary and its outer orbit, we estimated the mass of the third object, M B ≳ 10.7 M . From the light travel time effect fit to the O ‑ C data, we obtained the limit for the mass of the fourth component, M C ≳ 7.3 M . These extra components contribute about 20%–30% (increasing with wavelength) to the total system light. From the comparison of model spectra with the multiband photometry, we derived a distance modulus of 18.59 ± 0.06 mag, a reddening of 0.16 ± 0.02 mag, and an RV of 3.2. This work is part of our ongoing project, which aims to calibrate the surface brightness–color relation for early-type stars. *Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.


(1719)Memory Burden Effect in Black Holes and Solitons: Implications for PBH
  • Gia Dvali,
  • Juan Sebastián Valbuena-Bermúdez,
  • Michael Zantedeschi
abstract + abstract -

The essence of the \textit{memory burden} effect is that a load of information carried by a system stabilizes it. This universal effect is especially prominent in systems with a high capacity of information storage, such as black holes and other objects with maximal microstate degeneracy, the entities universally referred to as \textit{saturons}. The phenomenon has several implications. The memory burden effect suppresses a further decay of a black hole, the latest, after it has emitted about half of its initial mass. As a consequence, the light primordial black holes (PBHs), that previously were assumed to be fully evaporated, are expected to be present as viable dark matter candidates. In the present paper, we deepen the understanding of the memory burden effect. We first identify various memory burden regimes in generic Hamiltonian systems and then establish a precise correspondence in solitons and in black holes. We make transparent, at a microscopic level, the fundamental differences between the stabilization by a quantum memory burden versus the stabilization by a long-range classical hair due to a spin or an electric charge. We identify certain new features of potential observational interest, such as the model-independent spread of the stabilized masses of initially degenerate PBHs.


(1718)Status of QCD precision predictions for Drell-Yan processes
  • S. Alekhin,
  • S. Amoroso,
  • L. Buonocore,
  • A. Huss,
  • S. Kallweit
  • +7
  • A. Kardos,
  • J. Michel,
  • S. Moch,
  • F. Petriello,
  • L. Rottoli,
  • Z. Trócsányi,
  • M. Wiesemann
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We compute differential distributions for Drell-Yan processes at the LHC and the Tevatron colliders at next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD, including fiducial cuts on the decay leptons in the final state. The comparison of predictions obtained with four different codes shows excellent agreement, once linear power corrections from the fiducial cuts are included in those codes that rely on phase-space slicing subtraction schemes. For $Z$-boson production we perform a detailed study of the symmetric cuts on the transverse momenta of the decay leptons. Predictions at fixed order in perturbative QCD for those symmetric cuts, typically imposed in experiments, suffer from an instability. We show how this can be remedied by an all-order resummation of the fiducial transverse momentum spectrum, and we comment on the choice of cuts for future experimental analyses.


(1717)First Order Alignment Transition in an Interfaced Active Nematic Fluid
  • Olga Bantysh,
  • Berta Martínez-Prat,
  • Jyothishraj Nambisan,
  • Alberto Fernández-Nieves,
  • Francesc Sagués
  • +1
Physical Review Letters (05/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.132.228302
abstract + abstract -

We investigate experimentally the dynamic phase transition of a two-dimensional active nematic layer interfaced with a passive liquid crystal. Under a temperature ramp that leads to the transition of the passive liquid into a highly anisotropic lamellar smectic-A phase, and in the presence of a magnetic field, the coupled active nematic reorganizes its flow and orientational patterns from the turbulent into a quasilaminar regime aligned perpendicularly to the field. Remarkably, while the phase transition of the passive fluid is known to be continuous, or second order, our observations reveal intermittent dynamics of the order parameter and the coexistence of aligned and turbulent regions in the active nematic, a signature of discontinuous, or first order, phase transitions, similar to what is known to occur in relation to flocking in dry active matter. Our results suggest that alignment transitions in active systems are intrinsically discontinuous, regardless of the symmetry and momentum-damping mechanisms.


RU-B
(1716)Optimal Operation of Cryogenic Calorimeters Through Deep Reinforcement Learning
  • G. Angloher,
  • S. Banik,
  • G. Benato,
  • A. Bento,
  • A. Bertolini
  • +57
  • R. Breier,
  • C. Bucci,
  • J. Burkhart,
  • L. Canonica,
  • A. D'Addabbo,
  • S. Di Lorenzo,
  • L. Einfalt,
  • A. Erb,
  • F. v. Feilitzsch,
  • S. Fichtinger,
  • D. Fuchs,
  • A. Garai,
  • V. M. Ghete,
  • P. Gorla,
  • P. V. Guillaumon,
  • S. Gupta,
  • D. Hauff,
  • M. Ješkovský,
  • J. Jochum,
  • M. Kaznacheeva,
  • A. Kinast,
  • S. Kuckuk,
  • H. Kluck,
  • H. Kraus,
  • A. Langenkämper,
  • M. Mancuso,
  • L. Marini,
  • B. Mauri,
  • L. Meyer,
  • V. Mokina,
  • K. Niedermayer,
  • M. Olmi,
  • T. Ortmann,
  • C. Pagliarone,
  • L. Pattavina,
  • F. Petricca,
  • W. Potzel,
  • P. Povinec,
  • F. Pröbst,
  • F. Pucci,
  • F. Reindl,
  • J. Rothe,
  • K. Schäffner,
  • J. Schieck,
  • S. Schönert,
  • C. Schwertner,
  • M. Stahlberg,
  • L. Stodolsky,
  • C. Strandhagen,
  • R. Strauss,
  • I. Usherov,
  • F. Wagner,
  • V. Wagner,
  • M. Willers,
  • V. Zema,
  • C. Heitzinger,
  • W. Waltenberger
  • (less)
Computing and Software for Big Science (05/2024) doi:10.1007/s41781-024-00119-y
abstract + abstract -

Cryogenic phonon detectors with transition-edge sensors achieve the best sensitivity to sub-GeV/c2 dark matter interactions with nuclei in current direct detection experiments. In such devices, the temperature of the thermometer and the bias current in its readout circuit need careful optimization to achieve optimal detector performance. This task is not trivial and is typically done manually by an expert. In our work, we automated the procedure with reinforcement learning in two settings. First, we trained on a simulation of the response of three Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers (CRESST) detectors used as a virtual reinforcement learning environment. Second, we trained live on the same detectors operated in the CRESST underground setup. In both cases, we were able to optimize a standard detector as fast and with comparable results as human experts. Our method enables the tuning of large-scale cryogenic detector setups with minimal manual interventions.


(1715)Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243
  • Alejandro Vigna-Gómez,
  • Reinhold Willcox,
  • Irene Tamborra,
  • Ilya Mandel,
  • Mathieu Renzo
  • +6
  • Tom Wagg,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka,
  • Daniel Kresse,
  • Julia Bodensteiner,
  • Tomer Shenar,
  • Thomas M. Tauris
  • (less)
Physical Review Letters (05/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.132.191403
abstract + abstract -

The recently reported observation of VFTS 243 is the first example of a massive black-hole binary system with negligible binary interaction following black-hole formation. The black-hole mass (≈10 M) and near-circular orbit (e ≈0.02 ) of VFTS 243 suggest that the progenitor star experienced complete collapse, with energy-momentum being lost predominantly through neutrinos. VFTS 243 enables us to constrain the natal kick and neutrino-emission asymmetry during black-hole formation. At 68% confidence level, the natal kick velocity (mass decrement) is ≲10 km /s (≲1.0 M ), with a full probability distribution that peaks when ≈0.3 M were ejected, presumably in neutrinos, and the black hole experienced a natal kick of 4 km /s . The neutrino-emission asymmetry is ≲4 %, with best fit values of ∼0 - 0.2 % . Such a small neutrino natal kick accompanying black-hole formation is in agreement with theoretical predictions.


(1714)Euclid preparation. XXXIX. The effect of baryons on the halo mass function
  • Euclid Collaboration,
  • T. Castro,
  • S. Borgani,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • J. Dakin
  • +218
  • K. Dolag,
  • A. Fumagalli,
  • A. Ragagnin,
  • A. Saro,
  • A. M. C. Le Brun,
  • N. Aghanim,
  • A. Amara,
  • S. Andreon,
  • N. Auricchio,
  • M. Baldi,
  • S. Bardelli,
  • C. Bodendorf,
  • D. Bonino,
  • E. Branchini,
  • M. Brescia,
  • J. Brinchmann,
  • S. Camera,
  • V. Capobianco,
  • C. Carbone,
  • J. Carretero,
  • S. Casas,
  • M. Castellano,
  • S. Cavuoti,
  • A. Cimatti,
  • G. Congedo,
  • C. J. Conselice,
  • L. Conversi,
  • Y. Copin,
  • L. Corcione,
  • F. Courbin,
  • H. M. Courtois,
  • M. Cropper,
  • A. Da Silva,
  • H. Degaudenzi,
  • A. M. Di Giorgio,
  • J. Dinis,
  • F. Dubath,
  • C. A. J. Duncan,
  • X. Dupac,
  • M. Farina,
  • S. Farrens,
  • S. Ferriol,
  • M. Frailis,
  • E. Franceschi,
  • M. Fumana,
  • S. Galeotta,
  • B. Gillis,
  • C. Giocoli,
  • A. Grazian,
  • F. Grupp,
  • S. V. H. Haugan,
  • W. Holmes,
  • F. Hormuth,
  • A. Hornstrup,
  • K. Jahnke,
  • E. Keihänen,
  • S. Kermiche,
  • A. Kiessling,
  • M. Kilbinger,
  • B. Kubik,
  • M. Kunz,
  • H. Kurki-Suonio,
  • S. Ligori,
  • P. B. Lilje,
  • V. Lindholm,
  • I. Lloro,
  • E. Maiorano,
  • O. Mansutti,
  • O. Marggraf,
  • K. Markovic,
  • N. Martinet,
  • F. Marulli,
  • R. Massey,
  • S. Maurogordato,
  • E. Medinaceli,
  • M. Meneghetti,
  • E. Merlin,
  • G. Meylan,
  • M. Moresco,
  • L. Moscardini,
  • E. Munari,
  • S. -M. Niemi,
  • C. Padilla,
  • S. Paltani,
  • F. Pasian,
  • V. Pettorino,
  • S. Pires,
  • G. Polenta,
  • M. Poncet,
  • L. A. Popa,
  • L. Pozzetti,
  • F. Raison,
  • R. Rebolo,
  • A. Renzi,
  • J. Rhodes,
  • G. Riccio,
  • E. Romelli,
  • M. Roncarelli,
  • R. Saglia,
  • D. Sapone,
  • B. Sartoris,
  • P. Schneider,
  • T. Schrabback,
  • A. Secroun,
  • G. Seidel,
  • S. Serrano,
  • C. Sirignano,
  • G. Sirri,
  • L. Stanco,
  • J. -L. Starck,
  • P. Tallada-Crespí,
  • A. N. Taylor,
  • I. Tereno,
  • R. Toledo-Moreo,
  • F. Torradeflot,
  • I. Tutusaus,
  • E. A. Valentijn,
  • L. Valenziano,
  • T. Vassallo,
  • A. Veropalumbo,
  • Y. Wang,
  • J. Weller,
  • A. Zacchei,
  • G. Zamorani,
  • J. Zoubian,
  • E. Zucca,
  • A. Biviano,
  • E. Bozzo,
  • C. Cerna,
  • C. Colodro-Conde,
  • D. Di Ferdinando,
  • N. Mauri,
  • C. Neissner,
  • Z. Sakr,
  • V. Scottez,
  • M. Tenti,
  • M. Viel,
  • M. Wiesmann,
  • Y. Akrami,
  • S. Anselmi,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • M. Ballardini,
  • A. S. Borlaff,
  • S. Bruton,
  • C. Burigana,
  • R. Cabanac,
  • A. Cappi,
  • C. S. Carvalho,
  • G. Castignani,
  • G. Cañas-Herrera,
  • K. C. Chambers,
  • A. R. Cooray,
  • J. Coupon,
  • O. Cucciati,
  • A. Díaz-Sánchez,
  • S. Davini,
  • S. de la Torre,
  • G. De Lucia,
  • G. Desprez,
  • S. Di Domizio,
  • H. Dole,
  • S. Escoffier,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • F. Finelli,
  • L. Gabarra,
  • K. Ganga,
  • J. Garcia-Bellido,
  • F. Giacomini,
  • G. Gozaliasl,
  • H. Hildebrandt,
  • S. Ilić,
  • A. Jimanez Munñoz,
  • J. J. E. Kajava,
  • V. Kansal,
  • C. C. Kirkpatrick,
  • L. Legrand,
  • A. Loureiro,
  • J. Macias-Perez,
  • M. Magliocchetti,
  • G. Mainetti,
  • R. Maoli,
  • M. Martinelli,
  • C. J. A. P. Martins,
  • S. Matthew,
  • M. Maturi,
  • L. Maurin,
  • R. B. Metcalf,
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • P. Monaco,
  • G. Morgante,
  • S. Nadathur,
  • L. Patrizii,
  • A. Pezzotta,
  • V. Popa,
  • C. Porciani,
  • D. Potter,
  • M. Pöntinen,
  • P. Reimberg,
  • P. -F. Rocci,
  • A. G. Sánchez,
  • J. Schaye,
  • A. Schneider,
  • E. Sefusatti,
  • M. Sereno,
  • P. Simon,
  • A. Spurio Mancini,
  • J. Stadel,
  • S. A. Stanford,
  • J. Steinwagner,
  • G. Testera,
  • M. Tewes,
  • R. Teyssier,
  • S. Toft,
  • S. Tosi,
  • A. Troja,
  • M. Tucci,
  • J. Valiviita,
  • D. Vergani
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202348388
abstract + abstract -

The Euclid photometric survey of galaxy clusters stands as a powerful cosmological tool, with the capacity to significantly propel our understanding of the Universe. Despite being subdominant to dark matter and dark energy, the baryonic component of our Universe holds substantial influence over the structure and mass of galaxy clusters. This paper presents a novel model that can be used to precisely quantify the impact of baryons on the virial halo masses of galaxy clusters using the baryon fraction within a cluster as a proxy for their effect. Constructed on the premise of quasi-adiabaticity, the model includes two parameters, which are calibrated using non-radiative cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, and a single large-scale simulation from the Magneticum set, which includes the physical processes driving galaxy formation. As a main result of our analysis, we demonstrate that this model delivers a remarkable 1% relative accuracy in determining the virial dark matter-only equivalent mass of galaxy clusters starting from the corresponding total cluster mass and baryon fraction measured in hydrodynamical simulations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this result is robust against changes in cosmological parameters and against variation of the numerical implementation of the subresolution physical processes included in the simulations. Our work substantiates previous claims regarding the impact of baryons on cluster cosmology studies. In particular, we show how neglecting these effects would lead to biased cosmological constraints for a Euclid-like cluster abundance analysis. Importantly, we demonstrate that uncertainties associated with our model arising from baryonic corrections to cluster masses are subdominant when compared to the precision with which mass-observable (i.e. richness) relations will be calibrated using Euclid and to our current understanding of the baryon fraction within galaxy clusters.


(1713)Improved model of the Supernova Refsdal cluster MACS J1149.5+2223 thanks to VLT/MUSE
  • S. Schuldt,
  • C. Grillo,
  • G. B. Caminha,
  • A. Mercurio,
  • P. Rosati
  • +7
  • T. Morishita,
  • M. Stiavelli,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • P. Bergamini,
  • M. Brescia,
  • F. Calura,
  • M. Meneghetti
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present new VLT/MUSE observations of the Hubble Frontier Field (HFF) galaxy cluster MACS J1149.5+2223, lensing the well-known supernova "Refsdal" into multiple images, which enabled the first cosmological applications with a strongly lensed supernova. Thanks to these data, targeting a northern region of the cluster and thus complementing our previous MUSE program on the cluster core, we release a new catalog containing 162 secure spectroscopic redshifts. We confirm 22 cluster members, which were previously only photometrically selected, and detect ten additional ones, resulting in a total of 308 secure members, of which 63% are spectroscopically confirmed. We further identify 17 new spectroscopic multiple images belonging to 6 different background sources. By exploiting MUSE data, in combination with the deep HFF images, we develop an improved total mass model of MACS J1149.5+2223. This model includes 308 total mass components for the member galaxies and requires four additional mass profiles, one of which is associated with a cluster galaxy overdensity identified in the North, representing the DM mass distribution on larger scales. The values of the resulting 34 free parameters are optimized based on the observed positions of 106 multiple images from 34 different families, that cover the redshift range between 1.240 and 5.983. Our final model has a multiple image position rms value of 0.39", which is well in agreement with that of other cluster lens models. With this refined mass model, we pave the way towards even better strong-lensing analyses that will exploit the deep and high resolution observations with HST and JWST on a pixel level in the region of the supernova Refsdal host. This will increase the number of observables by around two orders of magnitudes, thus offering us the opportunity of carrying out more precise and accurate cosmographic measurements.


(1712)The PAU Survey: galaxy stellar population properties estimate with narrow-band data
  • Benjamin Csizi,
  • Luca Tortorelli,
  • Małgorzata Siudek,
  • Daniel Gruen,
  • Pablo Renard
  • +15
  • Pau Tallada-Crespí,
  • Eusebio Sanchez,
  • Ramon Miquel,
  • Cristobal Padilla,
  • Juan García-Bellido,
  • Enrique Gaztañaga,
  • Ricard Casas,
  • Santiago Serrano,
  • Juan De Vicente,
  • Enrique Fernandez,
  • Martin Eriksen,
  • Giorgio Manzoni,
  • Carlton M. Baugh,
  • Jorge Carretero,
  • Francisco J. Castander
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Narrowband galaxy surveys have recently gained interest as a promising method to achieve the necessary accuracy on the photometric redshift estimate of individual galaxies for stage-IV cosmological surveys. One key advantage is the ability to provide higher spectral resolution information about galaxies that should allow a more accurate and precise estimation of galaxy stellar population properties. However, the impact of adding narrow-band photometry on the stellar population properties estimate is largely unexplored. The scope of this work is two-fold: on one side, leveraging the predictive power of broad-band and narrow-band data to infer galaxy physical properties such as stellar masses, ages, star formation rates and metallicities. On the other hand, evaluating the improvement of performance in estimating galaxy properties when we use narrow-band data instead of broad-band. In this work we measure the stellar population properties of a sample of galaxies in the COSMOS field for which both narrowband and broadband data are available. In particular, we employ narrowband data from PAUS and broad-band data from CFHTLS. We use two different spectral energy distribution fitting codes to measure galaxy properties, namely CIGALE and Prospector. We find that the increased spectral resolution of narrow-band photometry does not yield a substantial improvement on constraining galaxy properties using spectral energy distribution fitting. Still we find that we obtain a more diverse distribution of metallicities and dust optical depths with cigale when employing the narrowband data. The effect is not as prominent as expected, which we relate this to the low narrowband SNR of a majority of the galaxies, the respective drawbacks of both codes as well as the coverage only in the optical regime. The measured properties are afterwards compared to the COSMOS2020 catalogue, showing good agreement.


(1711)Renormalization of the next-to-leading-power γγ → h and gg → h soft quark functions
  • Martin Beneke,
  • Yao Ji,
  • Xing Wang
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2024) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2024)246
abstract + abstract -

We calculate directly in position space the one-loop renormalization kernels of the soft operators Oγ and Og that appear in the soft-quark contributions to, respectively, the subleading-power γγ → h and gg → h form factors mediated by the b-quark. We present an IR/rapidity divergence-free definition for Og and demonstrate that with a correspondent definition of the collinear function, a consistent factorization theorem is recovered. Using conformal symmetry techniques, we establish a relation between the evolution kernels of the leading-twist heavy-light light-ray operator, whose matrix element defines the B-meson light-cone distribution amplitude (LCDA), and Oγ to all orders in perturbation theory. Application of this relation allows us to bootstrap the kernel of Oγ to the two-loop level. We construct an ansatz for the kernel of Og at higher orders. We test this ansatz against the consistency requirement at two-loop and find they differ only by a particular constant.


(1710)White dwarfs as a probe of exceptionally light QCD axions
  • Reuven Balkin,
  • Javi Serra,
  • Konstantin Springmann,
  • Stefan Stelzl,
  • Andreas Weiler
Physical Review D (05/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.109.095032
abstract + abstract -

We study the effects of exceptionally light QCD axions on the stellar configuration of white dwarfs. At finite baryon density, the nonderivative coupling of the axion to nucleons displaces the axion from its in-vacuum minimum, which implies a reduction of the nucleon mass. This dramatically alters the composition of stellar remnants. In particular, the modifications of the mass-radius relationship of white dwarfs allow us to probe large regions of unexplored parameter space without requiring that axions are dark matter.


(1709)HOLISMOKES XIII: Strong-lens candidates at all mass scales and their environments from the Hyper-Suprime Cam and deep learning
  • Stefan Schuldt,
  • Raoul Canameras,
  • Irham T. Andika,
  • Satadru Bag,
  • Alejandra Melo
  • +4
  • Yiping Shu,
  • Sherry H. Suyu,
  • Stefan Taubenberger,
  • Claudio Grillo
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We have performed a systematic search for galaxy-scale strong lenses using Hyper Suprime-Cam imaging data, focusing on lenses in overdense environments. To identify these lens candidates, we exploit our neural network from HOLISMOKES VI, which is trained on realistic gri mock-images as positive examples, and real images as negative examples. Compared to our previous work, we lower the i-Kron radius limit to >0.5". This results in an increase by around 73 million sources to more than 135 million images. During our visual multi-stage grading of the network candidates, we now inspect simultaneously larger stamps (80"x80") to identify large, extended arcs cropped in the 10"x10" cutouts, and classify additionally their overall environment. Here we also reinspect our previous lens candidates and classify their environment. Using these 546 visually identified lens candidates, we further define various criteria by exploiting extensive and complementary photometric redshift catalogs, to select the candidates in overdensities. In total, we identified 24 grade-A and 138 grade-B candidates with either spatially-resolved multiple images or extended, distorted arcs in the new sample. Furthermore, with our different techniques, we identify in total 237/546 lens candidates in a cluster-like or overdense environment, containing only 49 group- or cluster-scale re-discoveries. These results demonstrate the feasibility of downloading and applying network classifiers to hundreds of million cutouts, necessary in the upcoming era of big data from deep, wide-field imaging surveys like Euclid and the Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time, while leading to a sample size that can be inspected by humans. These networks, with false-positive rates of ~0.01%, are very powerful tools to identify such rare galaxy-scale strong lensing systems, while also aiding in the discovery of new strong lensing clusters.


(1708)A neutrino floor for the Migdal effect
  • Gonzalo Herrera
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2024) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2024)288
abstract + abstract -

Neutrino-nucleus scatterings in the detector could induce electron ionization signatures due to the Migdal effect. We derive prospects for a future detection of the Migdal effect via coherent elastic solar neutrino-nucleus scatterings in liquid xenon detectors, and discuss the irreducible background that it constitutes for the Migdal effect caused by light dark matter-nucleus scatterings. Furthermore, we explore the ionization signal induced by some neutrino electromagnetic and non-standard interactions on nuclei. In certain scenarios, we find a distinct peak on the ionization spectrum of xenon around 0.1 keV, in clear contrast to the Standard Model expectation.


(1707)Dynamical friction from self-interacting dark matter
  • Moritz S. Fischer,
  • Laura Sagunski
abstract + abstract -

Context. Merging compact objects such as binary black holes provide a promising probe for the physics of dark matter (DM). The gravitational waves emitted during inspiral potentially allow to detect DM spikes around black holes. This is because the dynamical friction force experienced by the inspiraling black hole alters the orbital period and thus the gravitational wave signal. Aims. The dynamical friction arising from DM can potentially differ from the collisionless case when DM is subject to self-interactions. This paper aims to understand how self-interactions impact dynamical friction. Methods. To study the dynamical friction force, we use idealized N-body simulations, where we include self-interacting dark matter. Results. We find that the dynamical friction force for inspiraling black holes would be typically enhanced by DM self-interactions compared to a collisionless medium (ignoring differences in the DM density). At lower velocities below the sound speed, we find that the dynamical friction force can be reduced by the presence of self-interactions. Conclusions. DM self-interactions have a significant effect on the dynamical friction for black hole mergers. Assuming the Chandrasekhar formula may underpredict the deceleration due to dynamical friction.