(1043)Long term neutron irradiation studies of square meter sized resistive strip micromegas detectors

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1045
(01/2023)
doi:10.1016/j.nima.2022.167653

abstract +

Resistive strip Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GAseous Structure) detectors provide even at square meter sizes a high spatial resolution for the reconstruction of Minimum Ionizing Particles (MIPs) like muons. Micromegas detectors consist of three parallel planar structures. A cathode, a grounded mesh and a segmented anode structure form the detector. Square meter sizes challenge the high-voltage stability during operation, especially when using the frequently used gas mixture of Ar:CO_{2} (93:7 vol%) with low quencher content. To improve the HV-stability and to enhance the discharge quenching different gas mixtures have been investigated. A very promising one has an 2% admixture of isobutane forming the ternary gas Ar:CO_{2}:iC_{4}H_{10} (93:5:2 vol%). Long term irradiation studies investigating both gas mixtures interrupted by cosmic muon tracking efficiency measurements have been performed by irradiation with neutrons and gammas from a 10 GBq Am-Be source for a period of two years. The comparison shows gain increase under Ar:CO_{2}:iC_{4}H_{10} and a considerably improved HV-stable operation of the detector. It is investigated for any performance deterioration for each of the two gas mixtures with focus on pulse-height and changes of efficiency.

(1042)The signature of large-scale turbulence driving on the structure of the interstellar medium

MNRAS, 514
(8/2022)
e-Print:arXiv:2206.00451
doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1543

abstract +

The mechanisms that maintain turbulence in the interstellar medium (ISM) are still not identified. This work investigates how we can distinguish between two fundamental driving mechanisms: the accumulated effect of stellar feedback versus the energy injection from galactic scales. We perform a series of numerical simulations describing a stratified star-forming ISM subject to self-consistent stellar feedback. Large-scale external turbulent driving, of various intensities, is added to mimic galactic driving mechanisms. We analyse the resulting column density maps with a technique called Multi-scale non-Gaussian segmentation, which separates the coherent structures and the Gaussian background. This effectively discriminates between the various simulations and is a promising method to understand the ISM structure. In particular, the power spectrum of the coherent structures flattens above 60 pc when turbulence is driven only by stellar feedback. When large-scale driving is applied, the turn-over shifts to larger scales. A systematic comparison with the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is then performed. Only 1 out of 25 regions has a coherent power spectrum that is consistent with the feedback-only simulation. A detailed study of the turn-over scale leads us to conclude that regular stellar feedback is not enough to explain the observed ISM structure on scales larger than 60 pc. Extreme feedback in the form of supergiant shells likely plays an important role but cannot explain all the regions of the LMC. If we assume ISM structure is generated by turbulence, another large-scale driving mechanism is needed to explain the entirety of the observations.

(1041)Shared Data and Algorithms for Deep Learning in Fundamental Physics

Computing and Software for Big Science, 6
(12/2022)
doi:10.1007/s41781-022-00082-6

abstract +

We introduce a PYTHON package that provides simple and unified access to a collection of datasets from fundamental physics research—including particle physics, astroparticle physics, and hadron- and nuclear physics—for supervised machine learning studies. The datasets contain hadronic top quarks, cosmic-ray-induced air showers, phase transitions in hadronic matter, and generator-level histories. While public datasets from multiple fundamental physics disciplines already exist, the common interface and provided reference models simplify future work on cross-disciplinary machine learning and transfer learning in fundamental physics. We discuss the design and structure and line out how additional datasets can be submitted for inclusion. As showcase application, we present a simple yet flexible graph-based neural network architecture that can easily be applied to a wide range of supervised learning tasks. We show that our approach reaches performance close to dedicated methods on all datasets. To simplify adaptation for various problems, we provide easy-to-follow instructions on how graph-based representations of data structures, relevant for fundamental physics, can be constructed and provide code implementations for several of them. Implementations are also provided for our proposed method and all reference algorithms.

(1040)Clash of Titans: A MUSE dynamical study of the extreme cluster merger SPT-CL J0307-6225

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 517, p24
(12/2022)
doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2480

abstract +

We present MUSE spectroscopy, Megacam imaging, and Chandra X-ray emission for SPT-CL J0307-6225, a $z = 0.58$ major merging galaxy cluster with a large BCG-SZ centroid separation and a highly disturbed X-ray morphology. The galaxy density distribution shows two main overdensities with separations of 0.144 and 0.017 arcmin to their respective BCGs. We characterize the central regions of the two colliding structures, namely 0307-6225N and 0307-6225S, finding velocity derived masses of M_{200, N} = 2.44 ± 1.41 × 10^{14}M_{⊙} and M_{200, S} = 3.16 ± 1.88 × 10^{14}M_{⊙}, with a line-of-sight velocity difference of |Δv| = 342 km s^{-1}. The total dynamically derived mass is consistent with the SZ derived mass of 7.63 h$_{70}^{-1}$ ± 1.36 × 10^{14}M_{⊙}. We model the merger using the Monte Carlo Merger Analysis Code, estimating a merging angle of 36$^{+14}_{-12}$ ° with respect to the plane of the sky. Comparing with simulations of a merging system with a mass ratio of 1:3, we find that the best scenario is that of an ongoing merger that began 0.96$^{+0.31}_{-0.18}$ Gyr ago. We also characterize the galaxy population using Hδ and [O II] λ3727 Å lines. We find that most of the emission-line galaxies belong to 0307-6225S, close to the X-ray peak position with a third of them corresponding to red-cluster sequence galaxies, and the rest to blue galaxies with velocities consistent with recent periods of accretion. Moreover, we suggest that 0307-6225S suffered a previous merger, evidenced through the two equally bright BCGs at the centre with a velocity difference of ~674 km s^{-1}.

(1039)Taking off the edge - simultaneous filament and end core formation

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 517, p9
(12/2022)
doi:10.1093/mnras/stac3110

abstract +

Simulations of idealized star-forming filaments of finite length typically show core growth that is dominated by two cores forming at its respective end. The end cores form due to a strong increasing acceleration at the filament ends that leads to a sweep-up of material during the filament collapse along its axis. As this growth mode is typically faster than any other core formation mode in a filament, the end cores usually dominate in mass and density compared to other cores forming inside a filament. However, observations of star-forming filaments do not show this prevalence of cores at the filament ends. We explore a possible mechanism to slow the growth of the end cores using numerical simulations of simultaneous filament and embedded core formation, in our case a radially accreting filament forming in a finite converging flow. While such a set-up still leads to end cores, they soon begin to move inwards and a density gradient is formed outside of the cores by the continued accumulation of material. As a result, the outermost cores are no longer located at the exact ends of the filament and the density gradient softens the inward gravitational acceleration of the cores. Therefore, the two end cores do not grow as fast as expected and thus do not dominate over other core formation modes in the filament.

(1038)Fragmentation with discontinuous Galerkin schemes: non-linear fragmentation

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 517, p16
(12/2022)
doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2232

abstract +

Small grains play an essential role in astrophysical processes such as chemistry, radiative transfer, and gas/dust dynamics. The population of small grains is mainly maintained by the fragmentation process due to colliding grains. An accurate treatment of dust fragmentation is required in numerical modelling. However, current algorithms for solving fragmentation equation suffer from an overdiffusion in the conditions of 3D simulations. To tackle this challenge, we developed a discontinuous Galerkin scheme to solve efficiently the non-linear fragmentation equation with a limited number of dust bins.

(1037)A multisimulation study of relativistic SZ temperature scalings in galaxy clusters and groups

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 517, p22
(12/2022)
doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2781

abstract +

The Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect is a powerful tool in modern cosmology. With future observations promising ever improving SZ measurements, the relativistic corrections to the SZ signals from galaxy groups and clusters are increasingly relevant. As such, it is important to understand the differences between three temperature measures: (a) the average relativistic SZ (rSZ) temperature, (b) the mass-weighted temperature relevant for the thermal SZ (tSZ) effect, and (c) the X-ray spectroscopic temperature. In this work, we compare these cluster temperatures, as predicted by the BAHAMAS & MACSIS, ILLUSTRISTNG, MAGNETICUM, and THE THREE HUNDRED PROJECT simulations. Despite the wide range of simulation parameters, we find the SZ temperatures are consistent across the simulations. We estimate a $\simeq 10{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ level correction from rSZ to clusters with Y ≃ 10^{-4} Mpc^{-2}. Our analysis confirms a systematic offset between the three temperature measures; with the rSZ temperature $\simeq 20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ larger than the other measures, and diverging further at higher redshifts. We demonstrate that these measures depart from simple self-similar evolution and explore how they vary with the defined radius of haloes. We investigate how different feedback prescriptions and resolutions affect the observed temperatures, and discover the SZ temperatures are rather insensitive to these details. The agreement between simulations indicates an exciting avenue for observational and theoretical exploration, determining the extent of relativistic SZ corrections. We provide multiple simulation-based fits to the scaling relations for use in future SZ modelling.

(1036)The interplay between forming planets and photoevaporating discs I: forbidden line diagnostics

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 517, p15
(12/2022)
doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2954

abstract +

Disc winds and planet formation are considered to be two of the most important mechanisms that drive the evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary discs and in turn define the environment in which planets form and evolve. While both have been studied extensively in the past, we combine them into one model by performing three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of giant planet hosting discs that are undergoing X-ray photoevaporation, with the goal to analyse the interactions between both mechanisms. In order to study the effect on observational diagnostics, we produce synthetic observations of commonly used wind-tracing forbidden emission lines with detailed radiative transfer and photoionization calculations. We find that a sufficiently massive giant planet carves a gap in the gas disc that is deep enough to affect the structure and kinematics of the pressure-driven photoevaporative wind significantly. This effect can be strong enough to be visible in the synthetic high-resolution observations of some of our wind diagnostic lines, such as the [O I] 6300 Å or [S II] 6730 Å lines. When the disc is observed at inclinations around 40° and higher, the spectral line profiles may exhibit a peak in the redshifted part of the spectrum, which cannot easily be explained by simple wind models alone. Moreover, massive planets can induce asymmetric substructures within the disc and the photoevaporative wind, giving rise to temporal variations of the line profiles that can be strong enough to be observable on time-scales of less than a quarter of the planet's orbital period.

(1035)Accuracy and precision of triaxial orbit models - II. Viewing angles, shape, and orbital structure

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 517, p14
(12/2022)
doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2852

abstract +

We explore the potential of our novel triaxial modelling machinery in recovering the viewing angles, the shape, and the orbit distribution of galaxies by using a high-resolution N-body merger simulation. Our modelling technique includes several recent advancements. (i) Our new triaxial deprojection algorithm shape3d is able to significantly shrink the range of possible orientations of a triaxial galaxy and therefore to constrain its shape relying only on photometric information. It also allows to probe degeneracies, i.e. to recover different deprojections at the same assumed orientation. With this method we can constrain the intrinsic shape of the N-body simulation, i.e. the axis ratios p = b/a and q = c/a, with Δp and Δq ≲ 0.1 using only photometric information. The typical accuracy of the viewing angles reconstruction is 15°-20°. (ii) Our new triaxial Schwarzschild code smart exploits the full kinematic information contained in the entire non-parametric line-of-sight velocity distributions along with a 5D orbital sampling in phase space. (iii) We use a new generalized Akaike information criterion AIC_{p} to optimize the smoothing and to select the best-fitting model, avoiding potential biases in purely χ^{2}-based approaches. With our deprojected densities, we recover the correct orbital structure and anisotropy parameter β with Δβ ≲ 0.1. These results are valid regardless of the tested orientation of the simulation and suggest that even despite the known intrinsic photometric and kinematic degeneracies the above described advanced methods make it possible to recover the shape and the orbital structure of triaxial bodies with unprecedented accuracy.

(1034)B-meson decay into a proton and dark antibaryon from QCD light-cone sum rules

Physics Letters B, 834
(11/2022)
doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2022.137434

abstract +

The recently developed B-Mesogenesis scenario predicts decays of B mesons into a baryon and hypothetical dark antibaryon Ψ. We suggest a method to calculate the amplitude of the simplest exclusive decay mode B^{+} → pΨ. Considering two models of B-Mesogenesis, we obtain the B → p hadronic matrix elements by applying QCD light-cone sum rules with the proton light-cone distribution amplitudes. We estimate the B^{+} → pΨ decay width as a function of the mass and effective coupling of the dark antibaryon.

(1033)Primordial dusty rings and episodic outbursts in protoplanetary discs

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 516, p21
(11/2022)
doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2455

abstract +

We investigate the formation and evolution of 'primordial' dusty rings occurring in the inner regions of protoplanetary discs, with the help of long-term, coupled dust-gas, magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The simulations are global and start from the collapse phase of the parent cloud core, while the dead zone is calculated via an adaptive α formulation by taking into account the local ionization balance. The evolution of the dusty component includes its growth and back reaction on to the gas. Previously, using simulations with only a gas component, we showed that dynamical rings form at the inner edge of the dead zone. We find that when dust evolution, as well as magnetic field evolution in the flux-freezing limit are included, the dusty rings formed are more numerous and span a larger radial extent in the inner disc, while the dead zone is more robust and persists for a much longer time. We show that these dynamical rings concentrate enough dust mass to become streaming unstable, which should result in a rapid planetesimal formation even in the embedded phases of the system. The episodic outbursts caused by the magnetorotational instability have a significant impact on the evolution of the rings. The outbursts drain the inner disc of grown dust, however, the period between bursts is sufficiently long for the planetesimal growth via streaming instability. The dust mass contained within the rings is large enough to ultimately produce planetary systems with the core accretion scenario. The low-mass systems rarely undergo outbursts, and, thus, the conditions around such stars can be especially conducive for planet formation.

(1032)Onboard performance of the level 1 trigger of the mini-EUSO telescope

Advances in Space Research, 70, p17
(11/2022)
doi:10.1016/j.asr.2022.07.077

abstract +

The Mini-EUSO telescope was launched for the International Space Station on August 22^{nd} , 2019 to observe from the ISS orbit (∼ 400 km altitude) various phenomena occurring in the Earth's atmosphere through a UV-transparent window located in the Russian Zvezda Module. Mini-EUSO is based on a set of two Fresnel lenses of 25 cm diameter each and a focal plane of 48 × 48 pixels, for a total field of view of 44 ° . Until July 2021, Mini-EUSO performed a total of 41 data acquisition sessions, obtaining UV images of the Earth in the 290 nm - 430 nm band with temporal and spatial resolution on ground of 2.5 μs and 6.3 × 6.3 km^{2}, respectively. The data acquisition was performed with a 2.5 μs sampling rate, using a dedicated trigger looking for signals with a typical duration of tens of μs.

In the present paper the analysis of the performance of the 2.5 μs trigger logic is presented, with a focus on the method used for the analysis and the categories of triggered events. The expected functioning of the trigger logic has been confirmed, with the trigger rate on spurious events that remains within the requirements in nominal background conditions. The trigger logic detected several different phenomena, including lightning strikes, elves, ground-based flashers and events with EAS-like characteristics.

(1031)Ammonia in the interstellar medium of a starbursting disc at z = 2.6

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 517
(11/2022)
doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slac111

abstract +

We report the detection of the ground state rotational emission of ammonia, ortho-NH_{3} (J_{K} = 1_{0} → 0_{0}) in a gravitationally lensed intrinsically hyperluminous star-bursting galaxy at z = 2.6. The integrated line profile is consistent with other molecular and atomic emission lines which have resolved kinematics well modelled by a 5 kpc-diameter rotating disc. This implies that the gas responsible for NH_{3} emission is broadly tracing the global molecular reservoir, but likely distributed in pockets of high density (n ≳ 5 × 10^{4} cm^{-3}). With a luminosity of 2.8 × 10^{6} L_{⊙}, the NH_{3} emission represents 2.5 × 10^{-7} of the total infrared luminosity of the galaxy, comparable to the ratio observed in the Kleinmann-Low nebula in Orion and consistent with sites of massive star formation in the Milky Way. If $L_{\rm NH_3}/L_{\rm IR}$ serves as a proxy for the 'mode' of star formation, this hints that the nature of star formation in extreme starbursts in the early Universe is similar to that of Galactic star-forming regions, with a large fraction of the cold interstellar medium in this state, plausibly driven by a storm of violent disc instabilities in the gas-dominated disc. This supports the 'full of Orions' picture of star formation in the most extreme galaxies seen close to the peak epoch of stellar mass assembly.

(1030)SN 2019ewu: A Peculiar Supernova with Early Strong Carbon and Weak Oxygen Features from a New Sample of Young SN Ic Spectra

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.04482

abstract +

With the advent of high cadence, all-sky automated surveys, supernovae (SNe) are now discovered closer than ever to their dates of explosion. However, young pre-maximum light follow-up spectra of Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic), probably arising from the most stripped massive stars, remain rare despite their importance. In this paper we present a set of 49 optical spectra observed with the Las Cumbres Observatory through the Global Supernova Project for 6 SNe Ic, including a total of 17 pre-maximum spectra, of which 8 are observed more than a week before V-band maximum light. This dataset increases the total number of publicly available pre-maximum light SN Ic spectra by 25% and we provide publicly available SNID templates that will significantly aid in the fast identification of young SNe Ic in the future. We present detailed analysis of these spectra, including Fe II 5169 velocity measurements, O I 7774 line strengths, and continuum shapes. We compare our results to published samples of stripped supernovae in the literature and find one SN in our sample that stands out. SN 2019ewu has a unique combination of features for a SN Ic: an extremely blue continuum, high absorption velocities, a P-cygni shaped feature almost 2 weeks before maximum light that TARDIS radiative transfer modeling attributes to C II rather than H$\alpha$, and weak or non-existent O I 7774 absorption feature until maximum light.

(1029)Can neutron star mergers alone explain the r-process enrichment of the Milky Way?

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.04964

abstract +

Comparing Galactic chemical evolution models to the observed elemental abundances in the Milky Way, we show that neutron star mergers can be a leading r-process site only if such mergers have very short delay times and/or beneficial masses of the compact objects at low metallicities. Namely, black hole-neutron star mergers, depending on the black-hole spins, can play an important role in the early chemical enrichment of the Milky Way. We also show that none of the binary population synthesis models used in this paper, i.e., COMPAS, StarTrack, Brussels, ComBinE, and BPASS, can currently reproduce the elemental abundance observations. The predictions are problematic not only for neutron star mergers, but also for Type Ia supernovae, which may point to shortcomings in binary evolution models.

(1028)A Neural Network Subgrid Model of the Early Stages of Planet Formation

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.04160

abstract +

Planet formation is a multi-scale process in which the coagulation of $\mathrm{\mu m}$-sized dust grains in protoplanetary disks is strongly influenced by the hydrodynamic processes on scales of astronomical units ($\approx 1.5\times 10^8 \,\mathrm{km}$). Studies are therefore dependent on subgrid models to emulate the micro physics of dust coagulation on top of a large scale hydrodynamic simulation. Numerical simulations which include the relevant physical effects are complex and computationally expensive. Here, we present a fast and accurate learned effective model for dust coagulation, trained on data from high resolution numerical coagulation simulations. Our model captures details of the dust coagulation process that were so far not tractable with other dust coagulation prescriptions with similar computational efficiency.

(1027)STRIDES: Automated uniform models for 30 quadruply imaged quasars

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
(11/2022)
doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2235

abstract +

Gravitational time delays provide a powerful one step measurement of H_{0}, independent of all other probes. One key ingredient in time delay cosmography are high accuracy lens models. Those are currently expensive to obtain, both, in terms of computing and investigator time (10^{5 - 6} CPU hours and ~0.5-1 year, respectively). Major improvements in modeling speed are therefore necessary to exploit the large number of lenses that are forecast to be discovered over the current decade. In order to bypass this roadblock, we develop an automated modeling pipeline and apply it to a sample of 31 lens systems, observed by the Hubble Space Telescope in multiple bands. Our automated pipeline can derive models for 30/31 lenses with few hours of human time and <100 CPU hours of computing time for a typical system. For each lens, we provide measurements of key parameters and predictions of magnification as well as time delays for the multiple images. We characterize the cosmography-readiness of our models using the stability of differences in Fermat potential (proportional to time delay) w.r.t. modeling choices. We find that for 10/30 lenses our models are cosmography or nearly cosmography grade (<3 per cent and 3-5 per cent variations). For 6/30 lenses the models are close to cosmography grade (5-10 per cent). These results utilize informative priors and will need to be confirmed by further analysis. However, they are also likely to improve by extending the pipeline modeling sequence and options. In conclusion, we show that uniform cosmography grade modeling of large strong lens samples is within reach.

(1026)Perfecting one-loop BCJ numerators in SYM and supergravity

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.00638

abstract +

We take a major step towards computing $D$-dimensional one-loop amplitudes in general gauge theories, compatible with the principles of unitarity and the color-kinematics duality. For $n$-point amplitudes with either supersymmetry multiplets or generic non-supersymmetric matter in the loop, simple all-multiplicity expressions are obtained for the maximal cuts of kinematic numerators of $n$-gon diagrams. At $n=6,7$ points with maximal supersymmetry, we extend the cubic-diagram numerators to encode all contact terms, and thus solve the long-standing problem of \emph{simultaneously} realizing the following properties: color-kinematics duality, manifest locality, optimal power counting of loop momenta, quadratic rather than linearized Feynman propagators, compatibility with double copy as well as all graph symmetries. Color-kinematics dual representations with similar properties are presented in the half-maximally supersymmetric case at $n=4,5$ points. The resulting gauge-theory integrands and their supergravity counterparts obtained from the double copy are checked to reproduce the expected ultraviolet divergences.

(1025)Rapid Formation of Massive Planetary Cores in a Pressure Bump

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.04497

abstract +

Models of planetary core growth by either planetesimal or pebble accretion are traditionally disconnected from the models of dust evolution and formation of the first gravitationally-bound planetesimals. The state-of-the-art models typically start with massive planetary cores already present. We aim to study the formation and growth of planetary cores in a pressure bump, motivated by the annular structures observed in protoplanetary disks, starting with sub-micron-sized dust grains. We connect the models of dust coagulation and drift, planetesimal formation in the streaming instability, gravitational interactions between planetesimals, pebble accretion, and planet migration, into one uniform framework. We find that planetesimals forming early at the massive end of the size distribution grow quickly dominantly by pebble accretion. These few massive bodies grow on the timescales of ~100 000 years and stir the planetesimals formed later preventing the emergence of further planetary cores. Additionally, a migration trap occurs allowing for retention of the growing cores. Pressure bumps are favourable locations for the emergence and rapid growth of planetary cores by pebble accretion as the dust density and grain size are increased and the pebble accretion onset mass is reduced compared to a smooth-disk model.

(1024)QuantumFDTD -- A computational framework for the relativistic Schrödinger equation

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.10185

abstract +

We extend the publicly available quantumfdtd code. It was originally intended for solving the time-independent three-dimensional Schrödinger equation via the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and for extracting the ground, first, and second excited states. We (a) include the case of the relativistic Schrödinger equation and (b) add two optimized FFT-based kinetic energy terms for the non-relativistic case. All the three new kinetic terms are computed using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). We release the resulting code as version 3 of quantumfdtd. Finally, the code now supports arbitrary external file-based potentials and the option to project out distinct parity eigenstates from the solutions. Our goal is quark models used for phenomenological descriptions of QCD bound states, described by the three-dimensional Schrödinger equation. However, we target any field where solving either the non-relativistic or the relativistic three-dimensional Schrödinger equation is required.

(1023)Towards an electrostatic storage ring for fundamental physics measurements

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.08439

abstract +

We describe a new table-top electrostatic storage ring concept for $30$ keV polarized ions at frozen spin condition. The device will ultimately be capable of measuring magnetic fields with a resolution of 10$^{-21}$ T with sub-mHz bandwidth. With the possibility to store different kinds of ions or ionic molecules and access to prepare and probe states of the systems using lasers and SQUIDs, it can be used to search for electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electrons and nucleons, as well as axion-like particle dark matter and dark photon dark matter. Its sensitivity potential stems from several hours of storage time, comparably long spin coherence times, and the possibility to trap up to 10$^9$ particles in bunches with possibly different state preparations for differential measurements. As a dark matter experiment, it is most sensitive in the mass range of 10$^{-10}$ to 10$^{-19}$ eV, where it can potentially probe couplings orders of magnitude below current and proposed laboratory experiments.

(1022)LensWatch: I. Resolved HST Observations and Constraints on the Strongly-Lensed Type Ia Supernova 2022qmx ("SN Zwicky")

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.03772

abstract +

Supernovae (SNe) that have been multiply-imaged by gravitational lensing are rare and powerful probes for cosmology. Each detection is an opportunity to develop the critical tools and methodologies needed as the sample of lensed SNe increases by orders of magnitude with the upcoming Vera C. Rubin Observatory and Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope. The latest such discovery is of the quadruply-imaged Type Ia SN 2022qmx (aka, "SN Zwicky"; Goobar et al. 2022) at z = 0.3544. SN Zwicky was discovered by the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) in spatially unresolved data. Here we present follow-up Hubble Space Telescope observations of SN Zwicky, the first from the multi-cycle "LensWatch" program (www.lenswatch.org). We measure photometry for each of the four images of SN Zwicky, which are resolved in three WFC3/UVIS filters (F475W, F625W, F814W) but unresolved with WFC3/IR F160W, and produce an analysis of the lensing system using a variety of independent lens modeling methods. We find consistency between time delays estimated with the single epoch of HST photometry and the lens model predictions constrained through the multiple image positions, with both inferring time delays of <1 day. Our lens models converge to an Einstein radius of (0.168+0.009-0.005)", the smallest yet seen in a lensed SN. The "standard candle" nature of SN Zwicky provides magnification estimates independent of the lens modeling that are brighter by ~1.5 mag and ~0.8 mag for two of the four images, suggesting significant microlensing and/or additional substructure beyond the flexibility of our image-position mass models.

(1021)White dwarfs as a probe of light QCD axions

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.02661

abstract +

We study the effects of light QCD axions on the stellar configuration of white dwarfs. At finite baryon density, the non-derivative coupling of the axion to nucleons displaces the axion from its in-vacuum minimum which implies a reduction of the nucleon mass. This dramatically alters the composition of stellar remnants. In particular, the modifications of the mass-radius relationship of white dwarfs allow us to probe large regions of unexplored axion parameter space without requiring it to be a significant fraction of dark matter.

(1020)Novel approaches in hadron spectroscopy

Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, 127
(11/2022)
doi:10.1016/j.ppnp.2022.103981

abstract +

The last two decades have witnessed the discovery of a myriad of new and unexpected hadrons. The future holds more surprises for us, thanks to new-generation experiments. Understanding the signals and determining the properties of the states requires a parallel theoretical effort. To make full use of available and forthcoming data, a careful amplitude modeling is required, together with a sound treatment of the statistical uncertainties, and a systematic survey of the model dependencies. We review the contributions made by the Joint Physics Analysis Center to the field of hadron spectroscopy.

(1019)Beam functions for $N$-jettiness at N$^3$LO in perturbative QCD

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.05722

abstract +

We present a calculation of all matching coefficients for $N$-jettiness beam functions at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N$^3$LO) in perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Our computation is performed starting from the respective collinear splitting kernels, which we integrate using the axial gauge. We use reverse unitarity to map the relevant phase-space integrals to loop integrals, which allows us to employ multi-loop techniques including integration-by-parts identities and differential equations. We find a canonical basis and use an algorithm to establish non-trivial partial fraction relations among the resulting master integrals, which allows us to reduce their number substantially. By use of regularity conditions, we express all necessary boundary constants in terms of an independent set, which we compute by direct integration of the corresponding integrals in the soft limit. In this way, we provide an entirely independent calculation of the matching coefficients which were previously computed in arXiv:2006.03056.

(1018)Towards an automated data cleaning with deep learning in CRESST

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.00564

abstract +

The CRESST experiment employs cryogenic calorimeters for the sensitive measurement of nuclear recoils induced by dark matter particles. The recorded signals need to undergo a careful cleaning process to avoid wrongly reconstructed recoil energies caused by pile-up and read-out artefacts. We frame this process as a time series classification task and propose to automate it with neural networks. With a data set of over one million labeled records from 68 detectors, recorded between 2013 and 2019 by CRESST, we test the capability of four commonly used neural network architectures to learn the data cleaning task. Our best performing model achieves a balanced accuracy of 0.932 on our test set. We show on an exemplary detector that about half of the wrongly predicted events are in fact wrongly labeled events, and a large share of the remaining ones have a context-dependent ground truth. We furthermore evaluate the recall and selectivity of our classifiers with simulated data. The results confirm that the trained classifiers are well suited for the data cleaning task.

(1017)Cosmic nucleosynthesis: A multi-messenger challenge

Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, 127
(11/2022)
doi:10.1016/j.ppnp.2022.103983

abstract +

The origins of the elements and isotopes of cosmic material is a critical aspect of understanding the evolution of the universe. Nucleosynthesis typically requires physical conditions of high temperatures and densities. These are found in the Big Bang, in the interiors of stars, and in explosions with their compressional shocks and high neutrino and neutron fluxes. Many different tools are available to disentangle the composition of cosmic matter, in material of extraterrestrial origins such as cosmic rays, meteorites, stardust grains, lunar and terrestrial sediments, and through astronomical observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. Understanding cosmic abundances and their evolution requires combining such measurements with approaches of astrophysical, nuclear theories and laboratory experiments, and exploiting additional cosmic messengers, such as neutrinos and gravitational waves. Recent years have seen significant progress in almost all these fields; they are presented in this review.

The Sun and the solar system are our reference system for abundances of elements and isotopes. Many direct and indirect methods are employed to establish a refined abundance record from the time when the Sun and the Earth were formed. Indications for nucleosynthesis in the local environment when the Sun was formed are derived from meteoritic material and inclusion of radioactive atoms in deep-sea sediments. Spectroscopy at many wavelengths and the neutrino flux from the hydrogen fusion processes in the Sun have established a refined model of how the nuclear energy production shapes stars. Models are required to explore nuclear fusion of heavier elements. These stellar evolution calculations have been confirmed by observations of nucleosynthesis products in the ejecta of stars and supernovae, as captured by stardust grains and by characteristic lines in spectra seen from these objects. One of the successes has been to directly observe γ rays from radioactive material synthesised in stellar explosions, which fully support the astrophysical models. Another has been the observation of radioactive afterglow and characteristic heavy-element spectrum from a neutron-star merger, confirming the neutron rich environments encountered in such rare explosions. The ejecta material captured by Earth over millions of years in sediments and identified through characteristic radio-isotopes suggests that nearby nucleosynthesis occurred in recent history, with further indications for sites of specific nucleosynthesis. Together with stardust and diffuse γ rays from radioactive ejecta, these help to piece together how cosmic materials are transported in interstellar space and re-cycled into and between generations of stars. Our description of cosmic compositional evolution needs such observational support, as it rests on several assumptions that appear challenged by recent recognition of violent events being common during evolution of a galaxy. This overview presents the flow of cosmic matter and the various sites of nucleosynthesis, as understood from combining many techniques and observations, towards the current knowledge of how the universe is enriched with elements.

(1016)Compact jets dominate the continuum emission in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.09828

abstract +

The disappearance of the accretion disc in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGN) leaves behind a faint optical nuclear continuum whose nature has been largely debated, mainly due to serious observational limitations in the IR to UV range. We combine multi-wavelength sub-arcsecond resolution observations -- able to isolate the genuine nuclear continuum -- with nebular lines in the mid-IR, to indirectly probe the shape of the extreme UV continuum. We found that 8 of the nearest prototype LLAGN are compatible with pure compact jet emission (self-absorbed synchrotron plus the associated self-Compton component) over more than ten orders of magnitude in frequency. When compared with typical radio galaxies, the LLAGN continua show two peculiarities: $i)$ a very steep spectral slope in the IR-to-optical/UV range ($-3.7 < \alpha_0 < -1.3$; $F_\nu \propto \nu^{\alpha_0}$); and $ii)$ a very high turnover frequency ($0.2-30\, \rm{THz}$; $1.3\,\rm{mm}-10\,\rm{\mu m}$). These attributes can be explained if the synchrotron continuum is mainly dominated by thermalised particles at the jet base or corona with considerably high temperatures, whereas only a small fraction of the energy ($\sim 20\%$) would be distributed along the high-energy power-law tail of accelerated particles. On the other hand, the nebular gas excitation in LLAGN is in agreement with photo-ionisation from inverse Compton radiation ($\alpha_{\rm x} \sim -0.7$), which would dominate the nuclear continuum shortwards of $\sim 3000$ Å. Our results suggest that the LLAGN continuum can be dominated at all wavelengths by undeveloped jets, powered by a thermalised particle distribution, similar to the behaviour observed in compact jets of quiescent black hole X-ray binaries. This has important implications in the context of galaxy evolution, since LLAGN may represent a major but underestimated source of kinetic feedback in galaxies.

(1015)Impact of half-wave plate systematics on the measurement of cosmic birefringence from CMB polarization

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.05685

abstract +

Polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) can probe new parity-violating physics such as cosmic birefringence (CB), which requires exquisite control over instrumental systematics. The non-idealities of the half-wave plate (HWP) represent a source of systematics when used as a polarization modulator. We study their impact on the CMB angular power spectra, which is partially degenerate with CB and miscalibration of the polarization angle. We use full-sky beam convolution simulations including HWP to generate mock noiseless time-ordered data, process them through a bin averaging map-maker, and calculate the power spectra including $TB$ and $EB$ correlations. We also derive analytical formulae which accurately model the observed spectra. For our choice of HWP parameters, the HWP-induced angle amounts to a few degrees, which could be misinterpreted as CB. Accurate knowledge of the HWP is required to mitigate this. Our simulation and analytical formulae will be useful for deriving requirements for the accuracy of HWP calibration.

(1014)Is the star formation rate in $z\sim 6$ quasars overestimated?

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.05790

abstract +

The large total infrared (TIR) luminosities ($L_{\rm TIR} \gtrsim 10^{12}~L_\odot$) observed in $z \sim 6$ quasars are generally converted into high star formation rates ($SFR \gtrsim 10^2~M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$) of their host galaxies. However, these estimates rely on the assumption that dust heating is dominated by stellar radiation, neglecting the contribution from the central Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We test the validity of this assumption by combining cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with radiative transfer calculations. We find that, when AGN radiation is included in the simulations, the mass (luminosity)-weighted dust temperature in the host galaxies increases from $T\approx 50$ K ($T \approx 70$ K) to $T\approx 80$ K ($T\approx 200$ K), suggesting that AGN effectively heat the bulk of dust in the host galaxy. We compute the AGN-host galaxy $SFR$ from the synthetic spectral energy distribution by using standard $SFR - L_{\rm TIR}$ relations, and compare the results with the "true" values in the simulations. We find that the $SFR$ is overestimated by a factor of $\approx 3$ ($\gtrsim 10$) for AGN bolometric luminosities of $L_{\rm bol} \approx 10^{12}~L_\odot$ ($\gtrsim 10^{13}~ L_\odot$), implying that the star formation rates of $z\sim 6$ quasars can be overestimated by over an order of magnitude.

(1013)MGLenS: Modified gravity weak lensing simulations for emulation-based cosmological inference

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.05779

abstract +

We present MGLenS, a large series of modified gravity lensing simulations tailored for cosmic shear data analyses and forecasts in which cosmological and modified gravity parameters are varied simultaneously. Based on the FORGE and BRIDGE $N$-body simulation suites presented in companion papers, we construct 500,000 deg$^2$ of mock Stage-IV lensing data, sampling a pair of 4-dimensional volumes designed for the training of emulators. We validate the accuracy of MGLenS with inference analyses based on the lensing power spectrum exploiting our implementation of $f(R)$ and nDGP theoretical predictions within the cosmoSIS cosmological inference package. A Fisher analysis reveals that the vast majority of the constraining power from such a survey comes from the highest redshift galaxies alone. We further find from a full likelihood sampling that cosmic shear can achieve 95% CL constraints on the modified gravity parameters of log$_{10}\left[ f_{R_0}\right] < -5.24$ and log$_{10}\left[ H_0 r_c\right] > -0.05$, after marginalising over intrinsic alignments of galaxies and including scales up to $\ell=5000$. Such a survey setup could in fact detect with more than $3\sigma$ confidence $f(R)$ values larger than $3 \times 10^{-6}$ and $H_0 r_c$ smaller than 1.0. Scale cuts at $\ell=3000$ reduce the degeneracy breaking between $S_8$ and the modified gravity parameters, while photometric redshift uncertainty seem to play a subdominant role in our error budget. We finally explore the consequences of analysing data with the wrong gravity model, and report the catastrophic biases for a number of possible scenarios. The Stage-IV MGLenS simulations, the FORGE and BRIDGE emulators and the cosmoSIS interface modules will be made publicly available upon journal acceptance.

(1012)Testing the galaxy collision induced formation scenario for the trail of dark matter deficient galaxies with the susceptibility of globular clusters to the tidal force

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.05993

abstract +

It has been suggested that a trail of diffuse galaxies, including two dark matter deficient galaxies (DMDGs), in the vicinity of NGC1052 formed because of a high-speed collision between two gas-rich dwarf galaxies, one bound to NGC1052 and the other one on an unbound orbit. The collision compresses the gas reservoirs of the colliding galaxies, which in turn triggers a burst of star formation. In contrast, the dark matter and pre-existing stars in the progenitor galaxies pass through it. Since the high pressures in the compressed gas are conducive to the formation of massive globular clusters (GCs), this scenario can explain the formation of DMDGs with large populations of massive GCs, consistent with the observations of NGC1052-DF2 (DF2) and NGC1052-DF4. A potential difficulty with this `mini bullet cluster' scenario is that the observed spatial distributions of GCs in DMDGs are extended. GCs experience dynamical friction causing their orbits to decay with time. Consequently, their distribution at formation should have been even more extended than that observed at present. Using a semi-analytic model, we show that the observed positions and velocities of the GCs in DF2 imply that they must have formed at a radial distance of 5-10kpc from the center of DF2. However, as we demonstrate, the scenario is difficult to reconcile with the fact that the strong tidal forces from NGC1052 strip the extendedly distributed GCs from DF2, requiring 33-59 massive GCs to form at the collision to explain observations.

(1011)PANDORA project: photo-nuclear reactions below $A=60$

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.03986

abstract +

Photo-nuclear reactions of light nuclei below a mass of $A=60$ are studied experimentally and theoretically by the PANDORA (Photo-Absorption of Nuclei and Decay Observation for Reactions in Astrophysics) project. Two experimental methods, virtual-photon excitation by proton scattering and real-photo absorption by a high-brilliance gamma-ray beam produced by laser Compton scattering, will be applied to measure the photo-absorption cross sections and the decay branching ratio of each decay channel as a function of the photon energy. Several nuclear models, e.g. anti-symmetrized molecular dynamics, mean-field type models, a large-scale shell model, and ab initio models, will be employed to predict the photo-nuclear reactions. The uncertainty in the model predictions will be evaluated from the discrepancies between the model predictions and the experimental data. The data and the predictions will be implemented in a general reaction calculation code TALYS . The results will be applied to the simulation of the photo-disintegration process of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays in inter-galactic propagation.

(1010)Modelling photo-evaporation in planet forming discs

arXiv e-prints
(11/2022)
e-Print:2211.10130

abstract +

Planets are born from the gas and dust discs surrounding young stars. Energetic radiation from the central star can drive thermal outflows from the discs atmospheres, strongly affecting the evolution of the discs and the nascent planetary system. In this context several numerical models of varying complexity have been developed to study the process of disc photoevaporation from their central stars. We describe the numerical techniques, the results and the predictivity of current models and identify observational tests to constrain them.

(1009)The MADPSZ catalogue of Planck clusters over the DES region: extending to lower mass and higher redshift

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.04666

abstract +

We present the first systematic follow-up of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) selected candidates down to signal-to-noise (S/N) of 3 over the 5000 deg$^2$ covered by the Dark Energy Survey. Using the MCMF cluster confirmation algorithm, we identify optical counterparts, determine photometric redshifts and richnesses and assign a parameter, $f_{\rm cont}$, that reflects the probability that each SZE-optical pairing represents a real cluster rather than a random superposition of physically unassociated systems. The new MADPSZ cluster catalogue consists of 1092 MCMF confirmed clusters and has a purity of 85%. We present the properties of subsamples of the MADPSZ catalogue that have purities ranging from 90% to 97.5%, depending on the adopted $f_{\rm cont}$ threshold. $M_{500}$ halo mass estimates, redshifts, richnesses, and optical centers are presented for all MADPSZ clusters. The MADPSZ catalogue adds 828 previously unknown Planck identified clusters over the DES footprint and provides redshifts for an additional 50 previously published Planck selected clusters with S/N>4.5. Using the subsample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate excellent cluster photo-$z$ performance with an RMS scatter in $\Delta z/(1+z)$ of 0.47%. Our MCMF based analysis allows us to infer the contamination fraction of the initial S/N>3 Planck selected candidate list, which is 50%. We present a method of estimating the completeness of the MADPSZ cluster sample and $f_{\rm cont}$ selected subsamples. In comparison to the previously published Planck cluster catalogues. this new S/N $>$ 3 MCMF confirmed cluster catalogue populates the lower mass regime at all redshifts and includes clusters up to z$\sim$1.3.

(1008)The Loop Momentum Amplituhedron

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.01127

abstract +

In this paper we focus on scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and define a long sought-after geometry, the loop momentum amplituhedron, which we conjecture to encode tree and (the integrands of) loop amplitudes in spinor helicity variables. Motivated by the structure of amplitude singularities, we define an extended positive space, which enhances the Grassmannian space featuring at tree level, and a map which associates to each of its points tree-level kinematic variables and loop momenta. The image of this map is the loop momentum amplituhedron. Importantly, our formulation provides a global definition of the loop momenta. We conjecture that for all multiplicities and helicity sectors, there exists a canonical logarithmic differential form defined on this space, and provide its explicit form in a few examples.

(1007)Modified gravity approaches to the cosmological constant problem

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.06810

abstract +

The cosmological constant and its phenomenology remain among the greatest puzzles in theoretical physics. We review how modifications of Einstein's general relativity could alleviate the different problems associated with it that result from the interplay of classical gravity and quantum field theory. We introduce a modern and concise language to describe the problems associated with its phenomenology, and inspect no-go theorems and their loopholes to motivate the approaches discussed here. Constrained gravity approaches exploit minimal departures from general relativity; massive gravity introduces mass to the graviton; Horndeski theories lead to the breaking of translational invariance of the vacuum; and models with extra dimensions change the symmetries of the vacuum. We also review screening mechanisms that have to be present in some of these theories if they aim to recover the success of general relativity on small scales as well. Finally, we summarise the statuses of these models in their attempt to solve the different cosmological constant problems while being able to account for current astrophysical and cosmological observations.

(1006)Pushing forward jet substructure measurements in heavy-ion collisions

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.07901

abstract +

Energetic jets that traverse the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy-ion collisions serve as excellent probes to study this new state of deconfined QCD matter. Presently, however, our ability to achieve a crisp theoretical interpretation of the crescent number of jet observables measured in experiments is hampered by the presence of selection biases. The aim of this work is to minimise those selection biases associated to the modification of the quark- vs. gluon-initiated jet fraction in order to assess the presence of other medium-induced effects, namely color decoherence, by exploring the rapidity dependence of jet substructure observables. So far, all jet substructure measurements at mid-rapidity have shown that heavy-ion jets are narrower than vacuum jets. We show both analytically and with Monte Carlo simulations that if the narrowing effect persists at forward rapidities, where the quark-initiated jet fraction is greatly increased, this could serve as an unambiguous experimental observation of color decoherence dynamics in heavy-ion collisions.

(1005)Monitoring accretion rate variability in the Orion Nebula Cluster with the Wendelstein Wide Field Imager

Astronomy and Astrophysics, 666, p12
(10/2022)
doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202142630

abstract +

Context. The understanding of the accretion process has a central role in the understanding of star and planet formation.

Aims: We aim to test how accretion variability influences previous correlation analyses of the relation between X-ray activity and accretion rates, which is important for understanding the evolution of circumstellar disks and disk photoevaporation.

Methods: We monitored accreting stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster from November 24, 2014, until February 17, 2019, for 42 epochs with the Wendelstein Wide Field Imager in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey u'g'r' filters on the 2 m Fraunhofer Telescope on Mount Wendelstein. Mass accretion rates were determined from the measured ultraviolet excess. The influence of the mass accretion rate variability on the relation between X-ray luminosities and mass accretion rates was analyzed statistically.

Results: We find a typical interquartile range of ∼0.3 dex for the mass accretion rate variability on timescales from weeks to ∼2 yr. The variability has likely no significant influence on a correlation analysis of the X-ray luminosity and the mass accretion rate observed at different times when the sample size is large enough.

Conclusions: The observed anticorrelation between the X-ray luminosity and the mass accretion rate predicted by models of photoevaporation-starved accretion is likely not due to a bias introduced by different observing times.

Full Tables 1-3 and reduced data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/666/A55

(1004)Enhancing Searches for Heavy QCD Axions via Dimuon Final States

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.02462

abstract +

Heavy QCD axions are well-motivated extensions of the QCD axion that address the quality problem while still solving the strong CP problem. Owing to the gluon coupling, critical for solving the strong CP problem, these axions can be produced in significant numbers in beam dump and collider environments for axion decay constants as large as PeV, relevant for addressing the axion quality problem. In addition, if these axions have leptonic couplings, they can give rise to long-lived decay into lepton pairs, in particular, dominantly into muons above the dimuon threshold and below the GeV scale in a broad class of axion models. Considering existing constraints, primarily from rare meson decays, we demonstrate that current and future neutrino facilities and long-lived particle searches have the potential to probe significant parts of the heavy QCD axion parameter space via dimuon final states.

(1003)Mapping gas around massive galaxies: cross-correlation of DES Y3 galaxies and Compton-$y$-maps from SPT and Planck

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.08633

abstract +

We cross-correlate positions of galaxies measured in data from the first three years of the Dark Energy Survey with Compton-$y$-maps generated using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the {\it Planck} mission. We model this cross-correlation measurement together with the galaxy auto-correlation to constrain the distribution of gas in the Universe. We measure the hydrostatic mass bias or, equivalently, the mean halo bias-weighted electron pressure $\langle b_{h}P_{e}\rangle$, using large-scale information. We find $\langle b_{h}P_{e}\rangle$ to be $[0.16^{+0.03}_{-0.04},0.28^{+0.04}_{-0.05},0.45^{+0.06}_{-0.10},0.54^{+0.08}_{-0.07},0.61^{+0.08}_{-0.06},0.63^{+0.07}_{-0.08}]$ meV cm$^{-3}$ at redshifts $z \sim [0.30, 0.46, 0.62,0.77, 0.89, 0.97]$. These values are consistent with previous work where measurements exist in the redshift range. We also constrain the mean gas profile using small-scale information, enabled by the high-resolution of the SPT data. We compare our measurements to different parametrized profiles based on the cosmo-OWLS hydrodynamical simulations. We find that our data are consistent with the simulation that assumes an AGN heating temperature of $10^{8.5}$K but are incompatible with the model that assumes an AGN heating temperature of $10^{8.0}$K. These comparisons indicate that the data prefer a higher value of electron pressure than the simulations within $r_{500c}$ of the galaxies' halos.

(1002)ALMACAL IX: multi-band ALMA survey for dusty star-forming galaxies and the resolved fractions of the cosmic infrared background

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.09329

abstract +

Wide, deep, blind continuum surveys at submillimetre/millimetre (submm/mm) wavelengths are required to provide a full inventory of the dusty, distant Universe. However, conducting such surveys to the necessary depth, with sub-arcsec angular resolution, is prohibitively time-consuming, even for the most advanced submm/mm telescopes. Here, we report the most recent results from the ALMACAL project, which exploits the 'free' calibration data from the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) to map the lines of sight towards and beyond the ALMA calibrators. ALMACAL has now covered 1,001 calibrators, with a total sky coverage around 0.3 deg2, distributed across the sky accessible from the Atacama desert, and has accumulated more than 1,000h of integration. The depth reached by combining multiple visits to each field makes ALMACAL capable of searching for faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), with detections at multiple frequencies to constrain the emission mechanism. Based on the most up-to-date ALMACAL database, we report the detection of 186 DSFGs with flux densities down to S870um ~ 0.2mJy, comparable with existing ALMA large surveys but less susceptible to cosmic variance. We report the number counts at five wavelengths between 870um and 3mm, in ALMA bands 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, providing a benchmark for models of galaxy formation and evolution. By integrating the observed number counts and the best-fitting functions, we also present the resolved fraction of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and the CIB spectral shape. Combining existing surveys, ALMA has currently resolved about half of the CIB in the submm/mm regime.

(1001)Beyond $\Lambda$CDM constraints from the full shape clustering measurements from BOSS and eBOSS

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.07304

abstract +

We analyse the full shape of anisotropic clustering measurements from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic survey (eBOSS) quasar sample together with the combined galaxy sample from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We obtain constraints on the cosmological parameters independent of the Hubble parameter $h$ for the extensions of the $\Lambda$CDM models, focusing on cosmologies with free dark energy equation of state parameter $w$. We combine the clustering constraints with those from the latest CMB data from Planck to obtain joint constraints for these cosmologies for $w$ and the additional extension parameters - its time evolution $w_{\rm{a}}$, the physical curvature density $\omega_{K}$ and the neutrino mass sum $\sum m_{\nu}$. Our joint constraints are consistent with flat $\Lambda$CDM cosmological model within 68\% confidence limits. We demonstrate that the Planck data are able to place tight constraints on the clustering amplitude today, $\sigma_{12}$, in cosmologies with varying $w$ and present the first constraints for the clustering amplitude for such cosmologies, which is found to be slightly higher than the $\Lambda$CDM value. Additionally, we show that when we vary $w$ and allow for non-flat cosmologies and the physical curvature density is used, Planck prefers a curved universe at $4\sigma$ significance, which is $\sim2\sigma$ higher than when using the relative curvature density $\Omega_{\rm{K}}$. Finally, when $w$ is varied freely, clustering provides only a modest improvement (of 0.021 eV) on the upper limit of $\sum m_{\nu}$.

(1000)Evidence for past interaction with an asymmetric circumstellar shell in the young SNR Cassiopeia A

Astronomy and Astrophysics, 666, p19
(10/2022)
doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202243258

abstract +

Context. Observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cassiopeia A (Cas A) show significant asymmetries in the reverse shock that cannot be explained by models describing a remnant expanding through a spherically symmetric wind of the progenitor star.

Aims: We investigate whether a past interaction of Cas A with a massive asymmetric shell of the circumstellar medium can account for the observed asymmetries of the reverse shock.

Methods: We performed three-dimensional (3D) (magneto)-hydrodynamic simulations that describe the remnant evolution from the SN explosion to its interaction with a massive circumstellar shell. The initial conditions (soon after the shock breakout at the stellar surface) are provided by a 3D neutrino-driven SN model whose morphology closely resembles Cas A and the SNR simulations cover ≈2000 yr of evolution. We explored the parameter space of the shell, searching for a set of parameters able to produce an inward-moving reverse shock in the western hemisphere of the remnant at the age of ≈350 yr, analogous to that observed in Cas A.

Results: The interaction of the remnant with the shell can produce asymmetries resembling those observed in the reverse shock if the shell was asymmetric with the densest portion in the (blueshifted) nearside to the northwest (NW). According to our favorite model, the shell was thin (thickness σ ≈ 0.02 pc) with a radius r_{sh} ≈ 1.5 pc from the center of the explosion. The reverse shock shows the following asymmetries at the age of Cas A: (i) it moves inward in the observer frame in the NW region, while it moves outward in most other regions; (ii) the geometric center of the reverse shock is offset to the NW by ≈0.1 pc from the geometric center of the forward shock; and (iii) the reverse shock in the NW region has enhanced nonthermal emission because, there, the ejecta enter the reverse shock with a higher relative velocity (between 4000 and 7000 km s^{−1}) than in other regions (below 2000 km s^{−1}).

Conclusions: The large-scale asymmetries observed in the reverse shock of Cas A can be interpreted as signatures of the interaction of the remnant with an asymmetric dense circumstellar shell that occurred between ≈180 and ≈240 yr after the SN event. We suggest that the shell was, most likely, the result of a massive eruption from the progenitor star that occurred between 10^{4} and 10^{5} yr prior to core-collapse. We estimate a total mass of the shell of the order of 2 M_{⊙}.

(999)BIFROST: simulating compact subsystems in star clusters using a hierarchical fourth-order forward symplectic integrator code

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.02472

abstract +

We present BIFROST, an extended version of the GPU-accelerated hierarchical fourth-order forward symplectic integrator code FROST. BIFROST (BInaries in FROST) can efficiently evolve collisional stellar systems with arbitrary binary fractions up to $f_\mathrm{bin}=100\%$ by using secular and regularised integration for binaries, triples, multiple systems or small clusters around black holes within the fourth-order forward integrator framework. Post-Newtonian (PN) terms up to order PN3.5 are included in the equations of motion of compact subsystems with optional three-body and spin-dependent terms. PN1.0 terms for interactions with black holes are computed everywhere in the simulation domain. The code has several merger criteria (gravitational-wave inspirals, tidal disruption events and stellar and compact object collisions) with the addition of relativistic recoil kicks for compact object mergers. We show that for systems with $N$ particles the scaling of the code remains good up to $N_\mathrm{GPU} \sim 40\times N / 10^6$ GPUs and that the increasing binary fractions up to 100 per cent hardly increase the code running time (less than a factor $\sim 1.5$). We also validate the numerical accuracy of BIFROST by presenting a number of star clusters simulations the most extreme ones including a core collapse and a merger of two intermediate mass black holes with a relativistic recoil kick.

(998)Exploring the cosmological synergy between galaxy cluster and cosmic void number counts

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.07248

abstract +

Galaxy clusters and cosmic voids are the most extreme objects of our Universe in terms of mass and size, tracing two opposite sides of the large-scale matter density field. By studying their abundance as a function of their mass and radius, respectively, i.e. the halo mass function (HMF) and void size function (VSF), it is possible to achieve fundamental constraints on the cosmological model. While the HMF has already been extensively exploited providing robust constraints on the main cosmological model parameters (e.g. $\Omega_{\rm m}$, $\sigma_8$ and $S_8$), the VSF is still emerging as a viable and effective cosmological probe. Given the expected complementarity of these statistics, in this work we aim at estimating the costraining power deriving from their combination. To achieve this goal, we exploit realistic mock samples of galaxy clusters and voids extracted from state-of-the-art large hydrodynamical simulations, in the redshift range $0.2 \leq z \leq 1$. We perform an accurate calibration of the free parameters of the HMF and VSF models, needed to take into account the differences between the types of mass tracers used in this work and those considered in previous literature analyses. Then, we obtain constraints on $\Omega_{\rm m}$ and $\sigma_8$ by performing a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis. We find that cluster and void counts represent powerful independent and complementary probes to test the cosmological framework. In particular, we found that the constraining power of the HMF on $\Omega_{\rm m}$ and $\sigma_8$ improves drastically with the VSF contribution, increasing the $S_8$ constraint precision by a factor of about $60\%$.

(997)The interplay between forming planets and photo-evaporating discs I: Forbidden line diagnostics

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.06097

abstract +

Disc winds and planet formation are considered to be two of the most important mechanisms that drive the evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary discs and in turn define the environment in which planets form and evolve. While both have been studied extensively in the past, we combine them into one model by performing three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of giant planet hosting discs that are undergoing X-ray photo-evaporation, with the goal to analyse the interactions between both mechanisms. In order to study the effect on observational diagnostics, we produce synthetic observations of commonly used wind-tracing forbidden emission lines with detailed radiative transfer and photo-ionisation calculations. We find that a sufficiently massive giant planet carves a gap in the gas disc that is deep enough to affect the structure and kinematics of the pressure-driven photo-evaporative wind significantly. This effect can be strong enough to be visible in the synthetic high-resolution observations of some of our wind diagnostic lines, such as the [OI] 6300 Å or [SII] 6730 Å lines. When the disc is observed at inclinations around 40° and higher, the spectral line profiles may exhibit a peak in the redshifted part of the spectrum, which cannot easily be explained by simple wind models alone. Moreover, massive planets can induce asymmetric substructures within the disc and the photo-evaporative wind, giving rise to temporal variations of the line profiles that can be strong enough to be observable on timescales of less than a quarter of the planet's orbital period.

(996)Soft-Collinear Gravity and Soft Theorems

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.09336

abstract +

This chapter reviews the construction of ``soft-collinear gravity'', the effective field theory which describes the interaction of collinear and soft gravitons with matter (and themselves), to all orders in the soft-collinear power expansion, focusing on the essential concepts. Among them are an emergent soft background gauge symmetry, which lives on the light-like trajectories of energetic particles and allows for a manifestly gauge-invariant representation of the interactions in terms of a soft covariant derivative and the soft Riemann tensor, and a systematic treatment of collinear interactions, which are absent at leading power in gravity. The gravitational soft theorems are derived from soft-collinear gravity at the Lagrangian level. The symmetries of the effective theory provide a transparent explanation of why soft graviton emission is universal to sub-sub-leading power, but gauge boson emission is not and suggest a physical interpretation of the form of the universal soft factors in terms of the charges corresponding to the soft symmetries. The power counting of soft-collinear gravity further provides an understanding of the structure of loop corrections to the soft theorems.

(995)Multi-messenger characterization of Mrk 501 during historically low X-ray and $\gamma$-ray activity

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.02547

abstract +

We study the broadband emission of the TeV blazar Mrk501 using multi-wavelength (MWL) observations from 2017 to 2020 performed with a multitude of instruments, involving, among others, MAGIC, Fermi-LAT, NuSTAR, Swift, GASP-WEBT, and OVRO. During this period, Mrk501 showed an extremely low broadband activity, which may help to unravel its baseline emission. Despite the low activity, significant flux variations are detected at all wavebands, with the highest variations occurring at X-rays and VHE $\gamma$-rays. A significant correlation (>3$\sigma$) between X-rays and VHE $\gamma$-rays is measured, supporting leptonic scenarios to explain the variable parts of the spectral energy distribution (SED), also during low activity states. Extending our data set to 12-years (from 2008 to 2020), we find significant correlations between X-rays and HE $\gamma$-rays, indicating, for the first time, a common physical origin driving the variability between these two bands. We additionally find a correlation between HE $\gamma$-rays and radio, with the radio emission lagging the HE $\gamma$-ray emission by more than 100 days. This is consistent with the $\gamma$-ray emission zone being located upstream of the radio-bright regions of the Mrk501 jet. Furthermore, Mrk501 showed a historically low activity in both X-rays and VHE $\gamma$-rays from mid-2017 to mid-2019 with a stable VHE flux (>2TeV) of 5% the emission of the Crab Nebula. The broadband SED of this 2-year long low-state, the potential baseline emission of Mrk501, can be adequately characterized with a one-zone leptonic model, and with (lepto)-hadronic models that fulfill the neutrino flux constraints from IceCube. We explore the time evolution of the SED towards the historically low-state, revealing that the stable baseline emission may be ascribed to a standing shock, and the variable emission to an additional expanding or traveling shock.

(994)Why Cosmic Voids Matter: Nonlinear Structure & Linear Dynamics

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.02457

abstract +

We use the Magneticum suite of state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations to identify cosmic voids based on the watershed technique and investigate their most fundamental properties across different resolutions in mass and scale. This encompasses the distributions of void sizes, shapes, and content, as well as their radial density and velocity profiles traced by the distribution of cold dark matter particles and halos. We also study the impact of various tracer properties, such as their sparsity and mass, and the influence of void merging on these summary statistics. Our results reveal that all of the analyzed void properties are physically related to each other and describe universal characteristics that are largely independent of tracer type and resolution. Most notably, we find that the motion of tracers around void centers is perfectly consistent with linear dynamics, both for individual, as well as stacked voids. Despite the large range of scales accessible in our simulations, we are unable to identify the occurrence of nonlinear dynamics even inside voids of only a few Mpc in size. This suggests voids to be among the most pristine probes of cosmology down to scales that are commonly referred to as highly nonlinear in the field of large-scale structure.

(993)Landau and leading singularities in arbitrary space-time dimensions

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.09872

abstract +

Using the decomposition of the $D$-dimensional space-time into parallel and perpendicular subspaces, we study and prove a connection between Landau and leading singularities for $N$-point one-loop Feynman integrals by applying multi-dimensional theory of residues. We show that if $D=N$ and $D=N+1$, the leading singularity corresponds to the inverse of the square root of the leading Landau singularity of the first and second type, respectively. We make use of this outcome to systematically provide differential equations of Feynman integrals in canonical forms and the extension of the connection of these singularities at multi-loop level by exploiting the loop-by-loop approach. Illustrative examples with the calculation of Landau and leading singularities are provided to supplement our results.

(992)Perturbation theory with dispersion and higher cumulants: non-linear regime

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.08089

abstract +

We present non-linear solutions of Vlasov Perturbation Theory (VPT), describing gravitational clustering of collisionless dark matter with dispersion and higher cumulants induced by orbit crossing. We show that VPT can be cast into a form that is formally analogous to standard perturbation theory (SPT), but including additional perturbation variables, non-linear interactions, and a more complex propagation. VPT non-linear kernels have a crucial decoupling property: for fixed total momentum, the kernels becomes strongly suppressed when any of the individual momenta cross the dispersion scale into the non-linear regime. This screening of UV modes allows us to compute non-linear corrections to power spectra even for cosmologies with very blue power-law input spectra, for which SPT diverges. We compare predictions for the density and velocity divergence power spectra as well as the bispectrum at one-loop order to N-body results in a scaling universe with spectral indices $-1\leq n_s\leq +2$. We find a good agreement up to the non-linear scale for all cases, with a reach that increases with the spectral index $n_s$. We discuss the generation of vorticity as well as vector and tensor modes of the velocity dispersion, showing that neglecting vorticity when including dispersion would lead to a violation of momentum conservation. We verify momentum conservation when including vorticity, and compute the vorticity power spectrum at two-loop order, necessary to recover the correct large-scale limit with slope $n_w=2$. Comparing to our N-body measurements confirms the cross-over from $k^4$ to $k^2$ scaling on large scales. Our results provide a proof-of-principle that perturbative techniques for dark matter clustering can be systematically improved based on the known underlying collisionless dynamics.

(991)Robustness of cosmic birefringence measurement against Galactic foreground emission and instrumental systematics

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.07655

abstract +

The polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) can be used to search for parity-violating processes like that predicted by a Chern-Simons coupling to a light pseudoscalar field. Such an interaction rotates $E$ modes into $B$ modes in the observed CMB signal by an effect known as cosmic birefringence. Even though isotropic birefringence can be confused with the rotation produced by a miscalibration of the detectors' polarization angles the degeneracy between both effects is broken when Galactic foreground emission is used as a calibrator. In this work, we use realistic simulations of the High-Frequency Instrument of the Planck mission to test the impact that Galactic foreground emission and instrumental systematics have on the recent birefringence measurements obtained through this technique. Our results demonstrate the robustness of the methodology against the miscalibration of polarization angles and other systematic effects, like intensity-to-polarization leakage, beam leakage, or cross-polarization effects. However, our estimator is sensitive to the $EB$ correlation of polarized foreground emission. Here we propose to correct the bias induced by dust $EB$ by modeling the foreground signal with templates produced in Bayesian component-separation analyses that fit parametric models to CMB data. Acknowledging the limitations of currently available dust templates like that of the Commander sky model, high-precision CMB data and a characterization of dust beyond the modified blackbody paradigm are needed to obtain a definitive measurement of cosmic birefringence in the future.

(990)Perturbation theory with dispersion and higher cumulants: framework and linear theory

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.08088

abstract +

The standard perturbation theory (SPT) approach to gravitational clustering is based on a fluid approximation of the underlying Vlasov-Poisson dynamics, taking only the zeroth and first cumulant of the phase-space distribution function into account (density and velocity fields). This assumption breaks down when dark matter particle orbits cross and leads to well-known problems, e.g. an anomalously large backreaction of small-scale modes onto larger scales that compromises predictivity. We extend SPT by incorporating second and higher cumulants generated by orbit crossing. For collisionless matter, their equations of motion are completely fixed by the Vlasov-Poisson system, and thus we refer to this approach as Vlasov Perturbation Theory (VPT). Even cumulants develop a background value, and they enter the hierarchy of coupled equations for the fluctuations. The background values are in turn sourced by power spectra of the fluctuations. The latter can be brought into a form that is formally analogous to SPT, but with an extended set of variables and linear as well as non-linear terms, that we derive explicitly. In this paper, we focus on linear solutions, which are far richer than in SPT, showing that modes that cross the dispersion scale set by the second cumulant are highly suppressed. We derive stability conditions on the background values of even cumulants from the requirement that exponential instabilities be absent. We also compute the expected magnitude of averaged higher cumulants for various halo models and show that they satisfy the stability conditions. Finally, we derive self-consistent solutions of perturbations and background values for a scaling universe and study the convergence of the cumulant expansion. The VPT framework provides a conceptually straightforward and deterministic extension of SPT that accounts for the decoupling of small-scale modes.

(989)Indirect upper limits on $\ell_i\to\ell_j\gamma\gamma$ from $\ell_i\to\ell_j\gamma$

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.05703

abstract +

We perform an effective field theory analysis to correlate the charged lepton flavor violating processes $\ell_i\to\ell_j\gamma\gamma$ and $\ell_i\to\ell_j\gamma$. Using the current upper bounds on the rate for $\ell_i\to\ell_j\gamma$, we derive model-independent upper limits on the rates for $\ell_i\to\ell_j\gamma\gamma$. Our indirect limits are about three orders of magnitude stronger than the direct bounds from current searches for $\mu\to e\gamma\gamma$, and four orders of magnitude better than current bounds for $\tau\to\ell\gamma\gamma$. We also stress the relevance of Belle II or a Super Tau Charm Facility to discover the rare decay $\tau\to\ell\gamma\gamma$.

(988)The MADPSZ catalogue of Planck clusters over the DES region: extending to lower mass and higher redshift

(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.04666

abstract +
We present the first systematic follow-up of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) selected candidates down to signal-to-noise (S/N) of 3 over the 5000 deg$^2$ covered by the Dark Energy Survey. Using the MCMF cluster confirmation algorithm, we identify optical counterparts, determine photometric redshifts and richnesses and assign a parameter, $f_{\rm cont}$, that reflects the probability that each SZE-optical pairing represents a real cluster rather than a random superposition of physically unassociated systems. The new MADPSZ cluster catalogue consists of 1092 MCMF confirmed clusters and has a purity of 85%. We present the properties of subsamples of the MADPSZ catalogue that have purities ranging from 90% to 97.5%, depending on the adopted $f_{\rm cont}$ threshold. $M_{500}$ halo mass estimates, redshifts, richnesses, and optical centers are presented for all MADPSZ clusters. The MADPSZ catalogue adds 828 previously unknown Planck identified clusters over the DES footprint and provides redshifts for an additional 50 previously published Planck selected clusters with S/N>4.5. Using the subsample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate excellent cluster photo-$z$ performance with an RMS scatter in $\Delta z/(1+z)$ of 0.47%. Our MCMF based analysis allows us to infer the contamination fraction of the initial S/N>3 Planck selected candidate list, which is 50%. We present a method of estimating the completeness of the MADPSZ cluster sample and $f_{\rm cont}$ selected subsamples. In comparison to the previously published Planck cluster catalogues. this new S/N $>$ 3 MCMF confirmed cluster catalogue populates the lower mass regime at all redshifts and includes clusters up to z$\sim$1.3.

(987)Why Cosmic Voids Matter: Nonlinear Structure & Linear Dynamics

(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.02457

abstract +
We use the Magneticum suite of state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations to identify cosmic voids based on the watershed technique and investigate their most fundamental properties across different resolutions in mass and scale. This encompasses the distributions of void sizes, shapes, and content, as well as their radial density and velocity profiles traced by the distribution of cold dark matter particles and halos. We also study the impact of various tracer properties, such as their sparsity and mass, and the influence of void merging on these summary statistics. Our results reveal that all of the analyzed void properties are physically related to each other and describe universal characteristics that are largely independent of tracer type and resolution. Most notably, we find that the motion of tracers around void centers is perfectly consistent with linear dynamics, both for individual, as well as stacked voids. Despite the large range of scales accessible in our simulations, we are unable to identify the occurrence of nonlinear dynamics even inside voids of only a few Mpc in size. This suggests voids to be among the most pristine probes of cosmology down to scales that are commonly referred to as highly nonlinear in the field of large-scale structure.

(986)Forecasting cosmological parameter constraints using multiple sparsity measurements as tracers of the mass profiles of dark matter haloes

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 516, p16
(10/2022)
doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2196

abstract +

The dark matter halo sparsity, i.e. the ratio between spherical halo masses enclosing two different overdensities, provides a non-parametric proxy of the halo mass distribution that has been shown to be a sensitive probe of the cosmological imprint encoded in the mass profile of haloes hosting galaxy clusters. Mass estimations at several overdensities would allow for multiple sparsity measurements, which can potentially retrieve the entirety of the cosmological information imprinted on the halo profile. Here, we investigate the impact of multiple sparsity measurements on the cosmological model parameter inference. For this purpose, we analyse N-body halo catalogues from the Raygal and M2Csims simulations and evaluate the correlations among six different sparsities from spherical overdensity halo masses at Δ = 200, 500, 1000, and 2500 (in units of the critical density). Remarkably, sparsities associated to distinct halo mass shells are not highly correlated. This is not the case for sparsities obtained using halo masses estimated from the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) best-fitting profile, which artificially correlates different sparsities to order one. This implies that there is additional information in the mass profile beyond the NFW parametrization and that it can be exploited with multiple sparsities. In particular, from a likelihood analysis of synthetic average sparsity data, we show that cosmological parameter constraints significantly improve when increasing the number of sparsity combinations, though the constraints saturate beyond four sparsity estimates. We forecast constraints for the CHEX-MATE cluster sample and find that systematic mass bias errors mildly impact the parameter inference, though more studies are needed in this direction.

(985)The MillenniumTNG Project: High-precision predictions for matter clustering and halo statistics

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.10059

abstract +

Cosmological inference with large galaxy surveys requires theoretical models that combine precise predictions for large-scale structure with robust and flexible galaxy formation modelling throughout a sufficiently large cosmic volume. Here, we introduce the MillenniumTNG (MTNG) project which combines the hydrodynamical galaxy formation model of IllustrisTNG with the large volume of the Millennium simulation. Our largest hydrodynamic simulation, covering (500 Mpc/h)^3 = (740 Mpc)^3, is complemented by a suite of dark-matter-only simulations with up to 4320^3 dark matter particles (a mass resolution of 1.32 x 10^8 Msun/h) using the fixed-and-paired technique to reduce large-scale cosmic variance. The hydro simulation adds 4320^3 gas cells, achieving a baryonic mass resolution of 2 x 10^7 Msun/h. High time-resolution merger trees and direct lightcone outputs facilitate the construction of a new generation of semi-analytic galaxy formation models that can be calibrated against both the hydro simulation and observation, and then applied to even larger volumes - MTNG includes a flagship simulation with 1.1 trillion dark matter particles and massive neutrinos in a volume of (3000 Mpc)^3. In this introductory analysis we carry out convergence tests on basic measures of non-linear clustering such as the matter power spectrum, the halo mass function and halo clustering, and we compare simulation predictions to those from current cosmological emulators. We also use our simulations to study matter and halo statistics, such as halo bias and clustering at the baryonic acoustic oscillation scale. Finally we measure the impact of baryonic physics on the matter and halo distributions.

(984)The MillenniumTNG Project: Inferring cosmology from galaxy clustering with accelerated N-body scaling and subhalo abundance matching

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.10075

abstract +

We introduce a novel technique for constraining cosmological parameters and galaxy assembly bias using non-linear redshift-space clustering of galaxies. We scale cosmological N-body simulations and insert galaxies with the SubHalo Abundance Matching extended (SHAMe) empirical model to generate over 175,000 clustering measurements spanning all relevant cosmological and SHAMe parameter values. We then build an emulator capable of reproducing the projected galaxy correlation function at the monopole, quadrupole and hexadecapole level for separations between $0.1\,h^{-1}{\rm Mpc}$ and $25\,h^{-1}{\rm Mpc}$. We test this approach by using the emulator and Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) inference to jointly estimate cosmology and assembly bias parameters both for the MTNG740 hydrodynamic simulation and for a semi-analytical galaxy formation model (SAM) built on the MTNG740-DM dark matter-only simulation, obtaining unbiased results for all cosmological parameters. For instance, for MTNG740 and a galaxy number density of $n\sim 0.01 h^{3}{\rm Mpc}^{-3}$, we obtain $\sigma_{8}=0.799^{+0.039}_{-0.044}$ ($\sigma_{8,{\rm MTNG}} =$ 0.8159), and $\Omega_\mathrm{M}h^2= 0.138^{+ 0.025}_{- 0.018}$ ($\Omega_{\mathrm{M}} h^2_{\rm MTNG} =$ 0.142). For fixed Hubble parameter ($h$), the constraint becomes $\Omega_\mathrm{M}h^2= 0.137^{+ 0.011}_{- 0.012}$. Our method performs similarly well for the SAM and for other tested sample densities. We almost always recover the true amount of galaxy assembly bias within one sigma. The best constraints are obtained when scales smaller than $2\,h^{-1}{\rm Mpc}$ are included, as well as when at least the projected correlation function and the monopole are incorporated. These methods offer a powerful way to constrain cosmological parameters using galaxy surveys.

(983)Endpoint factorization and next-to-leading power resummation of gluon thrust

Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory
(10/2022)

abstract +

Endpoint divergences in the convolution integrals appearing in next-to-leading-power factorization theorems prevent a straightforward application of standard methods to resum large logarithmic power-suppressed corrections in collider physics. We study the power-suppressed configuration of the thrust distribution in the two-jet region, where a gluon-initiated jet recoils against a quark-antiquark pair. With the aid of operatorial endpoint factorization conditions, we derive a factorization formula where the individual terms are free from endpoint divergences and can be written in terms of renormalized hard, (anti) collinear, and soft functions in four dimensions. This framework enables us to perform the first resummation of the endpoint-divergent SCET$_{\rm I}$ observables at the leading logarithmic accuracy using exclusively renormalization-group methods.

(982)The MillenniumTNG Project: An improved two-halo model for the galaxy-halo connection of red and blue galaxies

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.10072

abstract +

Approximate methods to populate dark matter halos with galaxies are of great utility to large galaxy surveys. However, the limitations of simple halo occupation models (HODs) preclude a full use of small-scale galaxy clustering data and call for more sophisticated models. We study two galaxy populations, luminous red galaxies (LRGs) and star-forming emission-line galaxies (ELGs), at two epochs, $z=1$ and $z=0$, in the large volume, high-resolution hydrodynamical simulation of the MillenniumTNG project. In a partner study we concentrated on the small-scale, one-halo regime down to $r\sim 0.1{\rm Mpc}/h$, while here we focus on modeling galaxy assembly bias in the two-halo regime, $r\gtrsim 1{\rm Mpc}/h$. Interestingly, the ELG signal exhibits scale dependence out to relatively large scales ($r\sim 20{\rm Mpc}/h$), implying that the linear bias approximation for this tracer is invalid on these scales, contrary to common assumptions. The 10-15\% discrepancy present in the standard halo model prescription is only reconciled when we augment our halo occupation model with a dependence on extrinsic halo properties ("shear" being the best-performing one) rather than intrinsic ones (e.g., concentration, peak mass). We argue that this fact constitutes evidence for two-halo galaxy conformity. Including tertiary assembly bias (i.e. a property beyond mass and "shear") is not an essential requirement for reconciling the galaxy assembly bias signal of LRGs, but the combination of external and internal properties is beneficial for recovering ELG the clustering. We find that centrals in low-mass haloes dominate the assembly bias signal of both populations. Finally, we explore the predictions of our model for higher-order statistics such as nearest-neighbor counts. The latter supplies additional information about galaxy assembly bias and can be used to break degeneracies between halo model parameters.

(981)Systematic parametrization of the leading B-meson light-cone distribution amplitude

Journal of High Energy Physics, 2022
(10/2022)
doi:10.1007/JHEP10(2022)162

abstract +

We propose a parametrization of the leading B-meson light-cone distribution amplitude (LCDA) in heavy-quark effective theory (HQET). In position space, it uses a conformal transformation that yields a systematic Taylor expansion and an integral bound, which enables control of the truncation error. Our parametrization further produces compact analytical expressions for a variety of derived quantities. At a given reference scale, our momentum-space parametrization corresponds to an expansion in associated Laguerre polynomials, which turn into confluent hypergeometric functions _{1}F_{1} under renormalization-group evolution at one-loop accuracy. Our approach thus allows a straightforward and transparent implementation of a variety of phenomenological constraints, regardless of their origin. Moreover, we can include theoretical information on the Taylor coefficients by using the local operator product expansion. We showcase the versatility of the parametrization in a series of phenomenological pseudo-fits.

(980)Lower-than-expected flare temperatures for TRAPPIST-1

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.11103

abstract +

Although high energetic radiation from flares is a potential threat to exoplanet atmospheres and may lead to surface sterilization, it might also provide the extra energy for low-mass stars needed to trigger and sustain prebiotic chemistry. We investigate two flares on TRAPPIST-1, an ultra-cool dwarf star that hosts seven exoplanets of which three lie within its habitable zone. The flares are detected in all four passbands of the MuSCAT2 allowing a determination of their temperatures and bolometric energies. We analyzed the light curves of the MuSCAT1 and MuSCAT2 instruments obtained between 2016 and 2021 in $g,r,i,z_\mathrm{s}$-filters. We conducted an automated flare search and visually confirmed possible flare events. We studied the temperature evolution, the global temperature, and the peak temperature of both flares. For the first time we infer effective black body temperatures of flares that occurred on TRAPPIST-1. The black body temperatures for the two TRAPPIST-1 flares derived from the SED are consistent with $T_\mathrm{SED} = 7940_{-390}^{+430}$K and $T_\mathrm{SED} = 6030_{-270}^{+300}$K. The flare black body temperatures at the peak are also calculated from the peak SED yielding $T_\mathrm{SEDp} = 13620_{-1220}^{1520}$K and $T_\mathrm{SEDp} = 8290_{-550}^{+660}$K. We show that for the ultra-cool M-dwarf TRAPPIST-1 the flare black body temperatures associated with the total continuum emission are lower and not consistent with the usually adopted assumption of 9000-10000 K. This could imply different and faster cooling mechanisms. Further multi-color observations are needed to investigate whether or not our observations are a general characteristic of ultra-cool M-dwarfs. This would have significant implications for the habitability of exoplanets around these stars because the UV surface flux is likely to be overestimated by the models with higher flare temperatures.

(979)Spin fields for the spinning particle

Journal of High Energy Physics, 2022
(10/2022)
doi:10.1007/JHEP10(2022)117

abstract +

We propose an analogue of spin fields for the relativistic RNS-particle in 4 dimensions, in order to describe Ramond-Ramond states as "two-particle" excitations on the world line. On a natural representation space we identify a differential whose cohomology agrees with RR-fields equations. We then discuss the non-linear theory encoded in deformations of the latter by background fields. We also formulate a sigma model for this spin field from which we recover the RNS-formulation by imposing suitable constraints.

(978)Toward a population synthesis of disks and planets. I. Evolution of dust with entrainment in winds and radiation pressure

Astronomy and Astrophysics, 666, p15
(10/2022)
doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202243262

abstract +

Context. Millimeter astronomy provides valuable information on the birthplaces of planetary systems. In order to compare theoretical models with observations, the dust component has to be carefully calculated.

Aims: Here, we aim to study the effects of dust entrainment in photoevaporative winds, and the ejection and drag of dust due to the effects caused by radiation from the central star.

Methods: We improved and extended the existing implementation of a two-population dust and pebble description in the global Bern/Heidelberg planet formation and evolution model. Modern prescriptions for photoevaporative winds were used and we accounted for settling and advection of dust when calculating entrainment rates. In order to prepare for future population studies with varying conditions, we explored a wide range of disk, photoevaporation, and dust parameters.

Results: If dust can grow to pebble sizes, that is, if they are resistant to fragmentation or turbulence is weak, drift dominates and the entrained mass is small but larger than under the assumption of no vertical advection of grains with the gas flow. For the case of fragile dust shattering at velocities of 1m s^{−1} - as indicated in laboratory experiments -, an order of magnitude more dust is entrained, which becomes the main dust removal process. Radiation pressure effects disperse massive, dusty disks on timescales of a few hundred Myr.

Conclusions: These results highlight the importance of dust entrainment in winds as a solid-mass removal process. Furthermore, this model extension lays the foundations for future statistical studies of the formation of planets in their birth environment.

(977)The phase structure of cosmic ray driven outflows in stream fed disc galaxies

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.17328

abstract +

Feeding with gas in streams is predicted to be an important galaxy growth mechanism. Using an idealised setup, we study the impact of stream feeding (with 10$^7$ M$_{\odot}$ Myr$^{-1}$ rate) on the star formation and outflows of disc galaxies with $\sim$10$^{11}$ M$_{\odot}$ baryonic mass. The magneto-hydrodynamical simulations are carried out with the PIERNIK code and include star formation, feedback from supernova, and cosmic ray advection and diffusion. We find that stream accretion enhances galactic star formation. Lower angular momentum streams result in more compact discs, higher star formation rates and stronger outflows. In agreement with previous studies, models including cosmic rays launch stronger outflows travelling much further into the galactic halo. Cosmic ray supported outflows are also cooler than supernova only driven outflows. With cosmic rays, the star formation is suppressed and the thermal pressure is reduced. We find evidence for two distinct outflow phases. The warm outflows have high angular momentum and stay close to the galactic disc, while the hot outflow phase has low angular momentum and escapes from the centre deep into the halo. Cosmic rays can therefore have a strong impact on galaxy evolution by removing low angular momentum, possibly metal enriched gas from the disc and injecting it into the circumgalactic medium.

(976)ALMACAL IX: Multi-band ALMA survey for dusty star-forming galaxies and the resolved fractions of the cosmic infrared background

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
(10/2022)
doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2989

abstract +

Wide, deep, blind continuum surveys at submillimetre/millimetre (submm/mm) wavelengths are required to provide a full inventory of the dusty, distant Universe. However, conducting such surveys to the necessary depth, with sub-arcsec angular resolution, is prohibitively time-consuming, even for the most advanced submm/mm telescopes. Here, we report the most recent results from the ALMACAL project, which exploits the 'free' calibration data from the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) to map the lines of sight towards and beyond the ALMA calibrators. ALMACAL has now covered 1,001 calibrators, with a total sky coverage around 0.3 deg^{2}, distributed across the sky accessible from the Atacama desert, and has accumulated more than 1,000 h of integration. The depth reached by combining multiple visits to each field makes ALMACAL capable of searching for faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), with detections at multiple frequencies to constrain the emission mechanism. Based on the most up-to-date ALMACAL database, we report the detection of 186 DSFGs with flux densities down to S_{870μm} ~ 0.2 mJy, comparable with existing ALMA large surveys but less susceptible to cosmic variance. We report the number counts at five wavelengths between 870 μm and 3 mm, in ALMA bands 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, providing a benchmark for models of galaxy formation and evolution. By integrating the observed number counts and the best-fitting functions, we also present the resolved fraction of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and the CIB spectral shape. Combining existing surveys, ALMA has currently resolved about half of the CIB in the submm/mm regime.

(975)Cosmic voids as cosmological laboratories

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.17459

abstract +

Cosmic voids are promising cosmological laboratories for studying the dark energy phenomenon and alternative gravity theories. They are receiving special attention nowadays in view of the new generation of galaxy spectroscopic surveys, which are covering an unprecedented volume and redshift range. There are two primary statistics in void studies: (i) the void size function, which characterises the abundance of voids, and (ii) the void-galaxy cross-correlation function, which contains information about the density and velocity fields in these regions. However, it is necessary a complete description of the effects of geometrical (Alcock-Paczynski effect, AP) and dynamical (Kaiser effect, RSD) distortions around voids in order to design reliable cosmological tests based on these statistics. Observational measurements show prominent anisotropic patterns that lead to biased cosmological constraints if they are not properly modelled. This thesis addresses this problematic by presenting a theoretical and statistical framework based on dynamical and cosmological foundations capable of describing all the underlying effects involved: the expansion effect (t-RSD), the off-centring effect (v-RSD), the AP-volume effect and the ellipticity effect (e-RSD). These effects can be understood by studying the mapping of voids between real and redshift space. In this way, we lay the foundations for a proper modelling of the aforementioned statistics. In addition, we present a new cosmological test based on two perpendicular projections of the correlation function. The method is fiducial-cosmology free, which allows us to effectively break any possible degeneracy between the cosmological parameters involved. Moreover, it allows us to significantly reduce the number of mock catalogues needed to estimate covariances.

(974)Razor-thin dust layers in protoplanetary disks: Limits on the vertical shear instability

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.13413

abstract +

Context: Recent observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) have shown that the large dust aggregates observed at millimeter wavelengths settle to the midplane into a remarkably thin layer. Aims: We intend to find out if the geometric thinness of these layers is evidence against the vertical shear instability (VSI) operating in these disks. Methods: We performed hydrodynamic simulations of a protoplanetary disk with a locally isothermal equation of state, and let the VSI fully develop. We sprinkled dust particles and followed their motion as they got stirred up by the VSI. We determined for which grain size the layer becomes geometrically thin enough to be consistent with ALMA observations. We then verified if, with these grain sizes, it is still possible to generate a moderately optically thick layer at millimeter wavelengths, as observations appear to indicate. Results: We found that even very large dust aggregates with Stokes numbers close to unity get stirred up to relatively large heights above the midplane by the VSI, which is in conflict with the observed geometric thinness. For grains so large that the Stokes number exceeds unity, the layer can be made to remain thin, but we show that it is hard to make dust layers optically thick at ALMA wavelengths (e.g., tau(1.3mm)>=1) with such large dust aggregates. Conclusions: We conclude that protoplanetary disks with geometrically thin midplane dust layers cannot be VSI unstable, at least not down to the disk midplane. Explanations for the inhibition of the VSI include a reduced dust-to-gas ratio of the small dust grains that are responsible for the radiative cooling of the disk. A reduction of small grains by a factor of between 10 and 100 is sufficient to quench the VSI. Such a reduction is plausible in dust growth models, and still consistent with observations at optical and infrared wavelengths.

(973)Inclusive production of $J/\psi$, $\psi(2S)$, and $\Upsilon$ states in pNRQCD

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.17345

abstract +

Under some assumptions on the hierarchy of relevant energy scales, we compute the nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) long-distance matrix elements (LDMEs) for inclusive production of $J/\psi$, $\psi(2S)$, and $\Upsilon$ states based on the potential NRQCD (pNRQCD) effective field theory. Based on the pNRQCD formalism, we obtain expressions for the LDMEs in terms of the quarkonium wavefunctions at the origin and universal gluonic correlators, which do not depend on the heavy quark flavor or the radial excitation. This greatly reduces the number of nonperturbative unknowns and substantially enhances the predictive power of the nonrelativistic effective field theory formalism. We obtain improved determinations of the LDMEs for $J/\psi$, $\psi(2S)$, and $\Upsilon$ states thanks to the universality of the gluonic correlators, and obtain phenomenological results for cross sections and polarizations at large transverse momentum that agree well with measurements at the LHC.

(972)Strong lensing time-delay cosmography in the 2020s

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.15794

abstract +

Multiply imaged time-variable sources can be used to measure absolute distances as a function of redshifts and thus determine cosmological parameters, chiefly the Hubble Constant H$_0$. In the two decades up to 2020, through a number of observational and conceptual breakthroughs, this so-called time-delay cosmography has reached a precision sufficient to be an important independent voice in the current ``Hubble tension'' debate between early- and late-universe determinations of H$_0$. The 2020s promise to deliver major advances in time-delay cosmography, owing to the large number of lenses to be discovered by new and upcoming surveys and the vastly improved capabilities for follow-up and analysis. In this review -- after a brief summary of the foundations of the method and recent advances -- we outline the opportunities for the decade and the challenges that will need to be overcome in order to meet the goal of the determination of H$_0$ from time-delay cosmography with 1\% precision and accuracy.

(971)The MillenniumTNG Project: Refining the one-halo model of red and blue galaxies at different redshifts

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.10068

abstract +

Luminous red galaxies (LRGs) and blue star-forming emission-line galaxies (ELGs) are key tracers of large-scale structure used by cosmological surveys. Theoretical predictions for such data are often done via simplistic models for the galaxy-halo connection. In this work, we use the large, high-fidelity hydrodynamical simulation of the MillenniumTNG project (MTNG) to inform a new phenomenological approach for obtaining an accurate and flexible galaxy-halo model on small scales. Our aim is to study LRGs and ELGs at two distinct epochs, $z = 1$ and $z = 0$, and recover their clustering down to very small scales, $r \sim 0.1 \ {\rm Mpc}/h$, i.e. the one-halo regime, while a companion paper extends this to a two-halo model for larger distances. The occupation statistics of ELGs in MTNG inform us that: (1) the satellite occupations exhibit a slightly super-Poisson distribution, contrary to commonly made assumptions, and (2) that haloes containing at least one ELG satellite are twice as likely to host a central ELG. We propose simple recipes for modeling these effects, each of which calls for the addition of a single free parameter to simpler halo occupation models. To construct a reliable satellite population model, we explore the LRG and ELG satellite radial and velocity distributions and compare them with those of subhalos and particles in the simulation. We find that ELGs are anisotropically distributed within halos, which together with our occupation results provides strong evidence for cooperative galaxy formation (manifesting itself as one-halo galaxy conformity); i.e.~galaxies with similar properties form in close proximity to each other. Our refined galaxy-halo model represents a useful improvement of commonly used analysis tools and thus can be of help to increase the constraining power of large-scale structure surveys.

(970)The MillenniumTNG Project: Semi-analytic galaxy formation models on the past lightcone

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.10419

abstract +

Upcoming large galaxy surveys will subject the standard cosmological model, $\Lambda$CDM, to new precision tests. These can be tightened considerably if theoretical models of galaxy formation are available that can predict galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing on the full range of measurable scales throughout volumes as large as those of the surveys and with sufficient flexibility that uncertain aspects of the underlying astrophysics can be marginalised over. This, in particular, requires mock galaxy catalogues in large cosmological volumes that can be directly compared to observation, and can be optimised empirically by Monte Carlo Markov Chains or other similar schemes to eliminate or estimate astrophysical parameters related to galaxy formation when constraining cosmology. Semi-analytic galaxy formation methods implemented on top of cosmological dark matter simulations offer a computationally efficient approach to construct physically based and flexibly parametrised galaxy formation models, and as such they are more potent than still faster, but purely empirical models. Here we introduce an updated methodology for the semi-analytic L-GALAXIES code, allowing it to be applied to simulations of the new MillenniumTNG project, producing galaxies directly on fully continuous past lightcones, potentially over the full sky, out to high redshift, and for all galaxies more massive than $\sim 10^8\,{\rm M}_\odot$. We investigate the numerical convergence of the resulting predictions, and study the projected galaxy clustering signals of different samples. The new methodology can be viewed as an important step towards more faithful forward-modelling of observational data, helping to reduce systematic distortions in the comparison of theory to observations.

(969)The MillenniumTNG Project: The hydrodynamical full physics simulation and a first look at its galaxy clusters

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.10060

abstract +

Cosmological simulations are an important theoretical pillar for understanding nonlinear structure formation in our Universe and for relating it to observations on large scales. In several papers, we introduce our MillenniumTNG (MTNG) project that provides a comprehensive set of high-resolution, large volume simulations of cosmic structure formation aiming to better understand physical processes on large scales and to help interpreting upcoming large-scale galaxy surveys. We here focus on the full physics box MTNG740 that computes a volume of $(740\,\mathrm{Mpc})^3$ with a baryonic mass resolution of $3.1\times~10^7\,\mathrm{M_\odot}$ using \textsc{arepo} with $80.6$~billion cells and the IllustrisTNG galaxy formation model. We verify that the galaxy properties produced by MTNG740 are consistent with the TNG simulations, including more recent observations. We focus on galaxy clusters and analyse cluster scaling relations and radial profiles. We show that both are broadly consistent with various observational constraints. We demonstrate that the SZ-signal on a deep lightcone is consistent with Planck limits. Finally, we compare MTNG740 clusters with galaxy clusters found in Planck and the SDSS-8 RedMaPPer richness catalogue in observational space, finding very good agreement as well. However, {\it simultaneously} matching cluster masses, richness, and Compton-$y$ requires us to assume that the SZ mass estimates for Planck clusters are underestimated by $0.2$~dex on average. Thanks to its unprecedented volume for a high-resolution hydrodynamical calculation, the MTNG740 simulation offers rich possibilities to study baryons in galaxies, galaxy clusters, and in large scale structure, and in particular their impact on upcoming large cosmological surveys.

(968)The MillenniumTNG Project: The large-scale clustering of galaxies

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.10065

abstract +

Modern redshift surveys are tasked with mapping out the galaxy distribution over enormous distance scales. Existing hydrodynamical simulations, however, do not reach the volumes needed to match upcoming surveys. We present results for the clustering of galaxies using a new, large volume hydrodynamical simulation as part of the MillenniumTNG (MTNG) project. With a computational volume that is $\approx15$ times larger than the next largest such simulation currently available, we show that MTNG is able to accurately reproduce the observed clustering of galaxies as a function of stellar mass. When separated by colour, there are some discrepancies with respect to the observed population, which can be attributed to the quenching of satellite galaxies in our model. We combine MTNG galaxies with those generated using a semi-analytic model to emulate the sample selection of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) and emission line galaxies (ELGs), and show that although the bias of these populations is approximately (but not exactly) constant on scales larger than $\approx10$ Mpc, there is significant scale-dependent bias on smaller scales. The amplitude of this effect varies between the two galaxy types, and also between the semi-analytic model and MTNG. We show that this is related to the distribution of haloes hosting LRGs and ELGs. Using mock SDSS-like catalogues generated on MTNG lightcones, we demonstrate the existence of prominent baryonic acoustic features in the large-scale galaxy clustering. We also demonstrate the presence of realistic redshift space distortions in our mocks, finding excellent agreement with the multipoles of the redshift-space clustering measured in SDSS data.

(967)TOI-1468: A system of two transiting planets, a super-Earth and a mini-Neptune, on opposite sides of the radius valley

Astronomy and Astrophysics, 666, p25
(10/2022)
doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244056

abstract +

We report the discovery and characterization of two small transiting planets orbiting the bright M3.0V star TOI-1468 (LSPM J0106+1913), whose transit signals were detected in the photometric time series in three sectors of the TESS mission. We confirm the planetary nature of both of them using precise radial velocity measurements from the CARMENES and MAROON-X spectrographs, and supplement them with ground-based transit photometry. A joint analysis of all these data reveals that the shorter-period planet, TOI-1468 b (P_{b} = 1.88 d), has a planetary mass of M_{b} = 3.21 ± 0.24M_{⊕} and a radius of R_{b} = 1.280_{−0.039}^{+0.038} R_{⊕}, resulting in a density of ρ_{b} = 8.39_{−0.92}^{+1.05} g cm^{−3}, which is consistent with a mostly rocky composition. For the outer planet, TOI-1468 c (P_{c} = 15.53 d), we derive a mass of M_{c} = 6.64_{−0.68}^{+0.67} M_{⊕},aradius of R_{c} = 2.06 ± 0.04 R_{⊕}, and a bulk density of ρ_{c} = 2.00_{−0.19}^{+0.21} g cm^{−3}, which corresponds to a rocky core composition with a H/He gas envelope. These planets are located on opposite sides of the radius valley, making our system an interesting discovery as there are only a handful of other systems with the same properties. This discovery can further help determine a more precise location of the radius valley for small planets around M dwarfs and, therefore, shed more light on planet formation and evolution scenarios.

Radial velocities and photometry are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/666/A155

(966)Time-Delay Cosmography: Measuring the Hubble Constant and other cosmological parameters with strong gravitational lensing

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.10833

abstract +

Multiply lensed sources experience a relative time delay in the arrival of photons. This effect can be used to measure absolute distances and the Hubble constant ($H_0$) and is known as time-delay cosmography. The methodology is independent of the local distance ladder and early-universe physics and provides a precise and competitive measurement of $H_0$. With upcoming observatories, time-delay cosmography can provide a 1% precision measurement of $H_0$ and can decisively shed light on the current reported 'Hubble tension'. This paper presents the theoretical background and the current techniques applied for time-delay cosmographic studies and the measurement of the Hubble constant. The paper describes the challenges and systematics in the different components of the analysis and strategies to mitigate them. The current measurements are discussed in context and the opportunities with the anticipated data sets in the future are laid out.

(965)Super-sample covariance of the power spectrum, bispectrum, halos, voids, and their cross-covariances

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.15647

abstract +

We study the effect of super-sample covariance (SSC) on the power spectrum and higher-order statistics: bispectrum, halo mass function, and void size function. We also investigate the effect of SSC on the cross-covariance between the statistics. We consider both the matter and halo fields. Higher-order statistics of the large-scale structure contain additional cosmological information beyond the power spectrum and are a powerful tool to constrain cosmology. They are a promising probe for ongoing and upcoming high precision cosmological surveys such as DESI, PFS, Rubin Observatory LSST, Euclid, SPHEREx, SKA, and Roman Space Telescope. Cosmological simulations used in modeling and validating these statistics often have sizes that are much smaller than the observed Universe. Density fluctuations on scales larger than the simulation box, known as super-sample modes, are not captured by the simulations and in turn can lead to inaccuracies in the covariance matrix. We compare the covariance measured using simulation boxes containing super-sample modes to those without. We also compare with the Separate Universe approach. We find that while the power spectrum, bispectrum and halo mass function show significant scale- or mass-dependent SSC, the void size function shows relatively small SSC. We also find significant SSC contributions to the cross-covariances between the different statistics, implying that future joint-analyses will need to carefully take into consideration the effect of SSC.

(964)The MillenniumTNG Project: The galaxy population at $z\geq 8$

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.10066

abstract +

The early release science results from the $\textit{James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)}$ have yielded an unexpected abundance of high-redshift luminous galaxies that seems to be in tension with current theories of galaxy formation. However, it is currently difficult to draw definitive conclusions form these results as the sources have not yet been spectroscopically confirmed. It is in any case important to establish baseline predictions from current state-of-the-art galaxy formation models that can be compared and contrasted with these new measurements. In this work, we use the new large-volume ($L_\mathrm{box}\sim 740 \, \mathrm{cMpc}$) hydrodynamic simulation of the MillenniumTNG project to make predictions for the high-redshift ($z\gtrsim8$) galaxy population and compare them to recent $\textit{JWST}$ observations. We show that the simulated galaxy population is broadly consistent with observations until $z\sim10$. From $z\approx10-12$, the observations indicate a preference for a galaxy population that is largely dust-free, but is still consistent with the simulations. Beyond $z\gtrsim12$, however, our simulation results underpredict the abundance of luminous galaxies and their star-formation rates by almost an order of magnitude. This indicates either an incomplete understanding of the new $\textit{JWST}$ data or a need for more sophisticated galaxy formation models that account for additional physical processes such as Population~III stars, variable stellar initial mass functions, or even deviations from the standard $\Lambda$CDM model. We emphasise that any new process invoked to explain this tension should only significantly influence the galaxy population beyond $z\gtrsim10$, while leaving the successful galaxy formation predictions of the fiducial model intact below this redshift.

(963)Interpreting molecular hydrogen and atomic oxygen line emission of T Tauri disks with photoevaporative disk-wind models

arXiv e-prints
(10/2022)
e-Print:2210.15486

abstract +

Winds in protoplanetary disks play an important role in their evolution and dispersal. However, what physical process is driving the winds is still unclear (i.e. magnetically vs thermally driven), and can only be understood by directly confronting theoretical models with observational data. We use hydrodynamic photoevaporative disk-wind models and post-process them with a thermo-chemical model to produce synthetic observables for the o-H$_2$ at 2.12 micron and [OI] at 0.63 micron spectral lines and directly compare the results to a sample of observations. Our photoevaporative disk-wind model is consistent with the observed signatures of the blueshifted narrow low-velocity component (NLVC), which is usually associated with slow disk winds, for both tracers. Only for one out of seven targets that show blueshifted NLVCs does the photoevaporative model fail to explain the observed line kinematics. Our results also indicate that interpreting spectral line profiles by simple methods, such as the thin-disk approximation, to determine the line emitting region can yield misleading conclusions. The photoevaporative disk-wind models are largely consistent with the studied observational data set, but it is not possible to clearly discriminate between different wind-driving mechanisms. Further improvements to the models, such as consistent modelling of the dynamics and chemistry and detailed modelling of individual targets would be beneficial. Furthermore, a direct comparison of magnetically driven disk-wind models to the observational data set is necessary in order to determine whether or not spatially unresolved observations of multiple wind tracers are sufficient to discriminate between theoretical models.

(962)Cosmological simulations with rare and frequent dark matter self-interactions

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 516, p18
(10/2022)
doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2207

abstract +

Dark matter (DM) with self-interactions is a promising solution for the small-scale problems of the standard cosmological model. Here we perform the first cosmological simulation of frequent DM self-interactions, corresponding to small-angle DM scatterings. The focus of our analysis lies in finding and understanding differences to the traditionally assumed rare DM (large-angle) self-scatterings. For this purpose, we compute the distribution of DM densities, the matter power spectrum, the two-point correlation function, and the halo and subhalo mass functions. Furthermore, we investigate the density profiles of the DM haloes and their shapes. We find that overall large-angle and small-angle scatterings behave fairly similarly with a few exceptions. In particular, the number of satellites is considerably suppressed for frequent compared to rare self-interactions with the same cross-section. Overall, we observe that while differences between the two cases may be difficult to establish using a single measure, the degeneracy may be broken through a combination of multiple ones. For instance, the combination of satellite counts with halo density or shape profiles could allow discriminating between rare and frequent self-interactions. As a by-product of our analysis, we provide - for the first time - upper limits on the cross-section for frequent self-interactions.

(961)Beyond-mean-field approaches for nuclear neutrinoless double beta decay in the standard mechanism

Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, 126
(09/2022)
doi:10.1016/j.ppnp.2022.103965

abstract +

Nuclear weak decays provide important probes to fundamental symmetries in nature. A precise description of these processes in atomic nuclei requires comprehensive knowledge on both the strong and weak interactions in the nuclear medium and on the dynamics of quantum many-body systems. In particular, an observation of the hypothetical double beta decay without emission of neutrinos (0 νββ) would unambiguously demonstrate the Majorana nature of neutrinos and the existence of the lepton-number-violation process. It would also provide unique information on the ordering and absolute scale of neutrino masses. The next-generation tonne-scale experiments with sensitivity up to 10^{28} years after a few years of running will probably provide a definite answer to these fundamental questions based on our current knowledge on the nuclear matrix element (NME), the precise determination of which is a challenge to nuclear theory. Beyond-mean-field approaches have been frequently adapted for the study of nuclear structure and decay throughout the nuclear chart for several decades. In this review, we summarize the status of beyond-mean-field calculations of the NMEs of 0 νββ decay assuming the standard mechanism of an exchange of light Majorana neutrinos. The challenges and prospects in the extension and application of beyond-mean-field approaches for 0 νββ decay are discussed.

(960)Strong Supernova 1987A Constraints on Bosons Decaying to Neutrinos

arXiv e-prints
(09/2022)
e-Print:2209.11773

abstract +

Majoron-like bosons would emerge from a supernova (SN) core by neutrino coalescence of the form $\nu\nu\to\phi$ and $\bar\nu\bar\nu\to\phi$ with 100 MeV-range energies. Subsequent decays to (anti)neutrinos of all flavors provide a flux component with energies much larger than the usual flux from the "neutrino sphere." The absence of 100 MeV-range events in the Kamiokande II and IMB signal of SN 1987A implies that $\lesssim0.03$ of the total energy was thus emitted and provides the strongest constraint on the majoron-neutrino coupling of $g\lesssim 10^{-9}\,{\rm MeV}/m_\phi$ for $100~{\rm eV}\lesssim m_\phi\lesssim100~{\rm MeV}$. It is straightforward to extend our new argument to other hypothetical feebly interacting particles.

(959)A multi-simulation study of relativistic SZ temperature scalings in galaxy clusters and groups

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
(09/2022)
doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2781

abstract +

^{-4} Mpc^{-2}. Our analysis confirms a systematic offset between the three temperature measures; with the rSZ temperature $\simeq 20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ larger than the other measures, and diverging further at higher redshifts. We demonstrate that these measures depart from simple self-similar evolution and explore how they vary with the defined radius of haloes. We investigate how different feedback prescriptions and resolutions affect the observed temperatures, and discover the SZ temperatures are rather insensitive to these details. The agreement between simulations indicates an exciting avenue for observational and theoretical exploration, determining the extent of relativistic SZ corrections. We provide multiple simulation-based fits to the scaling relations for use in future SZ modelling.

(958)Neutrino Fast Flavor Pendulum. Part 2: Collisional Damping

arXiv e-prints
(09/2022)
e-Print:2209.11235

abstract +

In compact astrophysical objects, the neutrino density can be so high that neutrino-neutrino refraction can lead to fast flavor conversion of the kind $\nu_e \bar\nu_e \leftrightarrow \nu_x \bar\nu_x$ with $x=\mu,\tau$, depending on the neutrino angle distribution. Previously, we have shown that in a homogeneous, axisymmetric two-flavor system, these collective solutions evolve in analogy to a gyroscopic pendulum. In flavor space, its deviation from the weak-interaction direction is quantified by a variable $\cos\vartheta$ that moves between $+1$ and $\cos\vartheta_{\rm min}$, the latter following from a linear mode analysis. As a next step, we include collisional damping of flavor coherence, assuming a common damping rate $\Gamma$ for all modes. Empirically we find that the damped pendular motion reaches an asymptotic level of pair conversion $f=A+(1-A)\cos\vartheta_{\rm min}$ (numerically $A\simeq 0.370$) that does not depend on details of the angular distribution (except for fixing $\cos\vartheta_{\rm min}$), the initial seed, nor $\Gamma$. On the other hand, even a small asymmetry between the neutrino and antineutrino damping rates strongly changes this picture and can even enable flavor instabilities in otherwise stable systems. Furthermore, we establish a formal connection with a stationary and inhomogeneous neutrino ensemble, showing that our findings also apply to this system.

(957)Vacuum stability and scalar masses in the superweak extension of the standard model

Physical Review D, 106
(09/2022)
doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.106.055045

abstract +

We study the allowed parameter space of the scalar sector in the superweak extension of the standard model (SM). The allowed region is defined by the following conditions: (i) stability of the vacuum, (ii) perturbativity up to the Planck scale, and (iii) the pole mass of the Higgs boson falling into its experimentally measured range. We employ renormalization group equations and quantum corrections at two-loop accuracy. We study the dependence on the Yukawa couplings of the sterile neutrinos at selected values. We also check the exclusion limit set by the precise measurement of the mass of the W boson. Our method for constraining the parameter space using two-loop predictions can also be applied to simpler models such as the singlet scalar extension of the SM in a straightforward way.

(956)Effective field theory of Stückelberg vector bosons

Physical Review D, 106
(09/2022)
doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.106.055020

abstract +

We explore the effective field theory of a vector field X^{μ} that has a Stückelberg mass. The absence of a gauge symmetry for X^{μ} implies Lorentz-invariant operators are constructed directly from X^{μ}. Beyond the kinetic and mass terms, allowed interactions at the renormalizable level include X_{μ}X^{μ}H^{†}H , (X_{μ}X^{μ})^{2}, and X_{μ}j^{μ}, where j^{μ} is a global current of the SM or of a hidden sector. We show that all of these interactions lead to scattering amplitudes that grow with powers of √{s }/m_{X}, except for the case of X_{μ}j^{μ} where j^{μ} is a nonanomalous global current. The latter is well known when X is identified as a dark photon coupled to the electromagnetic current, often written equivalently as kinetic mixing between X and the photon. The power counting for the energy growth of the scattering amplitudes is facilitated by isolating the longitudinal enhancement. We examine in detail the interaction with an anomalous global vector current X_{μ}j_{anom}^{μ}, carefully isolating the finite contribution to the fermion triangle diagram. We calculate the longitudinally-enhanced observables Z →X γ (when m_{X}<m_{Z}), f f ¯→X γ , and Z γ →Z γ when X couples to the baryon number current. Introducing a "fake" gauge-invariance by writing X^{μ}=A^{μ}-∂^{μ}π /m_{X}, the would-be gauge anomaly associated with A_{μ}j_{anom}^{μ} is canceled by j_{anom}^{μ}∂_{μ}π /m_{X}; this is the four-dimensional Green-Schwarz anomaly-cancellation mechanism at work. Our analysis demonstrates there is a much larger set of possible interactions that an EFT with a Stückelberg vector field can have, revealing scattering amplitudes that grow with energy. The growth of these amplitudes can be tamed by a dark Higgs sector, but this requires dark Higgs boson interactions (and reintroduces fine-tuning in the dark Higgs sector) that can be separated from X interactions only in the limit g ≪1 .

(955)The metallicity and distance of NGC 2403 from blue supergiants

arXiv e-prints
(09/2022)
e-Print:2209.13135

abstract +

We present the first quantitative spectral analysis of blue supergiant stars in the nearby galaxy NGC 2403. Out of a sample of 47 targets observed with the LRIS spectrograph at the Keck I telescope we have extracted 16 B- and A-type supergiants for which we have data of sufficient quality to carry out a comparison with model spectra of evolved massive stars and infer the stellar parameters. The radial metallicity gradient of NGC 2403 that we derive has a slope of -0.14 (+/- 0.05) dex/r_e, and is in accordance with the analysis of H II region oxygen abundances. We present evidence that the stellar metallicities that we obtain in extragalactic systems in general agree with the nebular abundances based on the analysis of the auroral lines, over more than one order of magnitude in metallicity. Adopting the known relation between stellar parameters and intrinsic luminosity we find a distance modulus m-M = 27.38 +/- 0.08 mag. While this can be brought into agreement with Cepheid-based determinations, it is 0.14 mag short of the value measured from the tip of the red giant branch. We update the mass-metallicity relation secured from chemical abundance studies of stars in resolved star-forming galaxies.

(954)Probing Axions via Light Circular Polarization and Event Horizon Telescope

arXiv e-prints
(09/2022)
e-Print:2209.13572

abstract +

The impact of axion-like particles on the light polarization around the horizon of suppermassive black hole (SMBH) is discussed in the light of the latest polarization measurement of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). We investigate different sources of the polarization due to axion interaction with photons and the magnetic field of SMBH. These can modify the linear and circular polarization parameters of the emitted light. We have shown that a significant circular polarization can be produced via the photon scattering from the background magnetic field with axions as off-shell particles. This can further constrain the parameter space of ultralight axion-like particles and their couplings with photons. The future precise measurements of circular polarization can probe the features of ultralight axions in the near vicinity of SMBH.

(953)Revisiting constraints on WIMPs around primordial black holes

Physical Review D, 106
(09/2022)
doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.106.063538

abstract +

While primordial black holes (PBHs) with masses M_{PBH}≳10^{-11} M_{⊙} cannot comprise the entirety of dark matter, the existence of even a small population of these objects can have profound astrophysical consequences. A subdominant population of PBHs will efficiently accrete dark matter particles before matter-radiation equality, giving rise to high-density dark matter spikes. We consider here the scenario in which dark matter is comprised primarily of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with a small subdominant contribution coming from PBHs, and revisit the constraints on the annihilation of WIMPs in these spikes using observations of the isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB), for a range of WIMP masses, annihilation channels, cross sections, and PBH mass functions. We find that the constraints derived using the IGRB have been significantly overestimated (in some cases by many orders of magnitude), and that limits obtained using observations of the CMB are typically stronger than, or comparable to, those coming from the IGRB. Importantly, we show that ∼O (M_{⊙}) PBHs can still contribute significantly to the dark matter density for sufficiently low WIMP masses and p-wave annihilation cross sections.

(952)A detailed analysis of the Gl 486 planetary system

Astronomy and Astrophysics, 665, p41
(09/2022)
doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202243548

abstract +

Context. The Gl 486 system consists of a very nearby, relatively bright, weakly active M3.5 V star at just 8 pc with a warm transiting rocky planet of about 1.3 R_{⊕} and 3.0 M_{⊕}. It is ideal for both transmission and emission spectroscopy and for testing interior models of telluric planets.

Aims: To prepare for future studies, we aim to thoroughly characterise the planetary system with new accurate and precise data collected with state-of-the-art photometers from space and spectrometers and interferometers from the ground.

Methods: We collected light curves of seven new transits observed with the CHEOPS space mission and new radial velocities obtained with MAROON-X at the 8.1 m Gemini North telescope and CARMENES at the 3.5 m Calar Alto telescope, together with previously published spectroscopic and photometric data from the two spectrographs and TESS. We also performed near-infrared interferometric observations with the CHARA Array and new photometric monitoring with a suite of smaller telescopes (AstroLAB, LCOGT, OSN, TJO). This extraordinary and rich data set was the input for our comprehensive analysis.

Results: From interferometry, we measure a limb-darkened disc angular size of the star Gl 486 at θ_{LDD} = 0.390 ± 0.018 mas. Together with a corrected Gaia EDR3 parallax, we obtain a stellar radius R_{*} = 0.339 ± 0.015 R_{⊕}. We also measure a stellar rotation period at P_{rot} = 49.9 ± 5.5 days, an upper limit to its XUV (5-920 A) flux informed by new Hubble/STIS data, and, for the first time, a variety of element abundances (Fe, Mg, Si, V, Sr, Zr, Rb) and C/O ratio. Moreover, we imposed restrictive constraints on the presence of additional components, either stellar or sub-stellar, in the system. With the input stellar parameters and the radial-velocity and transit data, we determine the radius and mass of the planet Gl 486 b at R_{p} = 1.343_{−0.062}^{+0.063} R_{⊕} and M_{p} = 3.00_{−0.12}^{+0.13} M_{⊕}, with relative uncertainties of the planet radius and mass of 4.7% and 4.2%, respectively. From the planet parameters and the stellar element abundances, we infer the most probable models of planet internal structure and composition, which are consistent with a relatively small metallic core with respect to the Earth, a deep silicate mantle, and a thin volatile upper layer. With all these ingredients, we outline prospects for Gl 486 b atmospheric studies, especially with forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope (Webb) observations.

(951)Improved constraints on cosmic birefringence from the WMAP and Planck cosmic microwave background polarization data

Physical Review D, 106
(09/2022)
doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.106.063503

abstract +

The observed pattern of linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background photons is a sensitive probe of physics violating parity symmetry under inversion of spatial coordinates. A new parity-violating interaction might have rotated the plane of linear polarization by an angle β as the cosmic microwave background photons have been traveling for more than 13 billion years. This effect is known as "cosmic birefringence." In this paper, we present new measurements of cosmic birefringence from a joint analysis of polarization data from two space missions, P l a n c k and WMAP. This dataset covers a wide range of frequencies from 23 to 353 GHz. We measure β =0.342 °_{-0.091}^{° +0.094 °} [68% confidence level (CL)] for nearly full-sky data, which excludes β =0 at 99.987% CL. This corresponds to the statistical significance of 3.6 σ . There is no evidence for frequency dependence of β . We find a similar result, albeit with a larger uncertainty, when removing the Galactic plane from the analysis.

(950)New constraints on the dark matter-neutrino and dark matter-photon scattering cross sections from TXS 0506+056

arXiv e-prints
(09/2022)
e-Print:2209.06339

abstract +

The flux of high energy neutrinos and photons produced in a blazar could get attenuated when they propagate through the dark matter spike around the central black hole and the halo of the host galaxy. Using the observation by IceCube of a few high-energy neutrino events from TXS 0506+056, and their coincident gamma ray events, we obtain new constraints on the dark matter-neutrino and dark matter-photon scattering cross sections. Our constraints are orders of magnitude more stringent than those derived from considering the attenuation through the intergalactic medium and the Milky Way dark matter halo. When the cross-section increases with energy, our constraints are also stronger than those derived from the CMB and large-scale structure.

(949)On the Sensitivity of Halo Shape Measurements

(09/2022)
e-Print:2209.11244

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Shape measurements of galaxies and galaxy clusters are widespread in the analysis of cosmological simulations. But the limitations of those measurements have been poorly investigated. In this paper, we explain why the quality of the shape measurement does not only depend on the numerical resolution, but also on the density gradient. In particular, this can limit the quality of measurements in the central regions of haloes. We propose a criterion to estimate the sensitivity of the measured shapes based on the density gradient of the halo and apply it to cosmological simulations of collisionless and self-interacting dark matter. By this, we demonstrate where reliable measurements of the halo shape are possible and how cored density profiles limit their applicability.

(948)Dark Energy Survey Year 3 results: Magnification modeling and impact on cosmological constraints from galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing

(09/2022)
e-Print:2209.09782

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We study the effect of magnification in the Dark Energy Survey Year 3 analysis of galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing, using two different lens samples: a sample of Luminous red galaxies, redMaGiC, and a sample with a redshift-dependent magnitude limit, MagLim. We account for the effect of magnification on both the flux and size selection of galaxies, accounting for systematic effects using the Balrog image simulations. We estimate the impact of magnification on the galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing cosmology analysis, finding it to be a significant systematic for the MagLim sample. We show cosmological constraints from the galaxy clustering auto-correlation and galaxy-galaxy lensing signal with different magnifications priors, finding broad consistency in cosmological parameters in $\Lambda$CDM and $w$CDM. However, when magnification bias amplitude is allowed to be free, we find the two-point correlations functions prefer a different amplitude to the fiducial input derived from the image simulations. We validate the magnification analysis by comparing the cross-clustering between lens bins with the prediction from the baseline analysis, which uses only the auto-correlation of the lens bins, indicating systematics other than magnification may be the cause of the discrepancy. We show adding the cross-clustering between lens redshift bins to the fit significantly improves the constraints on lens magnification parameters and allows uninformative priors to be used on magnification coefficients, without any loss of constraining power or prior volume concerns.

(947)Spectra of Puffy Accretion Discs: the kynbb Fit

(09/2022)
e-Print:2209.03713

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Puffy disc is a numerical model, expected to capture the properties of the accretion flow in X-ray black hole binaries in the luminous, mildly sub-Eddington state. We fit the kerrbb and kynbb spectral models in XSPEC to synthetic spectra of puffy accretion discs, obtained in general relativistic radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations, to see if they correctly recover the black hole spin and mass accretion rate assumed in the numerical simulation. We conclude that neither of the two models is capable of correctly interpreting the puffy disc parameters, which highlights a necessity to develop new, more accurate, spectral models for the luminous regime of accretion in X-ray black hole binaries. We propose that such spectral models should be based on the results of numerical simulations of accretion.

(946)Simulating radio synchrotron emission in star-forming galaxies: small-scale magnetic dynamo and the origin of the far-infrared-radio correlation

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 515, p36
(09/2022)
doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1808

abstract +

In star-forming galaxies, the far-infrared (FIR) and radio-continuum luminosities obey a tight empirical relation over a large range of star-formation rates (SFR). To understand the physics, we examine magnetohydrodynamic galaxy simulations, which follow the genesis of cosmic ray (CR) protons at supernovae and their advective and anisotropic diffusive transport. We show that gravitational collapse of the proto-galaxy generates a corrugated accretion shock, which injects turbulence and drives a small-scale magnetic dynamo. As the shock propagates outwards and the associated turbulence decays, the large velocity shear between the supersonically rotating cool disc with respect to the (partially) pressure-supported hot circumgalactic medium excites Kelvin-Helmholtz surface and body modes. Those interact non-linearly, inject additional turbulence and continuously drive multiple small-scale dynamos, which exponentially amplify weak seed magnetic fields. After saturation at small scales, they grow in scale to reach equipartition with thermal and CR energies in Milky Way-mass galaxies. In small galaxies, the magnetic energy saturates at the turbulent energy while it fails to reach equipartition with thermal and CR energies. We solve for steady-state spectra of CR protons, secondary electrons/positrons from hadronic CR-proton interactions with the interstellar medium, and primary shock-accelerated electrons at supernovae. The radio-synchrotron emission is dominated by primary electrons, irradiates the magnetized disc and bulge of our simulated Milky Way-mass galaxy and weakly traces bubble-shaped magnetically loaded outflows. Our star-forming and star-bursting galaxies with saturated magnetic fields match the global FIR-radio correlation (FRC) across four orders of magnitude. Its intrinsic scatter arises due to (i) different magnetic saturation levels that result from different seed magnetic fields, (ii) different radio synchrotron luminosities for different specific SFRs at fixed SFR, and (iii) a varying radio intensity with galactic inclination. In agreement with observations, several 100-pc-sized regions within star-forming galaxies also obey the FRC, while the centres of starbursts substantially exceed the FRC.

(945)Response approach to the integrated shear 3-point correlation function: the impact of baryonic effects on small scales

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 515, p16
(09/2022)
doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2046

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The integrated shear 3-point correlation function ζ_{±} is a higher-order statistic of the cosmic shear field that describes the modulation of the 2-point correlation function ξ_{±} by long-wavelength features in the field. Here, we introduce a new theoretical model to calculate ζ_{±} that is accurate on small angular scales, and that allows to take baryonic feedback effects into account. Our model builds on the realization that the small-scale ζ_{±} is dominated by the non-linear matter bispectrum in the squeezed limit, which can be evaluated accurately using the non-linear matter power spectrum and its first-order response functions to density and tidal field perturbations. We demonstrate the accuracy of our model by showing that it reproduces the small-scale ζ_{±} measured in simulated cosmic shear maps. The impact of baryonic feedback enters effectively only through the corresponding impact on the non-linear matter power spectrum, thereby permitting to account for these astrophysical effects on ζ_{±} similarly to how they are currently accounted for on ξ_{±}. Using a simple idealized Fisher matrix forecast for a DES-like survey we find that, compared to ξ_{±}, a combined $\xi _{\pm }\ \&\ \zeta _{\pm }$ analysis can lead to improvements of order $20\!-\!40{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ on the constraints of cosmological parameters such as σ_{8} or the dark energy equation of state parameter w_{0}. We find similar levels of improvement on the constraints of the baryonic feedback parameters, which strengthens the prospects for cosmic shear data to obtain tight constraints not only on cosmology but also on astrophysical feedback models. These encouraging results motivate future works on the integrated shear 3-point correlation function towards applications to real survey data.

(944)Dust evolution with MUPPI in cosmological volumes

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 515, p19
(09/2022)
doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1913

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We study the evolution of dust in a cosmological volume using a hydrodynamical simulation in which the dust production is coupled with the MUPPI (MUlti Phase Particle Integrator) sub-resolution model of star formation and feedback. As for the latter, we keep as reference the model setup calibrated previously to match the general properties of Milky Way-like galaxies in zoom-in simulations. However, we suggest that an increase of the star formation efficiency with the local dust-to-gas ratio would better reproduce the observed evolution of the cosmic star formation density. Moreover, the paucity of quenched galaxies at low redshift demands a stronger role of active galactic nucleus feedback. We tune the parameters ruling direct dust production from evolved stars and accretion in the interstellar medium to get scaling relations involving dust, stellar mass and metallicity in good agreement with observations. In low-mass galaxies, the accretion process is inefficient. As a consequence, they remain poorer in silicate and small grains than higher mass ones. We reproduce reasonably well the few available data on the radial distribution of dust outside the galactic region, supporting the assumption that the dust and gas dynamics are well coupled at galactic scales.