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Der 4. Juli 2012 markiert einen unvergesslichen Tag in der Teilchenphysik. An diesem Datum gaben die Experimente ATLAS und CMS am CERN die Entdeckung des Higgs-Bosons bekannt. Der diesjährige 10.…

 source harvard id 21220450 title Shared Data and Algorithms for Deep Learning in Fundamental Physics first_author Lisa Benato author Lisa Benato, Erik Buhmann, Martin Erdmann, Peter Fackeldey, Jonas Glombitza, Nikolai Hartmann, Gregor Kasieczka, William Korcari, Thomas Kuhr, Jan Steinheimer, Horst Stöcker, Tilman Plehn, Kai Zhou abstract We introduce a PYTHON package that provides simple and unified access to a collection of datasets from fundamental physics research—including particle physics, astroparticle physics, and hadron- and nuclear physics—for supervised machine learning studies. The datasets contain hadronic top quarks, cosmic-ray-induced air showers, phase transitions in hadronic matter, and generator-level histories. While public datasets from multiple fundamental physics disciplines already exist, the common interface and provided reference models simplify future work on cross-disciplinary machine learning and transfer learning in fundamental physics. We discuss the design and structure and line out how additional datasets can be submitted for inclusion. As showcase application, we present a simple yet flexible graph-based neural network architecture that can easily be applied to a wide range of supervised learning tasks. We show that our approach reaches performance close to dedicated methods on all datasets. To simplify adaptation for various problems, we provide easy-to-follow instructions on how graph-based representations of data structures, relevant for fundamental physics, can be constructed and provide code implementations for several of them. Implementations are also provided for our proposed method and all reference algorithms. journal Computing and Software for Big Science publisher year 2022 month 12 volume 6 publication_type article eprint pages issue 1 doi 10.1007/s41781-022-00082-6

 source harvard id 21003291 title The static force from generalized Wilson loops using gradient flow first_author Viljami Leino author Viljami Leino, Nora Brambilla, Julian Mayer-Steudte, Antonio Vairo abstract We explore a novel approach to compute the force between a static quark-antiquark pair with the gradient flow algorithm on the lattice. The approach is based on inserting a chromoelectric field in a Wilson loop. The renormalization issues, associated with the finite size of the chromoelectric field on the lattice, can be solved with the use of gradient flow. We compare numerical results for the flowed static potential to our previous measurement of the same observable without a gradient flow. journal European Physical Journal Web of Conferences publisher year 2022 month 08 volume 258 publication_type inproceedings eprint pages issue doi 10.1051/epjconf/202225804009

 source harvard id 21208731 title TimeEvolver: A program for time evolution with improved error bound first_author Marco Michel author Marco Michel, Sebastian Zell abstract We present TimeEvolver, a program for computing time evolution in a generic quantum system. It relies on well-known Krylov subspace techniques to tackle the problem of multiplying the exponential of a large sparse matrix iH, where H is the Hamiltonian, with an initial vector v. The fact that H is Hermitian makes it possible to provide an easily computable bound on the accuracy of the Krylov approximation. Apart from effects of numerical roundoff, the resulting a posteriori error bound is rigorous, which represents a crucial novelty as compared to existing software packages such as Expokit[1]. On a standard notebook, TimeEvolver allows to compute time evolution with adjustable precision in Hilbert spaces of dimension greater than 106. Additionally, we provide routines for deriving the matrix H from a more abstract representation of the Hamiltonian operator. journal Computer Physics Communications publisher year 2022 month 08 volume 277 publication_type article eprint pages issue doi 10.1016/j.cpc.2022.108374

 source harvard id 21255393 title Spectroscopic analysis of VVV CL001 cluster with MUSE first_author J. Olivares Carvajal author J. Olivares Carvajal, M. Zoccali, A. Rojas-Arriagada, R. Contreras Ramos, F. Gran, E. Valenti, J. H. Minniti abstract Like most spiral galaxies, the Milky Way contains a population of blue, metal-poor globular clusters and another of red, metal-rich ones. Most of the latter belong to the bulge, and therefore they are poorly studied compared to the blue (halo) ones because they suffer higher extinction and larger contamination from field stars. These intrinsic difficulties, together with a lack of low-mass bulge globular clusters, are reasons to believe that their census is not complete yet. Indeed, a few new clusters have been confirmed in the last few years. One of them is VVV CL001, the subject of the present study. We present a new spectroscopic analysis of the recently confirmed globular cluster VVV CL001, made by means of MUSE@VLT integral field data. Individual spectra were extracted for stars in the VVV CL001 field. Radial velocities were derived by cross-correlation with synthetic templates. Coupled with proper motions from the VVV (VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea) survey, these data allow us to select 55 potential cluster members, for which we derive metallicities using the public code THE CANNON. The mean radial velocity of the cluster is Vhelio = -324.9 ± 0.8 km s-1, as estimated from 55 cluster members. This high velocity, together with a low metallicity [Fe/H] = -2.04 ± 0.02 dex, suggests that VVV CL001 could be a very old cluster. The estimated distance is d = 8.23 ± 0.46 kpc, placing the cluster in the Galactic bulge. Furthermore, both its current position and the orbital parameters suggest that VVV CL001 is most probably a bulge globular cluster. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 07 volume 513 publication_type article eprint pages 11 issue 3 doi 10.1093/mnras/stac934

 source harvard id 21285556 title Towards an accurate model of small-scale redshift-space distortions in modified gravity first_author Cheng-Zong Ruan author Cheng-Zong Ruan, Carolina Cuesta-Lazaro, Alexander Eggemeier, César Hernández-Aguayo, Carlton M. Baugh, Baojiu Li, Francisco Prada abstract The coming generation of galaxy surveys will provide measurements of galaxy clustering with unprecedented accuracy and data size, which will allow us to test cosmological models at much higher precision than achievable previously. This means that we must have more accurate theoretical predictions to compare with future observational data. As a first step towards more accurate modelling of the redshift space distortions (RSD) of small-scale galaxy clustering in modified gravity (MG) cosmologies, we investigate the validity of the so-called Skew-T (ST) probability distribution function (PDF) of halo pairwise peculiar velocities in these models. We show that, combined with the streaming model of RSD, the ST PDF substantially improves the small-scale predictions by incorporating skewness and kurtosis, for both Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and two leading MG models: f(R) gravity and the DGP braneworld model. The ST model reproduces the velocity PDF and redshift-space halo clustering measured from MG N-body simulations very well down to $\sim 5 \, h^{-1}\, \mathrm{Mpc}$. In particular, we investigate the enhancements of halo pairwise velocity moments with respect to ΛCDM for a larger range of MG variants than previous works, and present simple explanations to the behaviours observed. By performing a simple Fisher analysis, we find a significant increase in constraining power to detect modifications of General Relativity by introducing small-scale information in the RSD analyses. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 07 volume 514 publication_type article eprint pages 20 issue 1 doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1345

 source harvard id 21285562 title The importance of X-ray frequency in driving photoevaporative winds first_author Andrew D. Sellek author Andrew D. Sellek, Cathie J. Clarke, Barbara Ercolano abstract Photoevaporative winds are a promising mechanism for dispersing protoplanetary discs, but so far theoretical models have been unable to agree on the relative roles that the X-ray, extreme ultraviolet or far-ultraviolet play in driving the winds. This has been attributed to a variety of methodological differences between studies, including their approach to radiative transfer and thermal balance, the choice of irradiating spectrum employed, and the processes available to cool the gas. We use the MOCASSIN radiative transfer code to simulate wind heating for a variety of spectra on a static density grid taken from simulations of an EUV-driven wind. We explore the impact of choosing a single representative X-ray frequency on their ability to drive a wind by measuring the maximum heated column as a function of photon energy. We demonstrate that for reasonable luminosities and spectra, the most effective energies are at a few 100 eV, firmly in the softer regions of the X-ray spectrum, while X-rays with energies ~1000 eV interact too weakly with disc gas to provide sufficient heating to drive a wind. We develop a simple model to explain these findings. We argue that further increases in the cooling above our models - for example due to molecular rovibrational lines - may further restrict the heating to the softer energies but are unlikely to prevent X-ray heated winds from launching entirely; increasing the X-ray luminosity has the opposite effect. The various results of photoevaporative wind models should therefore be understood in terms of the choice of irradiating spectrum. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 07 volume 514 publication_type article eprint pages 20 issue 1 doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1148

 source harvard id 21285589 title THE THREE HUNDRED project: The GIZMO-SIMBA run first_author Weiguang Cui author Weiguang Cui, Romeel Dave, Alexander Knebe, Elena Rasia, Meghan Gray, Frazer Pearce, Chris Power, Gustavo Yepes, Dhayaa Anbajagane, Daniel Ceverino, Ana Contreras-Santos, Daniel de Andres, Marco De Petris, Stefano Ettori, Roan Haggar, Qingyang Li, Yang Wang, Xiaohu Yang, Stefano Borgani, Klaus Dolag, Ying Zu, Ulrike Kuchner, Rodrigo Cañas, Antonio Ferragamo, Giulia Gianfagna abstract We introduce GIZMO-SIMBA, a new suite of galaxy cluster simulations within THE THREE HUNDRED project. THE THREE HUNDRED consists of zoom re-simulations of 324 clusters with $M_{200}\gtrsim 10^{14.8}\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ drawn from the MultiDark-Planck N-body simulation, run using several hydrodynamic and semi-analytical codes. The GIZMO-SIMBA suite adds a state-of-the-art galaxy formation model based on the highly successful SIMBA simulation, mildly re-calibrated to match $z$ = 0 cluster stellar properties. Comparing to THE THREE HUNDRED zooms run with GADGET-X, we find intrinsic differences in the evolution of the stellar and gas mass fractions, BCG ages, and galaxy colour-magnitude diagrams, with GIZMO-SIMBA generally providing a good match to available data at $z$ ≍ 0. GIZMO-SIMBA's unique black hole growth and feedback model yields agreement with the observed BH scaling relations at the intermediate-mass range and predicts a slightly different slope at high masses where few observations currently lie. GIZMO-SIMBA provides a new and novel platform to elucidate the co-evolution of galaxies, gas, and black holes within the densest cosmic environments. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 07 volume 514 publication_type article eprint pages 20 issue 1 doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1402

 source harvard id 21238291 title Transport model comparison studies of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions first_author Hermann Wolter author Hermann Wolter, Maria Colonna, Dan Cozma, Pawel Danielewicz, Che Ming Ko, Rohit Kumar, Akira Ono, ManYee Betty Tsang, Jun Xu, Ying-Xun Zhang, Elena Bratkovskaya, Zhao-Qing Feng, Theodoros Gaitanos, Arnaud Le Fèvre, Natsumi Ikeno, Youngman Kim, Swagata Mallik, Paolo Napolitani, Dmytro Oliinychenko, Tatsuhiko Ogawa, Massimo Papa, Jun Su, Rui Wang, Yong-Jia Wang, Janus Weil, Feng-Shou Zhang, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Joerg Aichelin, Wolfgang Cassing, Lie-Wen Chen, Hui-Gan Cheng, Hannah Elfner, K. Gallmeister, Christoph Hartnack, Shintaro Hashimoto, Sangyong Jeon, Kyungil Kim, Myungkuk Kim, Bao-An Li, Chang-Hwan Lee, Qing-Feng Li, Zhu-Xia Li, Ulrich Mosel, Yasushi Nara, Koji Niita, Akira Ohnishi, Tatsuhiko Sato, Taesoo Song, Agnieszka Sorensen, Ning Wang, Wen-Jie Xie, (TMEP collaboration) abstract Transport models are the main method to obtain physics information on the nuclear equation of state and in-medium properties of particles from low to relativistic-energy heavy-ion collisions. The Transport Model Evaluation Project (TMEP) has been pursued to test the robustness of transport model predictions in reaching consistent conclusions from the same type of physical model. To this end, calculations under controlled conditions of physical input and set-up were performed with various participating codes. These included both calculations of nuclear matter in a box with periodic boundary conditions, which test separately selected ingredients of a transport code, and more realistic calculations of heavy-ion collisions. Over the years, six studies have been performed within this project. In this intermediate review, we summarize and discuss the present status of the project. We also provide condensed descriptions of the 26 participating codes, which contributed to some part of the project. These include the major codes in use today. After a compact description of the underlying transport approaches, we review the main results of the studies completed so far. They show, that in box calculations the differences between the codes can be well understood and a convergence of the results can be reached. These studies also highlight the systematic differences between the two families of transport codes, known under the names of Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) and Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) type codes. However, when the codes were compared in full heavy-ion collisions using different physical models, as recently for pion production, they still yielded substantially different results. This calls for further comparisons of heavy-ion collisions with controlled models and of box comparisons of important ingredients, like momentum-dependent fields, which are currently underway. Our evaluation studies often indicate improved strategies in performing transport simulations and thus can provide guidance to code developers. Results of transport simulations of heavy-ion collisions from a given code will have more significance if the code can be validated against benchmark calculations such as the ones summarized in this review. journal Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics publisher year 2022 month 07 volume 125 publication_type article eprint pages issue doi 10.1016/j.ppnp.2022.103962

 source harvard id 21165076 title Cosmological implications of the full shape of anisotropic clustering measurements in BOSS and eBOSS first_author Agne Semenaite author Agne Semenaite, Ariel G. Sánchez, Andrea Pezzotta, Jiamin Hou, Roman Scoccimarro, Alexander Eggemeier, Martin Crocce, Chia-Hsun Chuang, Alexander Smith, Cheng Zhao, Joel R. Brownstein, Graziano Rossi, Donald P. Schneider abstract We present the analysis of the full shape of anisotropic clustering measurement from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) quasar sample together with the combined galaxy sample from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), re-analysed using an updated recipe for the non-linear matter power spectrum and the non-local bias parameters. We obtain constraints for flat Lambda cold dark matter cosmologies, focusing on the cosmological parameters that are independent of the Hubble parameter h. Our recovered value for the Root Mean Square (RMS) linear perturbation theory variance as measured on the scale of $12\, {\rm Mpc}$ is σ12 = 0.805 ± 0.049, while using the traditional reference scale of $8\, h^{-1}\, {\rm Mpc}$ gives σ8 = 0.815 ± 0.044. We quantify the agreement between our measurements and the latest cosmic microwave background data from Planck using the suspiciousness metric, and find them to be consistent within 0.64 ± 0.03σ. Combining our clustering constraints with the 3 × 2pt data sample from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 release slightly degrades this agreement to the level of 1.54 ± 0.08σ, while still showing an overall consistency with Planck. We furthermore study the effect of imposing a Planck - like prior on the parameters that define the shape of the linear matter power spectrum, and find significantly tighter constraints on the parameters that control the evolution of density fluctuations. In particular, the combination of low-redshift data sets prefers a value of the physical dark energy density ωDE = 0.335 ± 0.011, which is 1.7σ higher than the one preferred by Planck. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 06 volume 512 publication_type article eprint pages 14 issue 4 doi 10.1093/mnras/stac829

 source harvard id 21282792 title Low-Energy Supernovae Severely Constrain Radiative Particle Decays first_author Andrea Caputo author Andrea Caputo, Hans-Thomas Janka, Georg Raffelt, Edoardo Vitagliano abstract The hot and dense core formed in the collapse of a massive star is a powerful source of hypothetical feebly interacting particles such as sterile neutrinos, dark photons, axionlike particles (ALPs), and others. Radiative decays such as a →2 γ deposit this energy in the surrounding material if the mean free path is less than the radius of the progenitor star. For the first time, we use a supernova (SN) population with particularly low explosion energies as the most sensitive calorimeters to constrain this possibility. These SNe are observationally identified as low-luminosity events with low ejecta velocities and low masses of ejected 56Ni. Their low energies limit the energy deposition from particle decays to less than about 0.1 B, where 1 B (bethe)=1051 erg . For 1-500 MeV-mass ALPs, this generic argument excludes ALP-photon couplings Ga γ γ in the 10-10−10-8 GeV-1 range. journal Physical Review Letters publisher year 2022 month 06 volume 128 publication_type article eprint pages issue 22 doi 10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.221103

 source harvard id 21178068 title Presolar grain dynamics: Creating nucleosynthetic variations through a combination of drag and viscous evolution first_author Mark A. Hutchison author Mark A. Hutchison, Jean-David Bodénan, Lucio Mayer, Maria Schönbächler abstract Meteoritic studies of Solar system objects show evidence of nucleosynthetic heterogeneities that are inherited from small presolar grains ($\lt 10\,\, \mu {\mathrm{m}}$) formed in stellar environments external to our own. The initial distribution and subsequent evolution of these grains are currently unconstrained. Using 3D, gas-dust simulations, we find that isotopic variations on the order of those observed in the Solar system can be generated and maintained by drag and viscosity. Small grains are dragged radially outwards without size/density sorting by viscous expansion and backreaction, enriching the outer disc with presolar grains. Meanwhile large aggregates composed primarily of silicates drift radially inwards due to drag, further enriching the relative portion of presolar grains in the outer disc and diluting the inner disc. The late accumulation of enriched aggregates outside Jupiter could explain some of the isotopic variations observed in Solar system bodies, such as the enrichment of supernovae derived material in carbonaceous chondrites. We also see evidence for isotopic variations in the inner disc that may hold implications for enstatite and ordinary chondrites that formed closer to the Sun. Initial heterogeneities in the presolar grain distribution that are not continuously reinforced are dispersed by diffusion, radial surface flows, and/or planetary interactions over the entire lifetime of the disc. For younger, more massive discs we expect turbulent diffusion to be even more homogenizing, suggesting that dust evolution played a more central role in forming the isotopic anomalies in the Solar system than originally thought. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 06 volume 512 publication_type article eprint pages 21 issue 4 doi 10.1093/mnras/stac765

 source harvard id 21282712 title Rare radiative decays of charm baryons first_author Nico Adolph author Nico Adolph, Gudrun Hiller abstract We study weak radiative |Δ c |=|Δ u |=1 decays of the charmed antitriplet (Λc, Ξc+, Ξc0) and sextet (Σc++, Σc+, Σc0, Ξc'+, Ξc'0, Ωc) baryons in the standard model (SM) and beyond. We work out S U (2 )- and S U (3 )F-symmetry relations. We propose to study self-analyzing decay chains such as Ξc+→Σ+(→p π0)γ and Ξc0→Λ (→p π-)γ , which enable new physics sensitive polarization studies. SM contributions can be controlled by a corresponding analysis of the Cabibbo-favored decays Λc+→Σ+(→p π0)γ and Ξc0→Ξ0(→Λ π0)γ . Further tests of the SM are available with initially polarized baryons including Λc→p γ together with Λc→Σ+γ decays, or Ωc→Ξ0γ together with Ωc→(Λ ,Σ0)γ . In addition, C P -violating new physics contributions to dipole operators can enhance C P asymmetries up to a few percent. journal Physical Review D publisher year 2022 month 06 volume 105 publication_type article eprint pages issue 11 doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.105.116001

 source harvard id 21275838 title Static Energy in ($2+1+1$)-Flavor Lattice QCD: Scale Setting and Charm Effects first_author TUMQCD Collaboration author TUMQCD Collaboration, Nora Brambilla, Rafael L. Delgado, Andreas S. Kronfeld, Viljami Leino, Peter Petreczky, Sebastian Steinbeißer, Antonio Vairo, Johannes H. Weber abstract We present results for the static energy in ($2+1+1$)-flavor QCD over a wide range of lattice spacings and several quark masses, including the physical quark mass, with ensembles of lattice-gauge-field configurations made available by the MILC Collaboration. We obtain results for the static energy out to distances of nearly $1$~fm, allowing us to perform a simultaneous determination of the scales $r_{1}$ and $r_{0}$ as well as the string tension, $\sigma$. For the smallest three lattice spacings we also determine the scale $r_{2}$. Our results for $r_{0}/r_{1}$ and $r_{0}\sqrt{\sigma}$ agree with published ($2+1$)-flavor results. However, our result for $r_{1}/r_{2}$ differs significantly from the value obtained in the ($2+1$)-flavor case, which is most likely due to the effect of the charm quark. We also report results for $r_{0}$, $r_{1}$, and $r_{2}$ in~fm, with the former two being slightly lower than published ($2+1$)-flavor results. We study in detail the effect of the charm quark on the static energy by comparing our results on the finest two lattices with the previously published ($2+1$)-flavor QCD results at similar lattice spacing. We find that for $r > 0.2$~fm our results on the static energy agree with the ($2+1$)-flavor result, implying the decoupling of the charm quark for these distances. For smaller distances, on the other hand, we find that the effect of the dynamical charm quark is noticeable. The lattice results agree well with the two-loop perturbative expression of the static energy incorporating finite charm mass effects. This is the first time that the decoupling of the charm quark is observed and quantitatively analyzed on lattice data of the static energy. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2206.03156 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21255314 title Effects of boosting on extragalactic components: methods and statistical studies first_author William Coulton author William Coulton, Sydney Feldman, Karime Maamari, Elena Pierpaoli, Siavash Yasini, Klaus Dolag abstract In this work, we examine the impact of our motion with respect to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) rest frame on statistics of CMB maps by examining the one-, two-, three-, and four- point statistics of simulated maps of the CMB and Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effects. We validate boosting codes by comparing their outcomes for temperature and polarization power spectra up to ℓ ≃ 6000. We derive and validate a new analytical formula for the computation of the boosted power spectrum of a signal with a generic frequency dependence. As an example we show how this increases the boosting correction to the power spectrum of CMB intensity measurements by ${\sim}30{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ at 150 GHz. We examine the effect of boosting on thermal and kinetic SZ power spectra from semianalytical and hydrodynamical simulations; the boosting correction is generally small for both simulations, except when considering frequencies near the tSZ null. For the non-Gaussian statistics, in general we find that boosting has no impact with two exceptions. We find that, whilst the statistics of the CMB convergence field are unaffected, quadratic estimators that are used to measure this field can become biased at the $O(1){{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ level by boosting effects. We present a simple modification to the standard estimators that removes this bias. Second, bispectrum estimators can receive a systematic bias from the Doppler induced quadrupole when there is anisotropy in the sky - in practice this anisotropy comes from masking and inhomogeneous noise. This effect is unobservable and already removed by existing analysis methods. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 06 volume 513 publication_type article eprint pages 19 issue 2 doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1017

 source harvard id 21254683 title HOLISMOKES. VIII. High-redshift, strong-lens search in the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program first_author Yiping Shu author Yiping Shu, Raoul Cañameras, Stefan Schuldt, Sherry H. Suyu, Stefan Taubenberger, Kaiki Taro Inoue, Anton T. Jaelani abstract We carry out a search for strong-lens systems containing high-redshift lens galaxies with the goal of extending strong-lensing-assisted galaxy evolutionary studies to earlier cosmic time. Two strong-lens classifiers are constructed from a deep residual network and trained with datasets of different lens-redshift and brightness distributions. We classify a sample of 5 356 628 pre-selected objects from the Wide-layer fields in the second public data release of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) by applying the two classifiers to their HSC gri-filter cutouts. Cutting off at thresholds that correspond to a false positive rate of 10−3 on our test set, the two classifiers identify 5468 and 6119 strong-lens candidates. Visually inspecting the cutouts of those candidates results in 735 grade-A or B strong-lens candidates in total, of which 277 candidates are discovered for the first time. This is the single largest set of galaxy-scale strong-lens candidates discovered with HSC data to date, and nearly half of it (331/735) contains lens galaxies with photometric redshifts above 0.6. Our discoveries will serve as a valuable target list for ongoing and scheduled spectroscopic surveys such as the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph project, and the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer.

Full Tables B.1 and B.2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/662/A4 journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 06 volume 662 publication_type article eprint pages 22 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202243203

 source harvard id 21255328 title SHARP - VIII. J0924+0219 lens mass distribution and time-delay prediction through adaptive-optics imaging first_author Geoff C. -F. Chen author Geoff C. -F. Chen, Christopher D. Fassnacht, Sherry H. Suyu, Léon V. E. Koopmans, David J. Lagattuta, John P. McKean, Matt W. Auger, Simona Vegetti, Tommaso Treu abstract Strongly lensed quasars can provide measurements of the Hubble constant (H0) independent of any other methods. One of the key ingredients is exquisite high-resolution imaging data, such as Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging and adaptive-optics (AO) imaging from ground-based telescopes, which provide strong constraints on the mass distribution of the lensing galaxy. In this work, we expand on the previous analysis of three time-delay lenses with AO imaging (RX J1131-1231, HE 0435-1223, and PG 1115+080), and perform a joint analysis of J0924+0219 by using AO imaging from the Keck telescope, obtained as part of the Strong lensing at High Angular Resolution Program (SHARP) AO effort, with HST imaging to constrain the mass distribution of the lensing galaxy. Under the assumption of a flat Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model with fixed Ωm = 0.3, we show that by marginalizing over two different kinds of mass models (power-law and composite models) and their transformed mass profiles via a mass-sheet transformation, we obtain $\Delta t_{\rm BA}=6.89\substack{+0.8\-0.7}\, h^{-1}\hat{\sigma }_{v}^{2}$ d, $\Delta t_{\rm CA}=10.7\substack{+1.6\-1.2}\, h^{-1}\hat{\sigma }_{v}^{2}$ d, and $\Delta t_{\rm DA}=7.70\substack{+1.0\-0.9}\, h^{-1}\hat{\sigma }_{v}^{2}$ d, where $h=H_{0}/100\,\rm km\, s^{-1}\, Mpc^{-1}$ is the dimensionless Hubble constant and $\hat{\sigma }_{v}=\sigma ^{\rm ob}_{v}/(280\,\rm km\, s^{-1})$ is the scaled dimensionless velocity dispersion. Future measurements of time delays with 10 per cent uncertainty and velocity dispersion with 5 per cent uncertainty would yield a H0 constraint of ~15 per cent precision. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 06 volume 513 publication_type article eprint pages 11 issue 2 doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1081

 source harvard id 21275541 title Heavy quark diffusion coefficient with gradient flow first_author Nora Brambilla author Nora Brambilla, Viljami Leino, Julian Mayer-Steudte, Peter Petreczky abstract We calculate chromo-electric and chromo-magnetic correlators in quenched QCD at $1.5T_c$ and $10^4 T_c$ with the aim to estimate the heavy quark diffusion coefficient at leading order in the inverse heavy quark mass expansion, $\kappa_E$, as well as the coefficient of first mass suppressed correction, $\kappa_B$. We use gradient flow for noise reduction. At $1.5T_c$ we obtain: $1.70 \le \kappa_E/T^3 \le 3.12$ and $1.23< \kappa_B/T^3 < 2.74$. The latter implies that the mass suppressed effects in the heavy quark diffusion coefficient are 20% for bottom quarks and 34% for charm quark at this temperature. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2206.02861 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21273178 title Low-luminosity type IIP supernovae: SN 2005cs and SN 2020cxd as very low-energy iron core-collapse explosions first_author Alexandra Kozyreva author Alexandra Kozyreva, Hans-Thomas Janka, Daniel Kresse, Stefan Taubenberger, Petr Baklanov abstract SN 2020cxd is a representative of the family of low-energy, underluminous Type IIP supernovae (SNe), whose observations and analysis were recently reported by Yang et al. (2021). Here we re-evaluate the observational data for the diagnostic SN properties by employing the hydrodynamic explosion model of a 9 M red supergiant progenitor with an iron core and a pre-collapse mass of 8.75 M. The explosion of the star was obtained by the neutrino-driven mechanism in a fully self-consistent simulation in three dimensions (3D). Multi-band light curves and photospheric velocities for the plateau phase are computed with the one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code STELLA, applied to the spherically averaged 3D explosion model as well as sphericized radial profiles in different directions of the 3D model. We find that the overall evolution of the bolometric light curve, duration of the plateau phase, and basic properties of the multi-band emission can be well reproduced by our SN model with its explosion energy of only 0.7 × 1050 erg and an ejecta mass of 7.4 M. These values are considerably lower than the previously reported numbers, but they are compatible with those needed to explain the fundamental observational properties of the prototype low-luminosity SN 2005cs. Because of the good compatibility of our photospheric velocities with line velocities determined for SN 2005cs, we conclude that the line velocities of SN 2020cxd are probably overestimated by up to a factor of about 3. The evolution of the line velocities of SN 2005cs compared to photospheric velocities in different explosion directions might point to intrinsic asymmetries in the SN ejecta. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type article eprint pages issue doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1518

 source harvard id 21275925 title Spin fields for the spinning particle first_author E. Boffo author E. Boffo, I. Sachs abstract We propose an analogue of spin fields for the relativistic RNS-particle in 4 dimensions, in order to describe Ramond-Ramond states as "two-particle" excitations on the world line. On a natural representation space we identify a differential whose cohomology agrees with RR-fields equations. We then discuss the non-linear theory encoded in deformations of the latter by background fields. We also formulate a sigma model for this spin field from which we recover the RNS-formulation by imposing suitable constraints. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2206.03243 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21284437 title {\Lambda}CDM with baryons vs. MOND: the time evolution of the universal acceleration scale in the Magneticum simulations first_author Alexander C. Mayer author Alexander C. Mayer, Adelheid F. Teklu, Klaus Dolag, Rhea-Silvia Remus abstract MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) is an alternative to the standard Cold Dark Matter (CDM) paradigm which proposes an alteration of Newton's laws of motion at low accelerations, characterized by a universal acceleration scale a_0. It attempts to explain observations of galactic rotation curves and predicts a specific scaling relation of the baryonic and total acceleration in galaxies, referred to as the Rotational Acceleration Relation (RAR), which can be equivalently formulated as a Mass Discrepancy Acceleration Relation (MDAR). The appearance of these relations in observational data such as SPARC has lead to investigations into the existence of similar relations in cosmological simulations using the standard {\Lambda}CDM model. Here, we report the existence of an RAR and MDAR similar to that predicted by MOND in {\Lambda}CDM using a large sample of galaxies extracted from a cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation (Magneticum). Furthermore, by using galaxies in Magneticum at different redshifts, a prediction for the evolution of the inferred acceleration parameter a_0 with cosmic time is derived by fitting a MOND force law to these galaxies. In Magneticum, the best fit for a_0 is found to increase by a factor of approximately 3 from redshift z = 0 to z = 2. This offers a powerful test from cosmological simulations to distinguish between MOND and {\Lambda}CDM observationally. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2206.04333 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21276501 title Improved Theory Predictions and Global Analysis of Exclusive $\boldsymbol{b\to s\mu^+\mu^-}$ Processes first_author Nico Gubernari author Nico Gubernari, Méril Reboud, Danny van Dyk, Javier Virto abstract We provide improved Standard Model theory predictions for the exclusive rare semimuonic processes $B\to K^{(*)}\mu^+\mu^-$ and $B_s\to\phi\mu^+\mu^-$. Our results are based on a novel parametrization of the non-local form factors, which manifestly respects a recently developed dispersive bound. We critically compare our predictions to those obtained in the framework of QCD factorization. Our predictions provide, for the first time, parametric estimates of the systematic uncertainties due to non-local contributions. Comparing our predictions within the Standard Model to available experimental data, we find a large tension for $B\to K\mu^+\mu^-$. A simple model-independent analysis of potential effects beyond the Standard Model yields results compatible with other approaches, albeit with larger uncertainties for the $B\to K^*\mu^+\mu^-$ and $B_s\to \phi\mu^+\mu^-$ decays. Our approach yields systematically improvable predictions, and we look forward to its application in further analyses beyond the Standard Model. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2206.03797 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21272395 title AAfrag 2.01: Interpolation routines for Monte Carlo results on secondary production including light antinuclei in hadronic interactions first_author M. Kachelriess author M. Kachelriess, S. Ostapchenko, J. Tjemsland abstract Light antinuclei, like antideuteron and antihelium-3, are ideal probes for new, exotic physics because their astrophysical backgrounds are suppressed at low energies. In order to exploit fully the inherent discovery potential of light antinuclei, a reliable description of their production cross sections in cosmic ray interactions is crucial. We provide therefore the cross sections of antideuteron and antihelium-3 production in $pp$, $p$He, He$p$, HeHe, $\bar pp$ and $\bar p$He collisions at energies relevant for secondary production in the Milky Way, in a tabulated form which is convinient to use. These predictions are based on QGSJET-II-04m and the state of the art coalescence model WiFunC, which evaluates the coalesence probability on an event-by-event basis, including both momentum correlations and the dependence on the emission volume. In addition, we comment on the importance of a Monte Carlo description of the antideuteron production and on the use of event generators in general. In particular, we discuss the effect of two-particle momentum correlations provided by Monte Carlo event generators on antinuclei production. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2206.00998 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21275875 title Radioactive Decay first_author Roland Diehl author Roland Diehl abstract Radioactive decay of unstable atomic nuclei leads to liberation of nuclear binding energy in the forms of gamma-ray photons and secondary particles (electrons, positrons); their energy then energises surrounding matter. Unstable nuclei are formed in nuclear reactions, which can occur either in hot and dense extremes of stellar interiors or explosions, or from cosmic-ray collisions. In high-energy astronomy, direct observations of characteristic gamma-ray lines from the decay of radioactive isotopes are important tools to study the process of cosmic nucleosynthesis and its sources, as well as tracing the flows of ejecta from such sources of nucleosynthesis. These observations provide a valuable complement to indirect observations of radioactive energy deposits, such as the measurement of supernova light in the optical. Here we present basics of radioactive decay in astrophysical context, and how gamma-ray lines reveal details about stellar interiors, about explosions on stellar surfaces or of entire stars, and about the interstellar-medium processes that direct the flow and cooling of nucleosynthesis ashes once having left their sources. We address radioisotopes such as $^{56}$Ni, $^{44}$Ti, $^{26}$Al, $^{60}$Fe, $^{22}$Na, $^{7}$Be, and also how characteristic gamma-ray emission from the annihilation of positrons is connected to these. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2206.03193 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21285901 title STRIDES: Automated uniform models for 30 quadruply imaged quasars first_author T. Schmidt author T. Schmidt, T. Treu, S. Birrer, A. J. Shajib, C. Lemon, M. Millon, D. Sluse, A. Agnello, T. Anguita, M. W. Auger-Williams, R. G. McMahon, V. Motta, P. Schechter, C. Spiniello, I. Kayo, F. Courbin, S. Ertl, C. D. Fassnacht, J. A. Frieman, A. More, S. Schuldt, S. H. Suyu, M. Aguena, F. Andrade-Oliveira, J. Annis, D. Bacon, E. Bertin, D. Brooks, D. L. Burke, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, C. Conselice, M. Costanzi, L. N. da Costa, M. E. S. Pereira, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, P. Doel, S. Everett, I. Ferrero, D. Friedel, J. García-Bellido, E. Gaztanaga, D. Gruen, R. A. Gruendl, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, S. R. Hinton, D. L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, D. J. James, K. Kuehn, O. Lahav, F. Menanteau, R. Miquel, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A. A. Plazas Malagón, J. Prat, M. Rodriguez-Monroy, A. K. Romer, E. Sanchez, V. Scarpine, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, M. Smith, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, C. To, T. N. Varga abstract Gravitational time delays provide a powerful one step measurement of $H_0$, independent of all other probes. One key ingredient in time delay cosmography are high accuracy lens models. Those are currently expensive to obtain, both, in terms of computing and investigator time (10$^{5-6}$ CPU hours and $\sim$ 0.5-1 year, respectively). Major improvements in modeling speed are therefore necessary to exploit the large number of lenses that are forecast to be discovered over the current decade. In order to bypass this roadblock, building on the work by Shajib et al. (2019), we develop an automated modeling pipeline and apply it to a sample of 30 quadruply imaged quasars and one lensed compact galaxy, observed by the Hubble Space Telescope in multiple bands. Our automated pipeline can derive models for 30/31 lenses with few hours of human time and <100 CPU hours of computing time for a typical system. For each lens, we provide measurements of key parameters and predictions of magnification as well as time delays for the multiple images. We characterize the cosmography-readiness of our models using the stability of differences in Fermat potential (proportional to time delay) w.r.t. modeling choices. We find that for 10/30 lenses our models are cosmography or nearly cosmography grade (<3% and 3-5% variations). For 6/30 lenses the models are close to cosmography grade (5-10%). These results are based on informative priors and will need to be confirmed by further analysis. However, they are also likely to improve by extending the pipeline modeling sequence and options. In conclusion, we show that uniform cosmography grade modeling of large strong lens samples is within reach. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2206.04696 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21273682 title A new scenario for magnetar formation: Tayler-Spruit dynamo in a proto-neutron star spun up by fallback first_author P. Barrère author P. Barrère, J. Guilet, A. Reboul-Salze, R. Raynaud, H. -T. Janka abstract Magnetars are isolated young neutron stars characterized by the most intense magnetic fields known in the universe. The origin of their magnetic field is still a challenging question. In situ magnetic field amplification by dynamo action is a promising process to generate ultra-strong magnetic fields in fast-rotating progenitors. However, it is unclear whether the fraction of progenitors harboring fast core rotation is sufficient to explain the entire magnetar population. To address this point, we propose a new scenario for magnetar formation, in which a slow-rotating proto-neutron star is spun up by the supernova fallback. We argue that this can trigger the development of the Tayler-Spruit dynamo while other dynamo processes are disfavored. Using previous works done on this dynamo and simulations to characterize the fallback, we derive equations modelling the coupled evolution of the proto-neutron star rotation and magnetic field. Their time integration for different fallback masses is successfully compared with analytical estimates of the amplification timescales and saturation value of the magnetic field. We find that the magnetic field is amplified within $20$ to $40$s after the core bounce, and that the radial magnetic field saturates at intensities $10^{14}-10^{15}$G, therefore spanning the full range of magnetar's dipolar magnetic fields. We also compare predictions of two proposed saturation mechanisms showing that magnetar-like magnetic fields can be generated for neutron star spun up to rotation periods $\lesssim8$ms and $\lesssim28$ms, corresponding to fallback masses $\gtrsim4\times10^{-2}{\rm M}_{\odot}$ and $\gtrsim10^{-2}{\rm M}_{\odot}$. Thus, our results suggest that magnetars can be formed from slow-rotating progenitors for fallback masses compatible with recent supernova simulations and leading to plausible initial rotation periods of the proto-neutron star. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2206.01269 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21287748 title CO and [CII] line emission of molecular clouds -- the impact of stellar feedback and non-equilibrium chemistry first_author S. Ebagezio author S. Ebagezio, D. Seifried, S. Walch, P. C. Nürnberger, T. E. Rathjen, T. Naab abstract We analyse synthetic $^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, and [CII] emission maps of simulated molecular clouds of the SILCC-Zoom project, which include an on-the-fly evolution of H$_2$, CO, and C$^+$. We use simulations of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical clouds, both with and without stellar feedback. We introduce a novel post-processing of the C$^+$ abundance using CLOUDY, to account for further ionization states of carbon due to stellar radiation. We report the first self-consistent synthetic emission maps of [CII] in feedback bubbles, largely devoid of emission inside them, as recently found in observations. The C$^+$ mass is only poorly affected by stellar feedback but the [CII] luminosity increases by $50 - 85$ per cent compared to runs without feedback. Furthermore, we investigate the capability of the CO/[CII] line ratio as a tracer of the amount of H$_2$ in the clouds and their evolutionary stage. We obtain, for both $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO, no clear trend of the luminosity ratio, $L_\mathrm{CO}/L_\mathrm{[CII]}$. It can therefore \textit{not} be used as a reliable measure of the H$_2$ mass fraction. We note a monotonic relation between $L_\mathrm{CO}/L_\mathrm{[CII]}$ and the H$_2$ fraction when considering the ratio for individual pixels of our synthetic maps, but with large scatter. Moreover, we show that assuming chemical equilibrium results in an overestimation of H$_2$ and CO masses of up to 110 and 30 per cent, respectively, and in an underestimation of H and C$^+$ masses of 65 and 7 per cent, respectively. In consequence, $L_\mathrm{CO}$ would be overestimated by up to 50 per cent, and $L_\mathrm{C[II]}$ be underestimated by up to 35 per cent. Hence, the assumption of chemical equilibrium in molecular cloud simulations introduces intrinsic errors of a factor of up to $\sim2$ in chemical abundances, luminosities and luminosity ratios. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2206.06393 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21216454 title The PEPSI exoplanet transit survey (PETS) I: investigating the presence of a silicate atmosphere on the super-earth 55 Cnc e first_author Engin Keles author Engin Keles, Matthias Mallonn, Daniel Kitzmann, Katja Poppenhaeger, H. Jens Hoeijmakers, Ilya Ilyin, Xanthippi Alexoudi, Thorsten A. Carroll, Julian Alvarado-Gomez, Laura Ketzer, Aldo S. Bonomo, Francesco Borsa, B. Scott Gaudi, Thomas Henning, Luca Malavolta, Karan Molaverdikhani, Valerio Nascimbeni, Jennifer Patience, Lorenzo Pino, Gaetano Scandariato, Everett Schlawin, Evgenya Shkolnik, Daniela Sicilia, Alessandro Sozzetti, Mary G. Foster, Christian Veillet, Ji Wang, Fei Yan, Klaus G. Strassmeier abstract The study of exoplanets and especially their atmospheres can reveal key insights on their evolution by identifying specific atmospheric species. For such atmospheric investigations, high-resolution transmission spectroscopy has shown great success, especially for Jupiter-type planets. Towards the atmospheric characterization of smaller planets, the super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cnc e is one of the most promising terrestrial exoplanets studied to date. Here, we present a high-resolution spectroscopic transit observation of this planet, acquired with the PEPSI instrument at the Large Binocular Telescope. Assuming the presence of Earth-like crust species on the surface of 55 Cnc e, from which a possible silicate-vapor atmosphere could have originated, we search in its transmission spectrum for absorption of various atomic and ionized species such as Fe , Fe +, Ca , Ca +, Mg, and K , among others. Not finding absorption for any of the investigated species, we are able to set absorption limits with a median value of 1.9 × RP. In conclusion, we do not find evidence of a widely extended silicate envelope on this super-Earth reaching several planetary radii. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 06 volume 513 publication_type article eprint pages 13 issue 1 doi 10.1093/mnras/stac810

 source harvard id 21216433 title LYRA - II. Cosmological dwarf galaxy formation with inhomogeneous Population III enrichment first_author Thales A. Gutcke author Thales A. Gutcke, Rüdiger Pakmor, Thorsten Naab, Volker Springel abstract We present the simulation of a $2\times 10^{9}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$ halo mass cosmological dwarf galaxy run to z = 0 at 4 solar mass gas resolution with resolved supernova feedback. We compare three simple subgrid implementations for the inhomogeneous chemical enrichment from Population III stars and compare them to constraints from Local Group dwarf galaxies. The employed model, LYRA, is a novel high-resolution galaxy formation model built for the moving mesh code AREPO, which is marked by a resolved multiphase interstellar medium, single stars, and individual supernova events. The resulting reionization relic is characterized by a short (<1.5 Gyr) star formation history that is repeatedly brought to a standstill by violent bursts of feedback. Star formation is reignited for a short duration due to a merger at z ≍ 4 and then again at z ≍ 0.2-0 after sustained gas accretion. Our model z = 0 galaxy matches the stellar mass, size, stellar kinematics, and metallicity relations of Local Group dwarf galaxies well. The dark matter profile does not exhibit a core in any version of the model. We show that the host halo masses of Population III stars affect the assembly history of dwarf galaxies. This manifests itself through the initial gaseous collapse in the progenitor haloes, affecting the central density of the stellar component and through the accretion of luminous substructure. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 06 volume 513 publication_type article eprint pages 14 issue 1 doi 10.1093/mnras/stac867

 source harvard id 21288454 title SN 2016dsg: A Thermonuclear Explosion Involving A Thick Helium Shell first_author Yize Dong author Yize Dong, Stefano Valenti, Abigail Polin, Aoife Boyle, andreas flörs, Christian Vogl, Wolfgang Kerzendorf, David Sand, Saurabh Jha, Lukasz Wyrzykowski, K. Bostroem, Jeniveve Pearson, Curtis McCully, Jennifer Andrew, Stefano Benettii, Stephane Blondin, Lluís Galbany, Mariusz Gromadzki, Griffin Hosseinzadeh, D. Andrew Howell, Cosimo Inserra, Jacob Jencson, M. Lundquist, Joseph Lyman, Mark Magee, Kate Maguire, Nicolas Meza, Shubham Srivastav, Stefan Taubenberger, J Terwel, Samuel Wyatt, David Young abstract A thermonuclear explosion triggered by a helium-shell detonation on a carbon-oxygen white dwarf core has been predicted to have strong UV line blanketing at early times due to the iron-group elements produced during helium-shell burning. We present the photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2016dsg, a sub-luminous peculiar Type I SN consistent with a thermonuclear explosion involving a thick He shell. With a redshift of 0.04, the $i$-band peak absolute magnitude is derived to be around -17.5. The object is located far away from its host, an early-type galaxy, suggesting it originated from an old stellar population. The spectra collected after the peak are unusually red, show strong UV line blanketing and weak O I $\lambda$7773 absorption lines, and do not evolve significantly over 30 days. An absorption line around 9700-10500 Åis detected in the near-infrared spectrum and is likely from the unburnt helium in the ejecta. The spectroscopic evolution is consistent with the thermonuclear explosion models for a sub-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf with a thick helium shell, while the photometric evolution is not well described by existing models. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2206.07065 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21288441 title Unusual gas structure in an otherwise normal spiral galaxy hosting GRB 171205A / SN 2017iuk first_author M. Arabsalmani author M. Arabsalmani, S. Roychowdhury, F. Renaud, A. Burkert, E. Emsellem, E. Le Floc'h, E. Pian abstract We study the structure of atomic hydrogen (HI) in the host galaxy of GRB 171205A / SN 2017iuk at z=0.037 through HI 21cm emission line observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. These observations reveal unusual morphology and kinematics of the HI in this otherwise apparently normal galaxy. High column density, cold HI is absent from an extended North-South region passing by the optical centre of the galaxy, but instead is extended towards the South, on both sides of the galaxy. Moreover, the HI kinematics do not show a continuous change along the major axis of the galaxy as expected in a classical rotating disk. We explore several scenarios to explain the HI structure and kinematics in the galaxy: feedback from a central starburst and/or an active galactic nucleus, ram pressure stripping, accretion, and tidal interaction from a companion galaxy. All of these options are ruled out. The most viable remaining explanation is the penetrating passage of a satellite through the disk only a few Myr ago, redistributing the HI in the GRB host without yet affecting its stellar distribution. It can also lead to the rapid formation of peculiar stars due to a violent induced shock. The location of GRB 171205A in the vicinity of the distorted area suggests that its progenitor star(s) originated in extreme conditions that share the same origin as the peculiarities in HI. This could explain the atypical location of GRB 171205A in its host galaxy. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2206.07060 pages issue doi

 source inspirehep id 2094450 title STRIDES: Automated uniform models for 30 quadruply imaged quasars first_author Schmidt, T. author T. Schmidt, T. Treu, S. Birrer, A.J. Shajib, C. Lemon, M. Millon, D. Sluse, A. Agnello, T. Anguita, M.W. Auger-Williams, R.G. McMahon, V. Motta, P. Schechter, C. Spiniello, I. Kayo, F. Courbin, S. Ertl, C.D. Fassnacht, J.A. Frieman, A. More, S. Schuldt, S.H. Suyu, M. Aguena, F. Andrade-Oliveira, J. Annis, D. Bacon, E. Bertin, D. Brooks, D.L. Burke, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, C. Conselice, M. Costanzi, L.N. da Costa, M.E.S. Pereira, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, P. Doel, S. Everett, I. Ferrero, D. Friedel, J. García-Bellido, E. Gaztanaga, D. Gruen, R.A. Gruendl, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, S.R. Hinton, D.L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, D.J. James, K. Kuehn, O. Lahav, F. Menanteau, R. Miquel, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A.A. Plazas Malagón, J. Prat, M. Rodriguez-Monroy, A.K. Romer, E. Sanchez, V. Scarpine, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, M. Smith, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, C. To, T.N. Varga abstract Gravitational time delays provide a powerful one step measurement of $H_0$, independent of all other probes. One key ingredient in time delay cosmography are high accuracy lens models. Those are currently expensive to obtain, both, in terms of computing and investigator time (10$^{5-6}$ CPU hours and $\sim$ 0.5-1 year, respectively). Major improvements in modeling speed are therefore necessary to exploit the large number of lenses that are forecast to be discovered over the current decade. In order to bypass this roadblock, building on the work by Shajib et al. (2019), we develop an automated modeling pipeline and apply it to a sample of 30 quadruply imaged quasars and one lensed compact galaxy, observed by the Hubble Space Telescope in multiple bands. Our automated pipeline can derive models for 30/31 lenses with few hours of human time and <100 CPU hours of computing time for a typical system. For each lens, we provide measurements of key parameters and predictions of magnification as well as time delays for the multiple images. We characterize the cosmography-readiness of our models using the stability of differences in Fermat potential (proportional to time delay) w.r.t. modeling choices. We find that for 10/30 lenses our models are cosmography or nearly cosmography grade (<3% and 3-5% variations). For 6/30 lenses the models are close to cosmography grade (5-10%). These results are based on informative priors and will need to be confirmed by further analysis. However, they are also likely to improve by extending the pipeline modeling sequence and options. In conclusion, we show that uniform cosmography grade modeling of large strong lens samples is within reach. journal publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type eprint 2206.04696 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21285223 title Toward RNA Life on Early Earth: From Atmospheric HCN to Biomolecule Production in Warm Little Ponds first_author Ben K. D. Pearce author Ben K. D. Pearce, Karan Molaverdikhani, Ralph E. Pudritz, Thomas Henning, Kaitlin E. Cerrillo abstract The origin of life on Earth involves the early appearance of an information-containing molecule such as RNA. The basic building blocks of RNA could have been delivered by carbon-rich meteorites or produced in situ by processes beginning with the synthesis of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the early Earth's atmosphere. Here, we construct a robust physical and nonequilibrium chemical model of the early Earth's atmosphere. The atmosphere is supplied with hydrogen from impact degassing of meteorites, water evaporated from the oceans, carbon dioxide from volcanoes, and methane from undersea hydrothermal vents, and in it lightning and external UV-driven chemistry produce HCN. This allows us to calculate the rain-out of HCN into warm little ponds (WLPs). We then use a comprehensive numerical model of sources and sinks to compute the resulting abundances of nucleobases, ribose, and nucleotide precursors such as 2-aminooxazole resulting from aqueous and UV-driven chemistry within them. We find that 4.4 billion years ago the limit of adenine concentrations in ponds for habitable surfaces is 0.05 μM in the absence of seepage. Meteorite delivery of adenine to WLPs can provide boosts in concentration by 2-3 orders of magnitude, but these boosts deplete within months by UV photodissociation, seepage, and hydrolysis. The early evolution of the atmosphere is dominated by the decrease in hydrogen due to falling impact rates and atmospheric escape, and the rise of oxygenated species such as OH from H2O photolysis. The source of HCN is predominantly from UV radiation rather than lightning. Our work points to an early origin of RNA on Earth within ~200 Myr of the Moon-forming impact. journal The Astrophysical Journal publisher year 2022 month 06 volume 932 publication_type article eprint pages 21 issue 1 doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac47a1

 source harvard id 21317924 title Mapping "out-of-the-box" the properties of the baryons in massive halos first_author M. Angelinelli author M. Angelinelli, S. Ettori, K. Dolag, F. Vazza, A. Ragagnin abstract We study the distributions of the baryons in massive halos ($M_{vir} > 10^{13} \ h^{-1}M_{\odot}$) in the $Magneticum$ suite of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, out to the unprecedented radial extent of $10 R_{500,\mathrm c}$. We confirm that, under the action of non-gravitational physical phenomena, the baryon mass fraction is lower in the inner regions ($<R_{500,\mathrm c}$) of increasingly less massive halos, and rises moving outwards, with values that spans from 51% (87%) in the regions around $R_{500,\mathrm c}$ to 95% (100%) at $10R_{500,\mathrm c}$ of the cosmological value in the systems with the lowest (highest; $M_{vir} \sim 5 \times 10^{14} \ h^{-1}M_{\odot}$) masses. The galaxy groups almost match the gas (and baryon) fraction measured in the most massive halos only at very large radii ($r>6 R_{500,\mathrm c}$), where the baryon depletion factor $Y_{\rm bar} = f_{\rm bar} / (\Omega_{\rm b}/\Omega_{\rm m})$ approaches the value of unity, expected for "closed-box" systems. We find that both the radial and mass dependency of the baryon, gas, and hot depletion factors are predictable and follow a simple functional form. The star mass fraction is higher in less massive systems, decreases systematically with increasing radii, and reaches a constant value of $Y_{\rm star} \approx 0.09$, where also the gas metallicity is constant, regardless of the host halo mass, as a result of the early ($z>2$) enrichment process. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2206.08382 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21319662 title A detailed analysis of the Gl 486 planetary system first_author J. A. Caballero author J. A. Caballero, E. Gonzalez-Alvarez, M. Brady, T. Trifonov, T. G. Ellis, C. Dorn, C. Cifuentes, K. Molaverdikhani, J. L. Bean, T. Boyajian, E. Rodriguez, J. Sanz-Forcada, M. R. Zapatero Osorio, C. Abia, P. J. Amado, N. Anugu, V. J. S. Bejar, C. L. Davies, S. Dreizler, F. Dubois, J. Ennis, N. Espinoza, C. D. Farrington, A. Garcia Lopez, T. Gardner, A. P. Hatzes, Th. Henning, E. Herrero, E. Herrero-Cisneros, A. Kaminski, D. Kasper, R. Klement, S. Kraus, A. Labdon, C. Lanthermann, J. -B. Le Bouquin, M. J. Lopez Gonzalez, R. Luque, A. W. Mann, E. Marfil, J. D. Monnier, D. Montes, J. C. Morales, E. Palle, S. Pedraz, A. Quirrenbach, S. Reffert, A. Reiners, I. Ribas, C. Rodriguez-Lopez, G. Schaefer, A. Schweitzer, A. Seifahrt, B. R. Setterholm, Y. Shan, D. Shulyak, E. Solano, K. R. Sreenivas, G. Stefansson, J. Stuermer, H. M. Tabernero, L. Tal-Or, T. ten Brummelaar, S. Vanaverbeke, K. von Braun, A. Youngblood, M. Zechmeister abstract The Gl 486 system consists of a very nearby, relatively bright, weakly active M3.5 V star at just 8 pc with a warm transiting rocky planet of about 1.3 R_Terra and 3.0 M_Terra that is ideal for both transmission and emission spectroscopy and for testing interior models of telluric planets. To prepare for future studies, we collected light curves of seven new transits observed with the CHEOPS space mission and new radial velocities obtained with MAROON-X/Gemini North and CARMENES/Calar Alto telescopes, together with previously published spectroscopic and photometric data from the two spectrographs and TESS. We also performed interferometric observations with the CHARA Array and new photometric monitoring with a suite of smaller telescopes. From interferometry, we measure a limb-darkened disc angular size of the star Gl 486. Together with a corrected Gaia EDR3 parallax, we obtain a stellar radius. We also measure a stellar rotation period at P_rot ~ 49.9 d, an upper limit to its XUV (5-920 AA) flux with new Hubble/STIS data, and, for the first time, a variety of element abundances (Fe, Mg, Si, V, Sr, Zr, Rb) and C/O ratio. Besides, we impose restrictive constraints on the presence of additional components, either stellar or substellar, in the system. With the input stellar parameters and the radial-velocity and transit data, we determine the radius and mass of the planet Gl 486 b at R_p = 1.343+/0.063 R_Terra and M_p = 3.00+/-0.13 M_Terra. From the planet parameters and the stellar element abundances, we infer the most probable models of planet internal structure and composition, which are consistent with a relatively small metallic core with respect to the Earth, a deep silicate mantle, and a thin volatile upper layer. With all these ingredients, we outline prospects for Gl 486 b atmospheric studies, especially with forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope observations (abridged). journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2206.09990 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21319705 title Large-scale Hydrodynamical Shocks as the Smoking Gun Evidence for a Bar in M31 first_author Zi-Xuan Feng author Zi-Xuan Feng, Zhi Li, Juntai Shen, Ortwin Gerhard, Roberto Saglia, Matias Blana abstract The formation and evolutionary history of M31 are closely related to its dynamical structures, which remain unclear due to its high inclination. Gas kinematics could provide crucial evidence for the existence of a rotating bar in M31. Using the position-velocity diagram of [OIII] and HI, we are able to identify clear sharp velocity jump (shock) features with a typical amplitude over 100 km/s in the central region of M31 (4.6 kpc X 2.3 kpc, or 20 arcmin X 10 arcmin). We also simulate gas morphology and kinematics in barred M31 potentials and find that the bar-induced shocks can produce velocity jumps similar to those in [OIII]. The identified shock features in both [OIII] and HI are broadly consistent, and they are found mainly on the leading sides of the bar/bulge, following a hallmark pattern expected from the bar-driven gas inflow. Shock features on the far side of the disk are clearer than those on the near side, possibly due to limited data coverage on the near side, as well as obscuration by the warped gas and dust layers. Further hydrodynamical simulations with more sophisticated physics are desired to fully understand the observed gas features and to better constrain the parameters of the bar in M31. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 06 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2206.10026 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21084160 title Observations of PAHs in the atmospheres of discs and exoplanets first_author Barbara Ercolano author Barbara Ercolano, Christian Rab, Karan Molaverdikhani, Billy Edwards, Thomas Preibisch, Leonardo Testi, Inga Kamp, Wing-Fai Thi abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) play a key role in the chemical and hydrodynamical evolution of the atmospheres of exoplanets and planet-forming discs. If they can survive the planet formation process, PAHs are likely to be involved in pre-biotic chemical reactions eventually leading to more complex molecules such as amino acids and nucleotides, which form the basis for life as we know it. However, the abundance and specific role of PAHs in these environments is largely unknown due to limitations in sensitivity and range of wavelength of current and previous space-borne facilities. Upcoming infrared space spectroscopy missions, such as Twinkle and Ariel, present a unique opportunity to detect PAHs in the atmospheres of exoplanets and planet-forming discs. In this work, we present synthetic observations based on conservative numerical modelling of typical planet-forming discs and a transiting hot Saturnian planet around solar-type star. Our models show that Twinkle and Ariel might both be able to detect the 3.3 $\mu$m PAH feature within reasonable observing time in discs and transiting planets, assuming that PAHs are present with an abundance of at least one-tenth of the interstellar medium value. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 512 publication_type article eprint pages 9 issue 1 doi 10.1093/mnras/stac505

 source harvard id 21084088 title Black hole mergers in compact star clusters and massive black hole formation beyond the mass gap first_author Francesco Paolo Rizzuto author Francesco Paolo Rizzuto, Thorsten Naab, Rainer Spurzem, Manuel Arca-Sedda, Mirek Giersz, Jeremiah Paul Ostriker, Sambaran Banerjee abstract We present direct N-body simulations, carried out with NBODY6+ + GPU, of young and compact low-metallicity (Z = 0.0002) star clusters with 1.1 × 105 stars, a velocity dispersion of ~15 $\mathrm{km\, s^{-1}}$, a half-mass radius Rh = 0.6 pc, and a binary fraction of $10{{\ \rm per\,cent}}$ including updated evolution models for stellar winds and (pulsation) pair-instability supernovae (PSNe). Within the first tens of megayears, each cluster hosts several black hole (BH) merger events which nearly cover the complete mass range of primary and secondary BH masses for current LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA gravitational wave detections. The importance of gravitational recoil is estimated statistically during post-processing analysis. We present possible formation paths of massive BHs above the assumed lower PSN mass-gap limit ($45\, {\rm M}_\odot$) into the intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) regime ($\gt 100\, {\rm M}_\odot$) which include collisions of stars, BHs, and the direct collapse of stellar merger remnants with low core masses. The stellar evolution updates result in the early formation of heavier stellar BHs compared to the previous model. The resulting higher collision rates with massive stars support the rapid formation of massive BHs. For models assuming a high accretion efficiency for star-BH mergers, we present a first-generation formation scenario for GW190521-like events: a merger of two BHs which reached the PSN mass-gap merging with massive stars. This event is independent of gravitational recoil and therefore conceivable in dense stellar systems with low escape velocities. One simulated cluster even forms an IMBH binary (153, 173 M) which is expected to merge within a Hubble time. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 512 publication_type article eprint pages 15 issue 1 doi 10.1093/mnras/stac231

 source harvard id 21140596 title Probing vainsthein-screening gravity with galaxy clusters using internal kinematics and strong and weak lensing first_author Lorenzo Pizzuti author Lorenzo Pizzuti, Ippocratis D. Saltas, Keiichi Umetsu, Barbara Sartoris abstract We use high-precision combined strong/weak lensing and kinematics measurements of the total mass profiles of the observed galaxy clusters MACS J1206.2-0847 and Abell S1063, to constrain the relativistic sector of the general DHOST dark energy theories, which exhibit a partial breaking of the so called Vainsthein screening mechanism, on the linear level of scalar fluctuations around a cosmological background. In particular, by using the MG-MAMMPOSST framework developed in Pizzuti et al., for the kinematics analysis of member galaxies in clusters, along with lensing mass profile reconstructions, we provide new constraints on the coupling Y2 that governs the theory's relativistic contribution to the lensing potential. The new bound from the combination of kinematics and lensing measurements of MACS 1206, $Y_2=-0.12^{+0.66}_{-0.67}$ at 2σ, provides about a two-fold improvement on previous constraints. In the case of Abell S1063, a >2σ tension with the GR expectation arises. We discuss this in some detail, and we investigate the possible sources of systematics that can explain the tension. We further discuss why the combination of kinematics of member galaxies with lensing is capable of providing much tighter bounds compared to kinematics or lensing alone, and we explain how the number density profile of tracers, as well as the choice of the velocity anisotropy profile, affects the final results. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 512 publication_type article eprint pages 11 issue 3 doi 10.1093/mnras/stac746

 source harvard id 21140610 title Pulsational pair-instability supernovae: gravitational collapse, black hole formation, and beyond first_author N. Rahman author N. Rahman, H. -T. Janka, G. Stockinger, S. E. Woosley abstract We investigate the final collapse of rotating and non-rotating pulsational pair-instability supernova progenitors with zero-age-main-sequence masses of 60, 80, and 115 M and iron cores between 2.37 and 2.72 M by 2D hydrodynamics simulations. Using the general relativistic NADA-FLD code with energy-dependent three-flavour neutrino transport by flux-limited diffusion allows us to follow the evolution beyond the moment when the transiently forming neutron star (NS) collapses to a black hole (BH), which happens within 350-580 ms after bounce in all cases. Because of high neutrino luminosities and mean energies, neutrino heating leads to shock revival within ≲ 250 ms post bounce in all cases except the rapidly rotating 60 M model. In the latter case, centrifugal effects support a 10 per cent higher NS mass but reduce the radiated neutrino luminosities and mean energies by ~20 per cent and ~10 per cent, respectively, and the neutrino-heating rate by roughly a factor of two compared to the non-rotating counterpart. After BH formation, the neutrino luminosities drop steeply but continue on a 1-2 orders of magnitude lower level for several 100 ms because of aspherical accretion of neutrino and shock-heated matter, before the ultimately spherical collapse of the outer progenitor shells suppresses the neutrino emission to negligible values. In all shock-reviving models BH accretion swallows the entire neutrino-heated matter and the explosion energies decrease from maxima around 1.5 × 1051 erg to zero within a few seconds latest. Nevertheless, the shock or a sonic pulse moves outward and may trigger mass-loss, which we estimate by long-time simulations with the PROMETHEUS code. We also provide gravitational-wave signals. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 512 publication_type article eprint pages 38 issue 3 doi 10.1093/mnras/stac758

 source harvard id 21268331 title Symplectic quantization of multifield generalized Proca electrodynamics first_author Verónica Errasti Díez author Verónica Errasti Díez, Marina Krstic Marinkovic abstract We explicitly carry out the symplectic quantization of a family of multifield generalized Proca (GP) electrodynamics theories. In the process, we provide an independent derivation of the so-called secondary constraint enforcing relations—consistency conditions that significantly restrict the allowed interactions in multifield settings already at the classical level. Additionally, we unveil the existence of quantum consistency conditions, which apply in both single- and multifield GP scenarios. Our newly found conditions imply that not all classically well-defined (multi-)GP theories are amenable to quantization. The extension of our results to the most general multi-GP class is conceptually straightforward, albeit algebraically cumbersome. journal Physical Review D publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 105 publication_type article eprint pages issue 10 doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.105.105022

 source harvard id 21268495 title Three-Loop Gluon Scattering in QCD and the Gluon Regge Trajectory first_author Fabrizio Caola author Fabrizio Caola, Amlan Chakraborty, Giulio Gambuti, Andreas von Manteuffel, Lorenzo Tancredi abstract We compute the three-loop helicity amplitudes for the scattering of four gluons in QCD. We employ projectors in the 't Hooft-Veltman scheme and construct the amplitudes from a minimal set of physical building blocks, which allows us to keep the computational complexity under control. We obtain relatively compact results that can be expressed in terms of harmonic polylogarithms. In addition, we consider the Regge limit of our amplitude and extract the gluon Regge trajectory in full three-loop QCD. This is the last missing ingredient required for studying single-Reggeon exchanges at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. journal Physical Review Letters publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 128 publication_type article eprint pages issue 21 doi 10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.212001

 source harvard id 21268243 title Hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the muon g -2 in holographic QCD first_author Josef Leutgeb author Josef Leutgeb, Anton Rebhan, Michael Stadlbauer abstract We evaluate the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with two light flavors in minimal hard-wall and soft-wall holographic QCD models, as well as in simple generalizations thereof, and compare it to the rather precise results available from dispersive and lattice approaches. While holographic QCD cannot be expected to shed light on the existing small discrepancies between the latter, this comparison in turn provides useful information on the holographic models, which have been used to evaluate hadronic light-by-light contributions where errors in data-driven and lattice approaches are more sizable. In particular, in the hard-wall model that has recently been used to implement the Melnikov-Vainshtein short-distance constraint on hadronic light-by-light contributions, a matching of the hadronic vacuum polarization to the data-driven approach points to the same correction of parameters that has been proposed recently in order to account for next-to-leading-order effects. journal Physical Review D publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 105 publication_type article eprint pages issue 9 doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.105.094032

 source harvard id 21219212 title Probing Red Supergiant dynamics through photo-center displacements measured by Gaia first_author A. Chiavassa author A. Chiavassa, R. Kudritzki, B. Davies, B. Freytag, S. E. de Mink abstract Red supergiant (RSGs) are cool massive stars in a late phase of their evolution when the stellar envelope becomes fully convective. They are the brightest stars in the universe at infrared light and can be detected in galaxies far beyond the Local Group, allowing for accurate determination of chemical composition of galaxies. The study of their physical properties is extremely important for various phenomena including the final fate of massive stars as type II supernovae and gravitational wave progenitors. We explore the well-studied nearby young stellar cluster chi Per. Using Gaia EDR3 data, we find the distance of the cluster (d = 2.260+-0.020 kpc). We then investigate the variability of the convection-related surface structure as a source for parallax measurement uncertainty. We use state-of-the-art 3D radiative hydrodynamics simulations with CO5BOLD and the post-processing radiative transfer code OPTIM3D to compute intensity maps in the Gaia G photometric system. We calculate the variabiltiy, as a function of time, of the intensity-weighted mean from the synthetic maps. We then select the RSG stars in the cluster and compare their uncertainty on parallaxes to the predictions of photocentre displacements. The synthetic maps of RSG show extremely irregular and temporal variable surfaces due to convection-related dynamics. Consequentially, the position of the photo-center varies during Gaia measurements between 0.033 and 0.130 AU (up to 5% of the corresponding simulation stellar radius). We argue that the variability of the convection-related surface structures accounts for a substantial part of the Gaia EDR3 parallax error of the RSG sample. We suggest that the variation of the uncertainty on Gaia parallax could be exploited quantitatively using appropriate 3D simulations to extract, in a unique way, important information about the stellar dynamics and parameters of RSG stars. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21258042 title Tidal Love Numbers of Novel and Admixed Celestial Objects first_author Michael Collier author Michael Collier, Djuna Croon, Rebecca K. Leane abstract A sub-fraction of dark matter or new particles trapped inside celestial objects can significantly alter their macroscopic properties. We investigate the new physics imprint on celestial objects by using a generic framework to solve the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations for up to two fluids. We test the impact of populations of new particles on celestial objects, including the sensitivity to self-interaction sizes, new particle mass, and net population mass. Applying our setup to neutron stars and boson stars, we find rich phenomenology for a range of these parameters, including the creation of extended atmospheres. These atmospheres are detectable by their impact on the tidal love number, which can be measured at upcoming gravitational wave experiments such as Advanced LIGO, the Einstein Telescope, and LISA. We release our calculation framework as a publicly available code, allowing the TOV equations to be generically solved for arbitrary new physics models in novel and admixed celestial objects. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2205.15337 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21219721 title Can we actually constrain $f_{\rm NL}$ using the scale-dependent bias effect? An illustration of the impact of galaxy bias uncertainties using the BOSS DR12 galaxy power spectrum first_author Alexandre Barreira author Alexandre Barreira abstract The scale-dependent bias effect on the galaxy power spectrum is a very promising probe of the local primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) parameter $f_{\rm NL}$, but the amplitude of the effect is proportional to $f_{\rm NL}b_{\phi}$, where $b_{\phi}$ is the linear PNG galaxy bias parameter. Our knowledge of $b_{\phi}$ is currently very limited, yet nearly all existing $f_{\rm NL}$ constraints and forecasts assume precise knowledge for it. Here, we use the BOSS DR12 galaxy power spectrum to illustrate how our uncertain knowledge of $b_{\phi}$ currently prevents us from constraining $f_{\rm NL}$ with a given statistical precision $\sigma_{f_{\rm NL}}$. Assuming different fixed choices for the relation between $b_{\phi}$ and the linear density bias $b_1$, we find that $\sigma_{f_{\rm NL}}$ can vary by as much as an order of magnitude. Our strongest bound is $f_{\rm NL} = 16 \pm 16\ (1\sigma)$, while the loosest is $f_{\rm NL} = 230 \pm 226\ (1\sigma)$ for the same BOSS data. The impact of $b_{\phi}$ can be especially pronounced because it can be close to zero. We also show how marginalizing over $b_{\phi}$ with wide priors is not conservative, and leads in fact to biased constraints through parameter space projection effects. Independently of galaxy bias assumptions, the scale-dependent bias effect can only be used to detect $f_{\rm NL} \neq 0$ by constraining the product $f_{\rm NL}b_{\phi}$, but the error bar $\sigma_{f_{\rm NL}}$ remains undetermined and the results cannot be compared with the CMB; we find $f_{\rm NL}b_{\phi} \neq 0$ with $1.6\sigma$ significance. We also comment on why these issues are important for analyses with the galaxy bispectrum. Our results strongly motivate simulation-based research programs aimed at robust theoretical priors for the $b_{\phi}$ parameter, without which we may never be able to competitively constrain $f_{\rm NL}$ using galaxy data. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21258100 title Gravitational wave constraints on extended dark matter structures first_author Djuna Croon author Djuna Croon, Seyda Ipek, David McKeen abstract We generalise existing constraints on primordial black holes to dark objects with extended sizes using the aLIGO design sensitivity. We show that LIGO is sensitive to dark objects with radius $O(10-10^3~{\rm km})$ if they make up more than $\sim O(10^{-2}-10^{-3})$ of dark matter. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2205.15396 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21286318 title Characterization of a large mass archaeological lead-based cryogenic detectors for the RES-NOVA experiment first_author J. W. Beeman author J. W. Beeman, G. Benato, C. Bucci, L. Canonica, P. Carniti, E. Celi, M. Clemenza, A. D'Addabbo, F. A. Danevich, S. Di Domizio, S. Di Lorenzo, O. M. Dubovik, N. Ferreiro Iachellini, F. Ferroni, E. Fiorini, S. Fu, A. Garai, S. Ghislandi, L. Gironi, P. Gorla, C. Gotti, P. V. Guillaumon, D. L. Helis, G. P. Kovtun, M. Mancuso, L. Marini, M. Olmi, L. Pagnanini, L. Pattavina, G. Pessina, F. Petricca, S. Pirro, S. Pozzi, A. Puiu, S. Quitadamo, J. Rothe, A. P. Scherban, S. Schönert, D. A. Solopikhin, R. Strauss, E. Tarabini, V. I. Tretyak, I. A. Tupitsyna, V. Wagner abstract One of the most energetic events in the Universe are core-collapse Supernovae (SNe), where almost all the star's binding energy is released as neutrinos. These particles are direct probes of the processes occurring in the stellar core and provide unique insights into the gravitational collapse. RES-NOVA will revolutionize how we detect neutrinos from astrophysical sources, by deploying the first ton-scale array of cryogenic detectors made from archaeological lead. Pb offers the highest neutrino interaction cross-section via coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS). Such process will enable RES-NOVA to be equally sensitive to all neutrino flavors. For the first time, we propose to use archaeological Pb as sensitive target material in order to achieve an ultra-low background level in the region of interest (\textit{O}(1keV)). All these features make possible the deployment of the first cm-scale neutrino telescope for the investigation of astrophysical sources. In this contribution, we will characterize the radiopurity level and the performance of a small-scale proof-of-principle detector of RES-NOVA, consisting in a PbWO$_4$ crystal made from archaeological-Pb operated as cryogenic detector. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2206.05116 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21229338 title Gaussian Processes and Bayesian Optimization for High Precision Experiments first_author Max Lamparth author Max Lamparth, Mattis Bestehorn, Bastian Märkisch abstract High-precision measurements require optimal setups and analysis tools to achieve continuous improvements. Systematic corrections need to be modeled with high accuracy and known uncertainty to reconstruct underlying physical phenomena. To this end, we present Gaussian processes for modeling experiments and usage with Bayesian optimization, on the example of an electron energy detector, achieving optimal performance. We demonstrate the method's strengths and outline stochastic variational Gaussian processes for physics applications with large data sets, enabling new solutions for current problems. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2205.07625 pages issue doi

 source inspirehep id 2080080 title New constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio from the $Planck$ and BICEP/Keck Array data using the profile likelihood first_author Campeti, Paolo author Paolo Campeti, Eiichiro Komatsu abstract We derive a new upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio parameter $r$ using the frequentist profile likelihood method. We vary all the relevant cosmological parameters of the $\Lambda$CDM model, as well as the nuisance parameters. Unlike the Bayesian analysis using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), our analysis is independent of the choice of priors. Using $Planck$ Public Release 4, BICEP/Keck Array 2018, $Planck$ CMB lensing, and BAO data, we find an upper limit of $r<0.037$ at 95% C.L., similar to the Bayesian MCMC result of $r<0.038$ for a flat prior on $r$ and a conditioned $Planck$ lowlEB covariance matrix. journal publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint 2205.05617 pages issue doi

 source inspirehep id 2078308 title Online triggers for supernova and pre-supernova neutrino detection with cryogenic detectors first_author Eller, Philipp author Philipp Eller, Nahuel Iachellini Ferreiro, Luca Pattavina, Lolian Shtembari abstract Supernovae (SNe) are among the most energetic events in the universe still far from being fully understood. An early and prompt detection of neutrinos is a one-time opportunity for the realization of the first multi-messenger observation of these events. In this work, we present the prospects of detecting neutrinos produced before (pre-SN) and during a SN while running an advanced cryogenic detector. The recent advancements of the cryogenic detector technique and the discovery of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering offer a wealth of opportunities in neutrino detection. The combination of the excellent energy resolution of this experimental technique, with the high cross section of this detection channel and its equal sensitivity to all neutrino flavors enables the realization of highly sensitive cm-scale neutrino telescopes, as the newly proposed RES-NOVA experiment. We present a detailed study on the detection promptness of pre-SN and SN neutrino signals, with direct comparisons among different classes of test statistics. While the well-established Poisson test offers in general best performance under optimal conditions, the non-parametric Recursive Product of Spacing statistical test (RPS) is more robust and ideal for triggering astrophysical neutrino signals with no specific prior knowledge. Based on our statistical tests the RES-NOVA experiment is able to identify SN neutrino signals at a 15 kpc distance with 95% of success rate, and pre-SN signal as far as 480 pc with a pre-warn time of the order of 10 s. These results demonstrate the potential of RPS for the identification of neutrino signals and the physics reach of the RES-NOVA experiment. journal publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint 2205.03350 pages issue doi

 source inspirehep id 2089732 title Summary of Working Group 4: Mixing and mixing-related $CP$ violation in the $B$ system: $\Delta m$, $\Delta \Gamma$, $\phi_s$, $\phi_{1}/\beta$, $\phi_{2}/\alpha$, $\phi_{3}/\gamma$ first_author Chobanova, Veronika author Veronika Chobanova, Matthew Wingate, Yosuke Yusa, Jeremy Dalseno, Kristof De Bruyn, Ulrik Egede, Fabio Ferrari, Thibaud Humair, Anna Lupato, Eleftheria Malami, Wenbin Qian, Ramón Ángel Ruiz Fernández, Vladyslav Shtabovenko, Justus Tobias Tsang, Luiz Vale Silva abstract This summary reviews contributions to the CKM 2021 workshop in Working Group 4. In particular, theoretical and experimental progress in determining $B$ meson mixing properties are discussed. journal publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint 2205.15662 pages issue doi

 source inspirehep id 2089738 title First measurement of massive virtual photon emission from N* baryon resonances first_author Abou Yassine, R. author R. Abou Yassine, J. Adamczewski-Musch, O. Arnold, E.T. Atomssa, M. Becker, C. Behnke, J.C. Berger-Chen, A. Blanco, C. Blume, M. Böhmer, L. Chlad, P. Chudoba, I. Ciepal, C. Deveaux, D. Dittert, J. Dreyer, E. Epple, L. Fabbietti, P. Fonte, C. Franco, J. Friese, I. Fröhlich, J. Förtsch, T. Galatyuk, J.A. Garzon, R. Gernhäuser, R. Greifenhagen, M. Grunwald, M. Gumberidze, S. Harabasz, T. Heinz, T. Hennino, C. Höhne, F. Hojeij, R. Holzmann, M. Idzik, B. Kämpfer, K-H. Kampert, B. Kardan, V. Kedych, I. Koenig, W. Koenig, M. Kohls, B.W. Kolb, G. Korcyl, G. Kornakov, F. Kornas, R. Kotte, W. Krueger, A. Kugler, T. Kunz, R. Lalik, K. Lapidus, S. Linev, L. Lopes, M. Lorenz, T. Mahmoud, L. Maier, A. Malige, J. Markert, S. Maurus, V. Metag, J. Michel, D.M. Mihaylov, V. Mikhaylov, A. Molenda, C. Müntz, R. Münzer, L. Naumann, K. Nowakowski, J.-H. Otto, Y. Parpottas, M. Parschau, C. Pauly, V. Pechenov, O. Pechenova, J. Pietraszko, T. Povar, A. Prozorov, W. Przygoda, K. Pysz, B. Ramstein, N. Rathod, P. Rodriguez-Ramos, A. Rost, P. Salabura, T. Scheib, N. Schild, K. Schmidt-Sommerfeld, H. Schuldes, E. Schwab, F. Scozzi, F. Seck, P. Sellheim, J. Siebenson, L. Silva, U. Singh, J. Smyrski, S. Spataro, S. Spies, M.S. Stefaniak, H. Ströbele, J. Stroth, P. Strzempek, C. Sturm, K. Sumara, O. Svoboda, M. Szala, P. Tlusty, M. Traxler, H. Tsertos, O. Vazquez-Doce, V. Wagner, A.A. Weber, C. Wendisch, M.G. Wiebusch, J. Wirth, H.P. Zbroszczyk, E. Zherebtsova, P. Zumbruch, M. Zetenyi abstract First information on the timelike electromagnetic structure of baryons in the second resonance region has been obtained from measurements of invariant mass and angular distributions in the quasi-free reaction $\pi^- p \to nee$ at $\sqrt{s_{\pi^- p}}$ = 1.49 GeV with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) detector at GSI using the pion beam impinging on a CH$_2$ target. We find a total cross section $\sigma (\pi^- p \to nee) = 2.97 \pm 0.07^{data} \pm 0.21^{acc} \pm 0.31^{\rm{Z}_{\rm{eff}}} \mu$b. Combined with the Partial Wave Analysis of the concurrently measured two-pion channel, these data sets provide a crucial test of Vector Meson Dominance (VMD) inspired models. The commonly used "strict VMD" approach strongly overestimates the $e^+e^-$ yield. Instead, approaches based on a VMD amplitude vanishing at small $e^+e^-$ invariant masses supplemented coherently by a direct photon amplitude provide a better agreement. A good description of the data is also obtained using a calculation of electromagnetic timelike baryon transition form factors in a covariant spectator-quark model, demonstrating the dominance of meson cloud effects. The angular distributions of $e^+e^-$ pairs demonstrate the contributions of virtual photons with longitudinal polarization, in contrast to real photons. The virtual photon angular dependence supports the dominance of J=3/2, I=1/2 contributions observed in both the $\gamma^{\star} n$ and the $\pi \pi n$ channels. journal publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint 2205.15914 pages issue doi

 source inspirehep id 2085803 title Quantum and Gradient Corrections to False Vacuum Decay on a de Sitter Background first_author Cruz, Juan S. author Juan S. Cruz, Stephan Brandt, Maximilian Urban abstract We study the effects of a fixed de Sitter geometry background in scenarios of false vacuum decay. It is currently understood that bubble nucleation processes associated with first order phase transitions are particularly important in cosmology. The geometry of spacetime complicates the interpretation of the decay rate of a metastable vacuum. However, the effects of curvature can still be studied in the particular case where backreaction is neglected. We compute the imaginary part of the action in de Sitter space, including the one-loop and the gradient corrections. We use two independent methodologies and quantify the size of the corrections without any assumptions on the thickness of the wall of the scalar background configuration. journal publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint 2205.10136 pages issue doi

 source inspirehep id 2089044 title The limits of the strong $CP$ problem first_author Ai, Wen-Yuan author Wen-Yuan Ai, Juan S. Cruz, Björn Garbrecht, Carlos Tamarit abstract While $CP$ violation has never been observed in the strong interactions, the QCD Lagrangian admits a $CP$-odd topological interaction proportional to the so called $\theta$ angle, which weighs the contributions to the partition function from different topological sectors. The observational bounds are usually interpreted as demanding a severe tuning of $\theta$ against the phases of the quark masses, which constitutes the strong $CP$ problem. Here we report on recent challenges to this view based on a careful treatment of boundary conditions in the path integral and of the limit of infinite spacetime volume, which leads to $\theta$ dropping out of fermion correlation functions and becoming unobservable, implying that $CP$ is preserved in QCD. journal PoS publisher year 2022 month 05 volume DISCRETE2020-2021 publication_type eprint 2205.15093 pages 084 issue doi 10.22323/1.405.0084

 source harvard id 21229564 title Cosmological Bound on the QCD Axion Mass, Redux first_author Francesco D'Eramo author Francesco D'Eramo, Eleonora Di Valentino, William Giarè, Fazlollah Hajkarim, Alessandro Melchiorri, Olga Mena, Fabrizio Renzi, Seokhoon Yun abstract We revisit the joint constraints in the mixed hot dark matter scenario in which both thermally produced QCD axions and relic neutrinos are present. Upon recomputing the cosmological axion abundance via recent advances in the literature, we improve the state-of-the-art analyses and provide updated bounds on axion and neutrino masses. By avoiding approximate methods, such as the instantaneous decoupling approximation, and limitations due to the limited validity of the perturbative approach in QCD that forced to artificially divide the constraints from the axion-pion and the axion-gluon production channels, we find robust and self-consistent limits. We investigate the two most popular axion frameworks: KSVZ and DFSZ. From Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) light element abundances data we find for the KSVZ axion $\Delta N_{\rm eff}<0.31$ and an axion mass bound $m_a < 0.53$ eV (i.e., a bound on the axion decay constant $f_a > 1.07 \times 10^7$ GeV) both at $95\%$ CL. These BBN bounds are improved to $\Delta N_{\rm eff}<0.14$ and $m_a< 0.16$ eV ($f_a > 3.56 \times 10^7$ GeV) if a prior on the baryon energy density from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data is assumed. When instead considering cosmological observations from the CMB temperature, polarization and lensing from the Planck satellite combined with large scale structure data we find $\Delta N_{\rm eff}<0.23$, $m_a< 0.28$ eV ($f_a > 2.02 \times 10^7$ GeV) and $\sum m_\nu < 0.16$ eV at $95\%$ CL. This corresponds approximately to a factor of $5$ improvement in the axion mass bound with respect to the existing limits. Very similar results are obtained for the DFSZ axion. We also forecast upcoming observations from future CMB and galaxy surveys, showing that they could reach percent level errors for $m_a\sim 1$ eV. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2205.07849 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21230698 title The origin of the [CII]-deficit in a simulated dwarf galaxies starburst first_author Thomas G. Bisbas author Thomas G. Bisbas, Stefanie Walch, Thorsten Naab, Natalia Lahén, Rodrigo Herrera-Camus, Ulrich P. Steinwandel, Constantina M. Fotopoulou, Chia-Yu Hu, Peter H. Johansson abstract We present [CII] synthetic observations of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of a dwarf galaxy merger. The merging process varies the star-formation rate by more than three orders of magnitude. Several star clusters are formed, the feedback of which disperses and unbinds the dense gas through expanding HII regions and supernova (SN) explosions. For galaxies with properties similar to the modelled ones, we find that the [CII] emission remains optically thin throughout the merging process. We identify the Warm Neutral Medium ($3<\log T_{\rm gas}<4$ with $\chi_{\rm HI}>2\chi_{\rm H2}$) to be the primary source of [CII] emission ($\sim58\%$ contribution), although at stages when the HII regions are young and dense (during star cluster formation or SNe in the form of ionized bubbles) they can contribute $\gtrsim50\%$ to the total [CII] emission. We find that the [CII]/FIR ratio decreases due to thermal saturation of the [CII] emission caused by strong FUV radiation fields emitted by the massive star clusters, leading to a [CII]-deficit medium. We investigate the [CII]-SFR relation and find an approximately linear correlation which agrees well with observations, particularly those from the Dwarf Galaxy Survey. Our simulation reproduces the observed trends of [CII]/FIR versus $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ and $\Sigma_{\rm FIR}$, and it agrees well with the Kennicutt relation of SFR-FIR luminosity. We propose that local peaks of [CII] in resolved observations may provide evidence for ongoing massive cluster formation. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2205.08905 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21206881 title Geometry-induced patterns through mechanochemical coupling first_author Laeschkir Würthner author Laeschkir Würthner, Andriy Goychuk, Erwin Frey abstract Intracellular protein patterns regulate a variety of vital cellular processes such as cell division and motility, which often involve dynamic changes of cell shape. These changes in cell shape may in turn affect the dynamics of pattern-forming proteins, hence leading to an intricate feedback loop between cell shape and chemical dynamics. While several computational studies have examined the resulting rich dynamics, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. To elucidate some of these mechanisms, we explore a conceptual model for cell polarity on a dynamic one-dimensional manifold. Using concepts from differential geometry, we derive the equations governing mass-conserving reaction-diffusion systems on time-evolving manifolds. Analyzing these equations mathematically, we show that dynamic shape changes of the membrane can induce pattern-forming instabilities in parts of the membrane, which we refer to as regional instabilities. Deformations of the local membrane geometry can also (regionally) suppress pattern formation and spatially shift already existing patterns. We explain our findings by applying and generalizing the local equilibria theory of mass-conserving reaction-diffusion systems. This allows us to determine a simple onset criterion for geometry-induced pattern-forming instabilities, which is linked to the phase-space structure of the reaction-diffusion system. The feedback loop between membrane shape deformations and reaction-diffusion dynamics then leads to a surprisingly rich phenomenology of patterns, including oscillations, traveling waves, and standing waves that do not occur in systems with a fixed membrane shape. Our work reveals that the local conformation of the membrane geometry acts as an important dynamical control parameter for pattern formation in mass-conserving reaction-diffusion systems. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2205.02820 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21206306 title Cosmological simulations with rare and frequent dark matter self-interactions first_author Moritz S. Fischer author Moritz S. Fischer, Marcus Brüggen, Kai Schmidt-Hoberg, Klaus Dolag, Felix Kahlhoefer, Antonio Ragagnin, Andrew Robertson abstract Dark matter (DM) with self-interactions is a promising solution for the small-scale problems of the standard cosmological model. Here we perform the first cosmological simulation of frequent DM self-interactions, corresponding to small-angle DM scatterings. The focus of our analysis lies in finding and understanding differences to the traditionally assumed rare DM (large-angle) self scatterings. For this purpose, we compute the distribution of DM densities, the matter power spectrum, the two-point correlation function and the halo and subhalo mass functions. Furthermore, we investigate the density profiles of the DM haloes and their shapes. We find that overall large-angle and small-angle scatterings behave fairly similarly with a few exceptions. In particular, the number of satellites is considerably suppressed for frequent compared to rare self-interactions with the same cross-section. Overall we observe that while differences between the two cases may be difficult to establish using a single measure, the degeneracy may be broken through a combination of multiple ones. For instance, the combination of satellite counts with halo density or shape profiles could allow discriminating between rare and frequent self-interactions. As a by-product of our analysis, we provide - for the first time - upper limits on the cross-section for frequent self-interactions. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2205.02243 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21204952 title Non-linearities in the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest and in its cross-correlation with dark matter halos first_author Jahmour J. Givans author Jahmour J. Givans, Andreu Font-Ribera, Anže Slosar, Louise Seeyave, Christian Pedersen, Keir K. Rogers, Mathias Garny, Diego Blas, Vid Iršič abstract Three-dimensional correlations of the Lyman-$\alpha$ (Ly$\alpha$) forest and cross correlations between the Ly$\alpha$ forest and quasars have been measured on large scales, allowing a precise measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature at redshifts $z>2$. These 3D correlations are often modelled using linear perturbation theory, but full-shape analyses to extract cosmological information beyond BAO will require more realistic models capable of describing non-linearities present at smaller scales. We present a measurement of the Ly$\alpha$ forest flux power spectrum from large hydrodynamic simulations -- the Sherwood simulations -- and compare it to different models describing the small-scale deviations from linear theory. We confirm that the model presented in Arinyo-i-Prats et al. (2015) fits the measured 3D power up to $k=10\, h\rm{Mpc^{-1}}$ with an accuracy better than 5%, and show that the same model can also describe the 1D correlations with similar precision. We also present, for the first time, an equivalent study for the cross-power spectrum of halos with the Ly$\alpha$ forest, and we discuss different challenges we face when modelling the cross-power spectrum beyond linear scales. We make all our measured power spectra public in \url{https://github.com/andreufont/sherwood_p3d}. This study is a step towards joint analyses of 1D and 3D flux correlations, and towards using the quasar-Ly$\alpha$ cross-correlation beyond BAO analyses. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2205.00962 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21235332 title Two-loop non-planar hexa-box integrals with one massive leg first_author Adam Kardos author Adam Kardos, Costas G. Papadopoulos, Alexander V. Smirnov, Nikolaos Syrrakos, Christopher Wever abstract Based on the Simplified Differential Equations approach, we present results for the two-loop non-planar hexa-box families of master integrals. We introduce a new approach to obtain the boundary terms and establish a one-dimensional integral representation of the master integrals in terms of Generalised Polylogarithms, when the alphabet contains non-factorisable square roots. The results are relevant to the study of NNLO QCD corrections for W, Z and Higgs-boson production in association with two hadronic jets. journal Journal of High Energy Physics publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 2022 publication_type article eprint pages issue 5 doi 10.1007/JHEP05(2022)033

 source harvard id 21205147 title On the Standard Model Predictions for Rare K and B Decay Branching Ratios: 2022 first_author Andrzej J. Buras author Andrzej J. Buras abstract In this decade one expects a very significant progress in measuring the branching ratios for several rare $K$ and $B$ decays, in particular for the decays $K^+\to\pi^+\nu\bar\nu$, $K_L\to\pi^0\nu\bar\nu$, $B_s\to\mu^+\mu^+$ and $B_d\to\mu^+\mu^+$. On the theory side a very significant progress on calculating these branching ratios has been achieved in the last thirty years culminating recently in rather precise SM predictions for them. It is then unfortunate that some papers still cite the results for $K^+\to\pi^+\nu\bar\nu$ and $K_L\to\pi^0\nu\bar\nu$ presented by us in 2015. They are clearly out of date. Similar comments apply to predictions for $B_{s,d}\to\mu^+\mu^-$. In this note I want to stress again that, in view of the tensions between various determinations of $V_{cb}$ in tree-level decays, presently, the only trustable SM predictions for the branching ratios in question can be obtained by eliminating their dependence on the CKM parameters with the help of $|\varepsilon_K|$, $\Delta M_s$, $\Delta M_d$ and $S_{\psi K_S}$, evaluated in the SM. In this context I am astonished by statements made by some computer code practitioners that setting in this strategy these four $\Delta F=2$ observables to their experimental values is an assumption. The goal of this strategy is not to make an overall SM fit but to predict the SM branching ratios. In the SM there are no new physics (NP) contributions to $\Delta F=2$ transitions and no assumption on the absence of NP is needed. Moreover, presently NP is not required to describe simultaneously the very precise data on $|\varepsilon_K|$, $\Delta M_s$, $\Delta M_d$ and $S_{\psi K_S}$. This strategy for obtaining true SM predictions for rare decay branching ratios is moreover not polluted by hadronic uncertainies and observed anomalies in semi-leptonic decays used often in global analyses. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2205.01118 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21241787 title Heavy quarkonium dynamics at next-to-leading order in the binding energy over temperature first_author Nora Brambilla author Nora Brambilla, Miguel Ángel Escobedo, Ajaharul Islam, Michael Strickland, Anurag Tiwari, Antonio Vairo, Peter Vander Griend abstract Using the potential non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics (pNRQCD) effective field theory, we derive a Lindblad equation for the evolution of the heavy-quarkonium reduced density matrix that is accurate to next-to-leading order (NLO) in the ratio of the binding energy of the state to the temperature of the medium. The resulting NLO Lindblad equation can be used to more reliably describe heavy-quarkonium evolution in the quark-gluon plasma at low temperatures compared to the leading-order truncation. For phenomenological application, we numerically solve the resulting NLO Lindblad equation using the quantum trajectories algorithm. To achieve this, we map the solution of the three-dimensional Lindblad equation to the solution of an ensemble of one-dimensional Schrödinger evolutions with Monte-Carlo sampled quantum jumps. Averaging over the Monte-Carlo sampled quantum jumps, we obtain the solution to the NLO Lindblad equation without truncation in the angular momentum quantum number of the states considered. We also consider the evolution of the system using only the complex effective Hamiltonian without stochastic jumps and find that this provides a reliable approximation for the ground state survival probability at LO and NLO. Finally, we make comparisons with our prior leading-order pNRQCD results and experimental data available from the ATLAS, ALICE, and CMS collaborations. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2205.10289 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21217210 title Gravothermal evolution of dark matter halos with differential elastic scattering first_author Daneng Yang author Daneng Yang, Hai-Bo Yu abstract We study gravothermal evolution of dark matter halos in the presence of differential self-scattering that has strong velocity and angular dependencies. We design controlled N-body simulations to model Rutherford and Moller scatterings in the halo, and follow its evolution in both core-expansion and -collapse phases. The simulations show the commonly-used transfer cross section underestimates the effects of dark matter self-interactions, but the viscosity cross section provides a good approximation for modeling angular-dependent dark matter scattering. We investigate thermodynamic properties of the halo, and find that the three moments of the Boltzmann equation under the fluid approximation are satisfied. We further propose a constant effective cross section, which integrates over the halo's characteristic velocity dispersion with weighting kernels motivated by kinetic theory of heat conduction. The effective cross section provides an approximation to differential self-scattering for most of the halo evolution. However, it can significantly underestimate the growth rate of the central density at late stages of the collapse phase. This indicates that constant and velocity-dependent dark matter self-interactions are fundamentally different, as for the latter the cross section evolves with the halo dynamically, boosting the collapse. This feature may help test different self-interacting dark matter models. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2205.03392 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21239745 title The role of physical and numerical viscosity in hydrodynamical instabilities first_author Tirso Marin-Gilabert author Tirso Marin-Gilabert, Milena Valentini, Ulrich P. Steinwandel, Klaus Dolag abstract The evolution of the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (KHI) is widely used to assess the performance of numerical methods. We employ this instability to test both the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and the meshless finite mass (MFM) implementation in OpenGadget3. We quantify the accuracy of SPH and MFM in reproducing the linear growth of the KHI with different numerical and physical set-ups. Among them, we consider: $i)$ numerical induced viscosity, and $ii)$ physically motivated, Braginskii viscosity, and compare their effect on the growth of the KHI. We find that the changes of the inferred numerical viscosity when varying nuisance parameters such as the set-up or the number of neighbours in our SPH code are comparable to the differences obtained when using different hydrodynamical solvers, i.e. MFM. SPH reproduces the expected reduction of the growth rate in the presence of physical viscosity and recovers well the threshold level of physical viscosity needed to fully suppress the instability. In the case of galaxy clusters with a virial temperature of $3\times10^7$ K, this level corresponds to a suppression factor of $\approx10^{-3}$ of the classical Braginskii value. The intrinsic, numerical viscosity of our SPH implementation in such an environment is inferred to be at least an order of magnitude smaller (i.e. $\approx10^ {-4}$), re-ensuring that modern SPH methods are suitable to study the effect of physical viscosity in galaxy clusters. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2205.09135 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21217161 title Online triggers for supernova and pre-supernova neutrino detection with cryogenic detectors first_author Philipp Eller author Philipp Eller, Nahuel Ferreiro Iachellini, Luca Pattavina, Lolian Shtembari abstract Supernovae (SNe) are among the most energetic events in the universe still far from being fully understood. An early and prompt detection of neutrinos is a one-time opportunity for the realization of the first multi-messenger observation of these events. In this work, we present the prospects of detecting neutrinos produced before (pre-SN) and during a SN while running an advanced cryogenic detector. The recent advancements of the cryogenic detector technique and the discovery of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering offer a wealth of opportunities in neutrino detection. The combination of the excellent energy resolution of this experimental technique, with the high cross section of this detection channel and its equal sensitivity to all neutrino flavors enables the realization of highly sensitive cm-scale neutrino telescopes, as the newly proposed RES-NOVA experiment. We present a detailed study on the detection promptness of pre-SN and SN neutrino signals, with direct comparisons among different classes of test statistics. While the well-established Poisson test offers in general best performance under optimal conditions, the non-parametric Recursive Product of Spacing statistical test (RPS) is more robust and ideal for triggering astrophysical neutrino signals with no specific prior knowledge. Based on our statistical tests the RES-NOVA experiment is able to identify SN neutrino signals at a 15 kpc distance with 95% of success rate, and pre-SN signal as far as 480 pc with a pre-warn time of the order of 10 s. These results demonstrate the potential of RPS for the identification of neutrino signals and the physics reach of the RES-NOVA experiment. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2205.03350 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21235315 title B → D1(2420) and B → D1'(2430) form factors from QCD light-cone sum rules first_author Nico Gubernari author Nico Gubernari, Alexander Khodjamirian, Rusa Mandal, Thomas Mannel abstract We perform the first calculation of form factors in the semileptonic decays B → D1(2420)ℓν and B → D1'(2430)ℓν using QCD light-cone sum rules (LCSRs) with B-meson distribution amplitudes. In this calculation the c-quark mass is finite. Analytical expressions for two-particle contributions up to twist four are obtained. To disentangle the D1 and D1' contributions in the LCSRs, we suggest a novel approach that introduces a combination of two interpolating currents for these charmed mesons. To fix all the parameters in the LCSRs, we use the two-point QCD sum rules for the decay constants of D1 and D1' mesons augmented by a single experimental input, that is the B → D1(2420)ℓν decay width. We provide numerical results for all B → D1 and B → D1' form factors. As a byproduct, we also obtain the D1- and D1'-meson decay constants and predict the lepton-flavour universality ratios R(D1) and R(D1'). journal Journal of High Energy Physics publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 2022 publication_type article eprint pages issue 5 doi 10.1007/JHEP05(2022)029

 source harvard id 21218517 title Next-to-leading power endpoint factorization and resummation for off-diagonal "gluon" thrust first_author M. Beneke author M. Beneke, M. Garny, S. Jaskiewicz, J. Strohm, R. Szafron, L. Vernazza, J. Wang abstract The lack of convergence of the convolution integrals appearing in next-to-leading-power (NLP) factorization theorems prevents the applications of existing methods to resum power-suppressed large logarithmic corrections in collider physics. We consider thrust distribution in the two-jet region for the flavour-nonsinglet off-diagonal contribution, where a gluon-initiated jet recoils against a quark-antiquark pair, which is power-suppressed. With the help of operatorial endpoint factorization conditions, we obtain a factorization formula, where the individual terms are free from endpoint divergences in convolutions and can be expressed in terms of renormalized hard, soft and collinear functions in four dimensions. This allows us to perform the first resummation of the endpoint-divergent SCET$_{\rm I}$ observables at the leading logarithmic accuracy using exclusively renormalization-group methods. The presented approach relies on universal properties of the soft and collinear limits and may serve as a paradigm for the systematic NLP resummation for other $1\to 2$ and $2\to 1$ collider physics processes. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2205.04479 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 21243196 title Euclid: Cosmological forecasts from the void size function first_author S. Contarini author S. Contarini, G. Verza, A. Pisani, N. Hamaus, M. Sahlén, C. Carbone, S. Dusini, F. Marulli, L. Moscardini, A. Renzi, C. Sirignano, L. Stanco, M. Bonici, G. Castignani, H. M. Courtois, S. Escoffier, D. Guinet, A. Kovacs, G. Lavaux, E. Massara, S. Nadathur, G. Pollina, T. Ronconi, F. Ruppin, Z. Sakr, A. Veropalumbo, B. D. Wandelt, A. Amara, N. Auricchio, M. Baldi, D. Bonino, E. Branchini, M. Brescia, J. Brinchmann, S. Camera, V. Capobianco, J. Carretero, M. Castellano, S. Cavuoti, R. Cledassou, G. Congedo, C. J. Conselice, L. Conversi, Y. Copin, L. Corcione, F. Courbin, M. Cropper, A. Da Silva, H. Degaudenzi, F. Dubath, C. A. J. Duncan, X. Dupac, A. Ealet, S. Farrens, S. Ferriol, P. Fosalba, M. Frailis, E. Franceschi, B. Garilli, W. Gillard, B. Gillis, C. Giocoli, A. Grazian, F. Grupp, L. Guzzo, S. Haugan, W. Holmes, F. Hormuth, K. Jahnke, M. Kümmel, S. Kermiche, A. Kiessling, M. Kilbinger, M. Kunz, H. Kurki-Suonio, R. Laureijs, S. Ligori, P. B. Lilje, I. Lloro, E. Maiorano, O. Mansutti, O. Marggraf, K. Markovic, R. Massey, M. Melchior, M. Meneghetti, G. Meylan, M. Moresco, E. Munari, S. M. Niemi, C. Padilla, S. Paltani, F. Pasian, K. Pedersen, W. J. Percival, V. Pettorino, S. Pires, G. Polenta, M. Poncet, L. Popa, L. Pozzetti, F. Raison, J. Rhodes, E. Rossetti, R. Saglia, B. Sartoris, P. Schneider, A. Secroun, G. Seidel, G. Sirri, C. Surace, P. Tallada-Crespí, A. N. Taylor, I. Tereno, R. Toledo-Moreo, F. Torradeflot, E. A. Valentijn, L. Valenziano, Y. Wang, J. Weller, G. Zamorani, J. Zoubian, S. Andreon, D. Maino, S. Mei abstract The Euclid mission $-$ with its spectroscopic galaxy survey covering a sky area over $15\,000 \ \mathrm{deg}^2$ in the redshift range $0.9  source harvard id 21219666 title New constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio from the$Planck$and BICEP/Keck Array data using the profile likelihood first_author Paolo Campeti author Paolo Campeti, Eiichiro Komatsu abstract We derive a new upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio parameter$r$using the frequentist profile likelihood method. We vary all the relevant cosmological parameters of the$\Lambda$CDM model, as well as the nuisance parameters. Unlike the Bayesian analysis using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), our analysis is independent of the choice of priors. Using$Planck$Public Release 4, BICEP/Keck Array 2018,$Planck$CMB lensing, and BAO data, we find an upper limit of$r<0.037$at 95% C.L., similar to the Bayesian MCMC result of$r<0.038$for a flat prior on$r$and a conditioned$Planck$lowlEB covariance matrix. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2205.05617 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21243829 title The PEPSI-LBT Exoplanet Transit Survey (PETS). II. A Deep Search for Thermal Inversion Agents in KELT-20 b/MASCARA-2 b with Emission and Transmission Spectroscopy first_author Marshall C. Johnson author Marshall C. Johnson, Ji Wang, Anusha Pai Asnodkar, Aldo S. Bonomo, B. Scott Gaudi, Thomas Henning, Ilya Ilyin, Engin Keles, Luca Malavolta, Matthias Mallonn, Karan Molaverdikhani, Valerio Nascimbeni, Jennifer Patience, Katja Poppenhaeger, Gaetano Scandariato, Everett Schlawin, Evgenya Shkolnik, Daniela Sicilia, Alessandro Sozzetti, Klaus G. Strassmeier, Christian Veillet, Fei Yan abstract Recent observations have shown that the atmospheres of ultra hot Jupiters (UHJs) commonly possess temperature inversions, where the temperature increases with increasing altitude. Nonetheless, which opacity sources are responsible for the presence of these inversions remains largely observationally unconstrained. We used LBT/PEPSI to observe the atmosphere of the UHJ KELT-20 b in both transmission and emission in order to search for molecular agents which could be responsible for the temperature inversion. We validate our methodology by confirming a previous detection of Fe I in emission at$15.1\sigma$; however, we are unable to reproduce published detections of Fe II, Cr I, or Si I. We attribute the non-detection of Si I to the lack of lines in our bandpass, but the non-detections of Fe II and Cr I are puzzling due to our much higher signal-to-noise ratio than previous works. Our search for the inversion agents TiO, VO, FeH, and CaH results in non-detections. Using injection-recovery testing we set$4\sigma$upper limits upon the volume mixing ratios for these constituents as low as$\sim1\times10^{-10}for TiO. For TiO, VO, and CaH, our limits are much lower than expectations from an equilibrium chemical model, while FeH is lower than the expectations only from a super-Solar metallicity model. We thus rule out TiO, VO, and CaH as the source of the temperature inversion in KELT-20 b, while FeH is disfavored only if KELT-20 b possesses a high-metallicity atmosphere. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2205.12162 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21240701 title The eROSITA view of the Abell 3391/95 field: The Northern Clump. The largest infalling structure in the longest known gas filament observed with eROSITA, XMM-Newton, and Chandra first_author Angie Veronica author Angie Veronica, Yuanyuan Su, Veronica Biffi, Thomas H. Reiprich, Florian Pacaud, Paul E. J. Nulsen, Ralph P. Kraft, Jeremy S. Sanders, Akos Bogdan, Melih Kara, Klaus Dolag, Jürgen Kerp, Bärbel S. Koribalski, Thomas Erben, Esra Bulbul, Efrain Gatuzz, Vittorio Ghirardini, Andrew M. Hopkins, Ang Liu, Konstantinos Migkas, Tessa Vernstrom abstract Context. Galaxy clusters grow through mergers and the accretion of substructures along large-scale filaments. Many of the missing baryons in the local Universe may reside in such filaments as the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). Aims: SRG/eROSITA performance verification observations revealed that the binary cluster Abell 3391/3395 and the Northern Clump (the MCXC J0621.7-5242 galaxy cluster) are aligning along a cosmic filament in soft X-rays, similarly to what has been seen in simulations before. We aim to understand the dynamical state of the Northern Clump as it enters the atmosphere (3 × R200) of Abell 3391. Methods: We analyzed joint eROSITA, XMM-Newton, and Chandra observations to probe the morphological, thermal, and chemical properties of the Northern Clump from its center out to a radius of 988 kpc (R200). We utilized the ASKAP/EMU radio data, the DECam optical image, and the Planck y-map to study the influence of the wide-angle tail (WAT) radio source on the Northern Clump's central intracluster medium. Using eROSITA data, we also analyzed the gas properties of the Northern Filament, the region between the virial radii of the Northern Clump and the A3391 cluster. From the Magneticum simulation, we identified an analog of the A3391/95 system along with an infalling group resembling the Northern Clump. Results: The Northern Clump is a weak cool-core cluster centered on a WAT radio galaxy. The gas temperature over 0.2-0.5R500 is kBT500 = 1.99 ± 0.04 keV. We employed the mass-temperature (M - T) scaling relation and obtained a mass estimate of M500 = (7.68 ± 0.43) × 1013 M and R500 = (63 6 ± 12) kpc. Its X-ray atmosphere has a boxy shape and deviates from spherical symmetry. We identify a southern surface brightness edge, likely caused by subsonic motion relative to the filament gas in the southern direction. At ~R500, the southern atmosphere (infalling head) appears to be 42% hotter than its northern atmosphere. We detect a downstream tail pointing toward the north with a projected length of ~318 kpc, plausibly the result of ram pressure stripping. Through a two-temperature fit, we identify a cooler component in the Northern Filament with kBT = 0.68- 0.64+ 0.38 keV <!--inline-formula id="FI1"><alternatives><![CDATA[{k{B}}T = 0.68- 0.64+ 0.38{{keV}}]]>kBT=0.68−0.64+0.38keV<inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" id="img_eq1" mime-subtype="png" mimetype="image" xlink:href="aa41415-21-eq1.png"/></alternatives> and ne = 1.99-1.24+0.88 × 10-5cm-3, <!--inline-formula id="FI2"><alternatives><![CDATA[{n_e}1.99- 1.24+ 0.88 × {10- 5}{{c}}{{{m}}- 3}]]>ne1.99−1.24+0.88×10−5cm−3<inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" id="img_eq2" mime-subtype="png" mimetype="image" xlink:href="aa41415-21-eq2.png"/></alternatives> which are consistent within the expected ranges of WHIM properties. The analog group in the Magneticum simulation is experiencing changes in its gas properties and a shift between the position of the halo center and that of the bound gas, while approaching the main cluster pair. Conclusions: The Northern Clump is a dynamically active system and far from being relaxed. Its atmosphere is affected by an interaction with the WAT and by gas sloshing or its infall toward Abell 3391 along the filament, consistent with the analog group-size halo in the Magneticum simulation. journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 661 publication_type article eprint pages 24 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202141415  source harvard id 21240980 title Towards an accurate model of small-scale redshift-space distortions in modified gravity first_author Cheng-Zong Ruan author Cheng-Zong Ruan, Carolina Cuesta-Lazaro, Alexander Eggemeier, César Hernández-Aguayo, Carlton M. Baugh, Baojiu LiFrancisco Prada abstract The coming generation of galaxy surveys will provide measurements of galaxy clustering with unprecedented accuracy and data size, which will allow us to test cosmological models at much higher precision than achievable previously. This means that we must have more accurate theoretical predictions to compare with future observational data. As a first step towards more accurate modelling of the redshift space distortions (RSD) of small-scale galaxy clustering in modified gravity (MG) cosmologies, we investigate the validity of the so-called Skew-T (ST) probability distribution function (PDF) of halo pairwise peculiar velocities in these models. We show that, combined with the streaming model of RSD, the ST PDF substantially improves the small-scale predictions by incorporating skewness and kurtosis, for both ΛCDM and two leading MG models: f(R) gravity and the DGP braneworld model. The ST model reproduces the velocity PDF and redshift-space halo clustering measured from MG N-body simulations very well down to ~5 h-1Mpc. In particular, we investigate the enhancements of halo pairwise velocity moments with respect to ΛCDM for a larger range of MG variants than previous works, and present simple explanations to the behaviours observed. By performing a simple Fisher analysis, we find a significnat increase in constraining power to detect modifications of General Relativity by introducing small-scale information in the RSD analyses. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type article eprint pages issue doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1345  source harvard id 21240679 title First eROSITA study of nearby M dwarfs and the rotation-activity relation in combination with TESS first_author E. Magaudda author E. Magaudda, B. Stelzer, St. Raetz, A. Klutsch, M. Salvato, J. Wolf abstract We present the first results with the ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array (eROSITA) on board the Russian Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission, and we combine the new X-ray data with observations with the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). We used the SUPERBLINK proper motion catalog of nearby M dwarfs as input sample to search for eROSITA and TESS data. We extracted Gaia DR2 data for the full M dwarf catalog, which comprises ~9000 stars, and we calculated the stellar parameters from empirical relations with optical/IR colors. Then we cross-matched this catalog with the eROSITA Final Equatorial Depth Survey (eFEDS) and the first eROSITA all-sky survey (eRASS1). After a meticulous source identification in which we associated the closest Gaia source with the eROSITA X-ray detections, our sample of M dwarfs is defined by 687 stars with SpT = K5..M7 (673 from eRASS1 and 14 from eFEDS). While for eRASSl we used the data from the source catalog provided by the eROSITA_DE consortium, for the much smaller eFEDS sample, we performed the data extraction, and we analyzed the X-ray spectra and light curves. This unprecedented data base for X-ray emitting M dwarfs allowed us to place a quantitative constraint on the mass dependence of the X-ray luminosity, and to determine the change in the activity level with respect to pre-main-sequence stars. TESS observations are available for 489 of 687 X-ray detected M dwarfs. By applying standard period search methods, we were able to determine the rotation period for 180 X-ray detected M dwarfs. This is about one-forth of the X-ray sample. With the joint eROSITA and TESS sample, and combining it with our compilation of historical X-ray and rotation data for M dwarfs, we examined the mass dependence of the saturated regime of the rotation-activity relation. A first comparison of eROSITA hardness ratios and spectra shows that 65% of the X-ray detected M dwarfs have coronal temperatures of ~0.5 keV. We performed a statistical investigation of the long-term X-ray variability of M dwarfs by comparing the eROSITA measurements to those obtained ~30 yr earlier during the ROSAT all-sky survey (RASS). Evidence for X-ray flares is found in various parts of our analysis: directly from an inspection of the eFEDS light curves, in the relation between RASS and eRASSl X-ray luminosities, and in a subset of stars that displays hotter X-ray emission than the bulk of the sample according to the hardness ratios. Finally, we point out the need to obtain X-ray spectroscopy for more M dwarfs to study the coronal temperature-luminosity relation, which is not well constrained by our eFEDS results. Full Tables 2, 3 and 5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/661/A29 journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 661 publication_type article eprint pages 23 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202141617  source harvard id 21240718 title A large population study of protoplanetary disks. Explaining the millimeter size-luminosity relation with or without substructure first_author Apostolos Zormpas author Apostolos Zormpas, Tilman Birnstiel, Giovanni P. Rosotti, Sean M. Andrews abstract Recent subarcsecond resolution surveys of the dust continuum emission from nearby protoplanetary disks show a strong correlation between the sizes and luminosities of the disks. We aim to explain the origin of the (sub-)millimeter size-luminosity relation (SLR) between the 68% effective radius (reff) of disks with their continuum luminosity (Lmm), with models of gas and dust evolution in a simple viscous accretion disk and radiative transfer calculations. We use a large grid of models (105 simulations) with and without planetary gaps, and vary the initial conditions of the key parameters. We calculate the disk continuum emission and the effective radius for all models as a function of time. By selecting those simulations that continuously follow the SLR, we can derive constraints on the input parameters of the models. We confirm previous results that models of smooth disks in the radial drift regime are compatible with the observed SLR (Lmm ∝ reff2), but only smooth disks cannot be the reality. We show that the SLR is more widely populated if planets are present. However, they tend to follow a different relation than smooth disks, potentially implying that a mixture of smooth and substructured disks are present in the observed sample. We derive a SLR (Lmm ∝ reff5/4) for disks with strong substructure. To be compatible with the SLR, models need to have an initially high disk mass (≥2.5 × 10−2 M*) and low turbulence-parameter a values (≤10−3). Furthermore, we find that the grain composition and porosity drastically affects the evolution of disks in the size-luminosity diagram where relatively compact grains that include amorphous carbon are favored. Moreover, a uniformly optically thick disk with high albedo (0.9) that follows the SLR cannot be formed from an evolutionary procedure. journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 661 publication_type article eprint pages 28 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202142046  source harvard id 21240805 title Disk Evolution Study through Imaging of Nearby Young Stars (DESTINYS): A Panchromatic View of DO Tau's Complex Kilo-astronomical-unit Environment first_author Jane Huang author Jane Huang, Christian Ginski, Myriam Benisty, Bin Ren, Alexander J. Bohn, Élodie Choquet, Karin I. Öberg, Álvaro Ribas, Jaehan Bae, Edwin A. Bergin, Til Birnstiel, Yann Boehler, Stefano Facchini, Daniel Harsono, Michiel Hogerheijde, Feng Long, Carlo F. Manara, François Ménard, Paola Pinilla, Christophe Pinte, Christian Rab, Jonathan P. Williams, Alice Zurlo abstract While protoplanetary disks are often treated as isolated systems in planet formation models, observations increasingly suggest that vigorous interactions between Class II disks and their environments are not rare. DO Tau is a T Tauri star that has previously been hypothesized to have undergone a close encounter with the HV Tau system. As part of the DESTINYS ESO Large Programme, we present new Very Large Telescope (VLT)/SPHERE polarimetric observations of DO Tau and combine them with archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) scattered-light images and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of CO isotopologues and CS to map a network of complex structures. The SPHERE and ALMA observations show that the circumstellar disk is connected to arms extending out to several hundred astronomical units. HST and ALMA also reveal stream-like structures northeast of DO Tau, some of which are at least several thousand astronomical units long. These streams appear not to be gravitationally bound to DO Tau, and comparisons with previous Herschel far-IR observations suggest that the streams are part of a bridge-like structure connecting DO Tau and HV Tau. We also detect a fainter redshifted counterpart to a previously known blueshifted CO outflow. While some of DO Tau's complex structures could be attributed to a recent disk-disk encounter, they might be explained alternatively by interactions with remnant material from the star formation process. These panchromatic observations of DO Tau highlight the need to contextualize the evolution of Class II disks by examining processes occurring over a wide range of size scales. journal The Astrophysical Journal publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 930 publication_type article eprint pages 28 issue 2 doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac63ba  source harvard id 21240637 title The eROSITA Final Equatorial-Depth Survey (eFEDS). Identification and characterization of the counterparts to point-like sources first_author M. Salvato author M. Salvato, J. Wolf, T. Dwelly, A. Georgakakis, M. Brusa, A. Merloni, T. Liu, Y. Toba, K. Nandra, G. Lamer, J. Buchner, C. Schneider, S. Freund, A. Rau, A. Schwope, A. Nishizawa, M. Klein, R. Arcodia, J. Comparat, B. Musiimenta, T. Nagao, H. Brunner, A. Malyali, A. Finoguenov, S. Anderson, Y. Shen, H. Ibarra-Medel, J. Trump, W. N. Brandt, C. M. Urry, C. Rivera, M. Krumpe, T. Urrutia, T. Miyaji, K. Ichikawa, D. P. Schneider, A. Fresco, T. Boller, J. Haase, J. Brownstein, R. R. Lane, D. Bizyaev, C. Nitschelm abstract Context. In November 2019, eROSITA on board of the Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) observatory started to map the entire sky in X-rays. After the four-year survey program, it will reach a flux limit that is about 25 times deeper than ROSAT. During the SRG performance verification phase, eROSITA observed a contiguous 140 deg2 area of the sky down to the final depth of the eROSITA all-sky survey (eROSITA Final Equatorial-Depth Survey; eFEDS), with the goal of obtaining a census of the X-ray emitting populations (stars, compact objects, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and active galactic nuclei) that will be discovered over the entire sky. Aims: This paper presents the identification of the counterparts to the point sources detected in eFEDS in the main and hard samples and their multi-wavelength properties, including redshift. Methods: To identifyy the counterparts, we combined the results from two independent methods (NWAY and ASTROMATCH), trained on the multi-wavelength properties of a sample of 23k XMM-Newton sources detected in the DESI Legacy Imaging Survey DR8. Then spectroscopic redshifts and photometry from ancillary surveys were collated to compute photometric redshifts. Results: Of the eFEDS sources, 24 774 of 27 369 have reliable counterparts (90.5%) in the main sample and 231 of 246 sourcess (93.9%) have counterparts in the hard sample, including 2514 (3) sources for which a second counterpart is equally likely. By means of reliable spectra, Gaia parallaxes, and/or multi-wavelength properties, we have classified the reliable counterparts in both samples into Galactic (2695) and extragalactic sources (22 079). For about 340 of the extragalactic sources, we cannot rule out the possibility that they are unresolved clusters or belong to clusters. Inspection of the distributions of the X-ray sources in various optical/IR colour-magnitude spaces reveal a rich variety of diverse classes of objects. The photometric redshifts are most reliable within the KiDS/VIKING area, where deep near-infrared data are also available. Conclusions: This paper accompanies the eROSITA early data release of all the observations performed during the performance and verification phase. Together with the catalogues of primary and secondary counterparts to the main and hard samples of the eFEDS survey, this paper releases their multi-wavelength properties and redshifts. The data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/661/A3 journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 661 publication_type article eprint pages 32 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202141631  source harvard id 21240638 title The eROSITA Final Equatorial-Depth Survey (eFEDS). Optical confirmation, redshifts, and properties of the cluster and group catalog first_author M. Klein author M. Klein, M. Oguri, J. J. Mohr, S. Grandis, V. Ghirardini, T. Liu, A. Liu, E. Bulbul, J. Wolf, J. Comparat, M. E. Ramos-Ceja, J. Buchner, I. Chiu, N. Clerc, A. Merloni, H. Miyatake, S. Miyazaki, N. Okabe, N. Ota, F. Pacaud, M. Salvato, S. P. Driver abstract Context. In 2019, the eROSITA telescope on board the Russian-German satellite Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) began to perform a deep all-sky X-ray survey with the aim of identifying ~100 000 clusters and groups over the course of four years. As part of its performance verification phase, a ~140 deg2 survey, called eROSITA Final Equatorial-Depth Survey (eFEDS), was performed. With a depth typical of the all-sky survey after four years, it allows tests of tools and methods as well as improved predictions for the all-sky survey. Aims: As part of this effort, a catalog of 542 X-ray selected galaxy group and cluster candidates was compiled. In this paper we present the optical follow-up, with the aim of providing redshifts and cluster confirmation for the full sample. Furthermore, we aim to provide additional information on the dynamical state, richness, and optical center of the clusters. Finally, we aim to evaluate the impact of optical cluster confirmation on the purity and completeness of the X-ray selected sample. Methods: We used optical imaging data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program and from the Legacy Survey to identify optical counterparts to the X-ray detected cluster candidates. We make use of the multi-component matched filter cluster confirmation tool (MCMF), as well as of the optical cluster finder CAMIRA to derive cluster redshifts and richnesses. MCMF provided the probabilities with which an optical structure would be a chance superposition with the X-ray candidate. These probabilities were used to identify the best optical counterpart as well as to confirm an X-ray candidate as a cluster. The impact of this confirmation process on catalog purity and completeness was estimated using optical to X-ray scaling relations as well as simulations. The resulting catalog was furthermore matched with public group and cluster catalogs. Optical estimators of the cluster dynamical state were constructed based on density maps of the red-sequence galaxies at the cluster redshift. Results: By providing redshift estimates for all 542 candidates, we construct an optically confirmed sample of 477 clusters and groups with a residual contamination of 6%. Of these, 470 (98.5%) are confirmed using MCMF, and 7 systems are added through cross-matching with spectroscopic group catalogs. Using observable-to-observable scaling and the applied confirmation threshold, we predict that 8 ± 2 real systems have been excluded with the MCMF cut required to build this low-contamination sample. This number agrees well with the 7 systems found through cross-matching that were not confirmed with MCMF. The predicted redshift and mass distribution of this catalog agree well with simulations. Thus, we expect that these 477 systems include >99% of all true clusters in the candidate list. Using an MCMF-independent method, we confirm that the catalog contamination of the confirmed subsample is 6 ± 3%. Application of the same method to the full candidate list yields 17 ± 3%, consistent with estimates coming from the fraction of confirmed systems of ~17% and with expectations from simulations of ~20%. We also present a sample of merging cluster candidates based on the derived estimators of the cluster dynamical state. The catalog is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/661/A4 journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 661 publication_type article eprint pages 26 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202141123  source harvard id 21247993 title Fast and precise model calculation for KATRIN using a neural network first_author Christian Karl author Christian Karl, Philipp Eller, Susanne Mertens abstract We present a fast and precise method to approximate the physics model of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment using a neural network. KATRIN is designed to measure the effective electron anti-neutrino mass mν using the kinematics of β -decay with a sensitivity of 200 meV at 90% confidence level. To achieve this goal, a highly accurate model prediction with relative errors below the 10-4-level is required. Using the regular numerical model for the analysis of the final KATRIN dataset is computationally extremely costly or requires approximations to decrease the computation time. Our solution to reduce the computational requirements is to train a neural network to learn the predicted β -spectrum and its dependence on all relevant input parameters. This results in a speed-up of the calculation by about three orders of magnitude, while meeting the stringent accuracy requirements of KATRIN. journal European Physical Journal C publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 82 publication_type article eprint pages issue 5 doi 10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-10384-z  source harvard id 21240692 title Detection of CO emission lines in the dayside atmospheres of WASP-33b and WASP-189b with GIANO first_author F. Yan author F. Yan, E. Pallé, A. Reiners, N. Casasayas-Barris, D. Cont, M. Stangret, L. Nortmann, P. Mollière, Th. Henning, G. Chen, K. Molaverdikhani abstract Ultra-hot Jupiters (UHJs) are expected to possess temperature inversion layers in their dayside atmospheres. Recent thermal emission observations have discovered several atomic and molecular species along with temperature inversions in UHJs. We observed the thermal emission spectra of two UHJs (WASP-33b and WASP-189b) with the GIANO-B high-resolution near-infrared spectrograph. Using the cross-correlation technique, we detected carbon monoxide (CO) in the dayside atmospheres of both planets. The detected CO lines are in emission, which agrees with previous discoveries of iron emission lines and temperature inversions in the two planets. This is the first detection of CO lines in emission with high-resolution spectroscopy. Further retrieval work combining the CO lines with other spectral features will enable a comprehensive understanding of the atmospheric properties such as temperature structures and C/O ratios. The detected CO and iron emission lines of WASP-189b have redshifted radial velocities of several km s−1, which likely originate from a dayside to nightside wind in its atmosphere. Such a redshifted velocity has not been detected for the emission lines of WASP-33b, suggesting that the atmospheric circulation patterns of the two UHJs may be different. journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 661 publication_type article eprint pages 7 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202243503  source harvard id 21240653 title The eROSITA view of the Abell 3391/95 field: Case study from the Magneticum cosmological simulation first_author Veronica Biffi author Veronica Biffi, Klaus Dolag, Thomas H. Reiprich, Angie Veronica, Miriam E. Ramos-Ceja, Esra Bulbul, Naomi Ota, Vittorio Ghirardini abstract Context. Clusters of galaxies reside at the nodes of the cosmic web, interconnected by filamentary structures that contain tenuous diffuse gas, especially in the warm-hot phase. Galaxy clusters grow by mergers of smaller objects and gas that are mainly accreted through these large-scale filaments. For the first time, the large-scale cosmic structure and a long gas-emission filament have been captured by eROSITA on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission in a direct X-ray observation of the A3391/95 field. Aims: We investigate the assembly history of an A3391/95-like system of clusters and the thermo-chemical properties of the diffuse gas in it by connecting simulation predictions to the eROSITA observations with the aim to constrain the origin and nature of the gas in the pair-interconnecting bridge. Methods: We analysed the properties of a system resembling A3391/95, extracted from the (352 h−1 cMpc)3 volume of the Magneticum Pathfinder cosmological simulations at z = 0.07. We tracked the main progenitors of the pair clusters and of surrounding groups back in time to study the assembly history of the system and its evolution. Results: Similarly to the observed A3391/95 system, the simulated cluster pair is embedded in a complex network of gas filaments, with structures aligned over more than 20 projected Mpc, and the whole region collapses towards the central overdense node. The spheres of influence (3 × R200) of the two main clusters already overlap at z = 0.07, but their virial boundaries are still physically separated. The diffuse gas located in the interconnecting bridge closely reflects the warm-hot intergalactic medium, with a typical temperature of ~1 keV and an overdensity δ ~ 100 with respect to the mean baryon density of the Universe, and a lower enrichment level compared to the intra-cluster medium in clusters. We find that most of the bridge gas collapsed from directions roughly orthogonal to the intra-cluster gas accretion directions, and its origin is mostly unrelated to the two cluster progenitors. We find clear signatures in the surrounding groups of infall motion towards the pair, such as significant radial velocities and a slowdown of gas compared to dark matter. These findings further support the hypothesis that the Northern Clump (MCXC J0621.7-5242) cluster infalls along a cosmic gas filament towards Abell 3391 and might be merging with it. Conclusions: We conclude that in this configuration, the pair clusters of the A3391/95-like system are in a pre-merger phase and have not yet interacted. The diffuse gas in the interconnecting bridge is mostly warm filament gas and not tidally stripped cluster gas. journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 05 volume 661 publication_type article eprint pages 20 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202141107  source inspirehep id 2079393 title Next-to-leading power endpoint factorization and resummation for off-diagonal "gluon" thrust first_author Beneke, M. author M. Beneke, M. Garny, S. Jaskiewicz, J. Strohm, R. Szafron, L. Vernazza, J. Wang abstract The lack of convergence of the convolution integrals appearing in next-to-leading-power (NLP) factorization theorems prevents the applications of existing methods to resum power-suppressed large logarithmic corrections in collider physics. We consider thrust distribution in the two-jet region for the flavour-nonsinglet off-diagonal contribution, where a gluon-initiated jet recoils against a quark-antiquark pair, which is power-suppressed. With the help of operatorial endpoint factorization conditions, we obtain a factorization formula, where the individual terms are free from endpoint divergences in convolutions and can be expressed in terms of renormalized hard, soft and collinear functions in four dimensions. This allows us to perform the first resummation of the endpoint-divergent SCET_{\rm I}$observables at the leading logarithmic accuracy using exclusively renormalization-group methods. The presented approach relies on universal properties of the soft and collinear limits and may serve as a paradigm for the systematic NLP resummation for other$1\to 2$and$2\to 1$collider physics processes. journal publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint 2205.04479 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2081918 title The effect of quasar redshift errors on Lyman-$\alpha$forest correlation functions first_author Youles, Samantha author Samantha Youles, Julian E. Bautista, Andreu Font-Ribera, David Bacon, James Rich, David Brooks, Tamara M. Davis, Kyle Dawson, Govinda Dhungana, Peter Doel, Kevin Fanning, Enrique Gaztañaga, Satya Gontcho A. Gontcho, Alma X. Gonzalez-Morales, Julien Guy, Klaus Honscheid, Vid Iršič, Robert Kehoe, David Kirkby, Theodore Kisner, Martin Landriau, Laurent Le Guillou, Michael E. Levi, Axel de la Macorra, Paul Martini, Andrea Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Nathalie Palanque-Delabrouille, Ignasi Pérez-Ràfols, Claire Poppett, César Ramírez-Pérez, Michael Schubnell, Gregory Tarlé, Michael Walther abstract Using synthetic Lyman-$\alpha$forests from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey, we present a study of the impact of errors in the estimation of quasar redshift on the Lyman-$\alpha$correlation functions. Estimates of quasar redshift have large uncertainties of a few hundred$\text{km s}^{-1}\,$due to the broadness of the emission lines and the intrinsic shifts from other emission lines. We inject Gaussian random redshift errors into the mock quasar catalogues, and measure the auto-correlation and the Lyman-$\alpha$-quasar cross-correlation functions. We find a smearing of the BAO feature in the radial direction, but changes in the peak position are negligible. However, we see a significant unphysical correlation for small separations transverse to the line of sight which increases with the amplitude of the redshift errors. We interpret this contamination as a result of the broadening of emission lines in the measured mean continuum, caused by quasar redshift errors, combined with the unrealistically strong clustering of the simulated quasars on small scales. journal publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint 2205.06648 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2080220 title Can we actually constrain$f_{\rm NL}$using the scale-dependent bias effect? An illustration of the impact of galaxy bias uncertainties using the BOSS DR12 galaxy power spectrum first_author Barreira, Alexandre author Alexandre Barreira abstract The scale-dependent bias effect on the galaxy power spectrum is a very promising probe of the local primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) parameter$f_{\rm NL}$, but the amplitude of the effect is proportional to$f_{\rm NL}b_{\phi}$, where$b_{\phi}$is the linear PNG galaxy bias parameter. Our knowledge of$b_{\phi}$is currently very limited, yet nearly all existing$f_{\rm NL}$constraints and forecasts assume precise knowledge for it. Here, we use the BOSS DR12 galaxy power spectrum to illustrate how our uncertain knowledge of$b_{\phi}$currently prevents us from constraining$f_{\rm NL}$with a given statistical precision$\sigma_{f_{\rm NL}}$. Assuming different fixed choices for the relation between$b_{\phi}$and the linear density bias$b_1$, we find that$\sigma_{f_{\rm NL}}$can vary by as much as an order of magnitude. Our strongest bound is$f_{\rm NL} = 16 \pm 16\ (1\sigma)$, while the loosest is$f_{\rm NL} = 230 \pm 226\ (1\sigma)$for the same BOSS data. The impact of$b_{\phi}$can be especially pronounced because it can be close to zero. We also show how marginalizing over$b_{\phi}$with wide priors is not conservative, and leads in fact to biased constraints through parameter space projection effects. Independently of galaxy bias assumptions, the scale-dependent bias effect can only be used to detect$f_{\rm NL} \neq 0$by constraining the product$f_{\rm NL}b_{\phi}$, but the error bar$\sigma_{f_{\rm NL}}$remains undetermined and the results cannot be compared with the CMB; we find$f_{\rm NL}b_{\phi} \neq 0$with$1.6\sigma$significance. We also comment on why these issues are important for analyses with the galaxy bispectrum. Our results strongly motivate simulation-based research programs aimed at robust theoretical priors for the$b_{\phi}$parameter, without which we may never be able to competitively constrain$f_{\rm NL}$using galaxy data. journal publisher year 2022 month 05 volume publication_type eprint 2205.05673 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21203647 title SHARP - VIII. J 0924+0219 lens mass distribution and time-delay prediction through adaptive-optics imaging first_author Geoff C. -F. Chen author Geoff C. -F. Chen, Christopher D. Fassnacht, Sherry H. Suyu, Léon V. E. Koopmans, David J. Lagattuta, John P. McKean, Matt W. Auger, Simona Vegetti, Tommaso Treu abstract Strongly lensed quasars can provide measurements of the Hubble constant (H0) independent of any other methods. One of the key ingredients is exquisite high-resolution imaging data, such as Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging and adaptive-optics (AO) imaging from ground-based telescopes, which provide strong constraints on the mass distribution of the lensing galaxy. In this work, we expand on the previous analysis of three time-delay lenses with AO imaging (RXJ 1131-1231, HE 0435-1223, and PG 1115+080), and perform a joint analysis of J 0924+0219 by using AO imaging from the Keck Telescope, obtained as part of the SHARP (Strong lensing at High Angular Resolution Program) AO effort, with HST imaging to constrain the mass distribution of the lensing galaxy. Under the assumption of a flat ΛCDM model with fixed Ωm = 0.3, we show that by marginalizing over two different kinds of mass models (power-law and composite models) and their transformed mass profiles via a mass-sheet transformation, we obtain$\Delta t_{\rm BA}=6.89\substack{+0.8\-0.7}\, h^{-1}\hat{\sigma }_{v}^{2}$days,$\Delta t_{\rm CA}=10.7\substack{+1.6\-1.2}\, h^{-1}\hat{\sigma }_{v}^{2}$days, and$\Delta t_{\rm DA}=7.70\substack{+1.0\-0.9}\, h^{-1}\hat{\sigma }_{v}^{2}$days, where$h=H_{0}/100~\rm km\, s^{-1}\, Mpc^{-1}$is the dimensionless Hubble constant and$\hat{\sigma }_{v}=\sigma ^{\rm ob}_{v}/(280~\rm km\, s^{-1})$is the scaled dimensionless velocity dispersion. Future measurements of time delays with 10 per cent uncertainty and velocity dispersion with 5 per cent uncertainty would yield a H0 constraint of ~15 per cent precision. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type article eprint pages issue doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1081  source harvard id 21120153 title Gaia EDR3 distances of the young stellar clusters in the extended Carina Nebula complex first_author C. Göppl author C. Göppl, T. Preibisch abstract Context. The Carina Nebula complex (CNC) is one of the most massive and active star-forming regions in our Galaxy and it contains several large young star clusters. The distances of the individual clusters and their physical connection were poorly known up to now, with strongly discrepant results reported in the literature. Aims: We want to determine reliable distances of the young stellar clusters in the central Carina Nebula region (in particular, Tr 14, 15, and 16) and the prominent clusters NGC 3324 and NGC 3293 in the northwestern periphery of the CNC. Methods: We analyzed the parallaxes in Gaia EDR3 for a comprehensive sample of 237 spectroscopically identified OB stars, as well as for 9562 X-ray-selected young stars throughout the complex. We also performed an astrometric analysis to identify members of the young cluster vdBH 99, which is located in the foreground of the northwestern part of the Carina Nebula. Results: We find that the distances of the investigated clusters in the CNC are equal within ≤2%, and yield very consistent most likely mean distance values of 2.36−0.05+0.05 kpc for the OB star sample and 2.34−0.06+0.05 kpc for the sample of X-ray-selected young stars. Conclusions: Our results show that the clusters in the CNC constitute a coherent star-forming region, in particular with regard to NGC 3324 and NGC 3293 at the northwestern periphery, which are (within ≤2%) at the same distance as the central Carina Nebula. For the foreground cluster vdBH 99, we find a mean distance of 441−2+2 pc and an age of ≃60 Myr. We quantified the contamination of X-ray-selected samples of Carina Nebula stars based on members of this foreground cluster. Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/660/A11 journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 04 volume 660 publication_type article eprint pages 11 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202142576  source harvard id 21203132 title Signatures of the Many Supermassive Black Hole Mergers in a Cosmologically Forming Massive Early-type Galaxy first_author Matias Mannerkoski author Matias Mannerkoski, Peter H. Johansson, Antti Rantala, Thorsten Naab, Shihong Liao, Alexander Rawlings abstract We model here the merger histories of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) population in the late stages of a cosmological simulation of a ~ 2 × 1013 M galaxy group. The gravitational dynamics around the several tens of SMBHs (M > 7.5 × 107 M ) hosted by the galaxies in the group is computed at high accuracy using regularized integration with the KETJU code. The 11 SMBHs that form binaries and a hierarchical triplet eventually merge after hardening through dynamical friction, stellar scattering, and gravitational wave (GW) emission. The binaries form at eccentricities of e ~ 0.3-0.9, with one system evolving to a very high eccentricity of e = 0.998, and merge on timescales of a few tens to several hundred megayears. During the simulation, the merger-induced GW recoil kicks eject one SMBH remnant from the central host galaxy. This temporarily drives the galaxy off the M relation; however, the galaxy returns to the relation due to subsequent galaxy mergers, which bring in new SMBHs. This showcases a possible mechanism contributing to the observed scatter of the M relation. Finally, we show that pulsar timing arrays and LISA would be able to detect parts of the GW signals from the SMBH mergers that occur during the ~4 Gyr time span simulated with KETJU. journal The Astrophysical Journal publisher year 2022 month 04 volume 929 publication_type article eprint pages 9 issue 2 doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac5f0b  source harvard id 21169541 title From B-meson anomalies to Kaon physics with scalar leptoquarks first_author David Marzocca author David Marzocca, Sokratis Trifinopoulos, Elena Venturini abstract In this work we study possible connections between B-meson anomalies and Kaon physics observables in the context of combined solutions with the singlet and triplet scalar leptoquarks S1 and S3. By assuming a flavor structure for the leptoquark couplings dictated by a minimally broken U (2) 5 flavor symmetry we can make a sharp connection between these two classes of observables. We find that the bound on B (K+→π+ν ν ) from NA62 puts already some tension in the model, while the present limits on B (KL→μ+μ-) and μ →e conversion in nuclei can be saturated. Relaxing instead the flavor assumption we study what values for B (K+→π+ν ν ) , as well as for B (KL→π0ν ν ) and B (KL ,S→μ+μ-) , are viable compatibly with all other phenomenological constraints. journal European Physical Journal C publisher year 2022 month 04 volume 82 publication_type article eprint pages issue 4 doi 10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-10271-7  source harvard id 21028816 title The bright extragalactic ALMA redshift survey (BEARS) I: redshifts of bright gravitationally lensed galaxies from the Herschel ATLAS first_author S. A. Urquhart author S. A. Urquhart, G. J. Bendo, S. Serjeant, T. Bakx, M. Hagimoto, P. Cox, R. Neri, M. Lehnert, C. Sedgwick, C. Weiner, H. Dannerbauer, A. Amvrosiadis, P. Andreani, A. J. Baker, A. Beelen, S. Berta, E. Borsato, V. Buat, K. M. Butler, A. Cooray, G. De Zotti, L. Dunne, S. Dye, S. Eales, A. Enia, L. Fan, R. Gavazzi, J. González-Nuevo, A. I. Harris, C. N. Herrera, D. Hughes, D. Ismail, R. Ivison, S. Jin, B. Jones, K. Kohno, M. Krips, G. Lagache, L. Marchetti, M. Massardi, H. Messias, M. Negrello, A. Omont, I. Perez-Fournon, D. A. Riechers, D. Scott, M. W. L. Smith, F. Stanley, Y. Tamura, P. Temi, C. Vlahakis, A. Weiß, P. van der Werf, A. Verma, C. Yang, A. J. Young abstract We present spectroscopic measurements for 71 galaxies associated with 62 of the brightest high-redshift submillimetre sources from the Southern fields of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS), while targeting 85 sources which resolved into 142. We have obtained robust redshift measurements for all sources using the 12-m Array and an efficient tuning of ALMA to optimize its use as a redshift hunter, with 73 per cent of the sources having a robust redshift identification. Nine of these redshift identifications also rely on observations from the Atacama Compact Array. The spectroscopic redshifts span a range 1.41 < z < 4.53 with a mean value of 2.75, and the CO emission line full-width at half-maxima range between$\rm 110\, km\, s^{-1} \lt FWHM \lt 1290\, km\, s^{-1}$with a mean value of ~500 km s-1, in line with other high-z samples. The derived CO(1-0) luminosity is significantly elevated relative to line-width to CO(1-0) luminosity scaling relation, which is suggestive of lensing magnification across our sources. In fact, the distribution of magnification factors inferred from the CO equivalent widths is consistent with expectations from galaxy-galaxy lensing models, though there is a hint of an excess at large magnifications that may be attributable to the additional lensing optical depth from galaxy groups or clusters. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 04 volume 511 publication_type article eprint pages 17 issue 2 doi 10.1093/mnras/stac150  source harvard id 21178044 title Effects of boosting on extragalactic components: Methods and statistical studies first_author William Coulton author William Coulton, Sydney Feldman, Karime Maamari, Elena Pierpaoli, Siavash Yasini, Klaus Dolag abstract In this work we examine the impact of our motion with respect to the CMB rest frame on statistics of CMB maps by examining the one-, two-, three- and four- point statistics of simulated maps of the CMB and Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effects. We validate boosting codes by comparing their outcomes for temperature and polarization power spectra up to ℓ ≃ 6000. We derive and validate a new analytical formula for the computation of the boosted power spectrum of a signal with a generic frequency dependence. As an example we show how this increases the boosting correction to the power spectrum of CMB intensity measurements by$\sim 30{\rm{ per\ cent}}$at 150 GHz. We examine the effect of boosting on thermal and kinetic SZ power spectra from semianalytical and hydrodynamical simulations; the boosting correction is generally small for both simulations, except when considering frequencies near the tSZ null. For the non-Gaussian statistics, in general we find that boosting has no impact with two exceptions. We find that, whilst the statistics of the CMB convergence field are unaffected, quadratic estimators that are used to measure this field can become biased at the$O(1){\rm{ per\ cent}}$level by boosting effects. We present a simple modification to the standard estimators that removes this bias. Second, bispectrum estimators can receive a systematic bias from the Doppler induced quadrupole when there is anisotropy in the sky - in practice this anisotropy comes from masking and inhomegenous noise. This effect is unobservable and already removed by existing analysis methods. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type article eprint pages issue doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1017  source harvard id 21203665 title The importance of X-ray frequency in driving photoevaporative winds first_author Andrew D. Sellek author Andrew D. Sellek, Cathie J. Clarke, Barbara Ercolano abstract Photoevaporative winds are a promising mechanism for dispersing protoplanetary discs, but so far theoretical models have been unable to agree on the relative roles that the X-ray, Extreme Ultraviolet or Far Ultraviolet play in driving the winds. This has been attributed to a variety of methodological differences between studies, including their approach to radiative transfer and thermal balance, the choice of irradiating spectrum employed, and the processes available to cool the gas. We use the MOCASSIN radiative transfer code to simulate wind heating for a variety of spectra on a static density grid taken from simulations of an EUV-driven wind. We explore the impact of choosing a single representative X-ray frequency on their ability to drive a wind by measuring the maximum heated column as a function of photon energy. We demonstrate that for reasonable luminosities and spectra, the most effective energies are at a few 100 eV, firmly in the softer regions of the X-ray spectrum, while X-rays with energies ~1000 eV interact too weakly with disc gas to provide sufficient heating to drive a wind. We develop a simple model to explain these findings. We argue that further increases in the cooling above our models - for example due to molecular rovibrational lines - may further restrict the heating to the softer energies but are unlikely to prevent X-ray heated winds from launching entirely; increasing the X-ray luminosity has the opposite effect. The various results of photoevaporative wind models should therefore be understood in terms of the choice of irradiating spectrum. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type article eprint pages issue doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1148  source harvard id 21177472 title Surface Brightness Profile of Lyman-α Halos out to 320 kpc in HETDEX first_author Maja Lujan Niemeyer author Maja Lujan Niemeyer, Eiichiro Komatsu, Chris Byrohl, Dustin Davis, Maximilian Fabricius, Karl Gebhardt, Gary J. Hill, Lutz Wisotzki, William P. Bowman, Robin Ciardullo, Daniel J. Farrow, Steven L. Finkelstein, Eric Gawiser, Caryl Gronwall, Donghui Jeong, Martin Landriau, Chenxu Liu, Erin Mentuch Cooper, Masami Ouchi, Donald P. Schneider, Gregory R. Zeimann abstract We present the median-stacked Lyman-α (Lyα) surface brightness profiles of 968 spectroscopically selected Lyα emitting galaxies (LAEs) at redshifts 1.9 < z < 3.5 in the early data of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment. The selected LAEs are high-confidence Lyα detections with high signal-to-noise ratios observed with good seeing conditions (point-spread function FWHM <1.″4), excluding active galactic nuclei. The Lyα luminosities of the LAEs are 1042.4-1043 erg s-1. We detect faint emission in the median-stacked radial profiles at the level of <?CDATA$(3.6\pm 1.3)\times {10}^{-20}\,\mathrm{erg}\,{{\rm{s}}}^{-1}\,{\mathrm{cm}}^{-2}\,{\mathrm{arcsec}}^{-2}$?> from the surrounding Lyα halos out to r ≃ 160 kpc (physical). The shape of the median-stacked radial profile is consistent at r < 80 kpc with that of much fainter LAEs at 3 < z < 4 observed with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE), indicating that the median-stacked Lyα profiles have similar shapes at redshifts 2 < z < 4 and across a factor of 10 in Lyα luminosity. While we agree with the results from the MUSE sample at r < 80 kpc, we extend the profile over a factor of two in radius. At r > 80 kpc, our profile is flatter than the MUSE model. The measured profile agrees at most radii with that of galaxies in the Byrohl et al. cosmological radiative transfer simulation at z = 3. This suggests that the surface brightness of a Lyα halo at r ≲ 100 kpc is dominated by resonant scattering of Lyα photons from star-forming regions in the central galaxy, whereas at r > 100 kpc, it is dominated by photons from galaxies in surrounding dark matter halos. journal The Astrophysical Journal publisher year 2022 month 04 volume 929 publication_type article eprint pages 11 issue 1 doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac5cb8  source inspirehep id 2072469 title Dust evolution in cosmological simulations first_author Parente, Massimiliano author Massimiliano Parente, Cinthia Ragone-Figueroa, Gian Luigi Granato, Stefano Borgani, Giuseppe Murante, Milena Valentini, Alessandro Bressan, Andrea Lapi abstract We study the evolution of dust in a cosmological volume using a hydrodynamical simulation in which the dust production is coupled with the MUPPI (MUlti Phase Particle Integrator) sub-resolution model of star formation and feedback. As for the latter, we keep as reference the model setup calibrated previously to match the general properties of Milky Way like galaxies in zoom-in simulations. However, we suggest that an increase of the star formation efficiency with the local dust to gas ratio would better reproduce the observed evolution of the cosmic star formation density. Moreover, the paucity of quenched galaxies at low redshift demands a stronger role of AGN feedback. We tune the parameters ruling direct dust production from evolved stars and accretion in the inter stellar medium to get scaling relations involving dust, stellar mass and metallicity in good agreement with observations. In low mass galaxies the accretion process is inefficient. As a consequence, they remain poorer in silicate and small grains than higher mass ones. We reproduce reasonably well the few available data on the radial distribution of dust outside the galactic region, supporting the assumption that the dust and gas dynamics are well coupled at galactic scales. journal publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint 2204.11884 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2071670 title Glueball molecules first_author Petrov, Alexey A. author Alexey A. Petrov abstract Experimental searches for pure glueball states have proven challenging and so far yielded no results. This is believed to occur because glueballs mix with the ordinary$q\bar q$states with the same quantum numbers. We will discuss an alternative mechanism, the formation of the glueball-meson molecular states. We will argue that the wave functions of already observed excited meson states may contain a significant part due to such molecular states. We discuss the phenomenology of glueball molecules and comment on a possible charmless component of the$XYZ$states. journal publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint 2204.11269 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2070078 title Multi-Component Imaging of the Fermi Gamma-ray Sky in the Spatio-spectral Domain first_author Platz, Lukas I. author Lukas I. Platz, Jakob Knollmüller, Philipp Arras, Philipp Frank, Martin Reinecke, Dominik Jüstel, Torsten A. Enßlin abstract We perform two distinct spatio-spectral reconstructions of the gamma-ray sky in the range of 0.56-316 GeV based on Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. Both describe the sky brightness to be composed of a diffuse-emission and a point-source component. The first model requires minimal assumptions and provides a template-free reconstruction as a reference. It makes use of spatial and spectral correlations to distinguish between the different components. The second model is physics-informed and further differentiates between diffuse emission of hadronic and leptonic origin. For this, we assume parametric, but spatially varying energy spectra to distinguish between the processes and use thermal Galactic dust observations to indicate the preferred sites of hadronic interactions. To account for instrumental effects we model the point-spread, the energy dispersion, and the exposure of the telescope throughout the observation. The reconstruction problem is formulated as a Bayesian inference task, that is solved by variational inference. We show decompositions of the Gamma-ray flux into diffuse and point-like emissions, and of the diffuse emissions into multiple physically motivated components. The diffuse decomposition provides an unprecedented view of the Galactic leptonic diffuse emission. It shows the Fermi bubbles and their spectral variations in high fidelity and other areas exhibiting strong cosmic ray electron contents, such as a thick disk in the inner Galaxy and outflow regions. Furthermore, we report a hard spectrum gamma ray arc in the northern outer bubble co-spatial with the reported X-ray arc by the eROSITA collaboration. All our spatio-spectral sky reconstructions and their uncertainty quantification are publicly available. journal publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint 2204.09360 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2066192 title DeepZipper II: Searching for Lensed Supernovae in Dark Energy Survey Data with Deep Learning first_author Morgan, R. author R. Morgan, B. Nord, K. Bechtol, A. Möller, W.G. Hartley, S. Birrer, S.J. González, M. Martinez, R.A. Gruendl, E.J. Buckley-Geer, A.J. Shajib, A. Carnero Rosell, C. Lidman, T. Collett, T.M.C. Abbott, M. Aguena, F. Andrade-Oliveira, J. Annis, D. Bacon, S. Bocquet, D. Brooks, D.L. Burke, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, F.J. Castander, C. Conselice, L.N. da Costa, M. Costanzi, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, P. Doel, S. Everett, I. Ferrero, B. Flaugher, D. Friedel, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, E. Gaztanaga, D. Gruen, G. Gutierrez, S.R. Hinton, D.L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, K. Kuehn, N. Kuropatkin, O. Lahav, M. Lima, F. Menanteau, R. Miquel, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, M.E.S. Pereira, A. Pieres, A.A. Plazas Malagón, J. Prat, M. Rodriguez-Monroy, A.K. Romer, A. Roodman, E. Sanchez, V. Scarpine, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, M. Smith, E. Suchyta, M.E.C. Swanson, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, T.N. Varga abstract Gravitationally lensed supernovae (LSNe) are important probes of cosmic expansion, but they remain rare and difficult to find. Current cosmic surveys likely contain and 5-10 LSNe in total while next-generation experiments are expected to contain several hundreds to a few thousands of these systems. We search for these systems in observed Dark Energy Survey (DES) 5-year SN fields -- 10 3-sq. deg. regions of sky imaged in the$griz$bands approximately every six nights over five years. To perform the search, we utilize the DeepZipper approach: a multi-branch deep learning architecture trained on image-level simulations of LSNe that simultaneously learns spatial and temporal relationships from time series of images. We find that our method obtains a LSN recall of 61.13% and a false positive rate of 0.02% on the DES SN field data. DeepZipper selected 2,245 candidates from a magnitude-limited ($m_i<$22.5) catalog of 3,459,186 systems. We employ human visual inspection to review systems selected by the network and find three candidate LSNe in the DES SN fields. journal publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint 2204.05924 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21214615 title Reevaluation of the cosmic antideuteron flux from cosmic-ray interactions and from exotic sources first_author Laura ŠerkšnytÄ-- author Laura ŠerkšnytÄ--, Stephan Königstorfer, Philip von Doetinchem, Laura Fabbietti, Diego Mauricio Gomez-Coral, Johannes Herms, Alejandro Ibarra, Thomas Pöschl, Anirvan Shukla, Andrew Strong, Ivan Vorobyev abstract Cosmic-ray antideuterons could be a key for the discovery of exotic phenomena in our Galaxy, such as dark-matter annihilations or primordial black hole evaporation. Unfortunately the theoretical predictions of the antideuteron flux at Earth are plagued with uncertainties from the mechanism of antideuteron production and propagation in the Galaxy. We present the most up-to-date calculation of the antideuteron fluxes from cosmic-ray collisions with the interstellar medium and from exotic processes. We include for the first time the antideuteron inelastic interaction cross section recently measured by the ALICE collaboration to account for the loss of antideuterons during propagation. In order to bracket the uncertainty in the expected fluxes, we consider several state-of-the-art models of antideuteron production and of cosmic-ray propagation. journal Physical Review D publisher year 2022 month 04 volume 105 publication_type article eprint pages issue 8 doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.105.083021  source harvard id 21180059 title The Galactic 3D large-scale dust distribution via Gaussian process regression on spherical coordinates first_author R. H. Leike author R. H. Leike, G. Edenhofer, J. Knollmüller, C. Alig, P. Frank, T. A. Enßlin abstract Knowing the Galactic 3D dust distribution is relevant for understanding many processes in the interstellar medium and for correcting many astronomical observations for dust absorption and emission. Here, we aim for a 3D reconstruction of the Galactic dust distribution with an increase in the number of meaningful resolution elements by orders of magnitude with respect to previous reconstructions, while taking advantage of the dust's spatial correlations to inform the dust map. We use iterative grid refinement to define a log-normal process in spherical coordinates. This log-normal process assumes a fixed correlation structure, which was inferred in an earlier reconstruction of Galactic dust. Our map is informed through 111 Million data points, combining data of PANSTARRS, 2MASS, Gaia DR2 and ALLWISE. The log-normal process is discretized to 122 Billion degrees of freedom, a factor of 400 more than our previous map. We derive the most probable posterior map and an uncertainty estimate using natural gradient descent and the Fisher-Laplace approximation. The dust reconstruction covers a quarter of the volume of our Galaxy, with a maximum coordinate distance of$16\,\text{kpc}$, and meaningful information can be found up to at distances of$4\,$kpc, still improving upon our earlier map by a factor of 5 in maximal distance, of$900$in volume, and of about eighteen in angular grid resolution. Unfortunately, the maximum posterior approach chosen to make the reconstruction computational affordable introduces artifacts and reduces the accuracy of our uncertainty estimate. Despite of the apparent limitations of the presented 3D dust map, a good part of the reconstructed structures are confirmed by independent maser observations. Thus, the map is a step towards reliable 3D Galactic cartography and already can serve for a number of tasks, if used with care. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.11715 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21167528 title The probability of galaxy-galaxy strong lensing events in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters first_author Massimo Meneghetti author Massimo Meneghetti, Antonio Ragagnin, Stefano Borgani, Francesco Calura, Giulia Despali, Carlo Giocoli, Gian Luigi Granato, Claudio Grillo, Lauro Moscardini, Elena Rasia, Piero Rosati, Giuseppe Angora, Luigi Bassini, Pietro Bergamini, Gabriel B. Caminha, Giovanni Granata, Amata Mercurio, Robert Benton Metcalf, Priyamvada Natarajan, Mario Nonino, Giada Venusta Pignataro, Cinthia Ragone-Figueroa, Eros Vanzella, Ana Acebron, Klaus Dolag, Giuseppe Murante, Giuliano Taffoni, Luca Tornatore, Luca Tortorelli, Milena Valentini abstract Meneghetti et al. (2020) recently reported an excess of galaxy-galaxy strong lensing (GGSL) in galaxy clusters compared to expectations from the LCDM cosmological model. Theoretical estimates of the GGSL probability are based on the analysis of numerical hydrodynamical simulations in the LCDM cosmology. We quantify the impact of the numerical resolution and AGN feedback scheme adopted in cosmological simulations on the predicted GGSL probability and determine if varying these simulation properties can alleviate the gap with observations. We repeat the analysis of Meneghetti et al. (2020) on cluster-size halos simulated with different mass and force resolutions and implementing several independent AGN feedback schemes. We find that improving the mass resolution by a factor of ten and twenty-five, while using the same galaxy formation model that includes AGN feedback, does not affect the GGSL probability. We find similar results regarding the choice of gravitational softening. On the contrary, adopting an AGN feedback scheme that is less efficient at suppressing gas cooling and star formation leads to an increase in the GGSL probability by a factor between three and six. However, we notice that such simulations form overly massive subhalos whose contribution to the lensing cross-section would be significant while their Einstein radii are too large to be consistent with the observations. The primary contributors to the observed GGSL cross-sections are subhalos with smaller masses, that are compact enough to become critical for lensing. The population with these required characteristics appears to be absent in simulations. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.09065 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21176990 title Detection of CO emission lines in the dayside atmospheres of WASP-33b and WASP-189b with GIANO first_author F. Yan author F. Yan, E. Pallé, A. Reiners, N. Casasayas-Barris, D. Cont, M. Stangret, L. Nortmann, P. Mollière, Th. Henning, G. Chen, K. Molaverdikhani abstract Ultra-hot Jupiters (UHJs) are expected to possess temperature inversion layers in their dayside atmospheres. Recent thermal emission observations have discovered several atomic and molecular species along with temperature inversions in UHJs. We observed the thermal emission spectra of two UHJs (WASP-33b and WASP-189b) with the GIANO-B high-resolution near-infrared spectrograph. Using the cross-correlation technique, we detected carbon monoxide (CO) in the dayside atmospheres of both planets. The detected CO lines are in emission, which agrees with previous discoveries of iron emission lines and temperature inversions in the two planets. This is the first detection of CO lines in emission with high-resolution spectroscopy. Further retrieval work combining the CO lines with other spectral features will enable a comprehensive understanding of the atmospheric properties such as temperature structures and C/O ratios. The detected CO and iron emission lines of WASP-189b have redshifted radial velocities of several km/s, which likely originate from a dayside to nightside wind in its atmosphere. Such a redshifted velocity has not been detected for the emission lines of WASP-33b, suggesting that the atmospheric circulation patterns of the two UHJs may be different. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.10158 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21177433 title New Constraint on Early Dark Energy from Planck and BOSS Data Using the Profile Likelihood first_author Laura Herold author Laura Herold, Elisa G. M. Ferreira, Eiichiro Komatsu abstract A dark energy-like component in the early universe, known as early dark energy (EDE), is a proposed solution to the Hubble tension. Currently, there is no consensus in the literature as to whether EDE can simultaneously solve the Hubble tension and provide an adequate fit to the data from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large-scale structure of the universe. In this work, we deconstruct the current constraints from the Planck CMB and the full-shape clustering data of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey to understand the origin of different conclusions in the literature. We use two different analyses, a grid sampling and a profile likelihood, to investigate whether the current constraints suffer from volume effects upon marginalization and are biased toward some values of the EDE fraction, f EDE. We find that the f EDE allowed by the data strongly depends on the particular choice of the other parameters of the model, and that several choices of these parameters prefer larger values of f EDE than in the Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis. This suggests that volume effects are the reason behind the disagreement in the literature. Motivated by this, we use a profile likelihood to analyze the EDE model and compute a confidence interval for f EDE, finding f EDE = 0.072 ± 0.036 (68% C.L.). Our approach gives a confidence interval that is not subject to volume effects and provides a powerful tool to understand whether EDE is a possible solution to the Hubble tension. journal The Astrophysical Journal publisher year 2022 month 04 volume 929 publication_type article eprint pages 6 issue 1 doi 10.3847/2041-8213/ac63a3  source harvard id 21203066 title Moment expansion of polarized dust SED: A new path towards capturing the CMB B-modes with LiteBIRD first_author L. Vacher author L. Vacher, J. Aumont, L. Montier, S. Azzoni, F. Boulanger, M. Remazeilles abstract Accurate characterization of the polarized dust emission from our Galaxy will be decisive in the quest for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) primordial B-modes. An incomplete modeling of its potentially complex spectral properties could lead to biases in the CMB polarization analyses and to a spurious measurement of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. It is particularly crucial for future surveys like the LiteBIRD satellite, the goal of which is to constrain the faint primordial signal leftover by inflation with an accuracy on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r of the order of 10−3. Variations of the dust properties along and between lines of sight lead to unavoidable distortions of the spectral energy distribution (SED) that cannot be easily anticipated by standard component-separation methods. This issue can be tackled using a moment expansion of the dust SED, an innovative parametrization method imposing minimal assumptions on the sky complexity. In the present paper, we apply this formalism to the B-mode cross-angular power spectra computed from simulated LiteBIRD polarization data at frequencies between 100 and 402 GHz that contain CMB, dust, and instrumental noise. The spatial variation of the dust spectral parameters (spectral index β and temperature T) in our simulations lead to significant biases on r (∼21 σr) if not properly taken into account. Performing the moment expansion in β, as in previous studies, reduces the bias but does not lead to sufficiently reliable estimates of r. We introduce, for the first time, the expansion of the cross-angular power spectra SED in both β and T, showing that, at the sensitivity of LiteBIRD, the SED complexity due to temperature variations needs to be taken into account in order to prevent analysis biases on r. Thanks to this expansion, and despite the existing correlations between some of the dust moments and the CMB signal responsible for a rise in the error on r, we can measure an unbiased value of the tensor-to-scalar ratio with a dispersion as low as σr = 8.8 × 10−4. journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 04 volume 660 publication_type article eprint pages 21 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202142664  source harvard id 21191830 title Dust evolution in cosmological simulations first_author Massimiliano Parente author Massimiliano Parente, Cinthia Ragone-Figueroa, Gian Luigi Granato, Stefano Borgani, Giuseppe Murante, Milena Valentini, Alessandro Bressan, Andrea Lapi abstract We study the evolution of dust in a cosmological volume using a hydrodynamical simulation in which the dust production is coupled with the MUPPI (MUlti Phase Particle Integrator) sub-resolution model of star formation and feedback. As for the latter, we keep as reference the model setup calibrated previously to match the general properties of Milky Way like galaxies in zoom-in simulations. However, we suggest that an increase of the star formation efficiency with the local dust to gas ratio would better reproduce the observed evolution of the cosmic star formation density. Moreover, the paucity of quenched galaxies at low redshift demands a stronger role of AGN feedback. We tune the parameters ruling direct dust production from evolved stars and accretion in the inter stellar medium to get scaling relations involving dust, stellar mass and metallicity in good agreement with observations. In low mass galaxies the accretion process is inefficient. As a consequence, they remain poorer in silicate and small grains than higher mass ones. We reproduce reasonably well the few available data on the radial distribution of dust outside the galactic region, supporting the assumption that the dust and gas dynamics are well coupled at galactic scales. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.11884 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21212633 title Planar three-loop master integrals for 2 → 2 processes with one external massive particle first_author Dhimiter D. Canko author Dhimiter D. Canko, Nikolaos Syrrakos abstract We present analytic results for the two tennis-court integral families relevant to 2 → 2 scattering processes involving one massive external particle and massless propagators in terms of Goncharov polylogarithms of up to transcendental weight six. We also present analytic results for physical kinematics for the ladder-box family and the two tennis-court families in terms of real-valued polylogarithmic functions, making our solutions well-suited for phenomenological applications. journal Journal of High Energy Physics publisher year 2022 month 04 volume 2022 publication_type article eprint pages issue 4 doi 10.1007/JHEP04(2022)134  source harvard id 21180145 title Loop counting matters in SMEFT first_author G. Buchalla author G. Buchalla, G. Heinrich, Ch. Müller-Salditt, F. Pandler abstract We show that, in addition to the counting of canonical dimensions, a counting of loop orders is necessary to fully specify the power counting of Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT). Using concrete examples, we demonstrate that considering the canonical dimensions of operators alone may lead to inconsistent results. The counting of both, canonical dimensions and loop orders, establishes a clear hierarchy of the terms in SMEFT. In practice, this serves to identify, and focus on, the potentially dominating effects in any given high-energy process in a meaningful way. Additionally, this will lead to a consistent limitation of free parameters in SMEFT applications. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.11808 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21177310 title Stable nickel production in type Ia supernovae: A smoking gun for the progenitor mass? first_author S. Blondin author S. Blondin, E. Bravo, F. X. Timmes, L. Dessart, D. J. Hillier abstract Context. At present, there are strong indications that white dwarf (WD) stars with masses well below the Chandrasekhar limit (MCh ≈ 1.4 M) contribute a significant fraction of SN Ia progenitors. The relative fraction of stable iron-group elements synthesized in the explosion has been suggested as a possible discriminant between MCh and sub-MCh events. In particular, it is thought that the higher-density ejecta of MCh WDs, which favours the synthesis of stable isotopes of nickel, results in prominent [Ni II] lines in late-time spectra (≳150 d past explosion). Aims: We study the explosive nucleosynthesis of stable nickel in SNe Ia resulting from MCh and sub-MCh progenitors. We explore the potential for lines of [Ni II] in the optical an near-infrared (at 7378 Å and 1.94 μm) in late-time spectra to serve as a diagnostic of the exploding WD mass. Methods: We reviewed stable Ni yields across a large variety of published SN Ia models. Using 1D MCh delayed-detonation and sub-MCh detonation models, we studied the synthesis of stable Ni isotopes (in particular, 58Ni) and investigated the formation of [Ni II] lines using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative-transfer simulations with the CMFGEN code. Results: We confirm that stable Ni production is generally more efficient in MCh explosions at solar metallicity (typically 0.02-0.08 M for the 58Ni isotope), but we note that the 58Ni yield in sub-MCh events systematically exceeds 0.01 M for WDs that are more massive than one solar mass. We find that the radiative proton-capture reaction 57Co(p, γ)58Ni is the dominant production mode for 58Ni in both MCh and sub-MCh models, while the α-capture reaction on 54Fe has a negligible impact on the final 58Ni yield. More importantly, we demonstrate that the lack of [Ni II] lines in late-time spectra of sub-MCh events is not always due to an under-abundance of stable Ni; rather, it results from the higher ionization of Ni in the inner ejecta. Conversely, the strong [Ni II] lines predicted in our 1D MCh models are completely suppressed when 56Ni is sufficiently mixed with the innermost layers, which are rich in stable iron-group elements. Conclusions: [Ni II] lines in late-time SN Ia spectra have a complex dependency on the abundance of stable Ni, which limits their use in distinguishing among MCh and sub-MCh progenitors. However, we argue that a low-luminosity SN Ia displaying strong [Ni II] lines would most likely result from a Chandrasekhar-mass progenitor. journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 04 volume 660 publication_type article eprint pages 19 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202142323  source harvard id 21167816 title Multi-Component Imaging of the Fermi Gamma-ray Sky in the Spatio-spectral Domain first_author Lukas I. Platz author Lukas I. Platz, Jakob Knollmüller, Philipp Arras, Philipp Frank, Martin Reinecke, Dominik Jüstel, Torsten A. Enßlin abstract We perform two distinct spatio-spectral reconstructions of the gamma-ray sky in the range of 0.56-316 GeV based on Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. Both describe the sky brightness to be composed of a diffuse-emission and a point-source component. The first model requires minimal assumptions and provides a template-free reconstruction as a reference. It makes use of spatial and spectral correlations to distinguish between the different components. The second model is physics-informed and further differentiates between diffuse emission of hadronic and leptonic origin. For this, we assume parametric, but spatially varying energy spectra to distinguish between the processes and use thermal Galactic dust observations to indicate the preferred sites of hadronic interactions. To account for instrumental effects we model the point-spread, the energy dispersion, and the exposure of the telescope throughout the observation. The reconstruction problem is formulated as a Bayesian inference task, that is solved by variational inference. We show decompositions of the Gamma-ray flux into diffuse and point-like emissions, and of the diffuse emissions into multiple physically motivated components. The diffuse decomposition provides an unprecedented view of the Galactic leptonic diffuse emission. It shows the Fermi bubbles and their spectral variations in high fidelity and other areas exhibiting strong cosmic ray electron contents, such as a thick disk in the inner Galaxy and outflow regions. Furthermore, we report a hard spectrum gamma ray arc in the northern outer bubble co-spatial with the reported X-ray arc by the eROSITA collaboration. All our spatio-spectral sky reconstructions and their uncertainty quantification are publicly available. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.09360 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21162810 title Accurate Relativistic Chiral Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction up to Next-to-Next-to-Leading Order first_author Jun-Xu Lu author Jun-Xu Lu, Chun-Xuan Wang, Yang Xiao, Li-Sheng Geng, Jie Meng, Peter Ring abstract We construct a relativistic chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction up to the next-to-next-to-leading order in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory. We show that a good description of the n p phase shifts up to Tlab=200 MeV and even higher can be achieved with a χ∼ 2/d .o .f . less than 1. Both the next-to-leading-order results and the next-to-next-to-leading-order results describe the phase shifts equally well up to Tlab=200 MeV , but for higher energies, the latter behaves better, showing satisfactory convergence. The relativistic chiral potential provides the most essential inputs for relativistic ab initio studies of nuclear structure and reactions, which has been in need for almost two decades. journal Physical Review Letters publisher year 2022 month 04 volume 128 publication_type article eprint pages issue 14 doi 10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.142002  source harvard id 21205113 title Cosmological simulations predict that AGN preferentially live in gas-rich, star-forming galaxies despite effective feedback first_author Samuel Ruthven Ward author Samuel Ruthven Ward, Chris Harrison, Tiago Costa, Vincenzo Mainieri abstract Negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is the leading mechanism for the quenching of massive galaxies in the vast majority of modern galaxy evolution models. However, direct observational evidence that AGN feedback causes quenching on a population scale is lacking. Studies have shown that luminous AGN are preferentially located in gas-rich and star-forming galaxies, an observation that has sometimes been suggested to be in tension with a negative AGN feedback picture. We investigate three of the current cosmological simulations (IllustrisTNG, EAGLE and SIMBA) along with post-processed models for molecular hydrogen gas masses and perform similar tests to those used by observers. We find that the simulations predict: (i) no strong negative trends between AGN luminosity and molecular gas fraction or sSFR; (ii) both high-luminosity ($L_{bol}>10^{44}$erg/s) and high-Eddington ratio (>1%) AGN are preferentially located in galaxies with high molecular gas fractions and sSFR; and (iii) that the gas-depleted and quenched fractions of AGN host galaxies are lower than a control sample of non-active galaxies. These three findings are in qualitative agreement with observational samples at$z=0$and$z=2$and show that such results are not in tension with the presence of strong AGN feedback, which all simulations we employ require to produce realistic massive galaxies. However, we also find quantifiable differences between predictions from the simulations, which could allow us to observationally test the different subgrid feedback models. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.13712 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21214620 title Fast neutrino conversion in hydrodynamic simulations of neutrino-cooled accretion disks first_author Oliver Just author Oliver Just, Sajad Abbar, Meng-Ru Wu, Irene Tamborra, Hans-Thomas Janka, Francesco Capozzi abstract The outflows from neutrino-cooled black hole accretion disks formed in neutron-star mergers or cores of collapsing stars are expected to be neutron-rich enough to explain a large fraction of elements created by the rapid neutron-capture process, but their precise chemical composition remains elusive. Here, we investigate the role of fast neutrino flavor conversion, motivated by the findings of our post-processing analysis that shows evidence of electron-neutrino lepton-number crossings deep inside the disk, hence suggesting possibly nontrivial effects due to neutrino flavor mixing. We implement a parametric, dynamically self-consistent treatment of fast conversion in time-dependent simulations and examine the impact on the disk and its outflows. By activating the otherwise inefficient, emission of heavy-lepton neutrinos, fast conversions enhance the disk cooling rates and reduce the absorption rates of electron-type neutrinos, causing a reduction of the electron fraction in the disk by 0.03-0.06 and in the ejected material by 0.01-0.03. The rapid neutron-capture process yields are enhanced by typically no more than a factor of two, rendering the overall impact of fast conversions modest. The kilonova is prolonged as a net result of increased lanthanide opacities and enhanced radioactive heating rates. We observe only mild sensitivity to the disk mass, the condition for the onset of flavor conversion, and to the considered cases of flavor mixing. Remarkably, parametric models of flavor mixing that conserve the lepton numbers per family result in an overall smaller impact than models invoking three-flavor equipartition, often assumed in previous works. journal Physical Review D publisher year 2022 month 04 volume 105 publication_type article eprint pages issue 8 doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.105.083024  source harvard id 21127028 title Effective Field Theory of Stückelberg Vector Bosons first_author Graham D. Kribs author Graham D. Kribs, Gabriel Lee, Adam Martin abstract We explore the effective field theory of a vector field$X^\mu$that has a Stückelberg mass. The absence of a gauge symmetry for$X^\mu$implies Lorentz-invariant operators are constructed directly from$X^\mu$. Beyond the kinetic and mass terms, allowed interactions at the renormalizable level include$X_\mu X^\mu H^\dagger H$,$(X_\mu X^\mu)^2$, and$X_\mu j^\mu$, where$j^\mu$is a global current of the SM or of a hidden sector. We show that all of these interactions lead to scattering amplitudes that grow with powers of$\sqrt{s}/m_X$, except for the case of$X_\mu j^\mu$where$j^\mu$is a nonanomalous global current. The latter is well-known when$X$is identified as a dark photon coupled to the electromagnetic current, often written equivalently as kinetic mixing between$X$and the photon. The power counting for the energy growth of the scattering amplitudes is facilitated by isolating the longitudinal enhancement. We examine in detail the interaction with an anomalous global vector current$X_\mu j_{anom}^\mu$, carefully isolating the finite contribution to the fermion triangle diagram. We calculate the longitudinally-enhanced observables$Z \rightarrow X\gamma$(when$m_X < m_Z$),$f\bar{f} \rightarrow X \gamma$, and$Z\gamma \to Z\gamma$when$X$couples to the baryon number current. Introducing a fake gauge-invariance by writing$X^\mu = A^\mu - \partial^\mu \pi/m_X$, the would-be gauge anomaly associated with$A_\mu j_{anom}^\mu$is canceled by$j_{anom}^\mu \partial_\mu \pi/m_X$; this is the four-dimensional Green-Schwarz anomaly-cancellation mechanism at work. Our analysis suggests there is no free lunch by appealing to Stückelberg for the mass of a vector field: the price paid for avoiding a dark Higgs sector is replaced by the non-generic set of interactions that the Stückelberg vector field must have to avoid amplitudes that grow with energy. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.01755 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21178388 title On the Superiority of the$|V_{cb}|-\gamma$Plots over the Unitarity Triangle Plots in the 2020s first_author Andrzej J. Buras author Andrzej J. Buras abstract The UT plots played already for three decades an important role in the tests of the SM and the determination of the CKM parameters. As of 2022, among the four CKM parameters,$V_{us}$and$\beta$are already measured with respectable precision, while this is not the case of$|V_{cb}|$and$\gamma$. In the case of$|V_{cb}|$the main obstacle are the significant tensions between its inclusive and exclusive determinations from tree-level decays. The present uncertainty in$\gamma$of$4^\circ$from tree-level decays will be reduced to$1^\circ$by the LHCb and Belle II collaborations in the coming years. Unfortunately in the UT plots$|V_{cb}|$is not seen and the experimental improvements in the determination of$\gamma$from tree-level decays at the level of a few degrees are difficult to appreciate. In view of these deficiencies of the UT plots with respect to$|V_{cb}|$and$\gamma$and the central role these two CKM parameters will play in this decade, the recently proposed plots of$|V_{cb}|$versus$\gamma$extracted from various processes appear to be superior to the UT plots in the flavour phenomenology. We illustrate this idea with$\Delta M_s$,$\Delta M_d$,$\epsilon_K$and with rare decays$B_s\to\mu^+\mu^-$,$B_d\to\mu^+\mu^-$,$K^+\to \pi^+\nu\bar\nu$and$K_L\to\pi^0\nu\bar\nu$. The power of$\epsilon_K$,$K^+\to\pi^+\nu\bar\nu)$and$K_{L}\to\pi^0\nu\bar\nu)$in the determination of$|V_{cb}|$, due to their strong dependence on$|V_{cb}|$, is transparently exhibited in this manner. Combined with future reduced errors on$\gamma$and$|V_{cb}|$from tree-level decays such plots can better exhibit possible inconsistenices between various determinations of these two parameters, caused by new physics, than it is possible with the UT plots. This can already be illustrated on the example of the$2.7\sigma$anomaly in$B_s\to\mu^+\mu^-$. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.10337 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21167913 title Same-hemisphere three-gluon-emission contribution to the zero-jettiness soft function at N3LO QCD first_author Daniel Baranowski author Daniel Baranowski, Maximilian Delto, Kirill Melnikov, Chen-Yu Wang abstract We complete the calculation of the three-gluon-emission contribution to the same-hemisphere part of the zero-jettiness soft function at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.09459 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21165448 title Analytical evaluation of cosmological correlation functions first_author T. Heckelbacher author T. Heckelbacher, I. Sachs, E. Skvortsov, P. Vanhove abstract Using the Schwinger-Keldysh-formalism, reformulated in arXiv:2108.01695 as an effective field theory in Euclidean anti-de Sitter, we evaluate the one-loop cosmological four-point function of a conformally coupled interacting scalar field in de Sitter. Recasting the Witten cosmological correlator as flat space Feynman integrals, we evaluate the one-loop cosmological four-point functions in de Sitter space in terms of single-valued multiple polylogarithms. From it we derive anomalous dimensions and OPE coefficients of the dual conformal field theory at space-like, future infinity. In particular, we find an interesting degeneracy in the anomalous dimensions relating operators of neighboring spins. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.07217 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21180171 title Persistent homology in cosmic shear II: A tomographic analysis of DES-Y1 first_author Sven Heydenreich author Sven Heydenreich, Benjamin Brück, Pierre Burger, Joachim Harnois-Déraps, Sandra Unruh, Tiago Castro, Klaus Dolag, Nicolas Martinet abstract We demonstrate how to use persistent homology for cosmological parameter inference in a tomographic cosmic shear survey. We obtain the first cosmological parameter constraints from persistent homology by applying our method to the first-year data of the Dark Energy Survey. To obtain these constraints, we analyse the topological structure of the matter distribution by extracting persistence diagrams from signal-to-noise maps of aperture masses. This presents a natural extension to the widely used peak count statistics. Extracting the persistence diagrams from the cosmo-SLICS, a suite of$N-body simulations with variable cosmological parameters, we interpolate the signal using Gaussian Processes and marginalise over the most relevant systematic effects, including intrinsic alignments and baryonic effects. We find for the structure growth parameterS_8=0.747^{+0.025}_{-0.031}, which is in full agreement with other late-time probes. We also constrain the intrinsic alignment parameter toA=1.54\pm 0.52, ruling out the case of no intrinsic alignments at a3\sigma$-level. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.11831 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21191812 title Radiative transfer in stars by feebly interacting bosons first_author Andrea Caputo author Andrea Caputo, Georg Raffelt, Edoardo Vitagliano abstract Starting from first principles, we study radiative transfer by new feebly-interacting bosons (FIBs) such as axions, axion-like particles (ALPs), dark photons, and others. Our key simplification is to include only boson emission or absorption (including decay), but not scattering between different modes of the radiation field. Based on a given distribution of temperature and FIB absorption rate in a star, we derive explicit volume-integral expressions for the boson luminosity, reaching from the free-streaming to the strong-trapping limit. The latter is seen explicitly to correspond to quasi-thermal emission from a "FIB sphere" according to the Stefan-Boltzmann law. Our results supersede expressions and approximations found in the recent literature on FIB emission from a supernova core and, for radiatively unstable FIBs, provide explicit expressions for the nonlocal ("ballistic") transfer of energy recently discussed in horizontal-branch stars. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.11862 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21201239 title Lattice Simulations of Axion-U(1) Inflation first_author Angelo Caravano author Angelo Caravano, Eiichiro Komatsu, Kaloian D. Lozanov, Jochen Weller abstract If gauge fields are coupled to an axion field during inflation, they can lead to unique observational signatures. However, this system often shows strong backreaction effects, invalidating the standard perturbation theory approach. In this work, we present the first nonlinear lattice simulation of an axion-U(1) system during inflation. We use it to fully characterize the statistics of the comoving curvature perturbation$\zeta$. We find that non-Gaussianity of$\zeta$is large in the linear regime, whereas it is suppressed when the dynamics becomes nonlinear. This relaxes bounds from overproduction of primordial black holes, allowing for an observable gravitational waves signal at interferometer scales. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.12874 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21167529 title Galaxies in the central regions of simulated galaxy clusters first_author Antonio Ragagnin author Antonio Ragagnin, Massimo Meneghetti, Luigi Bassini, Cinthia Ragone-Figueroa, Gian Luigi Granato, Giulia Despali, Carlo Giocoli, Giovanni Granata, Lauro Moscardini, Pietro Bergamini, Elena Rasia, Milena Valentini, Stefano Borgani, Francesco Calura, Klaus Dolag, Claudio Grillo, Amata Mercurio, Giuseppe Murante, Priyamvada Natarajan, Piero Rosati, Giuliano Taffoni, Luca Tornatore, Luca Tortorelli abstract In this paper, we assess the impact of numerical resolution and of the implementation of energy input from AGN feedback models on the inner structure of cluster sub-haloes in hydrodynamic simulations. We compare several zoom-in re-simulations of a sub-sample of the cluster-sized haloes studied in Meneghetti et al. (2020), obtained by varying mass resolution, softening length and AGN energy feedback scheme. We study the impact of these different setups on the subhalo abundances, their radial distribution, their density and mass profiles and the relation between the maximum circular velocity, which is a proxy for subhalo compactness. Regardless of the adopted numerical resolution and feedback model, subhaloes with masses Msub < 1e11Msun/h, the most relevant mass-range for galaxy-galaxy strong lensing, have maximum circular velocities ~30% smaller than those measured from strong lensing observations of Bergamini et al. (2019). We also find that simulations with less effective AGN energy feedback produce massive subhaloes (Msub> 1e11 Msun/h ) with higher maximum circular velocity and that their Vmax - Msub relation approaches the observed one. However the stellar-mass number count of these objects exceeds the one found in observations and we find that the compactness of these simulated subhaloes is the result of an extremely over-efficient star formation in their cores, also leading to larger-than-observed subhalo stellar mass. We conclude that simulations are unable to simultaneously reproduce the observed stellar masses and compactness (or maximum circular velocities) of cluster galaxies. Thus, the discrepancy between theory and observations that emerged from the analysis of Meneghetti et al. (2020) persists. It remains an open question as to whether such a discrepancy reflects limitations of the current implementation of galaxy formation models or the LCDM paradigm. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.09067 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21177099 title The HD 260655 system: Two rocky worlds transiting a bright M dwarf at 10 pc first_author R. Luque author R. Luque, B. J. Fulton, M. Kunimoto, P. J. Amado, P. Gorrini, S. Dreizler, C. Hellier, G. W. Henry, K. Molaverdikhani, G. Morello, L. Peña-Moñino, M. Pérez-Torres, F. J. Pozuelos, Y. Shan, G. Anglada-Escudé, V. J. S. Béjar, G. Bergond, A. W. Boyle, J. A. Caballero, D. Charbonneau, D. R. Ciardi, S. Dufoer, N. Espinoza, M. Everett, D. Fischer, A. P. Hatzes, Th. Henning, K. Hesse, A. Howard, S. B. Howell, H. Isaacson, S. V. Jeffers, J. M. Jenkins, S. R. Kane, J. Kemmer, S. Khalafinejad, R. C., Jr. Kidwell, D. Kossakowski, D. W. Latham, J. Lillo-Box, J. J. Lissauer, D. Montes, J. Orell-Miquel, E. Pallé, D. Pollacco, A. Quirrenbach, S. Reffert, A. Reiners, I. Ribas, G. R. Ricker, L. A. Rogers, J. Sanz-Forcada, M. Schlecker, A. Schweitzer, S. Seager, A. Shporer, K. G. Stassun, S. Stock, L. Tal-Or, E. B. Ting, T. Trifonov, S. Vanaverbeke, R. Vanderspek, J. Villaseñor, J. N. Winn, J. G. Winters, M. R. Zapatero Osorio abstract We report the discovery of a multi-planetary system transiting the M0 V dwarf HD 260655 (GJ 239, TOI-4599). The system consists of at least two transiting planets, namely HD 260655 b, with a period of 2.77 d, a radius of R$_b$= 1.240$\pm$0.023 R$_\oplus$, a mass of M$_b$= 2.14$\pm$0.34 M$_\oplus$, and a bulk density of$\rho_b$= 6.2$\pm$1.0 g cm$^{-3}$, and HD 260655 c, with a period of 5.71 d, a radius of R$_c$= 1.533$^{+0.051}_{-0.046}$R$_\oplus$, a mass of M$_c$= 3.09$\pm$0.48 M$_\oplus$, and a bulk density of$\rho_c$= 4.7$^{+0.9}_{-0.8}$g cm$^{-3}$. The planets were detected in transit by the TESS mission and confirmed independently with archival and new precise radial velocities obtained with the HIRES and CARMENES instruments since 1998 and 2016, respectively. At a distance of 10 pc, HD 260655 becomes the fourth closest known multi-transiting planet system after HD 219134, LTT 1445 A, and AU Mic. Due to the apparent brightness of the host star (J = 6.7 mag), both planets are among the most suitable rocky worlds known today for atmospheric studies with the JWST, both in transmission and emission. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.10261 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21163899 title Forecasting cosmological parameter constraints using multiple sparsity measurements as tracers of the mass profiles of dark matter haloes first_author P. S. Corasaniti author P. S. Corasaniti, A. M. C. Le Brun, T. R. G. Richardson, Y. Rasera, S. Ettori, M. Arnaud, G. W Pratt abstract The dark matter halo sparsity, i.e. the ratio between spherical halo masses enclosing two different overdensities, provides a non-parametric proxy of the halo mass distribution which has been shown to be a sensitive probe of the cosmological imprint encoded in the mass profile of haloes hosting galaxy clusters. Mass estimations at several overdensities would allow for multiple sparsity measurements, that can potentially retrieve the entirety of the cosmological information imprinted on the halo profile. Here, we investigate the impact of multiple sparsity measurements on the cosmological model parameter inference. For this purpose, we analyse N-body halo catalogues from the Raygal and M2Csims simulations and evaluate the correlations among six different sparsities from Spherical Overdensity halo masses at$\Delta=200,500,1000$and$2500$(in units of the critical density). Remarkably, sparsities associated to distinct halo mass shells are not highly correlated. This is not the case for sparsities obtained using halo masses estimated from the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) best-fit profile, that artificially correlates different sparsities to order one. This implies that there is additional information in the mass profile beyond the NFW parametrization and that it can be exploited with multiple sparsities. In particular, from a likelihood analysis of synthetic average sparsity data, we show that cosmological parameter constraints significantly improve when increasing the number of sparsity combinations, though the constraints saturate beyond four sparsity estimates. We forecast constraints for the CHEX-MATE cluster sample and find that systematic mass bias errors mildly impact the parameter inference, though more studies are needed in this direction. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2204.06582 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2075057 title Cosmological simulations predict that AGN preferentially live in gas-rich, star-forming galaxies despite effective feedback first_author Ward, Samuel Ruthven author Samuel Ruthven Ward, Chris Harrison, Tiago Costa, Vincenzo Mainieri abstract Negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is the leading mechanism for the quenching of massive galaxies in the vast majority of modern galaxy evolution models. However, direct observational evidence that AGN feedback causes quenching on a population scale is lacking. Studies have shown that luminous AGN are preferentially located in gas-rich and star-forming galaxies, an observation that has sometimes been suggested to be in tension with a negative AGN feedback picture. We investigate three of the current cosmological simulations (IllustrisTNG, EAGLE and SIMBA) along with post-processed models for molecular hydrogen gas masses and perform similar tests to those used by observers. We find that the simulations predict: (i) no strong negative trends between AGN luminosity and molecular gas fraction or sSFR; (ii) both high-luminosity ($L_{bol}>10^{44}$erg/s) and high-Eddington ratio (>1%) AGN are preferentially located in galaxies with high molecular gas fractions and sSFR; and (iii) that the gas-depleted and quenched fractions of AGN host galaxies are lower than a control sample of non-active galaxies. These three findings are in qualitative agreement with observational samples at$z=0$and$z=2$and show that such results are not in tension with the presence of strong AGN feedback, which all simulations we employ require to produce realistic massive galaxies. However, we also find quantifiable differences between predictions from the simulations, which could allow us to observationally test the different subgrid feedback models. journal publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint 2204.13712 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2070577 title The importance of X-ray frequency in driving photoevaporative winds first_author Sellek, Andrew D. author Andrew D. Sellek, Cathie J. Clarke, Barbara Ercolano abstract Photoevaporative winds are a promising mechanism for dispersing protoplanetary discs, but so far theoretical models have been unable to agree on the relative roles that the X-ray, Extreme Ultraviolet or Far Ultraviolet play in driving the winds. This has been attributed to a variety of methodological differences between studies, including their approach to radiative transfer and thermal balance, the choice of irradiating spectrum employed, and the processes available to cool the gas. We use the \textsc{mocassin} radiative transfer code to simulate wind heating for a variety of spectra on a static density grid taken from simulations of an EUV-driven wind. We explore the impact of choosing a single representative X-ray frequency on their ability to drive a wind by measuring the maximum heated column as a function of photon energy. We demonstrate that for reasonable luminosities and spectra, the most effective energies are at a few$100~\mathrm{eV}$, firmly in the softer regions of the X-ray spectrum, while X-rays with energies$\sim1000~\mathrm{eV}$interact too weakly with disc gas to provide sufficient heating to drive a wind. We develop a simple model to explain these findings. We argue that further increases in the cooling above our models - for example due to molecular rovibrational lines - may further restrict the heating to the softer energies but are unlikely to prevent X-ray heated winds from launching entirely; increasing the X-ray luminosity has the opposite effect. The various results of photoevaporative wind models should therefore be understood in terms of the choice of irradiating spectrum. journal publisher year 2022 month 04 volume publication_type eprint 2204.09704 pages issue doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1148  source harvard id 21251323 title Water cycles in a Hadean CO2 atmosphere drive the evolution of long DNA first_author Alan Ianeselli author Alan Ianeselli, Miguel Atienza, Patrick W. Kudella, Ulrich Gerland, Christof B. Mast, Dieter Braun abstract Dew is a common form of water that deposits from saturated air on colder surfaces. Although presumably common on primordial Earth, its potential involvement in the origin of life in early replication has not been investigated in detail. Here we report that it can drive the first stages of Darwinian evolution for DNA and RNA, first by periodically denaturing their structures at low temperatures and second by promoting the replication of long strands over short, faster replicating ones. Our experiments mimicked a partially water-filled primordial rock pore in the probable CO2 atmosphere of Hadean Earth. Under heat flow, water continuously evaporated and recondensed as acidic dew droplets that created the humidity, salt and pH cycles that match many prebiotic replication chemistries. In low-salt and low-pH regimes, the strands melted at 30 K below the bulk melting temperature, whereas longer sequences preferentially accumulated at the droplet interface. Under an enzymatic replication to mimic a sped-up RNA world, long sequences of more than 1,000 nucleotides emerged. The replication was biased by the melting conditions of the dew and the initial short ATGC strands evolved into long AT-rich sequences with repetitive and structured nucleotide composition. journal Nature Physics publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 18 publication_type article eprint pages 7 issue 5 doi 10.1038/s41567-022-01516-z  source inspirehep id 2060761 title Substructure of Multiquark Hadrons (Snowmass 2021 White Paper) first_author Brambilla, Nora author Nora Brambilla, Hua-Xing Chen, Angelo Esposito, Jacopo Ferretti, Anthony Francis, Feng-Kun Guo, Christoph Hanhart, Atsushi Hosaka, Robert L. Jaffe, Marek Karliner, Richard Lebed, Randy Lewis, Luciano Maiani, Nilmani Mathur, Ulf-G. Meißner, Alessandro Pilloni, Antonio Davide Polosa, Sasa Prelovsek, Jean-Marc Richard, Veronica Riquer, Mitja Rosina, Jonathan L. Rosner, Elena Santopinto, Eric S. Swanson, Adam P. Szczepaniak, Sachiko Takeuchi, Makoto Takizawa, Frank Wilczek, Yasuhiro Yamaguchi, Bing-Song Zou abstract In recent years there has been a rapidly growing body of experimental evidence for existence of exotic, multiquark hadrons, i.e. mesons which contain additional quarks, beyond the usual quark-antiquark pair and baryons which consist of more than three quarks. In all cases with robust evidence they contain at least one heavy quark Q=c or b, the majority including two heavy quarks. Two key theoretical questions have been triggered by these discoveries: (a) how are quarks organized inside these multiquark states -- as compact objects with all quarks within one confinement volume, interacting via color forces, perhaps with an important role played by diquarks, or as deuteron-like hadronic molecules, bound by light-meson exchange? (b) what other multiquark states should we expect? The two questions are tightly intertwined. Each of the interpretations provides a natural explanation of parts of the data, but neither explains all of the data. It is quite possible that both kinds of structures appear in Nature. It may also be the case that certain states are superpositions of the compact and molecular configurations. This Whitepaper brings together contributions from many leading practitioners in the field, representing a wide spectrum of theoretical interpretations. We discuss the importance of future experimental and phenomenological work, which will lead to better understandingof multiquark phenomena in QCD. journal publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint 2203.16583 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2061060 title The DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey Data Release 2 first_author Drlica-Wagner, A. author A. Drlica-Wagner, P.S. Ferguson, M. Adamów, M. Aguena, F. Andrade-Oliveira, D. Bacon, K. Bechtol, E.F. Bell, E. Bertin, P. Bilaji, S. Bocquet, C.R. Bom, D. Brooks, D.L. Burke, J.A. Carballo-Bello, J.L. Carlin, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, F.J. Castander, W. Cerny, C. Chang, Y. Choi, C. Conselice, M. Costanzi, D. Crnojević, L.N. da Costa, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, J. Esteves, S. Everett, I. Ferrero, M. Fitzpatrick, B. Flaugher, D. Friedel, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, M. Gatti, E. Gaztanaga, D.W. Gerdes, D. Gruen, R.A. Gruendl, J. Gschwend, W.G. Hartley, D. Hernandez-Lang, S.R. Hinton, D.L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, A.K. Hughes, A. Jacques, D.J. James, M.D. Johnson, K. Kuehn, N. Kuropatkin, O. Lahav, T.S. Li, C. Lidman, H. Lin, M. March, J.L. Marshall, D. Martínez-Delgado, C.E. Martínez-Vázquez, P. Massana, S. Mau, M. McNanna, P. Melchior, F. Menanteau, A.E. Miller, R. Miquel, J.J. Mohr, R. Morgan, B. Mutlu-Pakdil, R.R. Muñoz, E.H. Neilsen, D.L. Nidever, R. Nikutta, J.L. Nilo Castellon, N.E.D. Noël, R.L.C. Ogando, K.A.G. Olsen, A.B. Pace, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, M.E.S. Pereira, A. Pieres, A.A. Plazas Malagón, J. Prat, A.H. Riley, M. Rodriguez-Monroy, A.K. Romer, A. Roodman, M. Sako, J.D. Sakowska, E. Sanchez, F.J. Sánchez, D.J. Sand, L. Santana-Silva, B. Santiago, M. Schubnell, S. Serrano, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, J.D. Simon, M. Smith, M. Soares-Santos, G.S. Stringfellow, E. Suchyta, D.J. Suson, C.Y. Tan, G. Tarle, K. Tavangar, D. Thomas, C. To, E.J. Tollerud, M.A. Troxel, D.L. Tucker, T.N. Varga, A.K. Vivas, A.R. Walker, J. Weller, R.D. Wilkinson, J.F. Wu, B. Yanny, E. Zaborowski, A. Zenteno abstract We present the second public data release (DR2) from the DECam Local Volume Exploration survey (DELVE). DELVE DR2 combines new DECam observations with archival DECam data from the Dark Energy Survey, the DECam Legacy Survey, and other DECam community programs. DELVE DR2 consists of ~160,000 exposures that cover >21,000 deg^2 of the high Galactic latitude (|b| > 10 deg) sky in four broadband optical/near-infrared filters (g, r, i, z). DELVE DR2 provides point-source and automatic aperture photometry for ~2.5 billion astronomical sources with a median 5σ point-source depth of g=24.3, r=23.9, i=23.5, and z=22.8 mag. A region of ~17,000 deg^2 has been imaged in all four filters, providing four-band photometric measurements for ~618 million astronomical sources. DELVE DR2 covers more than four times the area of the previous DELVE data release and contains roughly five times as many astronomical objects. DELVE DR2 is publicly available via the NOIRLab Astro Data Lab science platform. journal publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint 2203.16565 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2059530 title Systematic Parametrization of the Leading$B$-meson Light-Cone Distribution Amplitude first_author Feldmann, Thorsten author Thorsten Feldmann, Philip Lüghausen, Danny van Dyk abstract We propose a parametrization of the leading$B$-meson light-cone distribution amplitude (LCDA) in heavy-quark effective theory (HQET). In position space, it uses a conformal transformation that yields a systematic Taylor expansion and an integral bound, which enables control of the truncation error. Our parametrization further produces compact analytical expressions for a variety of derived quantities. At a given reference scale, our momentum-space parametrization corresponds to an expansion in associated Laguerre polynomials, which turn into confluent hypergeometric functions${}_1F_1$under renormalization-group evolution at one-loop accuracy. Our approach thus allows a straightforward and transparent implementation of a variety of phenomenological constraints, regardless of their origin. Moreover, we can include theoretical information on the Taylor coefficients by using the local operator production expansion. We showcase the versatility of the parametrization in a series of phenomenological pseudo-fits. journal publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint 2203.15679 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2057072 title Dark Energy Survey Year 3 results: imprints of cosmic voids and superclusters in the Planck CMB lensing map first_author Kovács, A. author A. Kovács, P. Vielzeuf, I. Ferrero, P. Fosalba, U. Demirbozan, R. Miquel, C. Chang, N. Hamaus, G. Pollina, K. Bechtol, M. Becker, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, R. Cawthon, M. Crocce, A. Drlica-Wagner, J. Elvin-Poole, M. Gatti, G. Giannini, R.A. Gruendl, A. Porredon, A.J. Ross, E.S. Rykoff, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, E. Sheldon, B. Yanny, T. Abbott, M. Aguena, S. Allam, J. Annis, D. Bacon, G. Bernstein, E. Bertin, S. Bocquet, D. Brooks, D. Burke, J. Carretero, F.J. Castander, M. Costanzi, L.N. da Costa, M.E.S. Pereira, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, H.T. Diehl, J. Dietrich, A. Ferté, B. Flaugher, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, E. Gaztañaga, D. Gerdes, T. Giannantonio, D. Gruen, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, S. Hinton, D.L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, D. Huterer, K. Kuehn, O. Lahav, M. Lima, M. March, J. Marshall, P. Melchior, F. Menanteau, R. Morgan, J. Muir, R. Ogando, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchon, A. Pieres, A. Plazas Malagón, M. Rodriguez Monroy, A. Roodman, E. Sanchez, M. Schubnell, S. Serrano, M. Smith, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, C.-H. To, T.N. Varga, J. Weller abstract The CMB lensing signal from cosmic voids and superclusters probes the growth of structure in the low-redshift cosmic web. In this analysis, we cross-correlated the Planck CMB lensing map with voids detected in the Dark Energy Survey Year 3 (Y3) data set ($\sim$5,000 deg$^{2}$), extending previous measurements using Y1 catalogues ($\sim$1,300 deg$^{2}$). Given the increased statistical power compared to Y1 data, we report a$6.6\sigma$detection of negative CMB convergence ($\kappa$) imprints using approximately 3,600 voids detected from a redMaGiC luminous red galaxy sample. However, the measured signal is lower than expected from the MICE N-body simulation that is based on the$\Lambda$CDM model (parameters$\Omega_{\rm m} = 0.25$,$\sigma_8 = 0.8$). The discrepancy is associated mostly with the void centre region. Considering the full void lensing profile, we fit an amplitude$A_{\kappa}=\kappa_{\rm DES}/\kappa_{\rm MICE}$to a simulation-based template with fixed shape and found a moderate$2\sigma$deviation in the signal with$A_{\kappa}\approx0.79\pm0.12$. We also examined the WebSky simulation that is based on a Planck 2018$\Lambda$CDM cosmology, but the results were even less consistent given the slightly higher matter density fluctuations than in MICE. We then identified superclusters in the DES and the MICE catalogues, and detected their imprints at the$8.4\sigma$level; again with a lower-than-expected$A_{\kappa}=0.84\pm0.10$amplitude. The combination of voids and superclusters yields a$10.3\sigma$detection with an$A_{\kappa}=0.82\pm0.08$constraint on the CMB lensing amplitude, thus the overall signal is$2.3\sigma$weaker than expected from MICE. journal publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint 2203.11306 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2052256 title Production and Polarization of$S$-Wave Quarkonia in Potential Nonrelativistic QCD first_author Brambilla, Nora author Nora Brambilla, Hee Sok Chung, Antonio Vairo, Xiang-Peng Wang abstract Based on the potential nonrelativistic QCD formalism, we compute the nonrelativistic QCD long-distance matrix elements (LDMEs) for inclusive production of$S$-wave heavy quarkonia. This greatly reduces the number of nonperturbative unknowns and brings in a substantial enhancement in the predictive power of the NRQCD factorization formalism. We obtain improved determinations of the LDMEs and find cross sections and polarizations of$J/\psi$,$\psi(2S)$, and excited$\Upsilon$states that agree well with LHC data. Our results may have important implications in pinning down the heavy quarkonium production mechanism. journal publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint 2203.07778 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2053325 title Snowmass white paper: Need for amplitude analysis in the discovery of new hadrons first_author Albaladejo, Miguel author Miguel Albaladejo, Marco Battaglieri, Lukasz Bibrzycki, Andrea Celentano, Igor V. Danilkin, Sebastian M. Dawid, Michael Doring, Cristiano Fanelli, Cesar Fernandez-Ramirez, Sergi Gonzalez-Solis, Astrid N. Hiller Blin, Andrew W. Jackura, Vincent Mathieu, Mikhail Mikhasenko, Victor I. Mokeev, Emilie Passemar, Robert J. Perry, Alessandro Pilloni, Arkaitz Rodas, Matthew R. Shepherd, Nathaniel Sherrill, Jorge A. Silva-Castro, Tomasz Skwarnicki, Adam P. Szczepaniak, Daniel Winney abstract We highlight the need for the development of comprehensive amplitude analysis methods to further our understanding of hadron spectroscopy. Reaction amplitudes constrained by first principles of$S$-matrix theory and by QCD phenomenology are needed to extract robust interpretations of the data from experiments and from lattice calculations. journal publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint 2203.08208 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2052451 title Snowmass2021 Cosmic Frontier White Paper: Prospects for obtaining Dark Matter Constraints with DESI first_author Valluri, Monica author Monica Valluri, Solene Chabanier, Vid Irsic, Eric Armengaud, Michael Walther, Connie Rockosi, Miguel A. Sanchez-Conde, Leandro Beraldo e Silva, Andrew P. Cooper, Elise Darragh-Ford, Kyle Dawson, Alis J. Deason, Simone Ferraro, Jaime E. Forero-Romero, Antonella Garzilli, Ting Li, Zarija Lukic, Christopher J. Manser, Nathalie Palanque-Delabrouille, Corentin Ravoux, Ting Tan, Wenting Wang, Risa Weschler, Andreia Carrillo, Arjun Dey, Sergey E. Koposov, Yao-Yuan Mao, Paulo Montero-Camacho, Ekta Patel, Graziano Rossi, L. Arturo Urena-Lopez, Octavio Valenzuela abstract Despite efforts over several decades, direct-detection experiments have not yet led to the discovery of the dark matter (DM) particle. This has led to increasing interest in alternatives to the Lambda CDM (LCDM) paradigm and alternative DM scenarios (including fuzzy DM, warm DM, self-interacting DM, etc.). In many of these scenarios, DM particles cannot be detected directly and constraints on their properties can ONLY be arrived at using astrophysical observations. The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is currently one of the most powerful instruments for wide-field surveys. The synergy of DESI with ESA's Gaia satellite and future observing facilities will yield datasets of unprecedented size and coverage that will enable constraints on DM over a wide range of physical and mass scales and across redshifts. DESI will obtain spectra of the Lyman-alpha forest out to z~5 by detecting about 1 million QSO spectra that will put constraints on clustering of the low-density intergalactic gas and DM halos at high redshift. DESI will obtain radial velocities of 10 million stars in the Milky Way (MW) and Local Group satellites enabling us to constrain their global DM distributions, as well as the DM distribution on smaller scales. The paradigm of cosmological structure formation has been extensively tested with simulations. However, the majority of simulations to date have focused on collisionless CDM. Simulations with alternatives to CDM have recently been gaining ground but are still in their infancy. While there are numerous publicly available large-box and zoom-in simulations in the LCDM framework, there are no comparable publicly available WDM, SIDM, FDM simulations. DOE support for a public simulation suite will enable a more cohesive community effort to compare observations from DESI (and other surveys) with numerical predictions and will greatly impact DM science. journal publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint 2203.07491 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2052665 title Radiopurity of a kg-scale PbWO$_4$cryogenic detector produced from archaeological Pb for the RES-NOVA experiment first_author Beeman, J.W. author J.W. Beeman, G. Benato, C. Bucci, L. Canonica, P. Carniti, E. Celi, M. Clemenza, A. D'Addabbo, F.A. Danevich, S. Di Domizio, S. Di Lorenzo, O.M. Dubovik, N. Ferreiro Iachellini, F. Ferroni, E. Fiorini, S. Fu, A. Garai, S. Ghislandi, L. Gironi, P. Gorla, C. Gotti, P.V. Guillaumon, D.L. Helis, G.P. Kovtun, M. Mancuso, L. Marini, M. Olmi, L. Pagnanini, L. Pattavina, G. Pessina, F. Petricca, S. Pirro, S. Pozzi, A. Puiu, S. Quitadamo, J. Rothe, A.P. Scherban, S. Schoenert, D.A. Solopikhin, R. Strauss, E. Tarabini, V.I. Tretyak, I.A. Tupitsyna, V. Wagner abstract RES-NOVA is a newly proposed experiment for the detection of neutrinos from astrophysical sources, mainly Supernovae, using an array of cryogenic detectors made of PbWO$_4$crystals produced from archaeological Pb. This unconventional material, characterized by intrinsic high radiopurity, enables to achieve low-background levels in the region of interest for the neutrino detection via Coherent Elastic neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CE$\nu$NS). This signal lies at the detector energy threshold, O(1 keV), and it is expected to be hidden by naturally occurring radioactive contaminants of the crystal absorber. Here, we present the results of a radiopurity assay on a 0.84 kg PbWO$_4$crystal produced from archaeological Pb operated as a cryogenic detector. The crystal internal radioactive contaminations are:$^{232}$Th$<$40$\mu$Bq/kg,$^{238}$U$<$30$\mu$Bq/kg,$^{226}$Ra 1.3 mBq/kg and$^{210}$Pb 22.5 mBq/kg. We present also a background projection for the final experiment and possible mitigation strategies for further background suppression. The achieved results demonstrate the feasibility of realizing this new class of detectors. journal publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint 2203.07441 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2050822 title Snowmass 2021 White Paper Instrumentation Frontier 05 - White Paper 1: MPGDs: Recent advances and current R&D first_author Dehmelt, K. author K. Dehmelt, M. Della Pietra, H. Muller, S.E. Tzamarias, A. White, S. White, Z. Zhang, M. Alviggi, I. Angelis, S. Aune, J. Bortfeldt, M. Bregant, F. Brunbauer, M.T. Camerlingo, V. Canale, V. D'Amico, D. Desforge, C. Di Donato, R. Di Nardo, G. Fanourakis, K.J. Floethner, M. Gallinaro, F. Garcia, I. Giomataris, K. Gnanvo, T. Gustavsson, R. Hall-Wilton, P. Iengo, F.J. Iguaz, M. Iodice, D. Janssens, A. Kallitsopoulou, M. Kebbiri, K. Kordas, C. Lampoudis, P. Legou, M. Lisowska, J. Liu, M. Lupberger, S. Malace, I. Maniatis, I. Manthos, Y. Meng, H. Natal da Luz, E. Oliveri, G. Orlandini, T. Papaevangelou, K. Paraschou, F. Petrucci, D. Pfeiffer, M. Pomorski, S. Popescu, F. Resnati, L. Ropelewski, A. Rusu, D. Sampsonidis, L. Scharenberg, T. Schneider, G. Sekhniaidze, M. Sessa, M. Shao, L. Sohl, J. Toledo-Alarcon, A. Tsiamis, Y. Tsipolitis, A. Utrobicic, M. van Stenis, R. Veenhof, X. Wang, Y. Zhou abstract This paper will review the origins, development, and examples of new versions of Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors. The goal for MPGD development was the creation of detectors that could cost-effectively cover large areas while offering excellent position and timing resolution, and the ability to operate at high incident particle rates. The early MPGD developments culminated in the formation of the RD51 collaboration which has become the critical organization for the promotion of MPGDs and all aspects of their production, characterization, simulation, and uses in an expanding array of experimental configurations. For the Snowmass 2021 study, a number of Letters of Interest were received that illustrate ongoing developments and expansion of the use of MPGDs. In this paper, we highlight high precision timing, high rate application, trigger capability expansion of the SRS readout system, and a structure designed for low ion backflow. journal publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint 2203.06562 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2047929 title Studying$\Delta L=2$Lepton Flavor Violation with Muons first_author Petrov, Alexey A. author Alexey A. Petrov, Renae Conlin, Cody Grant abstract Flavor violating processes in the lepton sector have highly suppressed branching ratios in the standard model. Thus, observation of lepton flavor violation (LFV) constitutes a clear indication of physics beyond the standard model (BSM). We review new physics searches in the processes that violate the conservation of lepton (muon) flavor by two units with muonia and muonium–antimuonium oscillations. journal Universe publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 8 publication_type review eprint 2203.04161 pages 169 issue 3 doi 10.3390/universe8030169  source harvard id 21071665 title Dark Energy and the Spinning Superparticle first_author Daniel Bockisch author Daniel Bockisch, Ivo Sachs abstract We revisit the theory of background fields constructed on the BRST-algebra of a spinning particle with$\mathcal{N}=4$worldline supersymmetry, whose spectrum contains the graviton but no other fields. On a generic background, the closure of the BRST algebra implies the vacuum Einstein equations with a cosmological constant that is undetermined. On the other hand, in the "vacuum" background with no metric, the cohomology is given by a collection of free scalar- and vector fields. Only certain combinations of linear excitations, necessarily involving a vector field, can be extended beyond the linear level with the vector field inducing an Einstein metric. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.06014 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21134177 title RG of GR from on-shell amplitudes first_author Pietro Baratella author Pietro Baratella, Dominik Haslehner, Maximilian Ruhdorfer, Javi Serra, Andreas Weiler abstract We study the renormalization group of generic effective field theories that include gravity. We follow the on-shell amplitude approach, which provides a simple and efficient method to extract anomalous dimensions avoiding complications from gauge redundancies. As an invaluable tool we introduce a modified helicity h ∼ under which gravitons carry one unit instead of two. With this modified helicity we easily explain old and uncover new non-renormalization theorems for theories including gravitons. We provide complete results for the one-loop gravitational renormalization of a generic minimally coupled gauge theory with scalars and fermions and all orders in MPl, as well as for the renormalization of dimension-six operators including at least one graviton, all up to four external particles. journal Journal of High Energy Physics publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 2022 publication_type article eprint pages issue 3 doi 10.1007/JHEP03(2022)156  source harvard id 20967418 title Unequal-mass mergers of dark matter haloes with rare and frequent self-interactions first_author Moritz S. Fischer author Moritz S. Fischer, Marcus Brüggen, Kai Schmidt-Hoberg, Klaus Dolag, Antonio Ragagnin, Andrew Robertson abstract Dark matter (DM) self-interactions have been proposed to solve problems on small length scales within the standard cold DM cosmology. Here, we investigate the effects of DM self-interactions in merging systems of galaxies and galaxy clusters with equal and unequal mass ratios. We perform N-body DM-only simulations of idealized setups to study the effects of DM self-interactions that are elastic and velocity-independent. We go beyond the commonly adopted assumption of large-angle (rare) DM scatterings, paying attention to the impact of small-angle (frequent) scatterings on astrophysical observables and related quantities. Specifically, we focus on DM-galaxy offsets, galaxy-galaxy distances, halo shapes, morphology, and the phase-space distribution. Moreover, we compare two methods to identify peaks: one based on the gravitational potential and one based on isodensity contours. We find that the results are sensitive to the peak finding method, which poses a challenge for the analysis of merging systems in simulations and observations, especially for minor mergers. Large DM-galaxy offsets can occur in minor mergers, especially with frequent self-interactions. The subhalo tends to dissolve quickly for these cases. While clusters in late merger phases lead to potentially large differences between rare and frequent scatterings, we believe that these differences are non-trivial to extract from observations. We therefore study the galaxy/star populations which remain distinct even after the DM haloes have coalesced. We find that these collisionless tracers behave differently for rare and frequent scatterings, potentially giving a handle to learn about the micro-physics of DM. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 510 publication_type article eprint pages 20 issue 3 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab3544  source harvard id 21160321 title Gravitational soft theorem from emergent soft gauge symmetries first_author Martin Beneke author Martin Beneke, Patrick Hager, Robert Szafron abstract We consider and derive the gravitational soft theorem up to the sub-subleading power from the perspective of effective Lagrangians. The emergent soft gauge symmetries of the effective Lagrangian provide a transparent explanation of why soft graviton emission is universal to sub-subleading power, but gauge boson emission is not. They also suggest a physical interpretation of the form of the soft factors in terms of the charges related to the soft transformations and the kinematics of the multipole expansion. The derivation is done directly at Lagrangian level, resulting in an operatorial form of the soft theorems. In order to highlight the differences and similarities of the gauge-theory and gravitational soft theorems, we include an extensive discussion of soft gauge-boson emission from scalar, fermionic and vector matter at subleading power. journal Journal of High Energy Physics publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 2022 publication_type article eprint pages issue 3 doi 10.1007/JHEP03(2022)199  source harvard id 20967457 title zELDA: fitting Lyman alpha line profiles using deep learning first_author Siddhartha Gurung-López author Siddhartha Gurung-López, Max Gronke, Shun Saito, Silvia Bonoli, Álvaro A. Orsi abstract We present zELDA (redshift Estimator for Line profiles of Distant Lyman Alpha emitters), an open source code to fit Lyman α (Ly α) line profiles. The main motivation is to provide the community with an easy to use and fast tool to analyse Ly α line profiles uniformly to improve the understating of Ly α emitting galaxies. zELDA is based on line profiles of the commonly used 'shell-model' pre-computed with the full Monte Carlo radiative transfer code LyaRT. Via interpolation between these spectra and the addition of noise, we assemble a suite of realistic Ly α spectra which we use to train a deep neural network.We show that the neural network can predict the model parameters to high accuracy (e.g. ≲ 0.34 dex H I column density for R ~ 12 000) and thus allows for a significant speedup over existing fitting methods. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the potential of zELDA by fitting 97 observed Ly α line profiles from the LASD data base. Comparing the fitted value with the measured systemic redshift of these sources, we find that Ly α determines their rest frame Ly α wavelength with a remarkable good accuracy of ~0.3 Å ($\sim 75\,\, {\rm km\, s}^{-1}). Comparing the predicted outflow properties and the observed Ly α luminosity and equivalent width, we find several possible trends. For example, we find an anticorrelation between the Ly α luminosity and the outflow neutral hydrogen column density, which might be explained by the radiative transfer process within galaxies. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 510 publication_type article eprint pages 31 issue 3 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab3554  source harvard id 21070348 title Moderately misaligned orbit of the warm sub-Saturn HD 332231 b first_author E. Sedaghati author E. Sedaghati, A. Sánchez-López, S. Czesla, M. López-Puertas, P. J. Amado, E. Palle, K. Molaverdikhani, J. A. Caballero, L. Nortmann, A. Quirrenbach, A. Reiners, I. Ribas abstract Measurements of exoplanetary orbital obliquity angles for different classes of planets are an essential tool in testing various planet formation theories. Measurements for those transiting planets on relatively large orbital periods (P > 10 d) present a rather difficult observational challenge. Here we present the obliquity measurement for the warm sub-Saturn planet HD 332231 b, which was discovered through Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite photometry of sectors 14 and 15, on a relatively large orbital period (18.7 d). Through a joint analysis of previously obtained spectroscopic data and our newly obtained CARMENES transit observations, we estimated the spin-orbit misalignment angle, λ, to be −42.0−10.6+11.3 deg, which challenges Laplacian ideals of planet formation. Through the addition of these new radial velocity data points obtained with CARMENES, we also derived marginal improvements on other orbital and bulk parameters for the planet, as compared to previously published values. We showed the robustness of the obliquity measurement through model comparison with an aligned orbit. Finally, we demonstrated the inability of the obtained data to probe any possible extended atmosphere of the planet, due to a lack of precision, and place the atmosphere in the context of a parameter detection space. journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 659 publication_type article eprint pages 14 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202142471  source harvard id 21045833 title Low-luminosity supernovae: SN 2005cs and SN 2020cxd as very low-energy iron core-collapse explosions first_author Alexandra Kozyreva author Alexandra Kozyreva, Hans-Thomas Janka, Daniel Kresse, Stefan Taubenberger abstract SN 2020cxd is a representative of the family of low-energy, underluminous Type IIP supernovae (SNe), whose observations and analysis were recently reported by Yang et al. (2021). Here we re-evaluate the observational data for the diagnostic SN properties by employing the hydrodynamic explosion model of a 9 MSun red supergiant progenitor with an iron core and a pre-collapse mass of 8.75 Msun. The explosion of the star was obtained by the neutrino-driven mechanism in a fully self-consistent simulation in three dimensions (3D). Multi-band light curves and photospheric velocities for the plateau phase are computed with the one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code STELLA, applied to the spherically averaged 3D explosion model as well as spherisized radial profiles in different directions of the 3D model. We find that the overall evolution of the bolometric light curve, duration of the plateau phase, and basic properties of the multi-band emission can be well reproduced by our SN model with its explosion energy of only 0.7x10^50 erg and an ejecta mass of 7.4 Msun. These values are considerably lower than the previously reported numbers, but they are compatible with those needed to explain the fundamental observational properties of the prototype low-luminosity SN 2005cs. Because of the good compatibility of our photospheric velocities with line velocities determined for SN 2005cs, we conclude that the line velocities of SN 2020cxd are probably overestimated by up to a factor of about 3. The evolution of the line velocities of SN 2005cs compared to photospheric velocities in different explosion directions might point to intrinsic asymmetries in the SN ejecta. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.00473 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21072931 title Functions Beyond Multiple Polylogarithms for Precision Collider Physics first_author Jacob L. Bourjaily author Jacob L. Bourjaily, Johannes Broedel, Ekta Chaubey, Claude Duhr, Hjalte Frellesvig, Martijn Hidding, Robin Marzucca, Andrew J. McLeod, Marcus Spradlin, Lorenzo Tancredi, Cristian Vergu, Matthias Volk, Anastasia Volovich, Matt von Hippel, Stefan Weinzierl, Matthias Wilhelm, Chi Zhang abstract Feynman diagrams constitute one of the essential ingredients for making precision predictions for collider experiments. Yet, while the simplest Feynman diagrams can be evaluated in terms of multiple polylogarithms -- whose properties as special functions are well understood -- more complex diagrams often involve integrals over complicated algebraic manifolds. Such diagrams already contribute at NNLO to the self-energy of the electron,t \bar{t}$production,$\gamma \gamma$production, and Higgs decay, and appear at two loops in the planar limit of maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This makes the study of these more complicated types of integrals of phenomenological as well as conceptual importance. In this white paper contribution to the Snowmass community planning exercise, we provide an overview of the state of research on Feynman diagrams that involve special functions beyond multiple polylogarithms, and highlight a number of research directions that constitute essential avenues for future investigation. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.07088 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21095455 title Hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the muon$g-2$in holographic QCD first_author Josef Leutgeb author Josef Leutgeb, Anton Rebhan, Michael Stadlbauer abstract We evaluate the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with two light flavors in minimal hard-wall and soft-wall holographic QCD models, as well as in simple generalizations thereof, and compare with the rather precise results available from dispersive and lattice approaches. While holographic QCD cannot be expected to shed light on the existing small discrepancies between the latter, this comparison in turn provides useful information on the holographic models, which have been used to evaluate hadronic light-by-light contributions where errors in data-driven and lattice approaches are more sizable. In particular, in the hard-wall model that has recently been used to implement the Melnikov-Vainshtein short-distance constraint on hadronic light-by-light contributions, a matching of the hadronic vacuum polarization to the data-driven approach points to the same correction of parameters that has been proposed recently in order to account for next-to-leading order effects. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.16508 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21086444 title NLO QCD Renormalization Group Evolution for Non-Leptonic$\Delta F=2$Transitions in the SMEFT first_author Jason Aebischer author Jason Aebischer, Andrzej J. Buras, Jacky Kumar abstract We present for the first time NLO QCD Renormalization Group (RG) evolution matrices for non-leptonic$\Delta F=2$transitions in the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT). To this end we transform first the known two-loop QCD anomalous dimension matrices (ADMs) of the BSM operators in the so-called BMU basis into the ones in the common Weak Effective Theory (WET) basis (the so-called JMS basis) for which tree-level and one-loop matching to the SMEFT are already known. This allows us subsequently to find the two-loop QCD ADMs for the SMEFT non-leptonic$\Delta F=2$operators in the Warsaw basis. Having all these ingredients we investigate the impact of these NLO QCD effects on the QCD RG evolution of SMEFT Wilson coefficients for non-leptonic$\Delta F=2$transitions from the new physics scale$\Lambda$down to the electroweak scale$\mu_\text{ew}$. The main benefit of these new contributions is that they allow to remove renormalization scheme dependences present both in the one-loop matchings between the WET and SMEFT and also between SMEFT and a chosen UV completion. But the NLO QCD effects, calculated here in the NDR scheme, turn out to be small, in the ballpark of a few percent but larger than one-loop Yukawa top effects when only the$\Delta F=2$operators are considered. The technology developed in our paper allows to obtain the ADMs in the SMEFT from the ones of the BMU basis also for non-leptonic$\Delta F=1$decays and the results of this more involved analysis will be presented soon in another publication. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.11224 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21088727 title α -event characterization and rejection in point-contact HPGe detectors first_author I. J. Arnquist author I. J. Arnquist, F. T. Avignone, A. S. Barabash, C. J. Barton, F. E. Bertrand, E. Blalock, B. Bos, M. Busch, M. Buuck, T. S. Caldwell, Y. -D. Chan, C. D. Christofferson, P. -H. Chu, M. L. Clark, C. Cuesta, J. A. Detwiler, A. Drobizhev, T. R. Edwards, D. W. Edwins, F. Edzards, Y. Efremenko, S. R. Elliott, T. Gilliss, G. K. Giovanetti, M. P. Green, J. Gruszko, I. S. Guinn, V. E. Guiseppe, C. R. Haufe, R. J. Hegedus, R. Henning, D. Hervas Aguilar, E. W. Hoppe, A. Hostiuc, I. Kim, R. T. Kouzes, A. M. Lopez, J. M. López-Castaño, E. L. Martin, R. D. Martin, R. Massarczyk, S. J. Meijer, S. Mertens, J. Myslik, T. K. Oli, G. Othman, W. Pettus, A. W. P. Poon, D. C. Radford, J. Rager, A. L. Reine, K. Rielage, N. W. Ruof, B. Saykı, S. Schönert, M. J. Stortini, D. Tedeschi, R. L. Varner, S. Vasilyev, J. F. Wilkerson, M. Willers, C. Wiseman, W. Xu, C. -H. Yu, B. X. Zhu abstract P-type point contact (PPC) HPGe detectors are a leading technology for rare event searches due to their excellent energy resolution, low thresholds, and multi-site event rejection capabilities. We have characterized a PPC detector's response to α particles incident on the sensitive passivated and p+ surfaces, a previously poorly-understood source of background. The detector studied is identical to those in the MAJORANADEMONSTRATOR experiment, a search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 ν β β ) in 76Ge. α decays on most of the passivated surface exhibit significant energy loss due to charge trapping, with waveforms exhibiting a delayed charge recovery (DCR) signature caused by the slow collection of a fraction of the trapped charge. The DCR is found to be complementary to existing methods of α identification, reliably identifying α background events on the passivated surface of the detector. We demonstrate effective rejection of all surface α events (to within statistical uncertainty) with a loss of only 0.2% of bulk events by combining the DCR discriminator with previously-used methods. The DCR discriminator has been used to reduce the background rate in the 0 ν β β region of interest window by an order of magnitude in the MAJORANADEMONSTRATOR and will be used in the upcoming LEGEND-200 experiment. journal European Physical Journal C publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 82 publication_type article eprint pages issue 3 doi 10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-10161-y  source harvard id 21069822 title Asymmetric Nuclear Matter and Neutron Star Properties in Relativistic ab initio Theory in the Full Dirac Space first_author Sibo Wang author Sibo Wang, Hui Tong, Qiang Zhao, Chencan Wang, Peter Ring, Jie Meng abstract The long-standing controversy about the isospin dependence of the effective Dirac mass in ab-initio calculations of asymmetric nuclear matter is clarified by solving the Relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock equations in the full Dirac space. The symmetry energy and its slope parameter at the saturation density are$E_{\text{sym}}(\rho_0)=33.1$MeV and$L=65.2$MeV, in agreement with empirical and experimental values. Further applications predict the neutron star radius$R_{1.4M_\odot}\approx 12$km and the maximum mass of a neutron star$M_{\text{max}}\leq 2.4M_\odot$. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.05397 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20892452 title The relativistic Schrödinger equation through FFTW 3: An extension of quantumfdtd first_author Rafael L. Delgado author Rafael L. Delgado, Sebastian Steinbeißer, Michael Strickland, Johannes Heinrich Weber abstract In order to solve the time-independent three-dimensional Schrödinger equation, one can transform the time-dependent Schrödinger equation to imaginary time and use a parallelized iterative method to obtain the full three-dimensional eigen-states and eigen-values on very large lattices. In the case of the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation, there exists a publicly available code called quantumfdtd which implements this algorithm. In this paper, we (a) extend the quantumfdtd code to include the case of the relativistic Schrödinger equation and (b) add two optimized Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based kinetic energy terms for non-relativistic cases. The new kinetic energy terms (two non-relativistic and one relativistic) are computed using the parallelized FFT-algorithm provided by the FFTW 3 library. The resulting quantumfdtd v3 code, which is publicly released with this paper, is backwards compatible with version 2, supporting explicit finite-differences schemes in addition to the new FFT-based schemes. Finally, we (c) extend the original code so that it supports arbitrary external file-based potentials and the option to project out distinct parity eigen-states from the solutions. Herein, we provide details of the quantumfdtd v3 implementation, comparisons and tests of the three new kinetic energy terms, and code documentation. journal Computer Physics Communications publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 272 publication_type article eprint pages issue doi 10.1016/j.cpc.2021.108250  source harvard id 21089558 title Boundary Heisenberg algebras and their deformations first_author Martín Enríquez Rojo author Martín Enríquez Rojo, H. R. Safari abstract We investigate the deformations and rigidity of boundary Heisenberg-like algebras. In particular, we focus on the Heisenberg and Heisenberg ⊕ witt algebras which arise as symmetry algebras in three-dimensional gravity theories. As a result of the deformation procedure we find a large class of algebras. While some of these algebras are new, some of them have already been obtained as asymptotic and boundary symmetry algebras, supporting the idea that symmetry algebras associated to diverse boundary conditions and spacetime loci are algebraically interconnected through deformation of algebras. The deformation/contraction relationships between the new algebras are investigated. In addition, it is also shown that the deformation procedure reaches new algebras inaccessible to the Sugawara construction. As a byproduct of our analysis, we obtain that Heisenberg ⊕ witt and the asymptotic symmetry algebra Weyl-bms3 are not connected via single deformation but in a more subtle way. journal Journal of High Energy Physics publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 2022 publication_type article eprint pages issue 3 doi 10.1007/JHEP03(2022)089  source harvard id 21087267 title A low-threshold diamond cryogenic detector for sub-GeV Dark Matter searches first_author A. H. Abdelhameed author A. H. Abdelhameed, G. Angloher, A. Bento, E. Bertoldo, A. Bertolini, L. Canonica, N. Ferreiro Iachellini, D. Fuchs, A. Garai, D. Hauff, A. Nilima, M. Mancuso, F. Petricca, F. Pröbst, F. Pucci, J. Rothe abstract In this work we report the realization of the first low-threshold cryogenic detector that uses diamond as absorber for astroparticle physics applications. We tested two 0.175$\,$g CVD diamond samples, each instrumented with a W-TES. The sensors showed transitions at about 25 mK. We present the performance of the diamond detectors and we highlight the best performing one, where we obtained an energy threshold as low as 16.8 eV. This promising result lays the foundation for the use of diamond for different fields of applications where low threshold and excellent energy resolution are required, as i.e. light dark matter searches and BSM physics with coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.11999 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21073674 title Production and Polarization of$S$-Wave Quarkonia in Potential Nonrelativistic QCD first_author Nora Brambilla author Nora Brambilla, Hee Sok Chung, Antonio Vairo, Xiang-Peng Wang abstract Based on the potential nonrelativistic QCD formalism, we compute the nonrelativistic QCD long-distance matrix elements (LDMEs) for inclusive production of$S$-wave heavy quarkonia. This greatly reduces the number of nonperturbative unknowns and brings in a substantial enhancement in the predictive power of the NRQCD factorization formalism. We obtain improved determinations of the LDMEs and find cross sections and polarizations of$J/\psi$,$\psi(2S)$, and excited$\Upsilon$states that agree well with LHC data. Our results may have important implications in pinning down the heavy quarkonium production mechanism. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.07778 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21046640 title The Diffuse Gamma-Ray Flux from Clusters of Galaxies first_author Saqib Hussain author Saqib Hussain, Rafael Alves Batista, Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino, Klaus Dolag abstract The origin of the diffuse gamma-ray background (DGRB) detected by EGRET and Fermi-LAT, the one that remains after subtracting all individual sources from the observed gamma-ray sky, is unknown. The DGRB possibly encompasses contributions from different source populations such as star-forming galaxies, starburst galaxies, active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, or galaxy clusters. Here, we combine cosmological magnetohydrodynamical simulations of clusters of galaxies with the propagation of CRs using Monte Carlo simulations, in the redshift range$z\leq 5.0$, and find that the integrated gamma-ray flux from clusters can contribute up to$100\%$of the DGRB flux observed by Fermi-LAT above$100$~GeV, for CR spectral indices$\alpha = 1.5 - 2.5$and energy cutoffs$E_{\text{max}} = 10^{16} - 10^{17}$~eV. The flux is dominated by clusters with masses$10^{13}< M/M_{\odot} < 10^{15}$and redshift$ z \leq 0.3$. Our results also predict the potential observation of high-energy gamma rays from clusters by experiments like HAWC, LHAASO, and even the upcoming CTA. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.01260 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21057648 title Coarsening and wavelength selection far from equilibrium: a unifying framework based on singular perturbation theory first_author Henrik Weyer author Henrik Weyer, Fridtjof Brauns, Erwin Frey abstract Intracellular protein patterns are described by (nearly) mass-conserving reaction-diffusion systems. While these patterns initially form out of a homogeneous steady state due to the well-understood Turing instability, no general theory exists for the dynamics of fully nonlinear patterns. We develop a unifying theory for wavelength-selection dynamics in (nearly) mass-conserving two-component reaction-diffusion systems independent of the specific mathematical model chosen. This encompasses both the dynamics of the mesa- and peak-shaped patterns found in these systems. Our analysis uncovers a diffusion- and a reaction-limited regime of the dynamics, which provides a systematic link between the dynamics of mass-conserving reaction-diffusion systems and the Cahn-Hilliard as well as conserved Allen-Cahn equations, respectively. A stability threshold in the family of stationary patterns with different wavelengths predicts the wavelength selected for the final stationary pattern. At short wavelengths, self-amplifying mass transport between single pattern domains drives coarsening while at large wavelengths weak source terms that break strict mass conservation lead to an arrest of the coarsening process. The rate of mass competition between pattern domains is calculated analytically using singular perturbation theory, and rationalized in terms of the underlying physical processes. The resulting closed-form analytical expressions enable us to quantitatively predict the coarsening dynamics and the final pattern wavelength. We find excellent agreement of these expressions with numerical results. The systematic understanding of the length-scale dynamics of fully nonlinear patterns in two-component systems provided here builds the basis to reveal the mechanisms underlying wavelength selection in multi-component systems with potentially several conservation laws. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.03892 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21091468 title NOEMA confirmation of an optically dark ALMA-AzTEC submillimetre galaxy at z = 5.24. A late-stage starburst prior to quenching first_author S. Ikarashi author S. Ikarashi, R. J. Ivison, W. I. Cowley, K. Kohno abstract We have obtained deep 1 and 3 mm spectral-line scans towards a candidate z ≳ 5 ALMA-identified AzTEC submillimetre galaxy (SMG) in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field (or UKIDSS UDS), ASXDF1100.053.1, using the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA), aiming to obtain its spectroscopic redshift. ASXDF1100.053.1 is an unlensed optically dark millimetre-bright SMG with S1100 μm = 3.5 mJy and KAB > 25.7 (2σ), which was expected to lie at z = 5-7 based on its radio-submillimetre photometric redshift. Our NOEMA spectral scan detected line emission due to 12CO(J = 5-4) and (J = 6-5), providing a robust spectroscopic redshift, zCO = 5.2383 ± 0.0005. Energy-coupled spectral energy distribution modelling from optical to radio wavelengths indicates an infrared luminosity LIR = 8.3−1.4+1.5 × 1012 L, a star formation rate SFR = 630−380+260 M yr−1, a dust mass Md = 4.4−0.3+0.4 × 108 M, a stellar mass Mstellar = 3.5−1.4+3.6 × 1011 M, and a dust temperature Td = 37.4−1.8+2.3 K. The CO luminosity allows us to estimate a gas mass Mgas = 3.1 ± 0.3 × 1010 M, suggesting a gas-to-dust mass ratio of around 70, fairly typical for z ∼ 2 SMGs. ASXDF1100.053.1 has ALMA continuum size Re = 1.0−0.1+0.2 kpc, so its surface infrared luminosity density ΣIR is 1.2−0.2+0.1 × 1012 L kpc−2. These physical properties indicate that ASXDF1100.053.1 is a massive dusty star-forming galaxy with an unusually compact starburst. It lies close to the star-forming main sequence at z ∼ 5, with low Mgas/Mstellar = 0.09, SFR/SFRMS(RSB) = 0.6, and a gas-depletion time τdep of ≈50 Myr, modulo assumptions about the stellar initial mass function in such objects. ASXDF1100.053.1 has extreme values of Mgas/Mstellar, RSB, and τdep compared to SMGs at z ∼ 2-4, and those of ASXDF1100.053.1 are the smallest among SMGs at z > 5. ASXDF1100.053.1 is likely a late-stage dusty starburst prior to passivisation. The number of z = 5.1-5.3 unlensed SMGs now suggests a number density dN/dz = 30.4 ± 19.0 deg−2, barely consistent with the latest cosmological simulations. journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 659 publication_type article eprint pages 9 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202141196  source harvard id 21070360 title A tentative detection of He I in the atmosphere of GJ 1214 b first_author J. Orell-Miquel author J. Orell-Miquel, F. Murgas, E. Pallé, M. Lampón, M. López-Puertas, J. Sanz-Forcada, E. Nagel, A. Kaminski, N. Casasayas-Barris, L. Nortmann, R. Luque, K. Molaverdikhani, E. Sedaghati, J. A. Caballero, P. J. Amado, G. Bergond, S. Czesla, A. P. Hatzes, Th. Henning, S. Khalafinejad, D. Montes, G. Morello, A. Quirrenbach, A. Reiners, I. Ribas, A. Sánchez-López, A. Schweitzer, M. Stangret, F. Yan, M. R. Zapatero Osorio abstract The He I λ10833 Å triplet is a powerful tool for characterising the upper atmosphere of exoplanets and tracing possible mass loss. Here, we analysed one transit of GJ 1214 b observed with the CARMENES high-resolution spectrograph to study its atmosphere via transmission spectroscopy around the He I triplet. Although previous studies using lower resolution instruments have reported non-detections of He I in the atmosphere of GJ 1214 b, we report here the first potential detection. We reconcile the conflicting results arguing that previous transit observations did not present good opportunities for the detection of He I, due to telluric H2O absorption and OH emission contamination. We simulated those earlier observations, and show evidence that the planetary signal was contaminated. From our single non-telluric-contaminated transit, we determined an excess absorption of 2.10−0.50+0.45% (4.6 σ) with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 1.30−0.25+0.30 Å. The detection of He I is statistically significant at the 4.6 σ level, but repeatability of the detection could not be confirmed due to the availability of only one transit. By applying a hydrodynamical model and assuming an H/He composition of 98/2, we found that GJ 1214 b would undergo hydrodynamic escape in the photon-limited regime, losing its primary atmosphere with a mass-loss rate of (1.5-18) × 1010 g s−1 and an outflow temperature in the range of 2900-4400 K. Further high-resolution follow-up observations of GJ 1214 b are needed to confirm and fully characterise the detection of an extended atmosphere surrounding GJ 1214 b. If confirmed, this would be strong evidence that this planet has a primordial atmosphere accreted from the original planetary nebula. Despite previous intensive observations from space- and ground-based observatories, our He I excess absorption is the first tentative detection of a chemical species in the atmosphere of this benchmark sub-Neptune planet. journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 659 publication_type article eprint pages 12 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202142455  source harvard id 21089523 title Soft-collinear gravity beyond the leading power first_author Martin Beneke author Martin Beneke, Patrick Hager, Robert Szafron abstract We construct "soft-collinear gravity", the effective field theory which describes the interaction of collinear and soft gravitons with matter (and themselves), to all orders in the soft-collinear power expansion. Despite the absence of collinear divergences in gravity at leading power, the construction exhibits remarkable similarities with soft-collinear effective theory of QCD (gauge fields). It reveals an emergent soft background gauge symmetry, which allows for a manifestly gauge-invariant representation of the interactions in terms of a soft covariant derivative, the soft Riemann tensor, and a covariant generalisation of the collinear light-cone gauge metric field. The gauge symmetries control both the unsuppressed collinear field components and the inherent inhomogeneity in λ of the invariant objects to all orders, resulting in a consistent expansion. journal Journal of High Energy Physics publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 2022 publication_type article eprint pages issue 3 doi 10.1007/JHEP03(2022)080  source harvard id 21058396 title Effective-range expansion of the$T_{cc}^+$state at the complex$D^{*+}D^0$threshold first_author Mikhail Mikhasenko author Mikhail Mikhasenko abstract Evaluation of the effective-range parameters for the$T_{cc}^+$state in the LHCb model is examined. The finite width of$D^*$leads to a shift of the expansion point into the complex plane to match analytical properties of the expanded amplitude. We perform an analytic continuation of the three-body scattering amplitude to the complex plane in a vicinity of the branch point and develop a robust procedure for computation of the expansion coefficients. The results yield a nearly-real scattering length, and two contributions to the the effective range which have not been accounted before. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.04622 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21071217 title neos: End-to-End-Optimised Summary Statistics for High Energy Physics first_author Nathan Simpson author Nathan Simpson, Lukas Heinrich abstract The advent of deep learning has yielded powerful tools to automatically compute gradients of computations. This is because training a neural network equates to iteratively updating its parameters using gradient descent to find the minimum of a loss function. Deep learning is then a subset of a broader paradigm; a workflow with free parameters that is end-to-end optimisable, provided one can keep track of the gradients all the way through. This work introduces neos: an example implementation following this paradigm of a fully differentiable high-energy physics workflow, capable of optimising a learnable summary statistic with respect to the expected sensitivity of an analysis. Doing this results in an optimisation process that is aware of the modelling and treatment of systematic uncertainties. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.05570 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21106559 title Two-loop mixed QCD-EW corrections to$q \overline{q} \to H g$,$qg \to Hq$, and$\overline{q}g \to H\overline{q}$first_author Marco Bonetti author Marco Bonetti, Erik Panzer, Lorenzo Tancredi abstract We compute the two-loop mixed QCD-Electroweak corrections to$q \overline{q} \to H g$and its crossed channels$q g \to H q$,$\overline{q} g \to H \overline{q}$, limiting ourselves to the contribution of light virtual quarks. We compute the independent helicity amplitudes as well as the form factors for this process, expressing them in terms of hyperlogarithms with algebraic arguments. The Feynman integrals are computed by direct integration over Feynman parameters and the results are expressed in terms of a basis of rational prefactors. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.17202 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21080035 title Pseudo-Kähler-Einstein geometries first_author Carlos G. Boiza author Carlos G. Boiza, Jose A. R. Cembranos abstract Solutions to vacuum Einstein field equations with cosmological constants, such as the de Sitter space and the anti-de Sitter space, are basic in different cosmological and theoretical developments. It is also well known that complex structures admit metrics of this type. The most famous example is the complex projective space endowed with the Fubini-Study metric. In this work, we perform a systematic study of Einstein complex geometries derived from a logarithmic Kähler potential. Depending on the different contribution to the argument of such logarithmic term, we shall distinguish among direct, inverted and hybrid coordinates. They are directly related to the signature of the metric and determine the maximum domain of the complex space where the geometry can be defined. journal Physical Review D publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 105 publication_type article eprint pages issue 6 doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.105.065006  source harvard id 21073346 title Mineral Snowflakes on Exoplanets and Brown Dwarfs: Coagulation and Fragmentation of Cloud Particles with {\sc HyLandS} first_author Dominic Samra author Dominic Samra, Christiane Helling, Tilman Birnstiel abstract Brown dwarfs and exoplanets provide unique atmospheric regimes that hold information about their formation routes and evolutionary states. Modelling mineral cloud particle formation is key to prepare for missions and instruments like CRIRES+, JWST and ARIEL as well as possible polarimetry missions like {\sc PolStar}. The aim is to support more detailed observations that demand greater understanding of microphysical cloud processes. We extend our kinetic cloud formation model that treats nucleation, condensation, evaporation and settling of mixed material cloud particles to consistently model cloud particle-particle collisions. The new hybrid code, {\sc HyLandS}, is applied to a grid of {\sc Drift-Phoenix} (T, p)-profiles. Effective medium theory and Mie theory are used to investigate the optical properties. Turbulence is the main driving process of collisions, with collisions becoming the dominant process at the cloud base ($p>10^{-4}\,{\rm bar}$). Collisions produce one of three outcomes: fragmenting atmospheres ($\log_{10}(g)=3$), coagulating atmospheres ($\log_{10}(g)=5$,$T_{\rm eff} \leq 1800\, {\rm K}$) and condensational growth dominated atmospheres ($\log_{10}(g\,)=5$,$T_{\rm eff} > 1800\, {\rm K}$). Cloud particle opacity slope at optical wavelengths (HST) is increased with fragmentation, as are the silicate features at mid-infrared wavelengths. The hybrid moment-bin method {\sc HyLandS} demonstrates the feasibility of combining a moment and a bin method whilst assuring element conservation. It provides a powerful and fast tool for capturing general trends of particle collisions, consistently with other microphysical processes. Collisions are important in exoplanet and brown dwarf atmospheres but cannot be assumed to be hit-and-stick only. The spectral effects of collisions complicates inferences of cloud particle size and material composition from observational data. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.07461 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21093918 title Rare radiative decays of charm baryons first_author Nico Adolph author Nico Adolph, Gudrun Hiller abstract We study weak radiative$|\Delta c|=|\Delta u|=1$decays of the charmed anti-triplett ($\Lambda_c$,$\Xi_c^{+}$,$\Xi_c^{0}$) and sextet ($\Sigma_c^{++}$,$\Sigma_c^+$,$\Sigma_c^0$,$\Xi_c^{\prime +}$,$\Xi_c^{\prime 0}$,$\Omega_c$) baryons in the standard model (SM) and beyond. We work out$SU(2)$and$SU(3)_F$-symmetry relations. We propose to study self-analyzing decay chains such as$\Xi_c^+ \to \Sigma^+ (\to p \pi^0) \gamma$and$\Xi_c^0 \to \Lambda (\to p \pi^-) \gamma$, which enable new physics sensitive polarization studies. SM contributions can be controlled by corresponding analysis of the Cabibbo-favored decays$\Lambda_c^+ \to \Sigma^+ (\to p \pi^0) \gamma$and$\Xi_c^0 \to \Xi^0 (\to \Lambda \pi^0) \gamma$. Further tests of the SM are available with initially polarized baryons including$\Lambda_c \to p \gamma$together with$\Lambda_c \to \Sigma^+ \gamma$decays, or$\Omega_c \to \Xi^0 \gamma$together with$\Omega_c \to (\Lambda,\Sigma^0) \gamma$. In addition, CP-violating new physics contributions to dipole operators can enhance CP-asymmetries up to few percent. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.14982 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21085081 title Data and Analysis Preservation, Recasting, and Reinterpretation first_author Stephen Bailey author Stephen Bailey, Christian Bierlich, Andy Buckley, Jon Butterworth, Kyle Cranmer, Matthew Feickert, Lukas Heinrich, Axel Huebl, Sabine Kraml, Anders Kvellestad, Clemens Lange, Andre Lessa, Kati Lassila-Perini, Christine Nattrass, Mark S. Neubauer, Sezen Sekmen, Giordon Stark, Graeme Watt abstract We make the case for the systematic, reliable preservation of event-wise data, derived data products, and executable analysis code. This preservation enables the analyses' long-term future reuse, in order to maximise the scientific impact of publicly funded particle-physics experiments. We cover the needs of both the experimental and theoretical particle physics communities, and outline the goals and benefits that are uniquely enabled by analysis recasting and reinterpretation. We also discuss technical challenges and infrastructure needs, as well as sociological challenges and changes, and give summary recommendations to the particle-physics community. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.10057 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21094604 title Systematic Parametrization of the Leading$B$-meson Light-Cone Distribution Amplitude first_author Thorsten Feldmann author Thorsten Feldmann, Philip Lüghausen, Danny van Dyk abstract We propose a parametrization of the leading$B$-meson light-cone distribution amplitude (LCDA) in heavy-quark effective theory (HQET). In position space, it uses a conformal transformation that yields a systematic Taylor expansion and an integral bound, which enables control of the truncation error. Our parametrization further produces compact analytical expressions for a variety of derived quantities. At a given reference scale, our momentum-space parametrization corresponds to an expansion in associated Laguerre polynomials, which turn into confluent hypergeometric functions${}_1F_1$under renormalization-group evolution at one-loop accuracy. Our approach thus allows a straightforward and transparent implementation of a variety of phenomenological constraints, regardless of their origin. Moreover, we can include theoretical information on the Taylor coefficients by using the local operator production expansion. We showcase the versatility of the parametrization in a series of phenomenological pseudo-fits. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.15679 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21057974 title Complementarity of experiments in probing the non-relativistic effective theory of dark matter-nucleon interactions first_author Anja Brenner author Anja Brenner, Gonzalo Herrera, Alejandro Ibarra, Sunghyun Kang, Stefano Scopel, Gaurav Tomar abstract The non-relativistic effective theory of dark matter-nucleon interactions depends on 28 coupling strengths for dark matter spin up to 1/2. Due to the vast parameter space of the effective theory, most experiments searching for dark matter interpret the results assuming that only one of the coupling strengths is non-zero. On the other hand, dark matter models generically lead in the non-relativistic limit to several interactions which interfere with one another, therefore the published limits cannot be straightforwardly applied to model predictions. We present a method to determine a rigorous upper limit on the dark matter-nucleon interaction strength including all possible interferences among operators. We illustrate the method to derive model independent upper limits on the interaction strengths from the null search results from XENON1T, PICO-60 and IceCube. For some interactions, the limits on the coupling strengths are relaxed by more than one order of magnitude. We also present a method that allows to combine the results from different experiments, thus exploiting the synergy between different targets in exploring the parameter space of dark matter-nucleon interactions. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.04210 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21073045 title A new tool to search for physics beyond the Standard Model in${\bar B}\to D^{*+}\ell^- {\bar\nu}$first_author Bhubanjyoti Bhattacharya author Bhubanjyoti Bhattacharya, Thomas Browder, Quinn Campagna, Alakabha Datta, Shawn Dubey, Lopamudra Mukherjee, Alexei Sibidanov abstract Recent experimental results in$B$physics from Belle, BaBar and LHCb suggest new physics (NP) in the weak$b\to c$charged-current and the$b\to s$neutral-current processes. Here we focus on the charged-current case and specifically on the decay modes$B\to D^{*+}\ell^- \bar{\nu}$with$\ell = e, \mu,$and$\tau$. The world averages of the ratios$R_D$and$R_D^{*}$currently differ from the Standard Model (SM) by$3.4\sigma$while$\Delta A_{FB} = A_{FB}(B\to D^{*} \mu\nu) - A_{FB} (B\to D^{*} e \nu)$is found to be$4.1\sigma$away from the SM prediction in an analysis of 2019 Belle data. These intriguing results suggest an urgent need for improved simulation and analysis techniques in$B\to D^{*+}\ell^- \bar{\nu}$decays. Here we describe a Monte Carlo Event-generator tool based on EVTGEN developed to allow simulation of the NP signatures in$B\to D^*\ell^- \nu$, which arise due to the interference between the SM and NP amplitudes. As a demonstration of the proposed approach, we exhibit some examples of NP couplings that are consistent with current data and could explain the$\Delta A_{FB}$anomaly in$B\to D^*\ell^- \nu$while remaining consistent with other constraints. We show that the$\Delta$-type observables such as$\Delta A_{FB}$and$\Delta S_5$eliminate most QCD uncertainties from form factors and allow for clean measurements of NP. We introduce correlated observables that improve the sensitivity to NP. We discuss prospects for improved observables sensitive to NP couplings with the expected 50 ab$^{-1}$of Belle II data, which seems to be ideally suited for this class of measurements. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.07189 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21084546 title On the Importance of Rare Kaon Decays: A Snowmass 2021 White Paper first_author Jason Aebischer author Jason Aebischer, Andrzej J. Buras, Jacky Kumar abstract We stress the importance of precise measurements of rare decays$K^+\rightarrow\pi^+\nu\bar\nu$,$K_L\rightarrow\pi^0\nu\bar\nu$,$K_{L,S}\to\mu^+\mu^-$and$K_{L,S}\to\pi^0\ell^+\ell^-$for the search of new physics (NP). This includes both branching ratios and the distributions in$q^2$, the invariant mass-squared of the neutrino system in the case of$K^+\rightarrow\pi^+\nu\bar\nu$and$K_L\rightarrow\pi^0\nu\bar\nu$and of the$\ell^+\ell^-$system in the case of the remaining decays. In particular the correlations between these observables and their correlations with the ratio$\varepsilon'/\varepsilon$in$K_L\to\pi\pi$decays, the CP-violating parameter$\varepsilon_K$and the$K^0-\bar K^0$mass difference$\Delta M_K$, should help to disentangle the nature of possible NP. We stress the strong sensitivity of all observables with the exception of$\Delta M_K$to the CKM parameter$|V_{cb}|$and list a number of$|V_{cb}|$-independent ratios within the SM which exhibit rather different dependences on the angles$\beta$and$\gamma$of the unitarity triangle. The particular role of these decays in probing very short distance scales far beyond the ones explored at the LHC is emphasized. In this context the role of the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT) is very important. We also address briefly the issue of the footprints of Majorana neutrinos in$K^+\rightarrow\pi^+\nu\bar\nu$and$K_L\rightarrow\pi^0\nu\bar\nu$. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.09524 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21067603 title Cosmic Birefringence from the Planck Data Release 4 first_author P. Diego-Palazuelos author P. Diego-Palazuelos, J. R. Eskilt, Y. Minami, M. Tristram, R. M. Sullivan, A. J. Banday, R. B. Barreiro, H. K. Eriksen, K. M. Górski, R. Keskitalo, E. Komatsu, E. Martínez-González, D. Scott, P. Vielva, I. K. Wehus abstract We search for the signature of parity-violating physics in the cosmic microwave background, called cosmic birefringence, using the Planck data release 4. We initially find a birefringence angle of β =0.30 °±0.11 ° (68% C.L.) for nearly full-sky data. The values of β decrease as we enlarge the Galactic mask, which can be interpreted as the effect of polarized foreground emission. Two independent ways to model this effect are used to mitigate the systematic impact on β for different sky fractions. We choose not to assign cosmological significance to the measured value of β until we improve our knowledge of the foreground polarization. journal Physical Review Letters publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 128 publication_type article eprint pages issue 9 doi 10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.091302  source harvard id 21072847 title Filament collapse: A two phase process first_author Elena Hoemann author Elena Hoemann, Stefan Heigl, Andreas Burkert abstract Using numerical simulations, we investigate the gravitational evolution of filamentary molecular cloud structures and their condensation into dense protostellar cores. One possible process is the so called 'edge effect', the pile-up of matter at the end of the filament due to self-gravity. This effect is predicted by theory but only rarely observed. To get a better understanding of the underlying processes we used a simple analytic approach to describe the collapse and the corresponding collapse time. We identify a model of two distinct phases: The first phase is free fall dominated, due to the self-gravity of the filament. In the second phase, after the turning point, the collapse is balanced by the ram pressure, produced by the inside material of the filament, which leads to a constant collapse velocity. This approach reproduces the established collapse time of uniform density filaments and agrees well with our hydrodynamic simulations. In addition, we investigate the influence of different radial density profiles on the collapse. We find that the deviations compared to the uniform filament are less than 10%. Therefore, the analytic collapse model of the uniform density filament is an excellent general approach. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.07002 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21073327 title Radiopurity of a kg-scale PbWO$_4$cryogenic detector produced from archaeological Pb for the RES-NOVA experiment first_author J. W. Beeman author J. W. Beeman, G. Benato, C. Bucci, L. Canonica, P. Carniti, E. Celi, M. Clemenza, A. D'Addabbo, F. A. Danevich, S. Di Domizio, S. Di Lorenzo, O. M. Dubovik, N. Ferreiro Iachellini, F. Ferroni, E. Fiorini, S. Fu, A. Garai, S. Ghislandi, L. Gironi, P. Gorla, C. Gotti, P. V. Guillaumon, D. L. Helis, G. P. Kovtun, M. Mancuso, L. Marini, M. Olmi, L. Pagnanini, L. Pattavina, G. Pessina, F. Petricca, S. Pirro, S. Pozzi, A. Puiu, S. Quitadamo, J. Rothe, A. P. Scherban, S. Schoenert, D. A. Solopikhin, R. Strauss, E. Tarabini, V. I. Tretyak, I. A. Tupitsyna, V. Wagner abstract RES-NOVA is a newly proposed experiment for the detection of neutrinos from astrophysical sources, mainly Supernovae, using an array of cryogenic detectors made of PbWO$_4$crystals produced from archaeological Pb. This unconventional material, characterized by intrinsic high radiopurity, enables to achieve low-background levels in the region of interest for the neutrino detection via Coherent Elastic neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CE$\nu$NS). This signal lies at the detector energy threshold, O(1 keV), and it is expected to be hidden by naturally occurring radioactive contaminants of the crystal absorber. Here, we present the results of a radiopurity assay on a 0.84 kg PbWO$_4$crystal produced from archaeological Pb operated as a cryogenic detector. The crystal internal radioactive contaminations are:$^{232}$Th$<$40$\mu$Bq/kg,$^{238}$U$<$30$\mu$Bq/kg,$^{226}$Ra 1.3 mBq/kg and$^{210}$Pb 22.5 mBq/kg. We present also a background projection for the final experiment and possible mitigation strategies for further background suppression. The achieved results demonstrate the feasibility of realizing this new class of detectors. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.07441 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21087700 title Joint analysis of DES Year 3 data and CMB lensing from SPT and Planck II: Cross-correlation measurements and cosmological constraints first_author C. Chang author C. Chang, Y. Omori, E. J. Baxter, C. Doux, A. Choi, S. Pandey, A. Alarcon, O. Alves, A. Amon, F. Andrade-Oliveira, K. Bechtol, M. R. Becker, G. M. Bernstein, F. Bianchini, J. Blazek, L. E. Bleem, H. Camacho, A. Campos, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, R. Cawthon, R. Chen, J. Cordero, T. M. Crawford, M. Crocce, C. Davis, J. DeRose, S. Dodelson, A. Drlica-Wagner, K. Eckert, T. F. Eifler, F. Elsner, J. Elvin-Poole, S. Everett, X. Fang, A. Ferté, P. Fosalba, O. Friedrich, M. Gatti, G. Giannini, D. Gruen, R. A. Gruendl, I. Harrison, K. Herner, H. Huang, E. M. Huff, D. Huterer, M. Jarvis, A. Kovacs, E. Krause, N. Kuropatkin, P. -F. Leget, P. Lemos, A. R. Liddle, N. MacCrann, J. McCullough, J. Muir, J. Myles, A. Navarro-Alsina, Y. Park, A. Porredon, J. Prat, M. Raveri, R. P. Rollins, A. Roodman, R. Rosenfeld, A. J. Ross, E. S. Rykoff, C. Sánchez, J. Sanchez, L. F. Secco, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, E. Sheldon, T. Shin, M. A. Troxel, I. Tutusaus, T. N. Varga, N. Weaverdyck, R. H. Wechsler, W. L. K. Wu, B. Yanny, B. Yin, Y. Zhang, J. Zuntz, T. M. C. Abbott, M. Aguena, S. Allam, J. Annis, D. Bacon, B. A. Benson, E. Bertin, S. Bocquet, D. Brooks, D. L. Burke, J. E. Carlstrom, J. Carretero, C. L. Chang, R. Chown, M. Costanzi, L. N. da Costa, A. T. Crites, M. E. S. Pereira, T. de Haan, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, H. T. Diehl, M. A. Dobbs, P. Doel, W. Everett, I. Ferrero, B. Flaugher, D. Friedel, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, E. Gaztanaga, E. M. George, T. Giannantonio, N. W. Halverson, S. R. Hinton, G. P. Holder, D. L. Hollowood, W. L. Holzapfel, K. Honscheid, J. D. Hrubes, D. J. James, L. Knox, K. Kuehn, O. Lahav, A. T. Lee, M. Lima, D. Luong-Van, M. March, J. J. McMahon, P. Melchior, F. Menanteau, S. S. Meyer, R. Miquel, L. Mocanu, J. J. Mohr, R. Morgan, T. Natoli, S. Padin, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A. A. Plazas Malagón, C. Pryke, C. L. Reichardt, M. Rodríguez-Monroy, A. K. Romer, J. E. Ruhl, E. Sanchez, K. K. Schaffer, M. Schubnell, S. Serrano, E. Shirokoff, M. Smith, Z. Staniszewski, A. A. Stark, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, C. To, J. D. Vieira, J. Weller, R. Williamson abstract Cross-correlations of galaxy positions and galaxy shears with maps of gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are sensitive to the distribution of large-scale structure in the Universe. Such cross-correlations are also expected to be immune to some of the systematic effects that complicate correlation measurements internal to galaxy surveys. We present measurements and modeling of the cross-correlations between galaxy positions and galaxy lensing measured in the first three years of data from the Dark Energy Survey with CMB lensing maps derived from a combination of data from the 2500 deg$^2$SPT-SZ survey conducted with the South Pole Telescope and full-sky data from the Planck satellite. The CMB lensing maps used in this analysis have been constructed in a way that minimizes biases from the thermal Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect, making them well suited for cross-correlation studies. The total signal-to-noise of the cross-correlation measurements is 23.9 (25.7) when using a choice of angular scales optimized for a linear (nonlinear) galaxy bias model. We use the cross-correlation measurements to obtain constraints on cosmological parameters. For our fiducial galaxy sample, which consist of four bins of magnitude-selected galaxies, we find constraints of$\Omega_{m} = 0.272^{+0.032}_{-0.052}$and$S_{8} \equiv \sigma_8 \sqrt{\Omega_{m}/0.3}= 0.736^{+0.032}_{-0.028}$($\Omega_{m} = 0.245^{+0.026}_{-0.044}$and$S_{8} = 0.734^{+0.035}_{-0.028}$) when assuming linear (nonlinear) galaxy bias in our modeling. Considering only the cross-correlation of galaxy shear with CMB lensing, we find$\Omega_{m} = 0.270^{+0.043}_{-0.061}$and$S_{8} = 0.740^{+0.034}_{-0.029}$. Our constraints on$S_8$are consistent with recent cosmic shear measurements, but lower than the values preferred by primary CMB measurements from Planck. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.12440 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21084843 title Hydro-, Magnetohydro-, and Dust-Gas Dynamics of Protoplanetary Disks first_author G. Lesur author G. Lesur, B. Ercolano, M. Flock, M. -K. Lin, C. -C. Yang, J. A. Barranco, P. Benitez-Llambay, J. Goodman, A. Johansen, H. Klahr, G. Laibe, W. Lyra, P. Marcus, R. P. Nelson, J. Squire, J. B. Simon, N. Turner, O. M. Umurhan, A. N. Youdin abstract The building of planetary systems is controlled by the gas and dust dynamics of protoplanetary disks. While the gas is simultaneously accreted onto the central star and dissipated away by winds, dust grains aggregate and collapse to form planetesimals and eventually planets. This dust and gas dynamics involves instabilities, turbulence and complex non-linear interactions which ultimately control the observational appearance and the secular evolution of these disks. This chapter is dedicated to the most recent developments in our understanding of the dynamics of gaseous and dusty disks, covering hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, gas-dust instabilities, dust clumping and disk winds. We show how these physical processes have been tested from observations and highlight standing questions that should be addressed in the future. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.09821 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21090901 title Learning Optimal Test Statistics in the Presence of Nuisance Parameters first_author Lukas Heinrich author Lukas Heinrich abstract The design of optimal test statistics is a key task in frequentist statistics and for a number of scenarios optimal test statistics such as the profile-likelihood ratio are known. By turning this argument around we can find the profile likelihood ratio even in likelihood-free cases, where only samples from a simulator are available, by optimizing a test statistic within those scenarios. We propose a likelihood-free training algorithm that produces test statistics that are equivalent to the profile likelihood ratios in cases where the latter is known to be optimal. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.13079 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21087231 title The Exclusive Vision of Rare$K$and$B$Decays and of the Quark Mixing in the Standard Model first_author Andrzej J. Buras author Andrzej J. Buras, Elena Venturini abstract The most common predictions for rare$K$and$B$decay branching ratios in the Standard Model are based on the CKM elements$|V_{cb}|$and$|V_{ub}|$resulting from global fits, that are in the ballpark of their inclusive and exclusive determinations, respectively. In the present paper we follow another route. We assume that the future true values of$|V_{cb}|$and$|V_{ub}|$will be both from exclusive determinations and set them equal to the most recent ones from FLAG. An unusual pattern of SM predictions results from this study with some existing tensions being dwarfed and new tensions being born. In particular using the HPQCD$B^0_{s,d}-\bar B^0_{s,d}$hadronic matrix elements a$3.1\sigma$tension in$\Delta M_s$independently of$\gamma$is found. For$60^\circ\le\gamma\le 75^\circ$the tension in$\Delta M_d$between$4.0\sigma$and$1.1\sigma$is found and in the case of$\epsilon_K$between$5.2\sigma$and$2.1\sigma$. Moreover, the room for new physics in$K^+\to\pi^+\nu\bar\nu$,$K_L\to\pi^0\nu\bar\nu$and$B\to K(K^*)\nu\bar\nu$decays is significantly increased. We compare the results in this EXCLUSIVE scenario with the HYBRID one in which$|V_{cb}|$in the former scenario is replaced by the most recent inclusive$|V_{cb}|$and present the dependence of all observables considered by us in both scenarios as functions of$\gamma$. We also compare the determination of$|V_{cb}|$from$\Delta M_s$,$\Delta M_d$,$\epsilon_K$and$S_{\psi K_S}$using$B^0_{s,d}-\bar B^0_{s,d}$hadronic matrix elements from LQCD with$2+1+1$flavours,$2+1$flavours and their average. Only for the$2+1+1$case values for$\beta$and$\gamma$exist for which the same value of$|V_{cb}|$is found:$|V_{cb}|=42.6(7)\times 10^{-3}$. This in turn implies a$2.7\sigma$anomaly in$B_s\to\mu^+\mu^-$. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.11960 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21074132 title Snowmass white paper: Need for amplitude analysis in the discovery of new hadrons first_author Miguel Albaladejo author Miguel Albaladejo, Marco Battaglieri, Lukasz Bibrzycki, Andrea Celentano, Igor V. Danilkin, Sebastian M. Dawid, Michael Doring, Cristiano Fanelli, Cesar Fernandez-Ramirez, Sergi Gonzalez-Solis, Astrid N. Hiller Blin, Andrew W. Jackura, Vincent Mathieu, Mikhail Mikhasenko, Victor I. Mokeev, Emilie Passemar, Robert J. Perry, Alessandro Pilloni, Arkaitz Rodas, Matthew R. Shepherd, Nathaniel Sherrill, Jorge A. Silva-Castro, Tomasz Skwarnicki, Adam P. Szczepaniak, Daniel Winney abstract We highlight the need for the development of comprehensive amplitude analysis methods to further our understanding of hadron spectroscopy. Reaction amplitudes constrained by first principles of$S$-matrix theory and by QCD phenomenology are needed to extract robust interpretations of the data from experiments and from lattice calculations. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.08208 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21074486 title Is cosmic birefringence due to dark energy or dark matter? A tomographic approach first_author Hiromasa Nakatsuka author Hiromasa Nakatsuka, Toshiya Namikawa, Eiichiro Komatsu abstract A pseudoscalar "axionlike" field,$\phi$, may explain the$3\sigma$hint of cosmic birefringence observed in the$EB$power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization data. Is$\phi$dark energy or dark matter? A tomographic approach can answer this question. The effective mass of dark energy field responsible for the accelerated expansion of the Universe today must be smaller than$m_\phi\simeq 10^{-33}$eV. If$m_\phi \gtrsim 10^{-32}$eV,$\phi$starts evolving before the epoch of reionization and we should observe different amounts of birefringence from the$EB$power spectrum at low ($l\lesssim 10$) and high multipoles. Such an observation, which requires a full-sky satellite mission, would rule out$\phi$being dark energy. If$m_\phi \gtrsim 10^{-28}$eV,$\phi$starts oscillating during the epoch of recombination, leaving a distinct signature in the$EB$power spectrum at high multipoles, which can be measured precisely by ground-based CMB observations. Our tomographic approach relies on the shape of the$EB$power spectrum and is less sensitive to miscalibration of polarization angles. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.08560 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21085297 title Standard Model Predictions for Rare$K$and$B$Decays without$|V_{cb}|$and$|V_{ub}|$Uncertainties first_author Andrzej J. Buras author Andrzej J. Buras, Elena Venturini abstract The persistent tensions between inclusive and exclusive determinations of$|V_{cb}|$and$|V_{ub}|$weaken the power of theoretically clean rare$K$and$B$decays in the search for new physics (NP). We demonstrate how this uncertainty can be practically removed by considering within the SM suitable ratios of various branching ratios. This includes the branching ratios for$K^+\to\pi^+\nu\bar\nu$,$K_{L}\to\pi^0\nu\bar\nu$,$K_S\to\mu^+\mu^-$,$B_{s,d}\to\mu^+\mu^-$and$B\to K(K^*)\nu\bar\nu$. Also$\epsilon_K$,$\Delta M_d$,$\Delta M_s$and the mixing induced CP-asymmetry$S_{\psi K_S}$, all measured already very precisely, play an important role in this analysis. The highlights of our analysis are 16$|V_{cb}|$and$|V_{ub}|$independent ratios that often are independent of the CKM arameters or depend only on the angles$\beta$and$\gamma$in the Unitarity Triangle with$\beta$already precisely known and$\gamma$to be measured precisely in the coming years by the LHCb and Belle II collaborations. Once$\gamma$Once$\gamma$is measured precisely these 16 ratios taken together are expected to be a powerful tool in the search for new physics. Assuming no NP in$|\epsilon_K|$and$S_{\psi K_S}$we determine independently of$|V_{cb}|$:$\mathcal{B}(K^+\to\pi^+\nu\bar\nu)_\text{SM}= (8.60\pm0.42)\times 10^{-11}$and$\mathcal{B}(K_L\to\pi^0\nu\bar\nu)_\text{SM}=(2.94\pm 0.15)\times 10^{-11}$. This are the most precise determinations to date. Assuming no NP in$\Delta M_{s,d}$allows to obtain analogous results for all$B$decay branching ratios considered in our paper without any CKM uncertainties. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.10099 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21070288 title Dust entrainment in photoevaporative winds: Synthetic observations of transition disks first_author R. Franz author R. Franz, G. Picogna, B. Ercolano, S. Casassus, T. Birnstiel, Ch. Rab, S. Pérez abstract Context. X-ray- and extreme-ultraviolet- (XEUV-) driven photoevaporative winds acting on protoplanetary disks around young T Tauri stars may strongly impact disk evolution, affecting both gas and dust distributions. Small dust grains in the disk are entrained in the outflow and may produce a detectable signal. In this work, we investigate the possibility of detecting dusty outflows from transition disks with an inner cavity. Aims: We compute dust densities for the wind regions of XEUV-irradiated transition disks and determine whether they can be observed at wavelengths 0.7 ≲ λobs [μm] ≲ 1.8 with current instrumentation. Methods: We simulated dust trajectories on top of 2D hydrodynamical gas models of two transition disks with inner holes of 20 and 30 AU, irradiated by both X-ray and EUV spectra from a central T Tauri star. The trajectories and two different settling prescriptions for the dust distribution in the underlying disk were used to calculate wind density maps for individual grain sizes. Finally, the resulting dust densities were converted to synthetic observations in scattered and polarised light. Results: For an XEUV-driven outflow around a M* = 0.7 M T Tauri star with LX = 2 × 1030 erg s-1, we find dust mass-loss rates Ṁdust ≲ 2.0 × 10−3gas, and if we invoke vertical settling, the outflow is quite collimated. The synthesised images exhibit a distinct chimney-like structure. The relative intensity of the chimneys is low, but their detection may still be feasible with current instrumentation under optimal conditions. Conclusions: Our results motivate observational campaigns aimed at the detection of dusty photoevaporative winds in transition disks using JWST NIRCam and SPHERE IRDIS. journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 659 publication_type article eprint pages 29 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202142785  source harvard id 21057118 title New constraints on axion-gauge field dynamics during inflation from Planck and BICEP/Keck data sets first_author Paolo Campeti author Paolo Campeti, Ogan Özsoy, Ippei Obata, Maresuke Shiraishi abstract We present new constraints on spectator axion-${\rm U}(1)$gauge field interactions during inflation using the latest Planck ($PR4$) and BICEP/Keck 2018 data releases. This model can source tensor perturbations from amplified gauge field fluctuations, driven by an axion rolling for a few e-folds during inflation. The gravitational waves sourced in this way have a strongly scale-dependent (and chiral) spectrum, with potentially visible contributions to large/intermediate scale$B$-modes of the CMB. We first derive theoretical bounds on the model imposing validity of the perturbative regime and negligible backreaction of the gauge field on the background dynamics. Then, we determine bounds from current CMB observations, adopting a frequentist profile likelihood approach. We study the behaviour of constraints for typical choices of the model's parameters, analyzing the impact of different dataset combinations. We find that observational bounds are competitive with theoretical ones and together they exclude a significant portion of the model's parameter space. We argue that the parameter space still remains large and interesting for future CMB experiments targeting large/intermediate scales$B-modes. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.03401 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21055020 title Discovery and mass measurement of the hot, transiting, Earth-sized planet, GJ 3929 b first_author J. Kemmer author J. Kemmer, S. Dreizler, D. Kossakowski, S. Stock, A. Quirrenbach, J. A. Caballero, P. J. Amado, K. A. Collins, N. Espinoza, E. Herrero, J. M. Jenkins, D. W. Latham, J. Lillo-Box, N. Narita, E. Pallé, A. Reiners, I. Ribas, G. Ricker, E. Rodríguez, S. Seager, R. Vanderspek, R. Wells, J. Winn, F. J. Aceituno, V. J. S. Béjar, T. Barclay, P. Bluhm, P. Chaturvedi, C. Cifuentes, K. I. Collins, M. Cortés-Contreras, B. -O. Demory, M. M. Fausnaugh, A. Fukui, Y. Gómez Maqueo Chew, D. Galadí-Enríquez, T. Gan, M. Gillon, A. Golovin, A. P. Hatzes, Th. Henning, C. Huang, S. V. Jeffers, A. Kaminski, M. Kunimoto, M. Kürster, M. J. López-González, M. Lafarga, R. Luque, J. McCormac, K. Molaverdikhani, D. Montes, J. C. Morales, V. M. Passegger, S. Reffert, L. Sabin, P. Schöfer, N. Schanche, M. Schlecker, U. Schroffenegger, R. P. Schwarz, A. Schweitzer, A. Sota, P. Tenenbaum, T. Trifonov, S. Vanaverbeke, M. Zechmeister abstract We report the discovery of GJ 3929 b, a hot Earth-sized planet orbiting the nearby M3.5 V dwarf star, GJ 3929 (G 180-18, TOI-2013). Joint modelling of photometric observations from TESS sectors 24 and 25 together with 73 spectroscopic observations from CARMENES and follow-up transit observations from SAINT-EX, LCOGT, and OSN yields a planet radius of Rb = 1.150 ± 0.040 R, a mass of Mb = 1.21 ± 0.42 M, and an orbital period of Pb = 2.6162745 ± 0.0000030 d. The resulting density of ρb = 4.4 ± 1.6 g cm−3 is compatible with the Earth's mean density of about 5.5 g cm−3. Due to the apparent brightness of the host star (J = 8.7 mag) and its small size, GJ 3929 b is a promising target for atmospheric characterisation with the JWST. Additionally, the radial velocity data show evidence for another planet candidate with P[c] = 14.303 ± 0.035 d, which is likely unrelated to the stellar rotation period, Prot = 122 ± 13 d, which we determined from archival HATNet and ASAS-SN photometry combined with newly obtained TJO data. RV data and stellar activity indices are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/659/A17 journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 03 volume 659 publication_type article eprint pages 23 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202142653  source harvard id 21092725 title Toward the End-to-End Optimization of Particle Physics Instruments with Differentiable Programming: a White Paper first_author Tommaso Dorigo author Tommaso Dorigo, Andrea Giammanco, Pietro Vischia, Max Aehle, Mateusz Bawaj, Alexey Boldyrev, Pablo de Castro Manzano, Denis Derkach, Julien Donini, Auralee Edelen, Federica Fanzago, Nicolas R. Gauger, Christian Glaser, Atılım G. Baydin, Lukas Heinrich, Ralf Keidel, Jan Kieseler, Claudius Krause, Maxime Lagrange, Max Lamparth, Lukas Layer, Gernot Maier, Federico Nardi, Helge E. S. Pettersen, Alberto Ramos, Fedor Ratnikov, Dieter Röhrich, Roberto Ruiz de Austri, Pablo Martínez Ruiz del Árbol, Oleg Savchenko, Nathan Simpson, Giles C. Strong, Angela Taliercio, Mia Tosi, Andrey Ustyuzhanin, Haitham Zaraket abstract The full optimization of the design and operation of instruments whose functioning relies on the interaction of radiation with matter is a super-human task, given the large dimensionality of the space of possible choices for geometry, detection technology, materials, data-acquisition, and information-extraction techniques, and the interdependence of the related parameters. On the other hand, massive potential gains in performance over standard, "experience-driven" layouts are in principle within our reach if an objective function fully aligned with the final goals of the instrument is maximized by means of a systematic search of the configuration space. The stochastic nature of the involved quantum processes make the modeling of these systems an intractable problem from a classical statistics point of view, yet the construction of a fully differentiable pipeline and the use of deep learning techniques may allow the simultaneous optimization of all design parameters. In this document we lay down our plans for the design of a modular and versatile modeling tool for the end-to-end optimization of complex instruments for particle physics experiments as well as industrial and medical applications that share the detection of radiation as their basic ingredient. We consider a selected set of use cases to highlight the specific needs of different applications. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.13818 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21087707 title Joint analysis of DES Year 3 data and CMB lensing from SPT and Planck I: Construction of CMB Lensing Maps and Modeling Choices first_author Y. Omori author Y. Omori, E. J. Baxter, C. Chang, O. Friedrich, A. Alarcon, O. Alves, A. Amon, F. Andrade-Oliveira, K. Bechtol, M. R. Becker, G. M. Bernstein, J. Blazek, L. E. Bleem, H. Camacho, A. Campos, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, R. Cawthon, R. Chen, A. Choi, J. Cordero, T. M. Crawford, M. Crocce, C. Davis, J. DeRose, S. Dodelson, C. Doux, A. Drlica-Wagner, K. Eckert, T. F. Eifler, F. Elsner, J. Elvin-Poole, S. Everett, X. Fang, A. Ferté, P. Fosalba, M. Gatti, G. Giannini, D. Gruen, R. A. Gruendl, I. Harrison, K. Herner, H. Huang, E. M. Huff, D. Huterer, M. Jarvis, E. Krause, N. Kuropatkin, P. -F. Leget, P. Lemos, A. R. Liddle, N. MacCrann, J. McCullough, J. Muir, J. Myles, A. Navarro-Alsina, S. Pandey, Y. Park, A. Porredon, J. Prat, M. Raveri, R. P. Rollins, A. Roodman, R. Rosenfeld, A. J. Ross, E. S. Rykoff, C. Sánchez, J. Sanchez, L. F. Secco, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, E. Sheldon, T. Shin, M. A. Troxel, I. Tutusaus, T. N. Varga, N. Weaverdyck, R. H. Wechsler, W. L. K. Wu, B. Yanny, B. Yin, Y. Zhang, J. Zuntz, T. M. C. Abbott, M. Aguena, S. Allam, J. Annis, D. Bacon, B. A. Benson, E. Bertin, S. Bocquet, D. Brooks, D. L. Burke, J. E. Carlstrom, J. Carretero, C. L. Chang, R. Chown, M. Costanzi, L. N. da Costa, A. T. Crites, M. E. S. Pereira, T. de Haan, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, H. T. Diehl, M. A. Dobbs, P. Doel, W. Everett, I. Ferrero, B. Flaugher, D. Friedel, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, E. Gaztanaga, E. M. George, T. Giannantonio, N. W. Halverson, S. R. Hinton, G. P. Holder, D. L. Hollowood, W. L. Holzapfel, K. Honscheid, J. D. Hrubes, D. J. James, L. Knox, K. Kuehn, O. Lahav, A. T. Lee, M. Lima, D. Luong-Van, M. March, J. J. McMahon, P. Melchior, F. Menanteau, S. S. Meyer, R. Miquel, L. Mocanu, J. J. Mohr, R. Morgan, T. Natoli, S. Padin, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A. A. Plazas Malagón, C. Pryke, C. L. Reichardt, A. K. Romer, J. E. Ruhl, E. Sanchez, K. K. Schaffer, M. Schubnell, S. Serrano, E. Shirokoff, M. Smith, Z. Staniszewski, A. A. Stark, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, C. To, J. D. Vieira, J. Weller, R. Williamson abstract Joint analyses of cross-correlations between measurements of galaxy positions, galaxy lensing, and lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) offer powerful constraints on the large-scale structure of the Universe. In a forthcoming analysis, we will present cosmological constraints from the analysis of such cross-correlations measured using Year 3 data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES), and CMB data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. Here we present two key ingredients of this analysis: (1) an improved CMB lensing map in the SPT-SZ survey footprint, and (2) the analysis methodology that will be used to extract cosmological information from the cross-correlation measurements. Relative to previous lensing maps made from the same CMB observations, we have implemented techniques to remove contamination from the thermal Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect, enabling the extraction of cosmological information from smaller angular scales of the cross-correlation measurements than in previous analyses with DES Year 1 data. We describe our model for the cross-correlations between these maps and DES data, and validate our modeling choices to demonstrate the robustness of our analysis. We then forecast the expected cosmological constraints from the galaxy survey-CMB lensing auto and cross-correlations. We find that the galaxy-CMB lensing and galaxy shear-CMB lensing correlations will on their own provide a constraint onS_8=\sigma_8 \sqrt{\Omega_{\rm m}/0.3}$at the few percent level, providing a powerful consistency check for the DES-only constraints. We explore scenarios where external priors on shear calibration are removed, finding that the joint analysis of CMB lensing cross-correlations can provide constraints on the shear calibration amplitude at the 5 to 10% level. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.12439 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21092565 title Constraining the multi-scale dark-matter distribution in CASSOWARY 31 with strong gravitational lensing and stellar dynamics first_author H. Wang author H. Wang, R. Cañameras, G. B. Caminha, S. H. Suyu, A. Yıldırım, G. Chirivì, L. Christensen, C. Grillo, S. Schuldt abstract We study the inner structure of the group-scale lens CASSOWARY 31 (CSWA 31) by adopting both strong lensing and dynamical modeling. CSWA 31 is a peculiar lens system. The brightest group galaxy (BGG) is an ultra-massive elliptical galaxy at z = 0.683 with a weighted mean velocity dispersion of$\sigma = 432 \pm 31$km s$^{-1}$. It is surrounded by group members and several lensed arcs probing up to ~150 kpc in projection. Our results significantly improve previous analyses of CSWA 31 thanks to the new HST imaging and MUSE integral-field spectroscopy. From the secure identification of five sets of multiple images and measurements of the spatially-resolved stellar kinematics of the BGG, we conduct a detailed analysis of the multi-scale mass distribution using various modeling approaches, both in the single and multiple lens-plane scenarios. Our best-fit mass models reproduce the positions of multiple images and provide robust reconstructions for two background galaxies at z = 1.4869 and z = 2.763. The relative contributions from the BGG and group-scale halo are remarkably consistent in our three reference models, demonstrating the self-consistency between strong lensing analyses based on image position and extended image modeling. We find that the ultra-massive BGG dominates the projected total mass profiles within 20 kpc, while the group-scale halo dominates at larger radii. The total projected mass enclosed within$R_{eff}$= 27.2 kpc is$1.10_{-0.04}^{+0.02} \times 10^{13}$M$_\odot$. We find that CSWA 31 is a peculiar fossil group, strongly dark-matter dominated towards the central region, and with a projected total mass profile similar to higher-mass cluster-scale halos. The total mass-density slope within the effective radius is shallower than isothermal, consistent with previous analyses of early-type galaxies in overdense environments. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.13759 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21073383 title Snowmass White Paper: Probing New Physics with$\mu^+ \mu^- \to bs$at a Muon Collider first_author Wolfgang Altmannshofer author Wolfgang Altmannshofer, Sri Aditya Gadam, Stefano Profumo abstract In this white paper for the Snowmass process, we discuss the prospects of probing new physics explanations of the persistent rare$B$decay anomalies with a muon collider. If the anomalies are indirect signs of heavy new physics, non-standard rates for$\mu^+ \mu^- \to b s$production should be observed with high significance at a muon collider with center of mass energy of$\sqrt{s} = 10$TeV. The forward-backward asymmetry of the$b$-jet provides diagnostics of the chirality structure of the new physics couplings. In the absence of a signal,$\mu^+ \mu^- \to b s$can indirectly probe new physics scales as large as$86$TeV. Beam polarization would have an important impact on the new physics sensitivity. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.07495 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21073347 title Machine Learning and LHC Event Generation first_author Anja Butter author Anja Butter, Tilman Plehn, Steffen Schumann, Simon Badger, Sascha Caron, Kyle Cranmer, Francesco Armando Di Bello, Etienne Dreyer, Stefano Forte, Sanmay Ganguly, Dorival Gonçalves, Eilam Gross, Theo Heimel, Gudrun Heinrich, Lukas Heinrich, Alexander Held, Stefan Höche, Jessica N. Howard, Philip Ilten, Joshua Isaacson, Timo Janßen, Stephen Jones, Marumi Kado, Michael Kagan, Gregor Kasieczka, Felix Kling, Sabine Kraml, Claudius Krause, Frank Krauss, Kevin Kröninger, Rahool Kumar Barman, Michel Luchmann, Vitaly Magerya, Daniel Maitre, Bogdan Malaescu, Fabio Maltoni, Till Martini, Olivier Mattelaer, Benjamin Nachman, Sebastian Pitz, Juan Rojo, Matthew Schwartz, David Shih, Frank Siegert, Roy Stegeman, Bob Stienen, Jesse Thaler, Rob Verheyen, Daniel Whiteson, Ramon Winterhalder, Jure Zupan abstract First-principle simulations are at the heart of the high-energy physics research program. They link the vast data output of multi-purpose detectors with fundamental theory predictions and interpretation. This review illustrates a wide range of applications of modern machine learning to event generation and simulation-based inference, including conceptional developments driven by the specific requirements of particle physics. New ideas and tools developed at the interface of particle physics and machine learning will improve the speed and precision of forward simulations, handle the complexity of collision data, and enhance inference as an inverse simulation problem. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 03 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.07460 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2038749 title Impact of the Coulomb field on charged-pion spectra in few-GeV heavy-ion collisions first_author Adamczewski-Musch, J. author J. Adamczewski-Musch, O. Arnold, C. Behnke, A. Belounnas, A. Belyaev, J.C. Berger-Chen, A. Blanco, C. Blume, M. Böhmer, P. Bordalo, S. Chernenko, L. Chlad, I. Ciepał, C. Deveaux, J. Dreyer, E. Epple, L. Fabbietti, O. Fateev, P. Filip, P. Fonte, C. Franco, J. Friese, I. Fröhlich, T. Galatyuk, J.A. Garzon, R. Gernhäuser, S. Gläßel, R. Greifenhagen, F. Guber, M. Gumberidze, S. Harabasz, T. Heinz, T. Hennino, S. Hlavac, C. Höhne, R. Holzmann, A. Ierusalimov, A. Ivashkin, B. Kämpfer, T. Karavicheva, B. Kardan, I. Koenig, W. Koenig, M. Kohls, B.W. Kolb, G. Korcyl, G. Kornakov, F. Kornas, R. Kotte, A. Kugler, T. Kunz, A. Kurepin, A. Kurilkin, P. Kurilkin, V. Ladygin, R. Lalik, K. Lapidus, A. Lebedev, S. Linev, L. Lopes, M. Lorenz, T. Mahmoud, L. Maier, A. Malige, A. Mangiarotti, J. Markert, T. Matulewicz, S. Maurus, V. Metag, J. Michel, D.M. Mihaylov, S. Morozov, C. Müntz, R. Münzer, M. Nabroth, L. Naumann, K. Nowakowski, Y. Parpottas, M. Parschau, V. Pechenov, O. Pechenova, O. Petukhov, K. Piasecki, J. Pietraszko, W. Przygoda, K. Pysz, S. Ramos, B. Ramstein, N. Rathod, A. Reshetin, P. Rodriguez-Ramos, P. Rosier, A. Rost, A. Rustamov, A. Sadovsky, P. Salabura, T. Scheib, H. Schuldes, N. Schild, E. Schwab, F. Scozzi, F. Seck, P. Sellheim, I. Selyuzhenkov, J. Siebenson, L. Silva, U. Singh, J. Smyrski, Yu.G. Sobolev, S. Spataro, S. Spies, H. Ströbele, J. Stroth, C. Sturm, K. Sumara, O. Svoboda, M. Szala, P. Tlusty, M. Traxler, H. Tsertos, E. Usenko, V. Wagner, C. Wendisch, M.G. Wiebusch, J. Wirth, Y. Zanevsky, P. Zumbruch abstract In nuclear collisions the incident protons generate a Coulomb field which acts on produced charged particles. The impact of these interactions on charged pion transverse-mass and rapidity spectra, as well as on pion-pion momentum correlations is investigated in Au+Au collisions at$\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 2.4 GeV. We show that the low-mt part of the data ($m_t < 0.2$GeV/c$^2$) can be well described with a Coulomb-modified Boltzmann distribution that also takes changes of the Coulomb field during the expansion of the fireball into account. The observed centrality dependence of the fitted mean Coulomb potential deviates strongly from a$A_{part}^{2/3}$scaling, indicating that, next to the fireball, the non-interacting charged spectators have to be taken into account. For the most central collisions, the Coulomb modifications of the HBT source radii are found to be consistent with the potential extracted from the single-pion transverse-mass distributions. This finding suggests that the region of homogeneity obtained from two-pion correlations coincides with the region in which the pions freeze-out. Using the inferred mean-square radius of the charge distribution at freeze-out, we have deduced a baryon density, in fair agreement with values obtained from statistical hadronization model fits to the particle yields. journal publisher year 2022 month 02 volume publication_type eprint 2202.12750 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2037100 title Measuring Cosmological Parameters with Type Ia Supernovae in redMaGiC galaxies first_author Chen, R. author R. Chen, D. Scolnic, E. Rozo, E.S. Rykoff, B. Popovic, R. Kessler, M. Vincenzi, T.M. Davis, P. Armstrong, D. Brout, L. Galbany, L. Kelsey, C. Lidman, A. Möller, B. Rose, M. Sako, M. Sullivan, G. Taylor, P. Wiseman, J. Asorey, A. Carr, C. Conselice, K. Kuehn, G.F. Lewis, E. Macaulay, M. Rodriguez-Monroy, B.E. Tucker, T.M.C. Abbott, M. Aguena, S. Allam, F. Andrade-Oliveira, J. Annis, D. Bacon, E. Bertin, S. Bocquet, D. Brooks, D.L. Burke, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, R. Cawthon, M. Costanzi, L.N. da Costa, M.E.S. Pereira, S. Desai, H.T. Diehl, P. Doel, S. Everett, I. Ferrero, B. Flaugher, D. Friedel, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, M. Gatti, E. Gaztanaga, D. Gruen, S.R. Hinton, D.L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, D.J. James, O. Lahav, M. Lima, M. March, F. Menanteau, R. Miquel, R. Morgan, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A.A. Plazas Malagón, J. Prat, A.K. Romer, A. Roodman, E. Sanchez, M. Schubnell, S. Serrano, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, M. Smith, M. Soares-Santos, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, C. To, D.L. Tucker, T.N. Varga abstract Current and future cosmological analyses with Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) face three critical challenges: i) measuring redshifts from the supernova or its host galaxy; ii) classifying SNe without spectra; and iii) accounting for correlations between the properties of SNe Ia and their host galaxies. We present here a novel approach that addresses each challenge. In the context of the Dark Energy Survey (DES), we analyze a SNIa sample with host galaxies in the redMaGiC galaxy catalog, a selection of Luminous Red Galaxies. Photo-$z$estimates for these galaxies are expected to be accurate to$\sigma_{\Delta z/(1+z)}\sim0.02$. The DES-5YR photometrically classified SNIa sample contains approximately 1600 SNe and 125 of these SNe are in redMaGiC galaxies. We demonstrate that redMaGiC galaxies almost exclusively host SNe Ia, reducing concerns with classification uncertainties. With this subsample, we find similar Hubble scatter (to within$\sim0.01$mag) using photometric redshifts in place of spectroscopic redshifts. With detailed simulations, we show the bias due to using photo-$z$s from redMaGiC host galaxies on the measurement of the dark energy equation-of-state$w$is up to$\Delta w \sim 0.01-0.02$. With real data, we measure a difference in$w$when using redMaGiC photometric redshifts versus spectroscopic redshifts of$\Delta w = 0.005$. Finally, we discuss how SNe in redMaGiC galaxies appear to be a more standardizable population due to a weaker relation between color and luminosity ($\beta$) compared to the DES-3YR population by$\sim5\sigma$; this finding is consistent with predictions that redMaGiC galaxies exhibit lower reddening ratios ($\textrm{R}_\textrm{V}$) than the general population of SN host galaxies. These results establish the feasibility of performing redMaGiC SN cosmology with photometric survey data in the absence of spectroscopic data. journal publisher year 2022 month 02 volume publication_type eprint 2202.10480 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2031673 title Observation of the doubly charmed baryon decay$ {\varXi}_{cc}^{++}\to {\varXi}_c^{\prime +}{\pi}^{+} $first_author Aaij, Roel author Roel Aaij, Ahmed Sameh Wagih Abdelmotteleb, Carlos Abellán Beteta, Fernando Jesus Abudinén, Thomas Ackernley, Bernardo Adeva, Marco Adinolfi, Hossein Afsharnia, Christina Agapopoulou, Christine Angela Aidala, Salvatore Aiola, Ziad Ajaltouni, Simon Akar, Johannes Albrecht, Federico Alessio, Michael Alexander, Alejandro Alfonso Albero, Zakariya Aliouche, Georgy Alkhazov, Paula Alvarez Cartelle, Sandra Amato, Jake Lewis Amey, Yasmine Amhis, Liupan An, Lucio Anderlini, Martin Andersson, Aleksei Andreianov, Mirco Andreotti, Dong Ao, Flavio Archilli, Alexander Artamonov, Marina Artuso, Kenenbek Arzymatov, Elie Aslanides, Michele Atzeni, Benjamin Audurier, Sebastian Bachmann, Marie Bachmayer, John Back, Pablo Baladron Rodriguez, Vladislav Balagura, Wander Baldini, Juan Baptista de Souza Leite, Matteo Barbetti, Roger Barlow, Sergey Barsuk, William Barter, Matteo Bartolini, Fedor Baryshnikov, Jan-Marc Basels, Giovanni Bassi, Baasansuren Batsukh, Alexander Battig, Aurelio Bay, Anja Beck, Maik Becker, Franco Bedeschi, Ignacio Bediaga, Andrew Beiter, Vladislav Belavin, Samuel Belin, Violaine Bellee, Konstantin Belous, Ilia Belov, Ivan Belyaev, Giovanni Bencivenni, Eli Ben-Haim, Alexander Berezhnoy, Roland Bernet, Daniel Berninghoff, Harris Conan Bernstein, Claudia Bertella, Alessandro Bertolin, Christopher Betancourt, Federico Betti, Ia. Bezshyiko, Iaroslava Bezshyiko, Srishti Bhasin, Jihyun Bhom, Lingzhu Bian, Martin Stefan Bieker, Nicolo Vladi Biesuz, Simone Bifani, Pierre Billoir, Alice Biolchini, Matthew Birch, Fionn Caitlin Ros Bishop, Alexander Bitadze, Andrea Bizzeti, Mikkel Bjørn, Michele Piero Blago, Thomas Blake, Frederic Blanc, Steven Blusk, Dana Bobulska, Julian Alexander Boelhauve, Oscar Boente Garcia, Thomas Boettcher, Alexey Boldyrev, Alexander Bondar, Nikolay Bondar, Silvia Borghi, Maxim Borisyak, Martino Borsato, Jozef Tomasz Borsuk, Sonia Amina Bouchiba, Themistocles Bowcock, Alexandre Boyer, Concezio Bozzi, Matthew John Bradley, Svende Braun, Alexandre Brea Rodriguez, Jolanta Brodzicka, Arnau Brossa Gonzalo, Davide Brundu, Annarita Buonaura, Laura Buonincontri, Aodhan Tomas Burke, Christopher Burr, Albert Bursche, Anatoly Butkevich, Jordy Sebastiaan Butter, Jan Buytaert, Wiktor Byczynski, Sandro Cadeddu, Hao Cai, Roberto Calabrese, Lukas Calefice, Stefano Cali, Ryan Calladine, Marta Calvi, Miriam Calvo Gomez, Patricia Camargo Magalhaes, Pierluigi Campana, Angel Fernando Campoverde Quezada, Simone Capelli, Lorenzo Capriotti, Angelo Carbone, Giovanni Carboni, Roberta Cardinale, Alessandro Cardini, Ina Carli, Paolo Carniti, Leon David Carus, Kazuyoshi Carvalho Akiba, Adrian Casais Vidal, Rowina Caspary, Gianluigi Casse, Marco Cattaneo, Giovanni Cavallero, Sara Celani, Jacopo Cerasoli, Daniel Cervenkov, Abbie Jane Chadwick, Matthew George Chapman, Matthew Charles, Philippe Charpentier, Ph. Charpentier, Carlos Alberto Chavez Barajas, Maximilien Chefdeville, Chen Chen, Shanzhen Chen, Aleksei Chernov, Veronika Chobanova, Serhii Cholak, Marcin Chrzaszcz, Alexsei Chubykin, Vladimir Chulikov, Paolo Ciambrone, Maria Flavia Cicala, Xabier Cid Vidal, Gregory Ciezarek, P.E. L. Clarke, Marco Clemencic, Harry Cliff, Joel Closier, John Leslie Cobbledick, Victor Coco, Joao A B Coelho, Julien Cogan, Eric Cogneras, Lucian Cojocariu, Paula Collins, Tommaso Colombo, Liliana Congedo, Andrea Contu, Naomi Cooke, George Coombs, Imanol Corredoira, Gloria Corti, Cayo Mar Costa Sobral, Benjamin Couturier, Daniel Charles Craik, Jana Crkovská, Melissa Maria Cruz Torres, Robert Currie, Cesar Luiz Da Silva, Shakhzod Dadabaev, Lingyun Dai, Elena Dall'Occo, Jeremy Dalseno, Carmelo D'Ambrosio, Anna Danilina, Philippe d'Argent, Aigerim Dashkina, Jonathan Edward Davies, Adam Davis, Oscar De Aguiar Francisco, Kristof De Bruyn, Stefano De Capua, Michel De Cian, Ulisses De Freitas Carneiro Da Graca, Erika De Lucia, Jussara De Miranda, Leandro De Paula, Marilisa De Serio, Dario De Simone, Patrizia De Simone, Fabio De Vellis, Jacco de Vries, Cameron Thomas Dean, Francesco Debernardis, Daniel Decamp, Vlad-George Dedu, Luigi Del Buono, Blaise Delaney, Hans Peter Dembinski, Vadym Denysenko, Denis Derkach, Olivier Deschamps, Francesco Dettori, Biplab Dey, Alessandro Di Cicco, Pasquale Di Nezza, Sergey Didenko, Lorena Dieste Maronas, Shuchong Ding, Vasyl Dobishuk, Chenzhi Dong, Amanda May Donohoe, Francesca Dordei, Alberto dos Reis, Lauren Douglas, Anatoliy Dovbnya, Anthony Gavin Downes, Maciej Wojciech Dudek, Laurent Dufour, Viacheslav Duk, Paolo Durante, John Matthew Durham, Deepanwita Dutta, Agnieszka Dziurda, Alexey Dzyuba, Sajan Easo, Ulrik Egede, Victor Egorychev, Semen Eidelman, Stephan Eisenhardt, Surapat Ek-In, Lars Eklund, Scott Ely, Alexandru Ene, Eliane Epple, Stephan Escher, Jonas Nathanael Eschle, Sevda Esen, Timothy Evans, Lucas Falcao, Yanting Fan, Bo Fang, Stephen Farry, Davide Fazzini, Mauricio Féo, Antonio Fernandez Prieto, Alex Daniel Fernez, Fabio Ferrari, Lino Ferreira Lopes, Fernando Ferreira Rodrigues, Silvia Ferreres Sole, Martina Ferrillo, Massimiliano Ferro-Luzzi, Sergey Filippov, Rosa Anna Fini, Massimiliano Fiorini, Miroslaw Firlej, Kamil Leszek Fischer, K.M. Fischer, Dillon Scott Fitzgerald, Conor Fitzpatrick, Tomasz Fiutowski, Aristeidis Fkiaras, Frederic Fleuret, Marianna Fontana, Flavio Fontanelli, Roger Forty, Daniel Foulds-Holt, Vinicius Franco Lima, Manuel Franco Sevilla, Markus Frank, Edoardo Franzoso, Giulia Frau, Christoph Frei, David Anthony Friday, Jinlin Fu, Quentin Fuehring, Emmy Gabriel, Giuliana Galati, Abraham Gallas Torreira, Domenico Galli, Silvia Gambetta, Yuyue Gan, Miriam Gandelman, Paolo Gandini, Yuanning Gao, Michela Garau, Luis Miguel Garcia Martin, Paula Garcia Moreno, Julián García Pardiñas, Beatriz Garcia Plana, Felipe Andres Garcia Rosales, Lluis Garrido, Clara Gaspar, Robbert Erik Geertsema, David Gerick, Louis Lenard Gerken, Evelina Gersabeck, Marco Gersabeck, Timothy Gershon, Luca Giambastiani, Valerie Gibson, Henryk Karol Giemza, Alexander Leon Gilman, Matteo Giovannetti, Alessandra Gioventù, Pere Gironella Gironell, Carmen Giugliano, Konstantin Gizdov, Evangelos Leonidas Gkougkousis, Vladimir Gligorov, Carla Göbel, Elisabet Golobardes, Dmitry Golubkov, Andrey Golutvin, Alvaro Gomes, Sergio Gomez Fernandez, Fernanda Goncalves Abrantes, Mateusz Goncerz, Guanghua Gong, Petr Gorbounov, Igor Vladimirovich Gorelov, Claudio Gotti, Jascha Peter Grabowski, Thomas Grammatico, Luis Alberto Granado Cardoso, Eugeni Graugés, Elena Graverini, Giacomo Graziani, Alexandru Grecu, Lex Marinus Greeven, Nathan Allen Grieser, Lucia Grillo, Sergey Gromov, Barak Raimond Gruberg Cazon, Chenxi Gu, Marco Guarise, Manuel Guittiere, Paul Andre Günther, Evgeny Gushchin, Andreas Guth, Yury Guz, Thierry Gys, Thomas Hadavizadeh, Guido Haefeli, Christophe Haen, Jakob Haimberger, Susan Haines, Tabitha Halewood-leagas, Phoebe Meredith Hamilton, Jan Patrick Hammerich, Qundong Han, Xiaoxue Han, Eva Brottmann Hansen, Stephanie Hansmann-Menzemer, Neville Harnew, Thomas Harrison, Christoph Hasse, Mark Hatch, Jibo He, Kevin Heijhoff, Kevin Heinicke, Riley Dylan Leslie Henderson, Arthur Marius Hennequin, Karol Hennessy, Louis Henry, Johannes Heuel, Adlène Hicheur, Donal Hill, Martha Hilton, Sophie Elizabeth Hollitt, Ruiwe Hou, Yingrui Hou, Jiangqiao Hu, Jifeng Hu, Wenhua Hu, Xiaofan Hu, Wenqian Huang, Xiaotao Huang, Wouter Hulsbergen, Ross John Hunter, Mikhail Hushchyn, David Hutchcroft, Daniel Hynds, Philipp Ibis, Marek Idzik, Dmitrii Ilin, Philip Ilten, Alexander Inglessi, Aleksandr Iniukhin, Artur Ishteev, Kuzma Ivshin, Richard Jacobsson, Hendrik Jage, Sune Jakobsen, Eddy Jans, Brij Kishor Jashal, Abolhassan Jawahery, Vukan Jevtic, Xiaojie Jiang, Malcolm John, Daniel Johnson, Christopher Jones, Thomas Peter Jones, Beat Jost, Nathan Jurik, Sergii Kandybei, Youen Kang, Matthias Karacson, Dmitrii Karpenkov, Maksim Karpov, Jacob William Kautz, Floris Keizer, Dustin Michael Keller, Matthew Kenzie, Tjeerd Ketel, Basem Khanji, Anastasiia Kharisova, Sergei Kholodenko, Thomas Kirn, Veronica Soelund Kirsebom, Ouail Kitouni, Suzanne Klaver, Nico Kleijne, Konrad Klimaszewski, Mateusz Rafal Kmiec, Serhii Koliiev, Almagul Kondybayeva, Anatoly Konoplyannikov, Pawel Kopciewicz, Renata Kopecna, Patrick Koppenburg, Mikhail Korolev, Igor Kostiuk, Oleksander Kot, Sofia Kotriakhova, Anastasiia Kozachuk, Polina Kravchenko, Leonid Kravchuk, Rafal Dominik Krawczyk, Michal Kreps, Sophie Katharina Kretzschmar, Pavel Krokovny, Wojciech Krupa, Wojciech Krzemien, Jakub Kubat, Marcin Kucharczyk, Vasily Kudryavtsev, Hilbrand Steffen Kuindersma, Gerd Joachim Kunde, Tengiz Kvaratskheliya, Daniel Lacarrere, George Lafferty, Adriano Lai, Andrea Lampis, Davide Lancierini, John Jake Lane, Richard Lane, Gaia Lanfranchi, Christoph Langenbruch, Jan Langer, Oliver Lantwin, Thomas Latham, Federico Lazzari, Renaud Le Gac, Sook Hyun Lee, Regis Lefèvre, Alexander Leflat, Sergey Legotin, Olivier Leroy, Tadeusz Lesiak, Blake Leverington, Hengne Li, Peilian Li, Shiyang Li, Yiming Li, Zhuoming Li, Xixin Liang, Tai-hua Lin, Rolf Lindner, Vitalii Lisovskyi, Roman Litvinov, Guoming Liu, Huanhuan Liu, Qian Liu, Shuaiyi Liu, Aniol Lobo Salvia, Angelo Loi, Riccardo Lollini, Julian Lomba Castro, Iain Longstaff, Jose Lopes, Saúl López Soliño, George Holger Lovell, Yu Lu, Chiara Lucarelli, Donatella Lucchesi, Stanislav Luchuk, Miriam Lucio Martinez, Valeriia Lukashenko, Yiheng Luo, Anna Lupato, Eleonora Luppi, Oliver Lupton, Alberto Lusiani, Xiao-Rui Lyu, Lishuang Ma, Ruiting Ma, Serena Maccolini, Frederic Machefert, Florin Maciuc, Vladimir Macko, Patrick Mackowiak, Samuel Maddrell-Mander, Lakshan Ram Madhan Mohan, Oleg Maev, Artem Maevskiy, Dmitrii Maisuzenko, Maciej Witold Majewski, Jakub Jacek Malczewski, Sneha Malde, Bartosz Malecki, Alexander Malinin, Timofei Maltsev, Hanna Malygina, Giulia Manca, Giampiero Mancinelli, Daniele Manuzzi, Claudio Andrea Manzari, Daniele Marangotto, Jan Maratas, Jean François Marchand, Umberto Marconi, Saverio Mariani, Carla Marin Benito, Matthieu Marinangeli, Jörg Marks, Alexander Mclean Marshall, Phillip John Marshall, Gabriele Martelli, Giuseppe Martellotti, Loris Martinazzoli, Maurizio Martinelli, Diego Martinez Santos, Fernando Martinez Vidal, André Massafferri, Marcel Materok, Rosen Matev, Abhijit Mathad, Viacheslav Matiunin, Clara Matteuzzi, Kara Renee Mattioli, Andrea Mauri, Emilie Maurice, Juan Mauricio, Michal Kazimierz Mazurek, Michael McCann, Lucas Mcconnell, Tamaki Holly Mcgrath, Niall Thomas Mchugh, Andrew McNab, Ronan McNulty, James Vincent Mead, Brian Meadows, Gerwin Meier, Dmytro Melnychuk, Simone Meloni, Marcel Merk, Andrea Merli, Lucas Meyer Garcia, Mikhail Mikhasenko, Diego Alejandro Milanes, Edward James Millard, Marko Milovanovic, Marie-Noelle Minard, Alessandro Minotti, Sara Elizabeth Mitchell, Biljana Mitreska, Dominik Stefan Mitzel, Antje Mödden, Rizwaan Adeeb Mohammed, Razvan Daniel Moise, Sergei Mokhnenko, Titus Mombächer, Igancio Alberto Monroy, Stephane Monteil, Mauro Morandin, Gianfranco Morello, Michael Joseph Morello, Jakub Moron, Adam Benjamin Morris, Andrew George Morris, Raymond Mountain, Hongjie Mu, Franz Muheim, Mick Mulder, Katharina Müller, Colm Harold Murphy, Donal Murray, Rebecca Murta, Piera Muzzetto, Paras Naik, Tatsuya Nakada, Raja Nandakumar, Tara Nanut, Irina Nasteva, Matthew Needham, Nicola Neri, Sebastian Neubert, Niko Neufeld, Ryan Newcombe, Elisabeth Maria Niel, Simon Nieswand, Nikolay Nikitin, Niklas Stefan Nolte, Camille Normand, Cynthia Nunez, Agnieszka Oblakowska-Mucha, Vladimir Obraztsov, Thomas Oeser, Daniel Patrick O'Hanlon, Shinichi Okamura, Rudolf Oldeman, Federica Oliva, Mario Edgardo Olivares, C.J. G. Onderwater, Ryunosuke Hugo O'Neil, Juan Martin Otalora Goicochea, Tatiana Ovsiannikova, Patrick Owen, Maria Aranzazu Oyanguren, Ozlem Ozcelik, Klaas Ole Padeken, Bhagyashree Pagare, Preema Rennee Pais, Tommaso Pajero, Antimo Palano, Matteo Palutan, Yue Pan, Gennady Panshin, Antonios Papanestis, Marco Pappagallo, Luciano Pappalardo, Cheryl Pappenheimer, William Parker, Christopher Parkes, Barbara Passalacqua, Giovanni Passaleva, Alessandra Pastore, Mitesh Patel, Claudia Patrignani, Christopher James Pawley, Alex Pearce, Antonio Pellegrino, Monica Pepe Altarelli, Stefano Perazzini, Dmitrii Pereima, Asier Pereiro Castro, Pascal Perret, Marko Petric, Konstantinos Petridis, Alessandro Petrolini, Aleksandr Petrov, Stefano Petrucci, Marco Petruzzo, Thi Thuy Hang Pham, Anton Philippov, Roberto Piandani, Lorenzo Pica, Mauro Piccini, Boleslaw Pietrzyk, Guillaume Pietrzyk, Martina Pili, Davide Pinci, Flavio Pisani, Marco Pizzichemi, P.K. Resmi, Vlad-Mihai Placinta, Jonathan Plews, Maximo Plo Casasus, Francesco Polci, Marco Poli Lener, Mariia Poliakova, Anton Poluektov, Natalia Polukhina, Ivan Polyakov, Erica Polycarpo, Sebastien Ponce, Dmitry Popov, Sergei Popov, Stanislav Poslavskii, Kodassery Prasanth, Laura Promberger, Claire Prouve, Valery Pugatch, Veronique Puill, Giovanni Punzi, Hongrong Qi, Wenbin Qian, Ning Qin, Renato Quagliani, Naomi Veronika Raab, Raul Iraq Rabadan Trejo, Bartlomiej Rachwal, Jonas Rademacker, Rohan Rajagopalan, Matteo Rama, Miguel Ramos Pernas, Murilo Rangel, Fedor Ratnikov, Gerhard Raven, Meril Reboud, Federico Redi, Florian Reiss, Clara Remon Alepuz, Zan Ren, Victor Renaudin, Roberto Ribatti, Alessandro Maria Ricci, Stefania Ricciardi, Kurt Rinnert, Patrick Robbe, Gary Robertson, Ana Barbara Rodrigues, Eduardo Rodrigues, Jairo Alexis Rodriguez Lopez, E.R. R. Rodriguez Rodriguez, Alexandra Paige Rollings, Philipp Roloff, Vladimir Romanovskiy, Marcos Romero Lamas, Antonio Romero Vidal, Jordan Daniel Roth, Marcello Rotondo, Matthew Scott Rudolph, Thomas Ruf, Ramon Angel Ruiz Fernandez, Joan Ruiz Vidal, Artem Ryzhikov, Jakub Ryzka, Juan Jose Saborido Silva, Naylya Sagidova, Niladribihari Sahoo, Biagio Saitta, Matteo Salomoni, Cristina Sanchez Gras, Izaac Sanderswood, Roberta Santacesaria, Cibran Santamarina Rios, Marco Santimaria, Emanuele Santovetti, Danila Saranin, Gediminas Sarpis, Mindaugas Sarpis, Alessio Sarti, Celestina Satriano, Alessia Satta, Miroslav Saur, Darya Savrina, Halime Sazak, Luke George Scantlebury Smead, Alessandro Scarabotto, Stefan Schael, Sigrid Scherl, Manuel Schiller, Heinrich Schindler, Michael Schmelling, Burkhard Schmidt, Sebastian Schmitt, Olivier Schneider, Andreas Schopper, Maxime Schubiger, Sebastian Schulte, Marie Helene Schune, Rainer Schwemmer, Barbara Sciascia, Sara Sellam, Alexander Semennikov, Mara Senghi Soares, Antonino Sergi, Nicola Serra, Lorenzo Sestini, Alex Seuthe, Yiduo Shang, Desmond Mzamo Shangase, Mikhail Shapkin, Ivan Shchemerov, Lesya Shchutska, Tara Shears, Lev Shekhtman, Zhihong Shen, Shuqi Sheng, Vladimir Shevchenko, Edward Brendan Shields, Yuya Shimizu, Evgenii Shmanin, Joseph David Shupperd, Benedetto Gianluca Siddi, Rafael Silva Coutinho, Gabriele Simi, Saverio Simone, Minni Singla, Nicola Skidmore, Raphael Skuza, Tomasz Skwarnicki, Mark Slater, Igor Slazyk, Jennifer Clare Smallwood, John Gordon Smeaton, Eluned Smith, Mark Smith, Aleksandra Snoch, Lais Soares Lavra, Michael Sokoloff, F.J. P. Soler, Aleksandr Solovev, Ivan Solovyev, Felipe Luan Souza De Almeida, Bruno Souza De Paula, Bernhard Spaan, Elisabetta Spadaro Norella, Patrick Spradlin, Federico Stagni, Marian Stahl, Sascha Stahl, Seophine Stanislaus, Olaf Steinkamp, Oleg Stenyakin, Holger Stevens, Sheldon Stone, Daria Strekalina, Fidan Suljik, Jiayin Sun, Liang Sun, Yipeng Sun, Peter Svihra, Paul Nathaniel Swallow, Krzysztof Swientek, Adam Szabelski, Tomasz Szumlak, Maciej Pawel Szymanski, Shantam Taneja, Alastair Roger Tanner, Martin Duy Tat, Aleksandr Terentev, Frederic Teubert, Eric Thomas, Daniel James David Thompson, Kayleigh Anne Thomson, Hanae Tilquin, Vincent Tisserand, Stephane T'Jampens, Mark Tobin, Luca Tomassetti, Xingyu Tong, Diego Torres Machado, Da Yu Tou, Ekaterina Trifonova, Stoyan Miroslavov Trilov, Carina Trippl, Giulia Tuci, Alison Tully, Niels Tuning, Artur Ukleja, Daniel Joachim Unverzagt, Eduard Ursov, Andrii Usachov, Andrey Ustyuzhanin, Ulrich Uwer, Alexander Vagner, Vincenzo Vagnoni, Andrea Valassi, Giovanni Valenti, Nuria Valls Canudas, Martinus van Beuzekom, Maarten Van Dijk, Hubert Van Hecke, Eric van Herwijnen, Maarten van Veghel, Ricardo Vazquez Gomez, Pablo Vazquez Regueiro, Carlos Vázquez Sierra, Stefania Vecchi, Jaap Velthuis, Michele Veltri, Aravindhan Venkateswaran, Michele Veronesi, Mika Vesterinen, Daniel Vieira, Maria Vieites Diaz, Harald Viemann, Xavier Vilasis-Cardona, Eva Vilella Figueras, Andrea Villa, Pascal Vincent, Felicia Carolin Volle, Dorothea Vom Bruch, Alexey Vorobyev, Vitaly Vorobyev, Nikolai Voropaev, Kimberley Vos, Roland Waldi, John Walsh, Chishuai Wang, Jialu Wang, Jianchun Wang, Jianqiao Wang, Jike Wang, Mengzhen Wang, Rui Wang, Yilong Wang, Zhenzi Wang, Zirui Wang, Ziyi Wang, Jake Alexander Ward, Nigel Watson, David Websdale, Constantin Weisser, Benedict Donald C Westhenry, Dylan Jaide White, Mark Whitehead, Aidan Richard Wiederhold, Dirk Wiedner, Guy Wilkinson, Michael Kent Wilkinson, Ifan Williams, Mike Williams, Mark Richard James Williams, Fergus Wilson, Wojciech Wislicki, Mariusz Witek, Lukas Witola, Guy Wormser, Stephen Wotton, Hangyi Wu, Kenneth Wyllie, Zhiyu Xiang, Dong Xiao, Yuehong Xie, Ao Xu, Jingyi Xu, Li Xu, Menglin Xu, Qingnian Xu, Zehua Xu, Zhihao Xu, Di Yang, Shuangli Yang, Youhua Yang, Zhenwei Yang, Zishuo Yang, Yuezhe Yao, Lauren Emma Yeomans, Hang Yin, Jiesheng Yu, Xuhao Yuan, Oleg Yushchenko, Ettore Zaffaroni, Mikhail Zavertyaev, Milosz Zdybal, Oleksandr Zenaiev, Ming Zeng, Dongliang Zhang, Liming Zhang, Shulei Zhang, Shunan Zhang, Yanxi Zhang, Yu Zhang, Alina Zharkova, Alexey Zhelezov, Yangheng Zheng, Tianwen Zhou, Xiaokang Zhou, Yixiong Zhou, Valeriia Zhovkovska, Xianglei Zhu, Xiaoyu Zhu, Zhanwen Zhu, Valery Zhukov, Quan Zou, Stefano Zucchelli, Davide Zuliani, Gianluca Zunica abstract The$ {\varXi}_{cc}^{++}\to {\varXi}_c^{\prime +}{\pi}^{+} $decay is observed using proton-proton collisions collected by the LHCb experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb−1. The$ {\varXi}_{cc}^{++}\to {\varXi}_c^{\prime +}{\pi}^{+} $decay is reconstructed partially, where the photon from the$ {\varXi}_c^{\prime +}\to {\varXi}_c^{+}\gamma $decay is not reconstructed and the pK$^{−}$π$^{+}$final state of the$ {\varXi}_c^{+} $baryon is employed. The$ {\varXi}_{cc}^{++}\to {\varXi}_c^{\prime +}{\pi}^{+} $branching fraction relative to that of the$ {\varXi}_{cc}^{++}\to {\varXi}_c^{+}{\pi}^{+} $decay is measured to be 1.41 ± 0.17 ± 0.10, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic.[graphic not available: see fulltext] journal JHEP publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 05 publication_type eprint 2202.05648 pages 038 issue doi 10.1007/JHEP05(2022)038  source inspirehep id 2030868 title EXCESS workshop: Descriptions of rising low-energy spectra first_author Fuss, A. author A. Fuss, M. Kaznacheeva, F. Reindl, F. Wagner, P. Adari, A. Aguilar-Arevalo, D. Amidei, G. Angloher, E. Armengaud, C. Augier, L. Balogh, S. Banik, D. Baxter, C. Beaufort, G. Beaulieu, V. Belov, Y. Ben Gal, G. Benato, A. Benoît, A. Bento, L. Bergé, A. Bertolini, R. Bhattacharyya, J. Billard, I.M. Bloch, A. Botti, R. Breier, G. Bres, J-.L. Bret, A. Broniatowski, A. Brossard, C. Bucci, R. Bunker, M. Cababie, M. Calvo, P. Camus, G. Cancelo, L. Canonica, F. Cappella, L. Cardani, J.-F. Caron, N. Casali, G. del Castello, A. Cazes, R. Cerulli, B.A. Cervantes Vergara, D. Chaize, M. Chapellier, L. Chaplinsky, F. Charlieux, M. Chaudhuri, A.E. Chavarria, G. Chemin, R. Chen, H. Chen, F. Chierchie, I. Colantoni, J. Colas, J. Cooley, J.-M. Coquillat, E.C. Corcoran, S. Crawford, M. Crisler, A. Cruciani, P. Cushman, A. D'Addabbo, J.C. D'Olivo, A. Dastgheibi-Fard, M. De Jésus, Y. Deng, J.B. Dent, E.L. Depaoli, K. Dering, S. Dharani, S. Di Lorenzo, A. Drlica-Wagner, L. Dumoulin, D. Durnford, B. Dutta, L. Einfalt, A. Erb, A. Erhart, R. Essig, J. Estrada, E. Etzion, O. Exshaw, F. Favela-Perez, F.v. Feilitzsch, G. Fernandez Moroni, N. Ferreiro Iachellini, S. Ferriol, S. Fichtinger, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, J.-B. Filippini, D. Filosofov, J.A. Formaggio, M. Friedl, S. Fuard, D. Fuchs, A. Fuss, R. Gaïor, A. Garai, C. Garrah, J. Gascon, G. Gerbier, M. Ghaith, V.M. Ghete, D. Gift, I. Giomataris, G. Giroux, A. Giuliani, P. Gorel, P. Gorla, C. Goupy, J. Goupy, C. Goy, M. Gros, P. Gros, Y. Guardincerri, C. Guerin, V. Guidi, O. Guillaudin, S. Gupta, E. Guy, P. Harrington, D. Hauff, S.T. Heine, S.A. Hertel, S.E. Holland, Z. Hong, E.W. Hoppe, T.W. Hossbach, J.-C. Ianigro, V. Iyer, A. Jastram, M. Ješkovský, Y. Jin, J. Jochum, J.P. Johnston, A. Juillard, D. Karaivanov, V. Kashyap, I. Katsioulas, S. Kazarcev, M. Kaznacheeva, F. Kelly, B. Kilminster, A. Kinast, L. Klinkenberg, H. Kluck, P. Knights, Y. Korn, H. Kraus, B. von Krosigk, A. Kubik, N.A. Kurinsky, J. Lamblin, A. Langenkämper, S. Langrock, T. Lasserre, H. Lattaud, P. Lautridou, I. Lawson, S.J. Lee, M. Lee, A. Letessier-Selvon, D. Lhuillier, M. Li, Y.-T. Lin, A. Lubashevskiy, R. Mahapatra, S. Maludze, M. Mancuso, I. Manthos, L. Marini, S. Marnieros, R.D. Martin, A. Matalon, J. Matthews, B. Mauri, D.W. Mayer, A. Mazzolari, E. Mazzucato, H. Meyer zu Theenhausen, E. Michielin, J. Minet, N. Mirabolfathi, K.v. Mirbach, D. Misiak, P. Mitra, J-.L. Mocellin, B. Mohanty, V. Mokina, J.-P. Mols, A. Monfardini, F. Mounier, S. Munagavalasa, J.-F. Muraz, X.-F. Navick, T. Neep, H. Neog, H. Neyrial, K. Nikolopoulos, A. Nilima, C. Nones, V. Novati, P. O'Brien, L. Oberauer, E. Olivieri, M. Olmi, A. Onillon, C. Oriol, A. Orly, J.L. Orrell, T. Ortmann, C.T. Overman, C. Pagliarone, V. Palušová, P. Pari, P.K. Patel, L. Pattavina, F. Petricca, A. Piers, H.D. Pinckney, M.-C. Piro, M. Platt, D. Poda, D. Ponomarev, W. Potzel, P. Povinec, F. Pröbst, P. Privitera, F. Pucci, K. Ramanathan, J.-S. Real, T. Redon, F. Reindl, R. Ren, A. Robert, J. Da Rocha, D. Rodrigues, R. Rogly, J. Rothe, N. Rowe, S. Rozov, I. Rozova, T. Saab, N. Saffold, T. Salagnac, J. Sander, V. Sanglard, D. Santos, Y. Sarkis, V. Savu, G. Savvidis, I. Savvidis, S. Schönert, K. Schäffner, N. Schermer, J. Schieck, B. Schmidt, D. Schmiedmayer, C. Schwertner, L. Scola, M. Settimo, Ye. Shevchik, V. Sibille, I. Sidelnik, A. Singal, R. Smida, M. Sofo Haro, T. Soldner, J. Stachurska, M. Stahlberg, L. Stefanazzi, L. Stodolsky, C. Strandhagen, R. Strauss, A. Stutz, R. Thomas, A. Thompson, J. Tiffenberg, C. Tomei, M. Traina, S. Uemura, I. Usherov, L. Vagneron, W. Van De Pontseele, F.A. Vazquez de Sola Fernandez, M. Vidal, M. Vignati, A.L. Virto, M. Vivier, T. Volansky, V. Wagner, F. Wagner, J. Walker, R. Ward, S.L. Watkins, A. Wex, M. Willers, M.J. Wilson, L. Winslow, E. Yakushev, T.-T. Yu, M. Zampaolo, A. Zaytsev, V. Zema, D. Zinatulina, A. Zolotarova abstract Many low-threshold experiments observe sharply rising event rates of yet unknown origins below a few hundred eV, and larger than expected from known backgrounds. Due to the significant impact of this excess on the dark matter or neutrino sensitivity of these experiments, a collective effort has been started to share the knowledge about the individual observations. For this, the EXCESS Workshop was initiated. In its first iteration in June 2021, ten rare event search collaborations contributed to this initiative via talks and discussions. The contributing collaborations were CONNIE, CRESST, DAMIC, EDELWEISS, MINER, NEWS-G, NUCLEUS, RICOCHET, SENSEI and SuperCDMS. They presented data about their observed energy spectra and known backgrounds together with details about the respective measurements. In this paper, we summarize the presented information and give a comprehensive overview of the similarities and differences between the distinct measurements. The provided data is furthermore publicly available on the workshop's data repository together with a plotting tool for visualization. journal publisher year 2022 month 02 volume publication_type eprint 2202.05097 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21030914 title TDCOSMO. IX. Systematic comparison between lens modelling software programs: time delay prediction for WGD 2038$-$4008 first_author A. J. Shajib author A. J. Shajib, K. C. Wong, S. Birrer, S. H. Suyu, T. Treu, E. Buckley-Geer, H. Lin, C. E. Rusu, J. Poh, A. Palmese, A. Agnello, M. W. Auger, A. Galan, S. Schuldt, D. Sluse, F. Courbin, J. Frieman, M. Millon abstract The importance of alternative methods to measure the Hubble constant such as time-delay cosmography is highlighted by the recent Hubble tension. It is paramount to thoroughly investigate and rule out systematic biases in all measurement methods before we can accept new physics as the source of this tension. In this study, we perform a check for systematic biases in the lens modelling procedure of time-delay cosmography by comparing independent and blind time-delay predictions of the system WGD 2038$-$4008 from two teams using two different software programs: Glee and lenstronomy. The predicted time delays from both teams incorporate the stellar kinematics of the deflector and the external convergence from line-of-sight structures. The unblinded time-delay predictions from the two teams agree within$1.2\sigma$implying that once the time delay is measured the inferred Hubble constant will also be mutually consistent. However, there is a$\sim$4$\sigma$discrepancy between the power-law model slope and external shear, which is a significant discrepancy at the level of lens models before incorporating the stellar kinematics and the external convergence. We identify the difference in the reconstructed point spread function (PSF) to be the source of this discrepancy. If the same reconstructed PSF is used by both teams, then we achieve excellent agreement within$\sim$0.6$\sigma$, indicating that potential systematics stemming from source reconstruction algorithms and investigator choices are well under control. We recommend future studies to supersample the PSF as needed and marginalize over multiple algorithms/realizations for the PSF reconstruction to mitigate the systematic associated with the PSF. A future study will measure the time delays of the system WGD 2038$-$4008 and infer the Hubble constant based on our mass models. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 02 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2202.11101 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21024177 title Irreversibility in linear systems with colored noise first_author Grzegorz Gradziuk author Grzegorz Gradziuk, Gabriel Torregrosa, Chase P. Broedersz abstract Time irreversibility is a distinctive feature of nonequilibrium dynamics and several measures of irreversibility have been introduced to assess the distance from thermal equilibrium of a stochastically driven system. While the dynamical noise is often approximated as white, in many real applications the time correlations of the random forces can actually be significantly long-lived compared to the relaxation times of the driven system. We analyze the effects of temporal correlations in the noise on commonly used measures of irreversibility and demonstrate how the theoretical framework for white-noise-driven systems naturally generalizes to the case of colored noise. Specifically, we express the autocorrelation function, the area enclosing rates, and mean phase space velocity in terms of solutions of a Lyapunov equation and in terms of their white-noise limit values. journal Physical Review E publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 105 publication_type article eprint pages issue 2 doi 10.1103/PhysRevE.105.024118  source harvard id 21031456 title Periodic temporal environmental variations induce coexistence in resource competition models first_author Tom Burkart author Tom Burkart, Erwin Frey abstract Natural ecosystems, in particular on the microbial scale, are inhabited by a large number of species. The population size of each species is affected by interactions of individuals with each other and by spatial and temporal changes in environmental conditions, such as resource abundance. Here, we use a generic population dynamics model to study how, and under what conditions, a periodic temporal environmental variation can alter an ecosystem's composition and biodiversity. We demonstrate that using time scale separation allows one to qualitatively predict the long-term population dynamics of interacting species in varying environments. We show that the notion of competitive exclusion, a well-known principle that applies for constant environments, can be extended to temporally varying environments if the time scale of environmental changes (e.g., the circadian cycle of a host) is much faster than the time scale of population growth (doubling time in bacteria). When these time scales are similar, our analysis shows that a varying environment deters the system from reaching a steady state, and coexistence between multiple species becomes possible. Our results posit that biodiversity can in parts be attributed to natural environmental variations. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 02 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2202.11635 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21037742 title On phase-space integrals with Heaviside functions first_author Daniel Baranowski author Daniel Baranowski, Maximilian Delto, Kirill Melnikov, Chen-Yu Wang abstract We discuss peculiarities that arise in the computation of real-emission contributions to observables that contain Heaviside functions. A prominent example of such a case is the zero-jettiness soft function in SCET, whose calculation at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD is an interesting problem. Since the zero-jettiness soft function distinguishes between emissions into different hemispheres, its definition involves θ-functions of light-cone components of emitted soft partons. This prevents a direct use of multi-loop methods, based on reverse unitarity, for computing the zero-jettiness soft function in high orders of perturbation theory. We propose a way to bypass this problem and illustrate its effectiveness by computing various non-trivial contributions to the zero-jettiness soft function at NNLO and N3LO in perturbative QCD. journal Journal of High Energy Physics publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 2022 publication_type article eprint pages issue 2 doi 10.1007/JHEP02(2022)081  source harvard id 21049731 title Three-loop helicity amplitudes for diphoton production in gluon fusion first_author Piotr Bargieła author Piotr Bargieła, Fabrizio Caola, Andreas von Manteuffel, Lorenzo Tancredi abstract We present a calculation of the helicity amplitudes for the process gg → γγ in three-loop massless QCD. We employ a recently proposed method to calculate scattering amplitudes in the 't Hooft-Veltman scheme that reduces the amount of spurious non-physical information needed at intermediate stages of the computation. Our analytic results for the three-loop helicity amplitudes are remarkably compact, and can be efficiently evaluated numerically. This calculation provides the last missing building block for the computation of NNLO QCD corrections to diphoton production in gluon fusion. journal Journal of High Energy Physics publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 2022 publication_type article eprint pages issue 2 doi 10.1007/JHEP02(2022)153  source harvard id 20979074 title The iron and oxygen content of LMC Classical Cepheids and its implications for the extragalactic distance scale and Hubble constant. Equivalent width analysis with Kurucz stellar atmosphere models first_author Martino Romaniello author Martino Romaniello, Adam Riess, Sara Mancino, Richard I. Anderson, Wolfram Freudling, Rolf-Peter Kudritzki, Lucas Macrì, Alessio Mucciarelli, Wenlong Yuan abstract Context. Classical Cepheids are primary distance indicators and a crucial stepping stone in determining the present-day value of the Hubble constant H0 to the precision and accuracy required to constrain apparent deviations from the ΛCDM Concordance Cosmological Model. Aims: We measured the iron and oxygen abundances of a statistically significant sample of 89 Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the anchors of the local distance scale, quadrupling the prior sample and including 68 of the 70 Cepheids used to constrain H0 by the SH0ES program. The goal is to constrain the extent to which the luminosity of Cepheids is influenced by their chemical composition, which is an important contributor to the uncertainty on the determination of the Hubble constant itself and a critical factor in the internal consistency of the distance ladder. Methods: We derived stellar parameters and chemical abundances from a self-consistent spectroscopic analysis based on equivalent width of absorption lines. Results: The iron distribution of Cepheids in the LMC can be very accurately described by a single Gaussian with a mean [Fe/H] = −0.409 ± 0.003 dex and σ = 0.076 ± 0.003 dex. We estimate a systematic uncertainty on the absolute mean values of 0.1 dex. The width of the distribution is fully compatible with the measurement error and supports the low dispersion of 0.069 mag seen in the near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope LMC period-luminosity relation. The uniformity of the abundance has the important consequence that the LMC Cepheids alone cannot provide any meaningful constraint on the dependence of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation on chemical composition at any wavelength. This revises a prior claim based on a small sample of 22 LMC Cepheids that there was little dependence (or uncertainty) between composition and near-infrared luminosity, a conclusion which would produce an apparent conflict between anchors of the distance ladder with different mean abundance. The chemical homogeneity of the LMC Cepheid population makes it an ideal environment in which to calibrate the metallicity dependence between the more metal-poor Small Magellanic Cloud and metal-rich Milky Way and NGC 4258. Full Tables 1-8 and Appendix B are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/658/A29 Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programmes 66.D-0571 and 106.21ML.003. journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 658 publication_type article eprint pages 13 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202142441  source harvard id 21037757 title Double copy for Lagrangians at trilinear order first_author M. Beneke author M. Beneke, P. Hager, A. F. Sanfilippo abstract We present a novel double-copy prescription for gauge fields at the Lagrangian level and apply it to the original double copy, couplings to matter and the soft theorem. The Yang-Mills Lagrangian in light-cone gauge is mapped directly to the N = 0 supergravity Lagrangian in light-cone gauge to trilinear order, and we show that the obtained result is manifestly equivalent to Einstein gravity at tree level up to this order. The application of the double-copy prescription to couplings to matter is exemplified by scalar and fermionic QCD and finally the soft-collinear effective QCD Lagrangian. The mapping of the latter yields an effective description of an energetic Dirac fermion coupled to the graviton, Kalb-Ramond, and dilaton fields, from which the fermionic gravitational soft and next-to-soft theorems follow. journal Journal of High Energy Physics publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 2022 publication_type article eprint pages issue 2 doi 10.1007/JHEP02(2022)083  source harvard id 20950199 title Dynamical ejecta of neutron star mergers with nucleonic weak processes I: nucleosynthesis first_author I. Kullmann author I. Kullmann, S. Goriely, O. Just, R. Ardevol-Pulpillo, A. Bauswein, H. -T. Janka abstract We present a coherent study of the impact of neutrino interactions on the r-process element nucleosynthesis and the heating rate produced by the radioactive elements synthesized in the dynamical ejecta of neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) mergers. We have studied the material ejected from four NS-NS merger systems based on hydrodynamical simulations which handle neutrino effects in an elaborate way by including neutrino equilibration with matter in optically thick regions and re-absorption in optically thin regions. We find that the neutron richness of the dynamical ejecta is significantly affected by the neutrinos emitted by the post-merger remnant, in particular when compared to a case neglecting all neutrino interactions. Our nucleosynthesis results show that a solar-like distribution of r-process elements with mass numbers$A \gtrsim 90$is produced, including a significant enrichment in Sr and a reduced production of actinides compared to simulations without inclusion of the nucleonic weak processes. The composition of the dynamically ejected matter as well as the corresponding rate of radioactive decay heating are found to be rather independent of the system mass asymmetry and the adopted equation of state. This approximate degeneracy in abundance pattern and heating rates can be favourable for extracting the ejecta properties from kilonova observations, at least if the dynamical component dominates the overall ejecta. Part II of this work will study the light curve produced by the dynamical ejecta of our four NS merger models. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 510 publication_type article eprint pages 16 issue 2 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab3393  source harvard id 20992076 title Cassiopeia A reveals past interaction with circumstellar shell first_author S. Orlando author S. Orlando, A. Wongwathanarat, H. -T. Janka, M. Miceli, S. Nagataki, M. Ono, F. Bocchino, J. Vink, D. Milisavljevic, D. J. Patnaude, G. Peres abstract Observations of the SNR Cassiopeia A (Cas A) show asymmetries in the reverse shock that cannot be explained by models describing a remnant expanding through a spherically symmetric wind of the progenitor star. We investigate whether a past interaction of Cas A with a massive asymmetric shell of the circumstellar medium can account for the observed asymmetries. We performed 3D MHD simulations that describe the remnant evolution from the SN to its interaction with a circumstellar shell. The initial conditions are provided by a 3D neutrino-driven SN model whose morphology resembles Cas A. We explored the parameter space of the shell, searching for a set of parameters able to produce reverse shock asymmetries at the age of 350 years analogous to those observed in Cas A. The interaction of the remnant with the shell can match the observed reverse shock asymmetries if the shell was asymmetric with the densest portion in the nearside to the northwest (NW). According to our models, the shell was thin with radius 1.5 pc. The reverse shock shows the following asymmetries at the age of Cas A: i) it moves inward in the observer frame in the NW region, while it moves outward in other regions; ii) the geometric center of the reverse shock is offset to the NW by 0.1 pc from the geometric center of the forward shock; iii) the reverse shock in the NW region has enhanced nonthermal emission because, there, the ejecta enter the reverse shock with a higher relative velocity (between 4000 and 7000 km/s) than in other regions (below 2000 km/s). Our findings suggest the interaction of Cas A with an asymmetric circumstellar shell between 180 and 240 years after the SN event. We suggest that the shell was, most likely, the result of a massive eruption from the progenitor star that occurred about 10^5 years prior to core-collapse. We estimate a total mass of the shell of approximately 2.6 Msun. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 02 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2202.01643 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20870084 title Synthetic galaxy clusters and observations based on Dark Energy Survey Year 3 Data first_author T. N. Varga author T. N. Varga, D. Gruen, S. Seitz, N. MacCrann, E. Sheldon, W. G. Hartley, A. Amon, A. Choi, A. Palmese, Y. Zhang, M. R. Becker, J. McCullough, E. Rozo, E. S. Rykoff, C. To, S. Grandis, G. M. Bernstein, S. Dodelson, K. Eckert, S. Everett, R. A. Gruendl, I. Harrison, K. Herner, R. P. Rollins, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, M. A. Troxel, B. Yanny, J. Zuntz, H. T. Diehl, M. Jarvis, M. Aguena, S. Allam, J. Annis, E. Bertin, S. Bhargava, D. Brooks, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, M. Costanzi, L. N. da Costa, M. E. S. Pereira, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, J. P. Dietrich, I. Ferrero, B. Flaugher, J. García-Bellido, E. Gaztanaga, D. W. Gerdes, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, S. R. Hinton, K. Honscheid, T. Jeltema, K. Kuehn, N. Kuropatkin, M. A. G. Maia, M. March, P. Melchior, F. Menanteau, R. Miquel, R. Morgan, J. Myles, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. A. Plazas, A. K. Romer, E. Sanchez, V. Scarpine, M. Schubnell, S. Serrano, M. Smith, M. Soares-Santos, E. Suchyta, M. E. C. Swanson, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, J. Weller, J. Weller, DES Collaboration abstract We develop a novel data-driven method for generating synthetic optical observations of galaxy clusters. In cluster weak lensing, the interplay between analysis choices and systematic effects related to source galaxy selection, shape measurement, and photometric redshift estimation can be best characterized in end-to-end tests going from mock observations to recovered cluster masses. To create such test scenarios, we measure and model the photometric properties of galaxy clusters and their sky environments from the Dark Energy Survey Year 3 (DES Y3) data in two bins of cluster richness$\lambda \in [30; 45)$,$\lambda \in [45; 60)$and three bins in cluster redshift ($z\in [0.3; 0.35)$,$z\in [0.45; 0.5)$and$z\in [0.6; 0.65)$. Using deep-field imaging data, we extrapolate galaxy populations beyond the limiting magnitude of DES Y3 and calculate the properties of cluster member galaxies via statistical background subtraction. We construct mock galaxy clusters as random draws from a distribution function, and render mock clusters and line-of-sight catalogues into synthetic images in the same format as actual survey observations. Synthetic galaxy clusters are generated from real observational data, and thus are independent from the assumptions inherent to cosmological simulations. The recipe can be straightforwardly modified to incorporate extra information, and correct for survey incompleteness. New realizations of synthetic clusters can be created at minimal cost, which will allow future analyses to generate the large number of images needed to characterize systematic uncertainties in cluster mass measurements. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 509 publication_type article eprint pages 21 issue 4 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab3269  source harvard id 20993159 title CMB/kSZ and Compton-y Maps from 2500 deg2 of SPT-SZ and Planck Survey Data first_author L. E. Bleem author L. E. Bleem, T. M. Crawford, B. Ansarinejad, B. A. Benson, S. Bocquet, J. E. Carlstrom, C. L. Chang, R. Chown, A. T. Crites, T. de Haan, M. A. Dobbs, W. B. Everett, E. M. George, R. Gualtieri, N. W. Halverson, G. P. Holder, W. L. Holzapfel, J. D. Hrubes, L. Knox, A. T. Lee, D. Luong-Van, D. P. Marrone, J. J. McMahon, S. S. Meyer, M. Millea, L. M. Mocanu, J. J. Mohr, T. Natoli, Y. Omori, S. Padin, C. Pryke, S. Raghunathan, C. L. Reichardt, J. E. Ruhl, K. K. Schaffer, E. Shirokoff, Z. Staniszewski, A. A. Stark, J. D. Vieira, R. Williamson abstract We present component-separated maps of the primary cosmic microwave background/kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) amplitude and the thermal SZ Compton-y parameter, created using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the Planck satellite. These maps, which cover the ~2500 deg2 of the southern sky imaged by the SPT-SZ survey, represent a significant improvement over previous such products available in this region by virtue of their higher angular resolution ($1\buildrel{\,\prime}\over{.} 25$for our highest-resolution Compton-y maps) and lower noise at small angular scales. In this work we detail the construction of these maps using linear combination techniques, including our method for limiting the correlation of our lowest-noise Compton-y map products with the cosmic infrared background. We perform a range of validation tests on these data products to test our sky modeling and combination algorithms, and we find good performance in all of these tests. Recognizing the potential utility of these data products for a wide range of astrophysical and cosmological analyses, including studies of the gas properties of galaxies, groups, and clusters, we make these products publicly available at http://pole.uchicago.edu/public/data/sptsz_ymap and on the NASA/LAMBDA website. journal The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 258 publication_type article eprint pages 19 issue 2 doi 10.3847/1538-4365/ac35e9  source harvard id 20950200 title Dynamical ejecta of neutron star mergers with nucleonic weak processes - II: kilonova emission first_author O. Just author O. Just, I. Kullmann, S. Goriely, A. Bauswein, H. -T. Janka, C. E. Collins abstract The majority of existing results for the kilonova (or macronova) emission from material ejected during a neutron-star (NS) merger is based on (quasi-) one-zone models or manually constructed toy-model ejecta configurations. In this study, we present a kilonova analysis of the material ejected during the first$\sim 10\,$ms of a NS merger, called dynamical ejecta, using directly the outflow trajectories from general relativistic smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulations, including a sophisticated neutrino treatment and the corresponding nucleosynthesis results, which have been presented in Part I of this study. We employ a multidimensional two-moment radiation transport scheme with approximate M1 closure to evolve the photon field and use a heuristic prescription for the opacities found by calibration with atomic-physics-based reference results. We find that the photosphere is generically ellipsoidal but augmented with small-scale structure and produces emission that is about 1.5-3 times stronger towards the pole than the equator. The kilonova typically peaks after$0.7\!-\!1.5\,$d in the near-infrared frequency regime with luminosities between$3\!-\!7\times 10^{40}\,$erg s-1 and at photospheric temperatures of$2.2\!-\!2.8\times 10^3\,$K. A softer equation of state or higher binary-mass asymmetry leads to a longer and brighter signal. Significant variations of the light curve are also obtained for models with artificially modified electron fractions, emphasizing the importance of a reliable neutrino-transport modelling. None of the models investigated here, which only consider dynamical ejecta, produces a transient as bright as AT2017gfo. The near-infrared peak of our models is incompatible with the early blue component of AT2017gfo. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 510 publication_type article eprint pages 21 issue 2 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab3327  source harvard id 21045419 title Differentiable Matrix Elements with MadJax first_author Lukas Heinrich author Lukas Heinrich, Michael Kagan abstract MadJax is a tool for generating and evaluating differentiable matrix elements of high energy scattering processes. As such, it is a step towards a differentiable programming paradigm in high energy physics that facilitates the incorporation of high energy physics domain knowledge, encoded in simulation software, into gradient based learning and optimization pipelines. MadJax comprises two components: (a) a plugin to the general purpose matrix element generator MadGraph that integrates matrix element and phase space sampling code with the JAX differentiable programming framework, and (b) a standalone wrapping API for accessing the matrix element code and its gradients, which are computed with automatic differentiation. The MadJax implementation and example applications of simulation based inference and normalizing flow based matrix element modeling, with capabilities enabled uniquely with differentiable matrix elements, are presented. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 02 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2203.00057 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21055324 title Smearing scale in Laguerre reconstructions of the correlation function first_author Farnik Nikakhtar author Farnik Nikakhtar, Ravi K. Sheth, Idit Zehavi abstract To a good approximation, on large scales, the evolved two-point correlation function of biased tracers is related to the initial one by a convolution with a smearing kernel. For Gaussian initial conditions, the smearing kernel is Gaussian, so if the initial correlation function is parametrized using simple polynomials, then the evolved correlation function is a sum of generalized Laguerre functions of half-integer order. This motivates an analytic "Laguerre reconstruction" algorithm which previous work has shown is fast and accurate. This reconstruction requires as input the width of the smearing kernel. We show that the method can be extended to estimate the width of the smearing kernel from the same dataset. This estimate, and associated uncertainties, can then be used to marginalize over the distribution of reconstructed shapes and hence provide error estimates on the value of the distance scale. This procedure is not tied to a particular cosmological model. We also show that if, instead, we parametrize the evolved correlation function using simple polynomials, then the initial one is a sum of Hermite polynomials, again enabling fast and accurate deconvolution. If one is willing to use constraints on the smearing scale from other datasets, then marginalizing over its value is simpler for this latter, "Hermite" reconstruction, potentially providing further speed-ups in cosmological analyses. journal Physical Review D publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 105 publication_type article eprint pages issue 4 doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.105.043536  source harvard id 20979053 title Euclid: Forecasts from redshift-space distortions and the Alcock-Paczynski test with cosmic voids first_author N. Hamaus author N. Hamaus, M. Aubert, A. Pisani, S. Contarini, G. Verza, M. -C. Cousinou, S. Escoffier, A. Hawken, G. Lavaux, G. Pollina, B. D. Wandelt, J. Weller, M. Bonici, C. Carbone, L. Guzzo, A. Kovacs, F. Marulli, E. Massara, L. Moscardini, P. Ntelis, W. J. Percival, S. Radinović, M. Sahlén, Z. Sakr, A. G. Sánchez, H. A. Winther, N. Auricchio, S. Awan, R. Bender, C. Bodendorf, D. Bonino, E. Branchini, M. Brescia, J. Brinchmann, V. Capobianco, J. Carretero, F. J. Castander, M. Castellano, S. Cavuoti, A. Cimatti, R. Cledassou, G. Congedo, L. Conversi, Y. Copin, L. Corcione, M. Cropper, A. Da Silva, H. Degaudenzi, M. Douspis, F. Dubath, C. A. J. Duncan, X. Dupac, S. Dusini, A. Ealet, S. Ferriol, P. Fosalba, M. Frailis, E. Franceschi, P. Franzetti, M. Fumana, B. Garilli, B. Gillis, C. Giocoli, A. Grazian, F. Grupp, S. V. H. Haugan, W. Holmes, F. Hormuth, K. Jahnke, S. Kermiche, A. Kiessling, M. Kilbinger, T. Kitching, M. Kümmel, M. Kunz, H. Kurki-Suonio, S. Ligori, P. B. Lilje, I. Lloro, E. Maiorano, O. Marggraf, K. Markovic, R. Massey, S. Maurogordato, M. Melchior, M. Meneghetti, G. Meylan, M. Moresco, E. Munari, S. M. Niemi, C. Padilla, S. Paltani, F. Pasian, K. Pedersen, V. Pettorino, S. Pires, M. Poncet, L. Popa, L. Pozzetti, R. Rebolo, J. Rhodes, H. Rix, M. Roncarelli, E. Rossetti, R. Saglia, P. Schneider, A. Secroun, G. Seidel, S. Serrano, C. Sirignano, G. Sirri, J. -L. Starck, P. Tallada-Crespí, D. Tavagnacco, A. N. Taylor, I. Tereno, R. Toledo-Moreo, F. Torradeflot, E. A. Valentijn, L. Valenziano, Y. Wang, N. Welikala, G. Zamorani, J. Zoubian, S. Andreon, M. Baldi, S. Camera, S. Mei, C. Neissner, E. Romelli abstract Euclid is poised to survey galaxies across a cosmological volume of unprecedented size, providing observations of more than a billion objects distributed over a third of the full sky. Approximately 20 million of these galaxies will have their spectroscopy available, allowing us to map the three-dimensional large-scale structure of the Universe in great detail. This paper investigates prospects for the detection of cosmic voids therein and the unique benefit they provide for cosmological studies. In particular, we study the imprints of dynamic (redshift-space) and geometric (Alcock-Paczynski) distortions of average void shapes and their constraining power on the growth of structure and cosmological distance ratios. To this end, we made use of the Flagship mock catalog, a state-of-the-art simulation of the data expected to be observed with Euclid. We arranged the data into four adjacent redshift bins, each of which contains about 11 000 voids and we estimated the stacked void-galaxy cross-correlation function in every bin. Fitting a linear-theory model to the data, we obtained constraints on f/b and DMH, where f is the linear growth rate of density fluctuations, b the galaxy bias, DM the comoving angular diameter distance, and H the Hubble rate. In addition, we marginalized over two nuisance parameters included in our model to account for unknown systematic effects in the analysis. With this approach, Euclid will be able to reach a relative precision of about 4% on measurements of f/b and 0.5% on DMH in each redshift bin. Better modeling or calibration of the nuisance parameters may further increase this precision to 1% and 0.4%, respectively. Our results show that the exploitation of cosmic voids in Euclid will provide competitive constraints on cosmology even as a stand-alone probe. For example, the equation-of-state parameter, w, for dark energy will be measured with a precision of about 10%, consistent with previous more approximate forecasts. This paper is published on behalf of the Euclid Consortium. journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 658 publication_type article eprint pages 14 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202142073  source harvard id 20950212 title Galaxy velocity bias in cosmological simulations: towards per cent-level calibration first_author Dhayaa Anbajagane author Dhayaa Anbajagane, Han Aung, August E. Evrard, Arya Farahi, Daisuke Nagai, David J. Barnes, Weiguang Cui, Klaus Dolag, Ian G. McCarthy, Elena Rasia, Gustavo Yepes abstract Galaxy cluster masses, rich with cosmological information, can be estimated from internal dark matter (DM) velocity dispersions, which in turn can be observationally inferred from satellite galaxy velocities. However, galaxies are biased tracers of the DM, and the bias can vary over host halo and galaxy properties as well as time. We precisely calibrate the velocity bias, bv - defined as the ratio of galaxy and DM velocity dispersions - as a function of redshift, host halo mass, and galaxy stellar mass threshold ($M_{\rm \star , sat}$), for massive haloes ($M_{\rm 200c}\gt 10^{13.5} \, {\rm M}_\odot$) from five cosmological simulations: IllustrisTNG, Magneticum, Bahamas + Macsis, The Three Hundred Project, and MultiDark Planck-2. We first compare scaling relations for galaxy and DM velocity dispersion across simulations; the former is estimated using a new ensemble velocity likelihood method that is unbiased for low galaxy counts per halo, while the latter uses a local linear regression. The simulations show consistent trends of bv increasing with M200c and decreasing with redshift and$M_{\rm \star , sat}$. The ensemble-estimated theoretical uncertainty in bv is 2-3 per cent, but becomes percent-level when considering only the three highest resolution simulations. We update the mass-richness normalization for an SDSS redMaPPer cluster sample, and find our improved bv estimates reduce the normalization uncertainty from 22 to 8 per cent, demonstrating that dynamical mass estimation is competitive with weak lensing mass estimation. We discuss necessary steps for further improving this precision. Our estimates for$b_v(M_{\rm 200c}, M_{\rm \star , sat}, z)$are made publicly available. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 510 publication_type article eprint pages 18 issue 2 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab3587  source harvard id 21067078 title Muonic boson limits: Supernova redux first_author Andrea Caputo author Andrea Caputo, Georg Raffelt, Edoardo Vitagliano abstract We derive supernova (SN) bounds on muon-philic bosons, taking advantage of the recent emergence of muonic SN models. Our main innovations are to consider scalars ϕ in addition to pseudoscalars a and to include systematically the generic two-photon coupling Gγ γ implied by a muon triangle loop. This interaction allows for Primakoff scattering and radiative boson decays. The globular-cluster bound Gγ γ<0.67 ×10-10 GeV-1 carries over to the muonic Yukawa couplings as ga<3.1 ×10-9 and gϕ<4.6 ×10-9 for ma ,ϕ≲100 keV , so SN arguments become interesting mainly for larger masses. If bosons escape freely from the SN core the main constraints originate from SN 1987A γ rays and the diffuse cosmic γ -ray background. The latter allows at most 10-4 of a typical total SN energy of ESN≃3 ×1053 erg to show up as γ rays, for ma ,ϕ≳100 keV implying ga≲0.9 ×10-10 and gϕ≲0.4 ×10-10. In the trapping regime the bosons emerge as quasi-thermal radiation from a region near the neutrino sphere and match Lν for ga ,ϕ≃10-4. However, the 2 γ decay is so fast that all the energy is dumped into the surrounding progenitor-star matter, whereas at most 10-2ESN may show up in the explosion. To suppress boson emission below this level we need yet larger couplings, ga≳2 ×10-3 and gϕ≳4 ×10-3. Muonic scalars can explain the muon magnetic-moment anomaly for gϕ≃0.4 ×10-3, a value hard to reconcile with SN physics despite the uncertainty of the explosion-energy bound. For generic axionlike particles, this argument covers the "cosmological triangle" in the Ga γ γ- ma parameter space. journal Physical Review D publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 105 publication_type article eprint pages issue 3 doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.105.035022  source harvard id 20950191 title On the tidal formation of dark matter-deficient galaxies first_author Go Ogiya author Go Ogiya, Frank C. van den Bosch, Andreas Burkert abstract Previous studies have shown that dark matter-deficient galaxies (DMDG) such as NGC 1052-DF2 (hereafter DF2) can result from tidal stripping. An important question, though, is whether such a stripping scenario can explain DF2's large specific frequency of globular clusters (GCs). After all, tidal stripping and shocking preferentially remove matter from the outskirts. We examine this using idealized, high-resolution simulations of a regular dark matter-dominated galaxy that is accreted on to a massive halo. As long as the initial (pre-infall) dark matter halo of the satellite is cored, which is consistent with predictions of cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations, the tidal remnant can be made to resemble DF2 in all its properties, including its GC population. The required orbit has a pericentre at the 8.3 percentile of the distribution for subhaloes at infall, and thus is not particularly extreme. On this orbit the satellite loses 98.5 (30) per cent of its original dark matter (stellar) mass, and thus evolves into a DMDG. The fraction of GCs that is stripped off depends on the initial radial distribution. If, at infall, the median projected radius of the GC population is roughly two times that of the stars, consistent with observations of isolated galaxies, only ~20 per cent of the GCs are stripped off. This is less than for the stars, which is due to dynamical friction counteracting the tidal stirring. We predict that, if indeed DF2 was crafted by strong tides, its stellar outskirts should have a very shallow metallicity gradient. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 510 publication_type article eprint pages 16 issue 2 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab3658  source harvard id 20876120 title A novel black hole mass scaling relation based on coronal gas, and its dependence with the accretion disc first_author Almudena Prieto author Almudena Prieto, Alberto Rodríguez-Ardila, Swayamtrupta Panda, Murilo Marinello abstract Using bona-fide black hole (BH) mass estimates from reverberation mapping and the line ratio [Si VI] 1.963$\rm{\mu m}$/Brγbroad as tracer of the AGN ionizing continuum, a novel BH-mass scaling relation of the form log(MBH) = (6.40 ± 0.17) - (1.99 ± 0.37) × log ([Si VI]/Brγbroad), dispersion 0.47 dex, over the BH mass interval, 106-108 M is found. Following on the geometrically thin accretion disc approximation and after surveying a basic parameter space for coronal lines production, we believe one of main drivers of the relation is the effective temperature of the disc, which is effectively sampled by the [Si VI] 1.963$\rm{\mu m}$coronal line for the range of BH masses considered. By means of CLOUDY photoionization models, the observed anticorrelation appears to be formally in line with the thin disc prediction Tdisc ∝ MBH-1/4. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 510 publication_type article eprint pages 21 issue 1 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab3414  source harvard id 20991660 title Simple Rules for Evanescent Operators in One-Loop Basis Transformations first_author Jason Aebischer author Jason Aebischer, Andrzej J. Buras, Jacky Kumar abstract Basis transformations often involve Fierz and other relations which are only valid in$D=4$dimensions. In general$D$space-time dimensions however, evanescent operators have to be introduced, in order to preserve such identities. Such evanescent operators contribute to one-loop basis transformations as well as to two-loop renormalization group running. We present a simple procedure on how to systematically change basis at the one-loop level by obtaining shifts due to evanescent operators. As an example we apply this method to derive the one-loop basis transformation from the BMU basis useful for NLO QCD calculations, to the JMS basis used in the matching to the SMEFT. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 02 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2202.01225 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21040732 title Subdiffusive Activity Spreading in the Diffusive Epidemic Process first_author Borislav Polovnikov author Borislav Polovnikov, Patrick Wilke, Erwin Frey abstract The diffusive epidemic process is a paradigmatic example of an absorbing state phase transition in which healthy and infected individuals spread with different diffusion constants. Using stochastic activity spreading simulations in combination with finite-size scaling analyses we reveal two qualitatively different processes that characterize the critical dynamics: subdiffusive propagation of infection clusters and diffusive fluctuations in the healthy population. This suggests the presence of a strong-coupling regime and sheds new light on a long-standing debate about the theoretical classification of the system. journal Physical Review Letters publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 128 publication_type article eprint pages issue 7 doi 10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.078302  source harvard id 20870033 title The challenge of simulating the star cluster population of dwarf galaxies with resolved interstellar medium first_author Jessica M. Hislop author Jessica M. Hislop, Thorsten Naab, Ulrich P. Steinwandel, Natalia Lahén, Dimitrios Irodotou, Peter H. Johansson, Stefanie Walch abstract We present results on the star cluster properties from a series of high resolution smoothed particles hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies as part of the GRIFFIN project. The simulations at sub-parsec spatial resolution and a minimum particle mass of 4 M incorporate non-equilibrium heating, cooling, and chemistry processes, and realize individual massive stars. The simulations follow feedback channels of massive stars that include the interstellar-radiation field variable in space and time, the radiation input by photo-ionization and supernova explosions. Varying the star formation efficiency per free-fall time in the range ϵff = 0.2-50${{\ \rm per\ cent}}$neither changes the star formation rates nor the outflow rates. While the environmental densities at star formation change significantly with ϵff, the ambient densities of supernovae are independent of ϵff indicating a decoupling of the two processes. At low ϵff, gas is allowed to collapse more before star formation, resulting in more massive, and increasingly more bound star clusters are formed, which are typically not destroyed. With increasing ϵff, there is a trend for shallower cluster mass functions and the cluster formation efficiency Γ for young bound clusters decreases from$50 {{\ \rm per\ cent}}$to$\sim 1 {{\ \rm per\ cent}}$showing evidence for cluster disruption. However, none of our simulations form low mass (<103 M) clusters with structural properties in perfect agreement with observations. Traditional star formation models used in galaxy formation simulations based on local free-fall times might therefore be unable to capture star cluster properties without significant fine tuning. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 509 publication_type article eprint pages 17 issue 4 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab3347  source harvard id 20994939 title Probing Cosmic Inflation with the LiteBIRD Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Survey first_author LiteBIRD Collaboration author LiteBIRD Collaboration, E. Allys, K. Arnold, J. Aumont, R. Aurlien, S. Azzoni, C. Baccigalupi, A. J. Banday, R. Banerji, R. B. Barreiro, N. Bartolo, L. Bautista, D. Beck, S. Beckman, M. Bersanelli, F. Boulanger, M. Brilenkov, M. Bucher, E. Calabrese, P. Campeti, A. Carones, F. J. Casas, A. Catalano, V. Chan, K. Cheung, Y. Chinone, S. E. Clark, F. Columbro, G. D'Alessandro, P. de Bernardis, T. de Haan, E. de la Hoz, M. De Petris, S. Della Torre, P. Diego-Palazuelos, T. Dotani, J. M. Duval, T. Elleflot, H. K. Eriksen, J. Errard, T. Essinger-Hileman, F. Finelli, R. Flauger, C. Franceschet, U. Fuskeland, M. Galloway, K. Ganga, M. Gerbino, M. Gervasi, R. T. Génova-Santos, T. Ghigna, S. Giardiello, E. Gjerløw, J. Grain, F. Grupp, A. Gruppuso, J. E. Gudmundsson, N. W. Halverson, P. Hargrave, T. Hasebe, M. Hasegawa, M. Hazumi, S. Henrot-Versillé, B. Hensley, L. T. Hergt, D. Herman, E. Hivon, R. A. Hlozek, A. L. Hornsby, Y. Hoshino, J. Hubmayr, K. Ichiki, T. Iida, H. Imada, H. Ishino, G. Jaehnig, N. Katayama, A. Kato, R. Keskitalo, T. Kisner, Y. Kobayashi, A. Kogut, K. Kohri, E. Komatsu, K. Komatsu, K. Konishi, N. Krachmalnicoff, C. L. Kuo, L. Lamagna, M. Lattanzi, A. T. Lee, C. Leloup, F. Levrier, E. Linder, G. Luzzi, J. Macias-Perez, B. Maffei, D. Maino, S. Mandelli, E. Martínez-González, S. Masi, M. Massa, S. Matarrese, F. T. Matsuda, T. Matsumura, L. Mele, M. Migliaccio, Y. Minami, A. Moggi, J. Montgomery, L. Montier, G. Morgante, B. Mot, Y. Nagano, T. Nagasaki, R. Nagata, R. Nakano, T. Namikawa, F. Nati, P. Natoli, S. Nerval, F. Noviello, K. Odagiri, S. Oguri, H. Ohsaki, L. Pagano, A. Paiella, D. Paoletti, A. Passerini, G. Patanchon, F. Piacentini, M. Piat, G. Polenta, D. Poletti, T. Prouvé, G. Puglisi, D. Rambaud, C. Raum, S. Realini, M. Reinecke, M. Remazeilles, A. Ritacco, G. Roudil, J. A. Rubino-Martin, M. Russell, H. Sakurai, Y. Sakurai, M. Sasaki, D. Scott, Y. Sekimoto, K. Shinozaki, M. Shiraishi, P. Shirron, G. Signorelli, F. Spinella, S. Stever, R. Stompor, S. Sugiyama, R. M. Sullivan, A. Suzuki, T. L. Svalheim, E. Switzer, R. Takaku, H. Takakura, Y. Takase, A. Tartari, Y. Terao, J. Thermeau, H. Thommesen, K. L. Thompson, M. Tomasi, M. Tominaga, M. Tristram, M. Tsuji, M. Tsujimoto, L. Vacher, P. Vielva, N. Vittorio, W. Wang, K. Watanuki, I. K. Wehus, J. Weller, B. Westbrook, J. Wilms, E. J. Wollack, J. Yumoto, M. Zannoni abstract LiteBIRD, the Lite (Light) satellite for the study of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection, is a space mission for primordial cosmology and fundamental physics. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) selected LiteBIRD in May 2019 as a strategic large-class (L-class) mission, with an expected launch in the late 2020s using JAXA's H3 rocket. LiteBIRD is planned to orbit the Sun-Earth Lagrangian point L2, where it will map the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization over the entire sky for three years, with three telescopes in 15 frequency bands between 34 and 448 GHz, to achieve an unprecedented total sensitivity of 2.2$\mu$K-arcmin, with a typical angular resolution of 0.5$^\circ$at 100 GHz. The primary scientific objective of LiteBIRD is to search for the signal from cosmic inflation, either making a discovery or ruling out well-motivated inflationary models. The measurements of LiteBIRD will also provide us with insight into the quantum nature of gravity and other new physics beyond the standard models of particle physics and cosmology. We provide an overview of the LiteBIRD project, including scientific objectives, mission and system requirements, operation concept, spacecraft and payload module design, expected scientific outcomes, potential design extensions and synergies with other projects. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 02 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2202.02773 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21028516 title HOLISMOKES. VII. Time-delay measurement of strongly lensed Type Ia supernovae using machine learning first_author S. Huber author S. Huber, S. H. Suyu, D. Ghoshdastidar, S. Taubenberger, V. Bonvin, J. H. H. Chan, M. Kromer, U. M. Noebauer, S. A. Sim, L. Leal-Taixé abstract The Hubble constant (H0) is one of the fundamental parameters in cosmology, but there is a heated debate around the > 4σ tension between the local Cepheid distance ladder and the early Universe measurements. Strongly lensed Type Ia supernovae (LSNe Ia) are an independent and direct way to measure H0, where a time-delay measurement between the multiple supernova (SN) images is required. In this work, we present two machine learning approaches for measuring time delays in LSNe Ia, namely, a fully connected neural network (FCNN) and a random forest (RF). For the training of the FCNN and the RF, we simulate mock LSNe Ia from theoretical SN Ia models that include observational noise and microlensing. We test the generalizability of the machine learning models by using a final test set based on empirical LSN Ia light curves not used in the training process, and we find that only the RF provides a low enough bias to achieve precision cosmology; as such, RF is therefore preferred over our FCNN approach for applications to real systems. For the RF with single-band photometry in the i band, we obtain an accuracy better than 1% in all investigated cases for time delays longer than 15 days, assuming follow-up observations with a 5σ point-source depth of 24.7, a two day cadence with a few random gaps, and a detection of the LSNe Ia 8 to 10 days before peak in the observer frame. In terms of precision, we can achieve an approximately 1.5-day uncertainty for a typical source redshift of ∼0.8 on the i band under the same assumptions. To improve the measurement, we find that using three bands, where we train a RF for each band separately and combine them afterward, helps to reduce the uncertainty to ∼1.0 day. The dominant source of uncertainty is the observational noise, and therefore the depth is an especially important factor when follow-up observations are triggered. We have publicly released the microlensed spectra and light curves used in this work. https://github.com/shsuyu/HOLISMOKES-public/tree/main/HOLISMOKES_VII journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 658 publication_type article eprint pages 25 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202141956  source harvard id 21028509 title Exploring the relation between turbulent velocity and density fluctuations in the stratified intracluster medium first_author M. Simonte author M. Simonte, F. Vazza, F. Brighenti, M. Brüggen, T. W. Jones, M. Angelinelli abstract Context. The dynamics of the intracluster medium (ICM) is affected by turbulence driven by several processes, such as mergers, accretion and feedback from active galactic nuclei. Aims: X-ray surface brightness fluctuations have been used to constrain turbulence in galaxy clusters. Here, we use simulations to further investigate the relation between gas density and turbulent velocity fluctuations, with a focus on the effect of the stratification of the ICM. Methods: In this work, we studied the turbulence driven by hierarchical accretion by analysing a sample of galaxy clusters simulated with the cosmological code ENZO. We used a fixed scale filtering approach to disentangle laminar from turbulent flows. Results: In dynamically perturbed galaxy clusters, we found a relation between the root mean square of density and velocity fluctuations, albeit with a different slope than previously reported. The Richardson number is a parameter that represents the ratio between turbulence and buoyancy, and we found that this variable has a strong dependence on the filtering scale. However, we could not detect any strong relation between the Richardson number and the logarithmic density fluctuations, in contrast to results by recent and more idealised simulations. In particular, we find a strong effect from radial accretion, which appears to be the main driver for the gas fluctuations. The ubiquitous radial bias in the dynamics of the ICM suggests that homogeneity and isotropy are not always valid assumptions, even if the turbulent spectra follow Kolmogorov's scaling. Finally, we find that the slope of the velocity and density spectra are independent of cluster-centric radii. journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 658 publication_type article eprint pages 14 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202141703  source harvard id 20870090 title Hidden in the haystack: low-luminosity globular clusters towards the Milky Way bulge first_author F. Gran author F. Gran, M. Zoccali, I. Saviane, E. Valenti, A. Rojas-Arriagada, R. Contreras Ramos, J. Hartke, J. A. Carballo-Bello, C. Navarrete, M. Rejkuba, J. Olivares Carvajal abstract Recent wide-area surveys have enabled us to study the Milky Way with unprecedented detail. Its inner regions, hidden behind dust and gas, have been partially unveiled with the arrival of near-infrared (IR) photometric and spectroscopic data sets. Among recent discoveries, there is a population of low-mass globular clusters, known to be missing, especially towards the Galactic bulge. In this work, five new low-luminosity globular clusters located towards the bulge area are presented. They were discovered by searching for groups in the multidimensional space of coordinates, colours, and proper motions from the Gaia EDR3 catalogue and later confirmed with deeper VVV survey near-IR photometry. The clusters show well-defined red giant branches and, in some cases, horizontal branches with their members forming a dynamically coherent structure in proper motion space. Four of them were confirmed by spectroscopic follow-up with the MUSE instrument on the ESO VLT. Photometric parameters were derived, and when available, metallicities, radial velocities, and orbits were determined. The new clusters Gran 1 and 5 are bulge globular clusters, while Gran 2, 3 and 4 present halo-like properties. Preliminary orbits indicate that Gran 1 might be related to the Main Progenitor, or the so-called 'low-energy' group, while Gran 2, 3 and 5 appears to follow the Gaia-Enceladus/Sausage structure. This study demonstrates that the Gaia proper motions, combined with the spectroscopic follow-up and colour-magnitude diagrams, are required to confirm the nature of cluster candidates towards the inner Galaxy. High stellar crowding and differential extinction may hide other low-luminosity clusters. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 02 volume 509 publication_type article eprint pages 20 issue 4 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab2463  source harvard id 21045209 title New physics from the polarised light of the cosmic microwave background first_author Eiichiro Komatsu author Eiichiro Komatsu abstract Cosmology requires new physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles and fields. What is the fundamental physics behind dark matter and dark energy? What generated the initial fluctuations in the early Universe? Polarised light of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) may hold the key to answers. In this article, we discuss two new developments in this research area. First, if the physics behind dark matter and dark energy violates parity symmetry, their coupling to photons rotates the plane of linear polarisation as the CMB photons travel more than 13 billion years. This effect is known as cosmic birefringence': space filled with dark matter and dark energy behaves as if it were a birefringent material, like a crystal. A tantalising hint for such a signal has been found with the statistical significance of$3\sigma$. Next, the period of accelerated expansion in the very early Universe, called cosmic inflation', produced a stochastic background of primordial gravitational waves (GW). What generated GW? The leading idea is vacuum fluctuations in spacetime, but matter fields could also produce a significant amplitude of primordial GW. Finding its origin using CMB polarisation opens a new window into the physics behind inflation. These new scientific targets may influence how data from future CMB experiments are collected, calibrated, and analysed. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 02 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2202.13919 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21045329 title The Three Hundred project: The Gizmo-Simba runs first_author Weiguang Cui author Weiguang Cui, Romeel Dave, Alexander Knebe, Elena Rasia, Meghan Gray, Frazer Pearce, Chris Power, Gustavo Yepes, Dhayaa Anbajagane, Daniel Ceverino, Ana Contreras-Santos, Daniel de Andres, Marco De Petris, Stefano Ettori, Roan Haggar, Qingyang Li, Yang Wang, Xiaohu Yang, Stefano Borgani, Klaus Dolag, Ying Zu, Ulrike Kuchner, Rodrigo Cañas, Antonio Ferragam, Giulia Gianfagna abstract We introduce \textsc{Gizmo-Simba}, a new suite of galaxy cluster simulations within \textsc{The Three Hundred} project. \textsc{The Three Hundred} consists of zoom re-simulations of 324 clusters with$M_{200}\gtrsim 10^{14.8}M_\odot$drawn from the MultiDark-Planck$N$-body simulation, run using several hydrodynamic and semi-analytic codes. The \textsc{Gizmo-Simba} suite adds a state-of-the-art galaxy formation model based on the highly successful {\sc Simba} simulation, mildly re-calibrated to match$z=0$cluster stellar properties. Comparing to \textsc{The Three Hundred} zooms run with \textsc{Gadget-X}, we find intrinsic differences in the evolution of the stellar and gas mass fractions, BCG ages, and galaxy colour-magnitude diagrams, with \textsc{Gizmo-Simba} generally providing a good match to available data at$z \approx 0$. \textsc{Gizmo-Simba}'s unique black hole growth and feedback model yields agreement with the observed BH scaling relations at the intermediate-mass range and predicts a slightly different slope at high masses where few observations currently lie. \textsc{Gizmo-Simba} provides a new and novel platform to elucidate the co-evolution of galaxies, gas, and black holes within the densest cosmic environments. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 02 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2202.14038 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2020887 title Milky Way Satellite Census. IV. Constraints on Decaying Dark Matter from Observations of Milky Way Satellite Galaxies first_author Mau, S. author S. Mau, E.O. Nadler, R.H. Wechsler, A. Drlica-Wagner, K. Bechtol, G. Green, D. Huterer, T.S. Li, Y.-Y. Mao, C.E. Martínez-Vázquez, M. McNanna, B. Mutlu-Pakdil, A.B. Pace, A. Peter, A.H. Riley, L. Strigari, M.-Y. Wang, M. Aguena, S. Allam, J. Annis, D. Bacon, E. Bertin, S. Bocquet, D. Brooks, D.L. Burke, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, M. Costanzi, M. Crocce, M.E.S. Pereira, T.M. Davis, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, P. Doel, I. Ferrero, B. Flaugher, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, M. Gatti, G. Giannini, D. Gruen, R.A. Gruendl, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, S.R. Hinton, D.L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, D.J. James, K. Kuehn, O. Lahav, M.A.G. Maia, J.L. Marshall, R. Miquel, J.J. Mohr, R. Morgan, R.L.C. Ogando, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, M. Rodriguez-Monroy, E. Sanchez, V. Scarpine, S. Serrano, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, C. To, D.L. Tucker, J. Weller abstract We use a recent census of the Milky Way (MW) satellite galaxy population to constrain the lifetime of particle dark matter (DM). We consider two-body decaying dark matter (DDM) in which a heavy DM particle decays with lifetime$\tau$comparable to the age of the Universe to a lighter DM particle (with mass splitting$\epsilon$) and to a dark radiation species. These decays impart a characteristic "kick velocity,"$V_{\mathrm{kick}}=\epsilon c$, on the DM daughter particles, significantly depleting the DM content of low-mass subhalos and making them more susceptible to tidal disruption. We fit the suppression of the present-day DDM subhalo mass function (SHMF) as a function of$\tau$and$V_{\mathrm{kick}}$using a suite of high-resolution zoom-in simulations of MW-mass halos, and we validate this model on new DDM simulations of systems specifically chosen to resemble the MW. We implement our DDM SHMF predictions in a forward model that incorporates inhomogeneities in the spatial distribution and detectability of MW satellites and uncertainties in the mapping between galaxies and DM halos, the properties of the MW system, and the disruption of subhalos by the MW disk using an empirical model for the galaxy--halo connection. By comparing to the observed MW satellite population, we conservatively exclude DDM models with$\tau < 18\ \mathrm{Gyr}$($29\ \mathrm{Gyr}$) for$V_{\mathrm{kick}}=20\ \mathrm{km}\, \mathrm{s}^{-1}$($40\ \mathrm{km}\, \mathrm{s}^{-1}$) at$95\%$confidence. These constraints are among the most stringent and robust small-scale structure limits on the DM particle lifetime and strongly disfavor DDM models that have been proposed to alleviate the Hubble and$S_8$tensions. journal publisher year 2022 month 01 volume publication_type eprint 2201.11740 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2012046 title Assessing coincident neutrino detections using population models first_author Capel, F. author F. Capel, J.M. Burgess, D.J. Mortlock, P. Padovani abstract Several marginally significant associations between high-energy neutrinos and potential astrophysical sources have been recently reported, but a conclusive identification of these sources remains challenging. We explore the use of Monte Carlo simulations to gain deeper insight into the implications of, in particular, the IC170922A-TXS 0506+056 observation. Assuming a null model, we find a 7.6% chance to mistakenly identify coincidences between flaring blazars and neutrino alerts in 10-year surveys. We confirm that a blazar-neutrino connection based on the${\gamma}$-ray flux is required to find a low chance coincidence probability and, therefore, a significant IC170922A-TXS 0506+056 association. We then assume this blazar-neutrino connection for the whole population and find that the ratio of neutrino to${\gamma}$-ray fluxes must be$\lesssim 10^{-2}$in order not to overproduce the total number of neutrino alerts seen by IceCube. For the IC170922A-TXS 0506+056 association to make sense, we must either accept this low flux ratio or suppose that only some rare sub-population of blazars is capable of high-energy neutrino production. For example, if we consider neutrino production only in blazar flares, we expect the flux ratio of between$10^{-3}$and$10^{-1}$to be consistent with a single coincident observation of a neutrino alert and flaring blazar. These conclusions are robust with respect to the uncertainties in our modelling assumptions. journal publisher year 2022 month 01 volume publication_type eprint 2201.05633 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2009636 title Fast and precise model calculation for KATRIN using a neural network first_author Karl, Christian author Christian Karl, Philipp Eller, Susanne Mertens abstract We present a fast and precise method to approximate the physics model of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment using a neural network. KATRIN is designed to measure the effective electron anti-neutrino mass$m_\nu $using the kinematics of$\upbeta $-decay with a sensitivity of 200 meV at 90% confidence level. To achieve this goal, a highly accurate model prediction with relative errors below the$10^{-4}$-level is required. Using the regular numerical model for the analysis of the final KATRIN dataset is computationally extremely costly or requires approximations to decrease the computation time. Our solution to reduce the computational requirements is to train a neural network to learn the predicted$\upbeta $-spectrum and its dependence on all relevant input parameters. This results in a speed-up of the calculation by about three orders of magnitude, while meeting the stringent accuracy requirements of KATRIN. journal Eur.Phys.J.C publisher year 2022 month 01 volume 82 publication_type eprint 2201.04523 pages 439 issue 5 doi 10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-10384-z  source inspirehep id 2009082 title Probing spin-dependent dark matter interactions with$^6$Li: CRESST Collaboration first_author Angloher, G. author G. Angloher, G. Benato, A. Bento, E. Bertoldo, A. Bertolini, R. Breier, C. Bucci, L. Canonica, A. D'Addabbo, S. Di Lorenzo, L. Einfalt, A. Erb, F. v. Feilitzsch, N. Ferreiro Iachellini, S. Fichtinger, D. Fuchs, A. Fuss, A. Garai, V.M. Ghete, P. Gorla, S. Gupta, D. Hauff, M. Ješkovský, J. Jochum, M. Kaznacheeva, A. Kinast, H. Kluck, H. Kraus, A. Langenkämper, M. Mancuso, L. Marini, V. Mokina, A. Nilima, M. Olmi, T. Ortmann, C. Pagliarone, V. Palušová, L. Pattavina, F. Petricca, W. Potzel, P. Povinec, F. Pröbst, F. Pucci, F. Reindl, J. Rothe, K. Schäffner, J. Schieck, D. Schmiedmayer, S. Schönert, C. Schwertner, M. Stahlberg, L. Stodolsky, C. Strandhagen, R. Strauss, I. Usherov, F. Wagner, M. Willers, V. Zema abstract CRESST is one of the most prominent direct detection experiments for dark matter particles with sub-GeV/c$^2$mass. One of the advantages of the CRESST experiment is the possibility to include a large variety of nuclides in the target material used to probe dark matter interactions. In this work, we discuss in particular the interactions of dark matter particles with protons and neutrons of$^{6}$Li. This is now possible thanks to new calculations on nuclear matrix elements of this specific isotope of Li. To show the potential of using this particular nuclide for probing dark matter interactions, we used the data collected previously by a CRESST prototype based on LiAlO$_2$and operated in an above ground test-facility at Max-Planck-Institut für Physik in Munich, Germany. In particular, the inclusion of$^{6}$Li in the limit calculation drastically improves the result obtained for spin-dependent interactions with neutrons in the whole mass range. The improvement is significant, greater than two order of magnitude for dark matter masses below 1 GeV/c$^2$, compared to the limit previously published with the same data. journal Eur.Phys.J.C publisher year 2022 month 01 volume 82 publication_type eprint 2201.03863 pages 207 issue 3 doi 10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-10140-3  source harvard id 20968381 title Analytical evaluation of AdS${}_4$Witten diagrams as flat space multi-loop Feynman integrals first_author Till Heckelbacher author Till Heckelbacher, Ivo Sachs, Evgeny Skvortsov, Pierre Vanhove abstract We describe a systematic approach for the evaluation of Witten diagrams for multi-loop scattering amplitudes of a conformally coupled scalar$\phi^4$-theory in Euclidean AdS$_4$, by recasting the Witten diagrams as flat space Feynman integrals. We derive closed form expressions for the anomalous dimensions for all double-trace operators up to the second order in the coupling constant. We explain the relation between the flat space unitarity methods and the discontinuities of the short distance expansion on the boundary of Witten diagrams. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 01 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2201.09626 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20806208 title Redshift-space effects in voids and their impact on cosmological tests - II. The void-galaxy cross-correlation function first_author Carlos M. Correa author Carlos M. Correa, Dante J. Paz, Nelson D. Padilla, Ariel G. Sánchez, Andrés N. Ruiz, Raúl E. Angulo abstract This is the second part of a thorough investigation of the redshift-space effects that affect void properties and the impact they have on cosmological tests. Here, we focus on the void-galaxy cross-correlation function, specifically, on the projected versions that we developed in a previous work. The pillar of the analysis is the one-to-one relationship between real and redshift-space voids above the shot-noise level identified with a spherical void finder. Under this mapping, void properties are affected by three effects: (i) a systematic expansion as a consequence of the distortions induced by galaxy dynamics, (ii) the Alcock-Paczynski volume effect, which manifests as an overall expansion or contraction depending on the fiducial cosmology, and (iii) a systematic off-centring along the line of sight as a consequence of the distortions induced by void dynamics. We found that correlations are also affected by an additional source of distortions: the ellipticity of voids. This is the first time that distortions due to the off-centring and ellipticity effects are detected and quantified. With a simplified test, we verified that the Gaussian streaming model is still robust provided all these effects are taken into account, laying the foundations for improvements in current models in order to obtain unbiased cosmological constraints from spectroscopic surveys. Besides this practical importance, this analysis also encodes key information about the structure and dynamics of the Universe at the largest scales. Furthermore, some of the effects constitute cosmological probes by themselves, as is the case of the void ellipticity. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 01 volume 509 publication_type article eprint pages 14 issue 2 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab3070  source harvard id 20949955 title Dust entrainment in photoevaporative winds: Densities and imaging first_author R. Franz author R. Franz, B. Ercolano, S. Casassus, G. Picogna, T. Birnstiel, S. Pérez, Ch. Rab, A. Sharma abstract Context. X-ray- and extreme-ultraviolet- (together: XEUV-) driven photoevaporative winds acting on protoplanetary disks around young T-Tauri stars may crucially impact disk evolution, affecting both gas and dust distributions. Aims: We constrain the dust densities in a typical XEUV-driven outflow, and determine whether these winds can be observed at μm-wavelengths. Methods: We used dust trajectories modelled atop a 2D hydrodynamical gas model of a protoplanetary disk irradiated by a central T-Tauri star. With these and two different prescriptions for the dust distribution in the underlying disk, we constructed wind density maps for individual grain sizes. We used the dust density distributions obtained to synthesise observations in scattered and polarised light. Results: For an XEUV-driven outflow around a M* = 0.7 M T-Tauri star with LX = 2 × 1030 erg s−1, we find a dust mass-loss rate Ṁdust ≲ 4.1 × 10−11 M yr−1 for an optimistic estimate of dust densities in the wind (compared to Ṁgas ≈ 3.7 × 10−8 M yr−1). The synthesised scattered-light images suggest a distinct chimney structure emerging at intensities I∕Imax < 10−4.5 (10−3.5) at λobs = 1.6 (0.4) μm, while the features in the polarised-light images are even fainter. Observations synthesised from our model do not exhibit clear features for SPHERE IRDIS, but show a faint wind signature for JWST NIRCam under optimal conditions. Conclusions: Unambiguous detections of photoevaporative XEUV winds launched from primordial disks are at least challenging with current instrumentation; this provides a possible explanation as to why disk winds are not routinely detected in scattered or polarised light. Our calculations show that disk scale heights retrieved from scattered-light observations should be only marginally affected by the presence of an XEUV wind. journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 01 volume 657 publication_type article eprint pages 14 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202140812  source harvard id 20895042 title Precision tests of fundamental physics with η and η mesons first_author Liping Gan author Liping Gan, Bastian Kubis, Emilie Passemar, Sean Tulin abstract Decays of the neutral and long-lived η and η mesons provide a unique, flavor-conserving laboratory to test low-energy Quantum Chromodynamics and search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. They have drawn world-wide attention in recent years and have inspired broad experimental programs in different high-intensity-frontier centers. New experimental data will offer critical inputs to precisely determine the light quark mass ratios, η-η mixing parameters, and hadronic contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. At the same time, it will provide a sensitive probe to test potential new physics. This includes searches for hidden photons, light Higgs scalars, and axion-like particles that are complementary to worldwide efforts to detect new light particles below the GeV mass scale, as well as tests of discrete symmetry violation. In this review, we give an update on theoretical developments, discuss the experimental opportunities, and identify future research needed in this field. journal Physics Reports publisher year 2022 month 01 volume 945 publication_type article eprint pages 105 issue doi 10.1016/j.physrep.2021.11.001  source harvard id 20908914 title Driving Galactic Outflows with Magnetic Fields at Low and High Redshift first_author Ulrich P. Steinwandel author Ulrich P. Steinwandel, Klaus Dolag, Harald Lesch, Andreas Burkert abstract Although galactic outflows play a key role in our understanding of the evolution of galaxies, the exact mechanism by which galactic outflows are driven is still far from being understood and, therefore, our understanding of associated feedback mechanisms that control the evolution of galaxies is still plagued by many enigmas. In this work, we present a simple toy model that can provide insight on how non-axisymmetric instabilities in galaxies (bars, spiral arms, warps) can lead to local exponential magnetic field growth by radial flows beyond the equipartition value by at least two orders of magnitude on a timescale of a few 100 Myr. Our predictions show that the process can lead to galactic outflows in barred spiral galaxies with a mass-loading factor η ≍ 0.1, in agreement with our numerical simulations. Moreover, our outflow mechanism could contribute to an understanding of the large fraction of barred spiral galaxies that show signs of galactic outflows in the CHANG-ES survey. Extending our model shows the importance of such processes in high-redshift galaxies by assuming equipartition between magnetic energy and turbulent energy. Simple estimates for the star formation rate in our model together with cross correlated masses from the star-forming main sequence at redshifts z ~ 2 allow us to estimate the outflow rate and mass-loading factors by non-axisymmetric instabilities and a subsequent radial inflow dynamo, giving mass-loading factors of η ≍ 0.1 for galaxies in the range of M = 109-1012 M , in good agreement with recent results of SINFONI and KMOS 3D. journal The Astrophysical Journal publisher year 2022 month 01 volume 924 publication_type article eprint pages 17 issue 1 doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac2ffd  source harvard id 20951609 title Assessing coincident neutrino detections using population models first_author F. Capel author F. Capel, J. M. Burgess, D. J. Mortlock, P. Padovani abstract Several marginally significant associations between high-energy neutrinos and potential astrophysical sources have been recently reported, but a conclusive identification of these sources remains challenging. We explore the use of Monte Carlo simulations to gain deeper insight into the implications of, in particular, the IC170922A-TXS 0506+056 observation. Assuming a null model, we find a 7.6% chance to mistakenly identify coincidences between flaring blazars and neutrino alerts in 10-year surveys. We confirm that a blazar-neutrino connection based on the${\gamma}$-ray flux is required to find a low chance coincidence probability and, therefore, a significant IC170922A-TXS 0506+056 association. We then assume this blazar-neutrino connection for the whole population and find that the ratio of neutrino to${\gamma}$-ray fluxes must be$\lesssim 10^{-2}$in order not to overproduce the total number of neutrino alerts seen by IceCube. For the IC170922A-TXS 0506+056 association to make sense, we must either accept this low flux ratio or suppose that only some rare sub-population of blazars is capable of high-energy neutrino production. For example, if we consider neutrino production only in blazar flares, we expect the flux ratio of between$10^{-3}$and$10^{-1}$to be consistent with a single coincident observation of a neutrino alert and flaring blazar. These conclusions are robust with respect to the uncertainties in our modelling assumptions. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 01 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2201.05633 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20953594 title Asymptotic dynamics and charges for FLRW spacetimes first_author Martin Enriquez-Rojo author Martin Enriquez-Rojo, Till Heckelbacher, Roberto Oliveri abstract We investigate the asymptotia of decelerating and spatially flat FLRW spacetimes at future null infinity. We find that the asymptotic algebra of diffeomorphisms can be enlarged to a one-parameter deformation of the recently discovered Weyl-BMS algebra for asymptotically flat spacetimes by relaxing the boundary conditions. The deformation parameter is related to the equation of state of the fluid. We then study the equations of motion for asymptotically FLRW spacetimes with finite fluxes and show that the dynamics is fully constrained by the stress-tensor of the source. Finally, we propose an expression for the charges which are associated with the cosmological supertranslations and whose evolution equation features a novel contribution arising from the Hubble flow. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 01 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2201.07600 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20909832 title Truncated affine Rozansky--Witten models as extended TQFTs first_author Ilka Brunner author Ilka Brunner, Nils Carqueville, Daniel Roggenkamp abstract We construct extended TQFTs associated to Rozansky--Witten models with target manifolds$T^*\mathbb{C}^n$. The starting point of the construction is the 3-category whose objects are such Rozansky--Witten models, and whose morphisms are defects of all codimensions. By truncation, we obtain a (non-semisimple) 2-category$\mathcal{C}$of bulk theories, surface defects, and isomorphism classes of line defects. Through a systematic application of the cobordism hypothesis we construct a unique extended oriented 2-dimensional TQFT valued in$\mathcal{C}$for every affine Rozansky--Witten model. By evaluating this TQFT on closed surfaces we obtain the infinite-dimensional state spaces (graded by flavour and R-charges) of the initial 3-dimensional theory. Furthermore, we explicitly compute the commutative Frobenius algebras that classify the restrictions of the extended theories to circles and bordisms between them. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 01 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2201.03284 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20969963 title HOLISMOKES. VIII. High-redshift Strong Lens Candidates from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program first_author Yiping Shu author Yiping Shu, Raoul Cañameras, Stefan Schuldt, Sherry H. Suyu, Stefan Taubenberger, Kaiki Taro Inoue, Anton T. Jaelani abstract We carry out a dedicated search for strong-lens systems with high-redshift lens galaxies with the goal of extending strong lensing-assisted galaxy evolutionary studies to earlier cosmic time. Two strong-lens classifiers are constructed from a deep residual network and trained with datasets of different lens redshift and brightness distributions. We classify a sample of 5,356,628 pre-selected objects from the Wide layer fields in the second public data release of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) by applying the two classifiers to their HSC$gri$-filter cutouts. Cutting off at thresholds that correspond to a false-positive rate of$10^{-3}$on our test set, the two classifiers identify 5,468 and 6,119 strong-lens candidates. Visually inspecting the cutouts of those candidates results in 735 grade-A/B strong-lens candidates in total, of which 277 candidates are discovered for the first time. This is the single largest set of galaxy-scale strong-lens candidates discovered with HSC data to date, and nearly half of it (331/735) contains lens galaxies with photometric redshifts above 0.6. Our discoveries will serve as a valuable target list for ongoing and scheduled spectroscopic surveys such as the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph project, and the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 01 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2201.11135 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20921882 title Fast and precise model calculation for KATRIN using a neural network first_author Christian Karl author Christian Karl, Philipp Eller, Susanne Mertens abstract We present a fast and precise method to approximate the physics model of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment using a neural network. KATRIN is designed to measure the effective electron anti-neutrino mass using the kinematics of beta-decay with a sensitivity of 200 meV at 90% confidence level. To achieve this goal, a highly accurate model prediction with relative errors below the 1e-4-level is required. Using the regular numerical model for the analysis of the final KATRIN dataset is computationally extremely costly or requires approximations to decrease the computation time. Our solution to reduce the computational requirements is to train a neural network to learn the predicted beta-spectrum and its dependence on all relevant input parameters. This results in a speed-up of the calculation by about three orders of magnitude, while meeting the stringent accuracy requirements of KATRIN. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 01 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2201.04523 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20949699 title Silicon in the dayside atmospheres of two ultra-hot Jupiters first_author D. Cont author D. Cont, F. Yan, A. Reiners, L. Nortmann, K. Molaverdikhani, E. Pallé, M. Stangret, Th. Henning, I. Ribas, A. Quirrenbach, J. A. Caballero, M. R. Zapatero Osorio, P. J. Amado, J. Aceituno, N. Casasayas-Barris, S. Czesla, A. Kaminski, M. López-Puertas, D. Montes, J. C. Morales, G. Morello, E. Nagel, A. Sánchez-López, E. Sedaghati, M. Zechmeister abstract Atmospheres of highly irradiated gas giant planets host a large variety of atomic and ionic species. Here we observe the thermal emission spectra of the two ultra-hot Jupiters WASP-33b and KELT-20b/MASCARA-2b in the near-infrared wavelength range with CARMENES. Via high-resolution Doppler spectroscopy, we searched for neutral silicon (Si) in their dayside atmospheres. We detect the Si spectral signature of both planets via cross-correlation with model spectra. Detection levels of 4.8σ and 5.4σ, respectively, are observed when assuming a solar atmospheric composition. This is the first detection of Si in exoplanet atmospheres. The presence of Si is an important finding due to its fundamental role in cloud formation and, hence, for the planetary energy balance. Since the spectral lines are detected in emission, our results also confirm the presence of an inverted temperature profile in the dayside atmospheres of both planets. journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 01 volume 657 publication_type article eprint pages 12 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202142776  source harvard id 20968687 title Final Report for SAG 21: The Effect of Stellar Contamination on Space-based Transmission Spectroscopy first_author Benjamin V. Rackham author Benjamin V. Rackham, Néstor Espinoza, Svetlana V. Berdyugina, Heidi Korhonen, Ryan J. MacDonald, Benjamin T. Montet, Brett M. Morris, Mahmoudreza Oshagh, Alexander I. Shapiro, Yvonne C. Unruh, Elisa V. Quintana, Robert T. Zellem, Dániel Apai, Thomas Barclay, Joanna K. Barstow, Giovanni Bruno, Ludmila Carone, Sarah L. Casewell, Heather M. Cegla, Serena Criscuoli, Catherine Fischer, Damien Fournier, Mark S. Giampapa, Helen Giles, Aishwarya Iyer, Greg Kopp, Nadiia M. Kostogryz, Natalie Krivova, Matthias Mallonn, Chima McGruder, Karan Molaverdikhani, Elisabeth R. Newton, Mayukh Panja, Sarah Peacock, Kevin Reardon, Rachael M. Roettenbacher, Gaetano Scandariato, Sami Solanki, Keivan G. Stassun, Oskar Steiner, Kevin B. Stevenson, Jeremy Tregloan-Reed, Adriana Valio, Sven Wedemeyer, Luis Welbanks, Jie Yu, Munazza K. Alam, James R. A. Davenport, Drake Deming, Chuanfei Dong, Elsa Ducrot, Chloe Fisher, Emily Gilbert, Veselin Kostov, Mercedes López-Morales, Mike Line, Teo Močnik, Susan Mullally, Rishi R. Paudel, Ignasi Ribas, Jeff A. Valenti abstract Study Analysis Group 21 (SAG21) of the Exoplanet Exploration Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG) was organized to study the effect of stellar contamination on space-based transmission spectroscopy, a method for studying exoplanetary atmospheres by measuring the wavelength-dependent radius of a planet as it transits its star. Transmission spectroscopy relies on a precise understanding of the spectrum of the star being occulted. However, stars are not homogeneous, constant light sources but have temporally evolving photospheres and chromospheres with inhomogeneities like spots, faculae, and plages. This SAG has brought together an interdisciplinary team of more than 100 scientists, with observers and theorists from the heliophysics, stellar astrophysics, planetary science, and exoplanetary atmosphere research communities, to study the current needs that can be addressed in this context to make the most of transit studies from current NASA facilities like HST and JWST. The analysis produced 14 findings, which fall into three Science Themes encompassing (1) how the Sun is used as our best laboratory to calibrate our understanding of stellar heterogeneities ("The Sun as the Stellar Benchmark"), (2) how stars other than the Sun extend our knowledge of heterogeneities ("Surface Heterogeneities of Other Stars") and (3) how to incorporate information gathered for the Sun and other stars into transit studies ("Mapping Stellar Knowledge to Transit Studies"). journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 01 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2201.09905 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20806173 title Neutrino absorption and other physics dependencies in neutrino-cooled black hole accretion discs first_author O. Just author O. Just, S. Goriely, H. -Th Janka, S. Nagataki, A. Bauswein abstract Black hole (BH) accretion discs formed in compact-object mergers or collapsars may be major sites of the rapid-neutron-capture (r-)process, but the conditions determining the electron fraction (Ye) remain uncertain given the complexity of neutrino transfer and angular-momentum transport. After discussing relevant weak-interaction regimes, we study the role of neutrino absorption for shaping Ye using an extensive set of simulations performed with two-moment neutrino transport and again without neutrino absorption. We vary the torus mass, BH mass and spin, and examine the impact of rest-mass and weak-magnetism corrections in the neutrino rates. We also test the dependence on the angular-momentum transport treatment by comparing axisymmetric models using the standard α-viscosity with viscous models assuming constant viscous length-scales (lt) and 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. Finally, we discuss the nucleosynthesis yields and basic kilonova properties. We find that absorption pushes Ye towards ~0.5 outside the torus, while inside increasing the equilibrium value$Y_\mathrm{ e}^{\mathrm{eq}}$by ~0.05-0.2. Correspondingly, a substantial ejecta fraction is pushed above Ye = 0.25, leading to a reduced lanthanide fraction and a brighter, earlier, and bluer kilonova than without absorption. More compact tori with higher neutrino optical depth, τ, tend to have lower$Y_\mathrm{ e}^{\mathrm{eq}}$up to τ ~ 1-10, above which absorption becomes strong enough to reverse this trend. Disc ejecta are less (more) neutron rich when employing an lt = const. viscosity (MHD treatment). The solar-like abundance pattern found for our MHD model marginally supports collapsar discs as major r-process sites, although a strong r-process may be limited to phases of high mass-infall rates,$\dot{M}\, \, \raise0.14em\rm{\gt }\lower0.28em\rm{\sim }\, \, 2\times 10^{-2}$M s-1. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 01 volume 509 publication_type article eprint pages 36 issue 1 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab2861  source harvard id 20967810 title Massive quiescent galaxies at$z\sim3$: a comparison of selection, stellar population and structural properties with simulation predictions first_author Peter Lustig author Peter Lustig, Veronica Strazzullo, Rhea-Silvia Remus, Chiara D'Eugenio, Emanuele Daddi, Andreas Burkert, Gabriella De Lucia, Ivan Delvecchio, Klaus Dolag, Fabio Fontanot, Raphael Gobat, Joseph J. Mohr, Masato Onodera, Maurilio Pannella, Annalisa Pillepich, Alvio Renzini abstract We study stellar population and structural properties of massive$\log(M_{\star} / M_{\odot}) > 11$galaxies at$z\sim2.7$in the Magneticum (box 3) and IllustrisTNG (TNG100, TNG300) hydrodynamical simulations. We find stellar mass functions broadly consistent with observations, with no scarcity of massive, quiescent galaxies at$z\sim2.7$, but with a higher quiescent galaxy fraction at high masses in IllustrisTNG. Average ages of simulated quiescent galaxies are between 0.8 and 1.0 Gyr, older by a factor$\sim2$than observed in spectroscopically-confirmed quiescent galaxies at similar redshift. Besides being potentially indicative of issues with star-formation recipes in simulations, this discrepancy might also be partly explained by limitations in the estimation of observed ages. We investigate the purity of simulated UVJ rest-frame colorselected massive quiescent samples with photometric uncertainties typical of deep surveys (e.g., COSMOS). We find evidence for significant contamination (up to 60 percent) by dusty star-forming galaxies in the UVJ region that is typically populated by older quiescent sources. Furthermore, simulations suggest that the completeness of UVJ-selected quiescent samples at this redshift may be reduced by 30 percent due to a high fraction of young quiescent galaxies not entering the UVJ quiescent region. Massive, quiescent galaxies in simulations have on average lower angular momenta and higher projected axis ratios and concentrations than star-forming counterparts. Average sizes of simulated quiescent galaxies are relatively close to observed ones, and broadly consistent within the uncertainties. The average size ratio of quiescent and star-forming galaxies in the probed mass range is formally consistent with observations, although this result is partly affected by poor statistics. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 01 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2201.09068 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20949693 title Mass determination of protoplanetary disks from dust evolution first_author Riccardo Franceschi author Riccardo Franceschi, Tilman Birnstiel, Thomas Henning, Paola Pinilla, Dmitry Semenov, Apostolos Zormpas abstract Context. The mass of protoplanetary disks is arguably one of their most important quantities shaping their evolution toward planetary systems, but it remains a challenge to determine this quantity. Using the high spatial resolution now available on telescopes such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), recent studies derived a relation between the disk surface density and the location of the "dust lines". This is a new concept in the field, linking the disk size at different continuum wavelengths with the radial distribution of grain populations of different sizes. Aims: We aim to use a dust evolution model to test the dependence of the dust line location on disk gas mass. In particular, we are interested in the reliability of the method for disks showing radial substructures, as recent high-resolution observations revealed. Methods: We performed dust evolution calculations, which included perturbations to the gas surface density with different amplitudes at different radii, to investigate their effect on the global drift timescale of dust grains. These models were then used to calibrate the relation between the dust grain drift timescale and the disk gas mass. We investigated under which condition the dust line location is a good mass estimator and tested how different stellar and disk properties (disk mass, stellar mass, disk age, and dust-to-gas ratio) affect the dust line properties. Finally, we show the applicability of this method to disks such as TW Hya and AS 209 that have been observed at high angular resolution with ALMA and show pronounced disk structures. Results: Our models without pressure bumps confirm a strong dependence of the dust line location on the disk gas mass and its applicability as a reliable mass estimator. The other disk properties do not significantly affect the dust line location, except for the age of the system, which is the major source of uncertainty for this mass estimator. A population of synthetic disks was used to calibrate an analytic relation between the dust line location and the disk mass for smooth disks, finding that previous mass estimates based on dust lines overestimate disk masses by about one order of magnitude. Radial pressure bumps can alter the location of the dust line by up to ~10 au, while its location is mainly determined by the disk mass. Therefore, an accurate mass estimation requires a proper evaluation of the effect of bumps. However, when radial substructures act as traps for dust grains, the relation between the dust line location and disk mass becomes weaker, and other mass estimators need to be adopted. Conclusions: Our models show that the determination of the dust line location is a promising approach to the mass estimate of protoplanetay disks, but the exact relation between the dust line location and disk mass depends on the structure of the particular disk. We calibrated the relation for disks without evidence of radial structures, while for more complex structures we ran a simple dust evolution model. However, this method fails when there is evidence of strong dust traps. It is possible to reveal when dust evolution is dominated by traps, providing the necessary information for when the method should be applied with caution. journal Astronomy and Astrophysics publisher year 2022 month 01 volume 657 publication_type article eprint pages 13 issue doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202141705  source harvard id 21007525 title QCD static force in gradient flow first_author Nora Brambilla author Nora Brambilla, Hee Sok Chung, Antonio Vairo, Xiang-Peng Wang abstract We compute the QCD static force and potential using gradient flow at next-to-leading order in the strong coupling. The static force is the spatial derivative of the static potential: it encodes the QCD interaction at both short and long distances. While on the one side the static force has the advantage of being free of the O(ΛQCD) renormalon affecting the static potential when computed in perturbation theory, on the other side its direct lattice QCD computation suffers from poor convergence. The convergence can be improved by using gradient flow, where the gauge fields in the operator definition of a given quantity are replaced by flowed fields at flow time t, which effectively smear the gauge fields over a distance of order √{t }, while they reduce to the QCD fields in the limit t → 0. Based on our next-to-leading order calculation, we explore the properties of the static force for arbitrary values of t, as well as in the t → 0 limit, which may be useful for lattice QCD studies. journal Journal of High Energy Physics publisher year 2022 month 01 volume 2022 publication_type article eprint pages issue 1 doi 10.1007/JHEP01(2022)184  source harvard id 20898834 title Towards RNA life on Early Earth: From atmospheric HCN to biomolecule production in warm little ponds first_author Ben K. D. Pearce author Ben K. D. Pearce, Karan Molaverdikhani, Ralph E. Pudritz, Thomas Henning, Kaitlin E. Cerrillo abstract The origin of life on Earth involves the early appearance of an information-containing molecule such as RNA. The basic building blocks of RNA could have been delivered by carbon-rich meteorites, or produced in situ by processes beginning with the synthesis of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the early Earth's atmosphere. Here, we construct a robust physical and non-equilibrium chemical model of the early Earth atmosphere. The atmosphere is supplied with hydrogen from impact degassing of meteorites, sourced with water evaporated from the oceans, carbon dioxide from volcanoes, and methane from undersea hydrothermal vents, and in which lightning and external UV-driven chemistry produce HCN. This allows us to calculate the rain-out of HCN into warm little ponds (WLPs). We then use a comprehensive sources and sinks numerical model to compute the resulting abundances of nucleobases, ribose, and nucleotide precursors such as 2-aminooxazole resulting from aqueous and UV-driven chemistry within them. We find that at 4.4 bya (billion years ago) the limits of adenine concentrations in ponds for habitable surfaces is 0.05$\mu$M in the absence of seepage. These concentrations can be maintained for over 100 Myr. Meteorite delivery of adenine to WLPs can provide boosts in concentration by 2-3 orders of magnitude, but these boosts deplete within months by UV photodissociation, seepage, and hydrolysis. The early evolution of the atmosphere is dominated by the decrease of hydrogen due to falling impact rates and atmospheric escape, and the rise of oxygenated species such as OH from H2O photolysis. Our work points to an early origin of RNA on Earth within ~200 Myr of the Moon-forming impact. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 01 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2201.00829 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20986827 title Proca theory from the spinning worldline first_author Matthias Carosi author Matthias Carosi, Ivo Sachs abstract We obtain Proca field theory from the quantisation of the N = 2 supersymmetric worldline upon supplementing the graded BRST-algebra with an extra multiplet of oscillators. The linearised theory describes the BV-extended spectrum of Proca theory, together with a Stückelberg field. When coupling the theory to background fields we derive the Proca equations, arising as consistency conditions in the BRST procedure. We also explore non-abelian modifications, complexified vector fields as well as coupling to a dilaton field. We propose a cubic action on the space of BRST-operators which reproduces the known Proca action. journal Journal of High Energy Physics publisher year 2022 month 01 volume 2022 publication_type article eprint pages issue 1 doi 10.1007/JHEP01(2022)135  source harvard id 20968669 title Low-Energy Supernovae Severely Constrain Radiative Particle Decays first_author Andrea Caputo author Andrea Caputo, Hans-Thomas Janka, Georg Raffelt, Edoardo Vitagliano abstract The hot and dense core formed in the collapse of a massive star is a powerful source of hypothetical feebly-interacting particles such as sterile neutrinos, dark photons, axion-like particles (ALPs), and others. Radiative decays such as$a\to2\gamma$deposit this energy in the surrounding material if the mean free path is less than the radius of the progenitor star. For the first time, we use a supernova (SN) population with particularly low explosion energies as the most sensitive calorimeters to constrain this possibility. These SNe are observationally identified as low-luminosity events with low ejecta velocities and low masses of ejected$^{56}$Ni. Their low energies limit the energy deposition from particle decays to less than about 0.1 B, where$1~{\rm B~(bethe)}=10^{51}~{\rm erg}$. For 1-500 MeV-mass ALPs, this generic argument excludes ALP-photon couplings$G_{a\gamma\gamma}$in the$10^{-10}$-$10^{-8}~{\rm GeV}^{-1}$range. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 01 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2201.09890 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20990956 title Publishing statistical models: Getting the most out of particle physics experiments first_author Kyle Cranmer author Kyle Cranmer, Sabine Kraml, Harrison Prosper, Philip Bechtle, Florian Bernlochner, Itay M. Bloch, Enzo Canonero, Marcin Chrzaszcz, Andrea Coccaro, Jan Conrad, Glen Cowan, Matthew Feickert, Nahuel Ferreiro, Andrew Fowlie, Lukas A. Heinrich, Alexander Held, Thomas Kuhr, Anders Kvellestad, Maeve Madigan, Farvah Nazila Mahmoudi, Knut Dundas Morå, Mark S. Neubauer, Maurizio Pierini, Juan Rojo, Sezen Sekmen, Luca Silvestrini, Veronica Sanz, Giordon H. Stark, Riccardo Torre, Robert Thorne, Wolfgang Waltenberger, Nicholas Wardle, Jonas Wittbrodt abstract The statistical models used to derive the results of experimental analyses are of incredible scientific value and are essential information for analysis preservation and reuse. In this paper, we make the scientific case for systematically publishing the full statistical models and discuss the technical developments that make this practical. By means of a variety of physics cases -- including parton distribution functions, Higgs boson measurements, effective field theory interpretations, direct searches for new physics, heavy flavor physics, direct dark matter detection, world averages, and beyond the Standard Model global fits -- we illustrate how detailed information on the statistical modelling can enhance the short- and long-term impact of experimental results. journal SciPost Physics publisher year 2022 month 01 volume 12 publication_type article eprint pages issue 1 doi 10.21468/SciPostPhys.12.1.037  source harvard id 20979063 title Production of Very Light Elements and Strontium in the Early Ejecta of Neutron Star Mergers first_author Albino Perego author Albino Perego, Diego Vescovi, Achille Fiore, Leonardo Chiesa, Christian Vogl, Stefano Benetti, Sebastiano Bernuzzi, Marica Branchesi, Enrico Cappellaro, Sergio Cristallo, Andreas Flörs, Wolfgang E. Kerzendorf, David Radice abstract We study the production of very light elements (Z < 20) in the dynamical and spiral-wave wind ejecta of binary neutron star mergers by combining detailed nucleosynthesis calculations with the outcome of numerical relativity merger simulations. All our models are targeted to GW170817 and include neutrino radiation. We explore different finite-temperature, composition-dependent nuclear equations of state, and binary mass ratios, and find that hydrogen and helium are the most abundant light elements. For both elements, the decay of free neutrons is the driving nuclear reaction. In particular, ~0.5-2 × 10-6 M of hydrogen are produced in the fast expanding tail of the dynamical ejecta, while ~1.5-11 × 10-6 M of helium are synthesized in the bulk of the dynamical ejecta, usually in association with heavy r-process elements. By computing synthetic spectra, we find that the possibility of detecting hydrogen and helium features in kilonova spectra is very unlikely for fiducial masses and luminosities, even when including nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium effects. The latter could be crucial to observe helium lines a few days after merger for faint kilonovae or for luminous kilonovae ejecting large masses of helium. Finally, we compute the amount of strontium synthesized in the dynamical and spiral-wave wind ejecta, and find that it is consistent with (or even larger than, in the case of a long-lived remnant) the one required to explain early spectral features in the kilonova of GW170817. journal The Astrophysical Journal publisher year 2022 month 01 volume 925 publication_type article eprint pages 17 issue 1 doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac3751  source harvard id 20951162 title Response approach to the integrated shear 3-point correlation function: the impact of baryonic effects on small scales first_author Anik Halder author Anik Halder, Alexandre Barreira abstract The integrated shear 3-point correlation function$\zeta_{\pm}$is a higher-order statistic of the cosmic shear field that describes the modulation of the 2-point correlation function$\xi_{\pm}$by long-wavelength features in the field. Here, we introduce a new theoretical model to calculate$\zeta_{\pm}$that is accurate on small angular scales, and that allows to take baryonic feedback effects into account. Our model builds on the realization that the small-scale$\zeta_{\pm}$is dominated by the nonlinear matter bispectrum in the squeezed limit, which can be evaluated accurately using the nonlinear matter power spectrum and its first-order response functions to density and tidal field perturbations. We demonstrate the accuracy of our model by showing that it reproduces the small-scale$\zeta_{\pm}$measured in simulated cosmic shear maps. The impact of baryonic feedback enters effectively only through the corresponding impact on the nonlinear matter power spectrum, thereby permitting to account for these astrophysical effects on$\zeta_{\pm}$similarly to how they are currently accounted for on$\xi_{\pm}$. Using a simple idealized Fisher matrix forecast for a DES-like survey we find that, compared to$\xi_{\pm}$, a combined$\xi_{\pm}\ \&\ \zeta_{\pm}$analysis can lead to improvements of order$20-40\%$on the constraints of cosmological parameters such as$\sigma_8$or the dark energy equation of state parameter$w_0. We find similar levels of improvement on the constraints of the baryonic feedback parameters, which strengthens the prospects for cosmic shear data to obtain tight constraints not only on cosmology but also on astrophysical feedback models. These are encouraging results that motivate future works on the integrated shear 3-point correlation function towards applications to real survey data. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 01 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2201.05607 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20980630 title The velocity structure of the intracluster medium during a major merger: simulated microcalorimeter observations first_author Veronica Biffi author Veronica Biffi, John A. ZuHone, Tony Mroczkowski, Esra Bulbul, William Forman abstract Major mergers between galaxy clusters can produce large turbulent and bulk flow velocities in the intra-cluster medium and thus imprint diagnostic features in X-ray spectral emission lines from heavy ions. As demonstrated by Hitomi in observations of the Perseus cluster, measurements of gas velocities in clusters from high-resolution X-ray spectra will be achievable with upcoming X-ray calorimeters like those on board XRISM, Athena, or a Lynx like mission. We investigate this possibility for interesting locations across a major cluster merger from a hydrodynamical simulation, via X-ray synthetic spectra with a few eV energy resolution. We observe the system from directions perpendicular to the plane of the merger and along the merger axis. In these extreme geometrical configurations, we find clear non-Gaussian shapes of the iron He-like K_alpha line at 6.7keV. The velocity dispersion predicted from the simulations can be retrieved for the brightest 100ks pointings with XRISM Resolve, despite some discrepancy related to the complex non-Gaussian line shapes. Measurements in faint regions require however high S/N and the larger collecting area of the Athena X-IFU calorimeter is thus needed. With the latter, we also investigate the gas temperature and velocity gradient across the merger bow shock edge, from 20"-wide annuli extracted from a single 1Ms X-IFU pointing. We find best-fit temperature and velocity dispersion values that are consistent with predictions from the simulations within 1-sigma, but the uncertainties on the inferred velocity dispersion are too large to place any stringent constraints on the shallow gradient downstream of the shock. We also present simulated images of the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effects, using the above viewing configurations, and compare the results at angular resolutions appropriate for future observatories such as CMB-S4 and AtLAST. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 01 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2201.12370 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21043223 title Variable structures in M87* from space, time and frequency resolved interferometry first_author Philipp Arras author Philipp Arras, Philipp Frank, Philipp Haim, Jakob Knollmüller, Reimar Leike, Martin Reinecke, Torsten Enßlin abstract The immediate vicinity of an active supermassive black hole—with its event horizon, photon ring, accretion disk and relativistic jets—is an appropriate place to study physics under extreme conditions, particularly general relativity and magnetohydrodynamics. Observing the dynamics of such compact astrophysical objects provides insights into their inner workings, and the recent observations of M87* by the Event Horizon Telescope1-6 using very-long-baseline interferometry techniques allows us to investigate the dynamical processes of M87* on timescales of days. Compared with most radio interferometers, very-long-baseline interferometry networks typically have fewer antennas and low signal-to-noise ratios. Furthermore, the source is variable, prohibiting integration over time to improve signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we present an imaging algorithm7,8 that copes with the data scarcity and temporal evolution, while providing an uncertainty quantification. Our algorithm views the imaging task as a Bayesian inference problem of a time-varying brightness, exploits the correlation structure in time and reconstructs (2 + 1 + 1)-dimensional time-variable and spectrally resolved images. We apply this method to the Event Horizon Telescope observations of M87*9 and validate our approach on synthetic data. The time- and frequency-resolved reconstruction of M87* confirms variable structures on the emission ring and indicates extended and time-variable emission structures outside the ring itself. journal Nature Astronomy publisher year 2022 month 01 volume 6 publication_type article eprint pages 11 issue doi 10.1038/s41550-021-01548-0  source harvard id 20993624 title Star formation near the Sun is driven by expansion of the Local Bubble first_author Catherine Zucker author Catherine Zucker, Alyssa A. Goodman, João Alves, Shmuel Bialy, Michael Foley, Joshua S. Speagle, Josefa GroÎ²schedl, Douglas P. Finkbeiner, Andreas Burkert, Diana Khimey, Cameren Swiggum abstract For decades we have known that the Sun lies within the Local Bubble, a cavity of low-density, high-temperature plasma surrounded by a shell of cold, neutral gas and dust1-3. However, the precise shape and extent of this shell4,5, the impetus and timescale for its formation6,7, and its relationship to nearby star formation8 have remained uncertain, largely due to low-resolution models of the local interstellar medium. Here we report an analysis of the three-dimensional positions, shapes and motions of dense gas and young stars within 200 pc of the Sun, using new spatial9-11 and dynamical constraints12. We find that nearly all of the star-forming complexes in the solar vicinity lie on the surface of the Local Bubble and that their young stars show outward expansion mainly perpendicular to the bubble's surface. Tracebacks of these young stars' motions support a picture in which the origin of the Local Bubble was a burst of stellar birth and then death (supernovae) taking place near the bubble's centre beginning approximately 14 Myr ago. The expansion of the Local Bubble created by the supernovae swept up the ambient interstellar medium into an extended shell that has now fragmented and collapsed into the most prominent nearby molecular clouds, in turn providing robust observational support for the theory of supernova-driven star formation. journal Nature publisher year 2022 month 01 volume 601 publication_type article eprint pages 4 issue 7893 doi 10.1038/s41586-021-04286-5  source harvard id 20953237 title Unveiling the Universe with Emerging Cosmological Probes first_author Michele Moresco author Michele Moresco, Lorenzo Amati, Luca Amendola, Simon Birrer, John P. Blakeslee, Michele Cantiello, Andrea Cimatti, Jeremy Darling, Massimo Della Valle, Maya Fishbach, Claudio Grillo, Nico Hamaus, Daniel Holz, Luca Izzo, Raul Jimenez, Elisabeta Lusso, Massimo Meneghetti, Ester Piedipalumbo, Alice Pisani, Alkistis Pourtsidou, Lucia Pozzetti, Miguel Quartin, Guido Risaliti, Piero Rosati, Licia Verde abstract The detection of the accelerated expansion of the Universe has been one of the major breakthroughs in modern cosmology. Several cosmological probes (CMB, SNe Ia, BAO) have been studied in depth to better understand the nature of the mechanism driving this acceleration, and they are being currently pushed to their limits, obtaining remarkable constraints that allowed us to shape the standard cosmological model. In parallel to that, however, the percent precision achieved has recently revealed apparent tensions between measurements obtained from different methods. These are either indicating some unaccounted systematic effects, or are pointing toward new physics. Following the development of CMB, SNe, and BAO cosmology, it is critical to extend our selection of cosmological probes. Novel probes can be exploited to validate results, control or mitigate systematic effects, and, most importantly, to increase the accuracy and robustness of our results. This review is meant to provide a state-of-art benchmark of the latest advances in emerging beyond-standard cosmological probes. We present how several different methods can become a key resource for observational cosmology. In particular, we review cosmic chronometers, quasars, gamma-ray bursts, standard sirens, lensing time-delay with galaxies and clusters, cosmic voids, neutral hydrogen intensity mapping, surface brightness fluctuations, secular redshift drift, and clustering of standard candles. The review describes the method, systematics, and results of each probe in a homogeneous way, giving the reader a clear picture of the available innovative methods that have been introduced in recent years and how to apply them. The review also discusses the potential synergies and complementarities between the various probes, exploring how they will contribute to the future of modern cosmology. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2022 month 01 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2201.07241 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20839431 title Intrinsic alignments of galaxies around cosmic voids first_author William d'Assignies D. author William d'Assignies D., Nora Elisa Chisari, Nico Hamaus, Sukhdeep Singh abstract The intrinsic alignments of galaxies, i.e. the correlation between galaxy shapes and their environment, are a major source of contamination for weak gravitational lensing surveys. Most studies of intrinsic alignments have so far focused on measuring and modelling the correlations of luminous red galaxies with galaxy positions or the filaments of the cosmic web. In this work, we investigate alignments around cosmic voids. We measure the intrinsic alignments of luminous red galaxies detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey around a sample of voids constructed from those same tracers and with radii in the ranges: [20-30; 30-40; 40-50] h-1 Mpc and in the redshift range z = 0.4-0.8. We present fits to the measurements based on a linear model at large scales, and on a new model based on the void density profile inside the void and in its neighbourhood. We constrain the free scaling amplitude of our model at small scales, finding no significant alignment at 1σ for either sample. We observe a deviation from the null hypothesis, at large scales, of 2σ for voids with radii between 20 and 30 h-1 Mpc, and 1.5σ for voids with radii between 30 and 40 h-1 Mpc and constrain the amplitude of the model on these scales. We find no significant deviation at 1σ for larger voids. Our work is a first attempt at detecting intrinsic alignments of galaxy shapes around voids and provides a useful framework for their mitigation in future void lensing studies. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2022 month 01 volume 509 publication_type article eprint pages 10 issue 2 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab2986  source harvard id 21277262 title Searching for New Physics in Rare (K) and (B) Decays without (|V_{cb}|) and (|V_{ub}|) Uncertainties first_author A. J. Buras author A. J. Buras, E. Venturini abstract We reemphasize the strong dependence of the branching ratiosB(K^+\to\pi^+\nu\bar\nu)$and$B(K_L\to\pi^0\nu\bar\nu)$on$|V_{cb}|$that is stronger than in rare$B$decays, in particular for$K_L\to\pi^0\nu\bar\nu$. Thereby the persistent tension between inclusive and exclusive determinations of$|V_{cb}|$weakens the power of these theoretically clean decays in the search for new physics (NP). We demonstrate how this uncertainty can be practically removed by considering within the SM suitable ratios of the two branching ratios between each other and with other observables like the branching ratios for$K_S\to\mu^+\mu^-$,$B_{s,d}\to\mu^+\mu^-$and$B\to K(K^*)\nu\bar\nu$. We use as basic CKM parameters$V_{us}$,$|V_{cb}|$and the angles$\beta$and$\gamma$in the unitarity triangle (UT). This avoids the use of the problematic$|V_{ub}|$. A ratio involving$B(K^+\to\pi^+\nu\bar\nu)$and$B(B_s\to\mu^+\mu^-)$while being$|V_{cb}|$-independent exhibits sizable dependence on the angle$\gamma$. It should be of interest for several experimental groups in the coming years. We point out that the$|V_{cb}|$-independent ratio of$B(B^+\to K^+\nu\bar\nu)$and$B(B_s\to\mu^+\mu^-)$from Belle II and LHCb signals a$1.8\sigma$tension with its SM value. As a complementary test of the Standard Model, we propose to extract$|V_{cb}|$from different observables as a function of$\beta$and$\gamma$. We illustrate this with$\epsilon_K$,$\Delta M_d$and$\Delta M_s$finding tensions between these three determinations of$|V_{cb}|$within the SM. From$\Delta M_s$and$S_{\psi K_S}$alone we find$|V_{cb}|=41.8(6)\times 10^{-3}$and$|V_{ub}|=3.65(12)\times 10^{-3}$. We stress the importance of a precise measurement of$\gamma$. We obtain most precise SM predictions for considered branching ratios of rare K and B decays to date. journal Acta Physica Polonica B publisher year 2022 month 00 volume 53 publication_type article eprint pages issue 6 doi 10.5506/APhysPolB.53.6-A1  source harvard id 21239218 title Calculational Techniques in Particle Theory first_author L. Tancredi author L. Tancredi abstract In this contribution, I review some of the latest advances in calculational techniques in theoretical particle physics. I focus, in particular, on their application to the calculation of highly non-trivial scattering processes, which are relevant for precision phenomenology studies at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. journal The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics. 26-30 July 2021. Online conference publisher year 2022 month 00 volume publication_type inproceedings eprint pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 2027102 title Inclusive Hadroproduction of P-wave Heavy Quarkonia in pNRQCD first_author Chung, Hee Sok author Hee Sok Chung abstract We compute NRQCD long-distance matrix elements that appear in the inclusive production cross sections of P-wave heavy quarkonia in the framework of potential NRQCD. The formalism developed in this work applies to strongly coupled charmonia and bottomonia. This makes possible the determination of color-octet NRQCD long-distance matrix elements without relying on measured cross section data, which has not been possible so far. We obtain results for inclusive production cross sections of χcJ and χbJ at the LHC, which are in good agreement with measurements. journal EPJ Web Conf. publisher year 2022 month volume 258 publication_type eprint pages issue doi 10.1051/epjconf/202225804005  source inspirehep id 2052140 title Gamma-ray observations of cosmic nuclei first_author Diehl, Roland author Roland Diehl abstract Gamma rays from nuclear processes such as radioactive decay and de-excitations are among the most-direct tools to witness the production and existence of speciﬁc nuclei and isotopes in and near cosmic nucleosynthesis sites. With space-borne instrumentation such as NuSTAR and SPI/INTEGRAL, and experimental techniques to handle a substantial instrumental background from cosmic-ray activations of the spacecraft and instrument, unique results have been obtained, from diffuse emissions of nuclei and positrons in interstellar surroundings of sources, as well as from observations of cosmic explosions and their radioactive afterglows. These witness non-sphericity in supernova explosions and a ﬂow of nucleosynthesis ejecta through superbubbles as common source environments. Next-generation experiments that are awaiting space missions promise a next level of observational nuclear astrophysics. journal EPJ Web Conf. publisher year 2022 month volume 260 publication_type eprint pages issue doi 10.1051/epjconf/202226010001  source inspirehep id 1995758 title Symplectic quantization of multi-field Generalized Proca electrodynamics first_author Errasti Díez, Verónica author Verónica Errasti Díez, Marina Krstic Marinkovic abstract We explicitly carry out the symplectic quantization of a family of multi-field Generalized Proca (GP) electrodynamics theories. In the process, we provide an independent derivation of the so-called secondary constraint enforcing relations -- consistency conditions that significantly restrict the allowed interactions in multi-field settings already at the classical level. Additionally, we unveil the existence of quantum consistency conditions, which apply in both single- and multi-field GP scenarios. Our newly found conditions imply that not all classically well-defined (multi-)GP theories are amenable to quantization. The extension of our results to the most general multi-GP class is conceptually straightforward, albeit algebraically cumbersome. journal publisher year 2021 month 12 volume publication_type eprint 2112.11477 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 1985876 title Combining Planck and SPT cluster catalogs: cosmological analysis and impact on Planck scaling relation calibration first_author Salvati, L. author L. Salvati, A. Saro, S. Bocquet, M. Costanzi, B. Ansarinejad, B.A. Benson, L.E. Bleem, M.S. Calzadilla, J.E. Carlstrom, C.L. Chang, R. Chown, A.T. Crites, T. de Haan, M.A. Dobbs, W.B. Everett, B. Floyd, S. Grandis, E.M. George, N.W. Halverson, G.P. Holder, W.L. Holzapfel, J.D. Hrubes, A.T. Lee, D. Luong-Van, M. McDonald, J.J. McMahon, S.S. Meyer, M. Millea, L.M. Mocanu, J.J. Mohr, T. Natoli, Y. Omori, S. Padin, C. Pryke, C.L. Reichardt, J.E. Ruhl, F. Ruppin, K.K. Schaffer, T. Schrabback, E. Shirokoff, Z. Staniszewski, A.A. Stark, J.D. Vieira, R. Williamson abstract We provide the first combined cosmological analysis of South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck cluster catalogs. The aim is to provide an independent calibration for Planck scaling relations, exploiting the cosmological constraining power of the SPT-SZ cluster catalog and its dedicated weak lensing (WL) and X-ray follow-up observations. We build a new version of the Planck cluster likelihood. In the$\nu \Lambda$CDM scenario, focusing on the mass slope and mass bias of Planck scaling relations, we find$\alpha_{\text{SZ}} = 1.49 _{-0.10}^{+0.07}$and$(1-b)_{\text{SZ}} = 0.69 _{-0.14}^{+0.07}$respectively. The results for the mass slope show a$\sim 4 \, \sigma$departure from the self-similar evolution,$\alpha_{\text{SZ}} \sim 1.8$. This shift is mainly driven by the matter density value preferred by SPT data,$\Omega_m = 0.30 \pm 0.03$, lower than the one obtained by Planck data alone,$\Omega_m = 0.37 _{-0.06}^{+0.02}$. The mass bias constraints are consistent both with outcomes of hydrodynamical simulations and external WL calibrations,$(1-b) \sim 0.8$, and with results required by the Planck cosmic microwave background cosmology,$(1-b) \sim 0.6$. From this analysis, we obtain a new catalog of Planck cluster masses$M_{500}$. We estimate the relation between the published Planck derived$M_{\text{SZ}}$masses and our derived masses, as a measured mass bias. We analyse the mass, redshift and detection noise dependence of this quantity, finding an increasing trend towards high redshift and low mass. These results mimic the effect of departure from self-similarity in cluster evolution, showing different dependencies for the low-mass high-mass, low-z high-z regimes. journal publisher year 2021 month 12 volume publication_type eprint 2112.03606 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 1983604 title Observation of$\Lambda_b^0\rightarrow D^+ p \pi^-\pi^-$and$\Lambda_b^0\rightarrow D^{*+} p \pi^-\pi^-$decays first_author Aaij, Roel author Roel Aaij, Ahmed Sameh Wagih Abdelmotteleb, Carlos Abellán Beteta, Fernando Jesus Abudinén, Thomas Ackernley, Bernardo Adeva, Marco Adinolfi, Hossein Afsharnia, Christina Agapopoulou, Christine Angela Aidala, Salvatore Aiola, Ziad Ajaltouni, Simon Akar, Johannes Albrecht, Federico Alessio, Michael Alexander, Alejandro Alfonso Albero, Zakariya Aliouche, Georgy Alkhazov, Paula Alvarez Cartelle, Sandra Amato, Jake Lewis Amey, Yasmine Amhis, Liupan An, Lucio Anderlini, Martin Andersson, Aleksei Andreianov, Mirco Andreotti, Flavio Archilli, Alexander Artamonov, Marina Artuso, Kenenbek Arzymatov, Elie Aslanides, Michele Atzeni, Benjamin Audurier, Sebastian Bachmann, Marie Bachmayer, John Back, Pablo Baladron Rodriguez, Vladislav Balagura, Wander Baldini, Juan Baptista de Souza Leite, Matteo Barbetti, Roger Barlow, Sergey Barsuk, William Barter, Matteo Bartolini, Fedor Baryshnikov, Jan-Marc Basels, Saliha Bashir, Giovanni Bassi, Baasansuren Batsukh, Alexander Battig, Aurelio Bay, Anja Beck, Maik Becker, Franco Bedeschi, Ignacio Bediaga, Andrew Beiter, Vladislav Belavin, Samuel Belin, Violaine Bellee, Konstantin Belous, Ilia Belov, Ivan Belyaev, Giovanni Bencivenni, Eli Ben-Haim, Alexander Berezhnoy, Roland Bernet, Daniel Berninghoff, Harris Conan Bernstein, Claudia Bertella, Alessandro Bertolin, Christopher Betancourt, Federico Betti, Ia. Bezshyiko, Iaroslava Bezshyiko, Srishti Bhasin, Jihyun Bhom, Lingzhu Bian, Martin Stefan Bieker, Nicolo Vladi Biesuz, Simone Bifani, Pierre Billoir, Alice Biolchini, Matthew Birch, Fionn Caitlin Ros Bishop, Alexander Bitadze, Andrea Bizzeti, Mikkel Bjørn, Michele Piero Blago, Thomas Blake, Frederic Blanc, Steven Blusk, Dana Bobulska, Julian Alexander Boelhauve, Oscar Boente Garcia, Thomas Boettcher, Alexey Boldyrev, Alexander Bondar, Nikolay Bondar, Silvia Borghi, Maxim Borisyak, Martino Borsato, Jozef Tomasz Borsuk, Sonia Amina Bouchiba, Themistocles Bowcock, Alexandre Boyer, Concezio Bozzi, Matthew John Bradley, Svende Braun, Alexandre Brea Rodriguez, Jolanta Brodzicka, Arnau Brossa Gonzalo, Davide Brundu, Annarita Buonaura, Laura Buonincontri, Aodhan Tomas Burke, Christopher Burr, Albert Bursche, Anatoly Butkevich, Jordy Sebastiaan Butter, Jan Buytaert, Wiktor Byczynski, Sandro Cadeddu, Hao Cai, Roberto Calabrese, Lukas Calefice, Stefano Cali, Ryan Calladine, Marta Calvi, Miriam Calvo Gomez, Patricia Camargo Magalhaes, Pierluigi Campana, Angel Fernando Campoverde Quezada, Simone Capelli, Lorenzo Capriotti, Angelo Carbone, Giovanni Carboni, Roberta Cardinale, Alessandro Cardini, Ina Carli, Paolo Carniti, Leon David Carus, Kazuyoshi Carvalho Akiba, Adrian Casais Vidal, Rowina Caspary, Gianluigi Casse, Marco Cattaneo, Giovanni Cavallero, Sara Celani, Jacopo Cerasoli, Daniel Cervenkov, Abbie Jane Chadwick, Matthew George Chapman, Matthew Charles, Philippe Charpentier, Ph. Charpentier, Carlos Alberto Chavez Barajas, Maximilien Chefdeville, Chen Chen, Shanzhen Chen, Aleksei Chernov, Veronika Chobanova, Serhii Cholak, Marcin Chrzaszcz, Alexsei Chubykin, Vladimir Chulikov, Paolo Ciambrone, Maria Flavia Cicala, Xabier Cid Vidal, Gregory Ciezarek, P.E. L. Clarke, Marco Clemencic, Harry Cliff, Joel Closier, John Leslie Cobbledick, Victor Coco, Joao A B Coelho, Julien Cogan, Eric Cogneras, Lucian Cojocariu, Paula Collins, Tommaso Colombo, Liliana Congedo, Andrea Contu, Naomi Cooke, George Coombs, Imanol Corredoira, Gloria Corti, Cayo Mar Costa Sobral, Benjamin Couturier, Daniel Charles Craik, Jana Crkovská, Melissa Maria Cruz Torres, Robert Currie, Cesar Luiz Da Silva, Shakhzod Dadabaev, Lingyun Dai, Elena Dall'Occo, Jeremy Dalseno, Carmelo D'Ambrosio, Anna Danilina, Philippe d'Argent, Aigerim Dashkina, Jonathan Edward Davies, Adam Davis, Oscar De Aguiar Francisco, Kristof De Bruyn, Stefano De Capua, Michel De Cian, Erika De Lucia, Jussara De Miranda, Leandro De Paula, Marilisa De Serio, Dario De Simone, Patrizia De Simone, Fabio De Vellis, Jacco de Vries, Cameron Thomas Dean, Francesco Debernardis, Daniel Decamp, Vlad-George Dedu, Luigi Del Buono, Blaise Delaney, Hans Peter Dembinski, Adam Dendek, Vadym Denysenko, Denis Derkach, Olivier Deschamps, Fabrice Desse, Francesco Dettori, Biplab Dey, Alessandro Di Cicco, Pasquale Di Nezza, Sergey Didenko, Lorena Dieste Maronas, Hans Dijkstra, Vasyl Dobishuk, Chenzhi Dong, Amanda May Donohoe, Francesca Dordei, Alberto dos Reis, Lauren Douglas, Anatoliy Dovbnya, Anthony Gavin Downes, Maciej Wojciech Dudek, Laurent Dufour, Viacheslav Duk, Paolo Durante, John Matthew Durham, Deepanwita Dutta, Agnieszka Dziurda, Alexey Dzyuba, Sajan Easo, Ulrik Egede, Victor Egorychev, Semen Eidelman, Stephan Eisenhardt, Surapat Ek-In, Lars Eklund, Scott Ely, Alexandru Ene, Eliane Epple, Stephan Escher, Jonas Nathanael Eschle, Sevda Esen, Timothy Evans, Lucas Falcao, Yanting Fan, Bo Fang, Stephen Farry, Davide Fazzini, Mauricio Féo, Antonio Fernandez Prieto, Alex Daniel Fernez, Fabio Ferrari, Lino Ferreira Lopes, Fernando Ferreira Rodrigues, Silvia Ferreres Sole, Martina Ferrillo, Massimiliano Ferro-Luzzi, Sergey Filippov, Rosa Anna Fini, Massimiliano Fiorini, Miroslaw Firlej, Kamil Leszek Fischer, K.M. Fischer, Dillon Scott Fitzgerald, Conor Fitzpatrick, Tomasz Fiutowski, Aristeidis Fkiaras, Frederic Fleuret, Marianna Fontana, Flavio Fontanelli, Roger Forty, Daniel Foulds-Holt, Vinicius Franco Lima, Manuel Franco Sevilla, Markus Frank, Edoardo Franzoso, Giulia Frau, Christoph Frei, David Anthony Friday, Jinlin Fu, Quentin Fuehring, Emmy Gabriel, Giuliana Galati, Abraham Gallas Torreira, Domenico Galli, Silvia Gambetta, Yuyue Gan, Miriam Gandelman, Paolo Gandini, Yuanning Gao, Michela Garau, Luis Miguel Garcia Martin, Paula Garcia Moreno, Julián García Pardiñas, Beatriz Garcia Plana, Felipe Andres Garcia Rosales, Lluis Garrido, Clara Gaspar, Robbert Erik Geertsema, David Gerick, Louis Lenard Gerken, Evelina Gersabeck, Marco Gersabeck, Timothy Gershon, Dawid Gerstel, Luca Giambastiani, Valerie Gibson, Henryk Karol Giemza, Alexander Leon Gilman, Matteo Giovannetti, Alessandra Gioventù, Pere Gironella Gironell, Carmen Giugliano, Konstantin Gizdov, Evangelos Leonidas Gkougkousis, Vladimir Gligorov, Carla Göbel, Elisabet Golobardes, Dmitry Golubkov, Andrey Golutvin, Alvaro Gomes, Sergio Gomez Fernandez, Fernanda Goncalves Abrantes, Mateusz Goncerz, Guanghua Gong, Petr Gorbounov, Igor Vladimirovich Gorelov, Claudio Gotti, Jascha Peter Grabowski, Thomas Grammatico, Luis Alberto Granado Cardoso, Eugeni Graugés, Elena Graverini, Giacomo Graziani, Alexandru Grecu, Lex Marinus Greeven, Nathan Allen Grieser, Lucia Grillo, Sergey Gromov, Barak Raimond Gruberg Cazon, Chenxi Gu, Marco Guarise, Manuel Guittiere, Paul Andre Günther, Abdul-Kerim Guseinov, Evgeny Gushchin, Andreas Guth, Yury Guz, Thierry Gys, Thomas Hadavizadeh, Guido Haefeli, Christophe Haen, Jakob Haimberger, Tabitha Halewood-leagas, Phoebe Meredith Hamilton, Jan Patrick Hammerich, Qundong Han, Xiaoxue Han, Thomas Henry Hancock, Eva Brottmann Hansen, Stephanie Hansmann-Menzemer, Neville Harnew, Thomas Harrison, Christoph Hasse, Mark Hatch, Jibo He, Malte Hecker, Kevin Heijhoff, Kevin Heinicke, Riley Dylan Leslie Henderson, Arthur Marius Hennequin, Karol Hennessy, Louis Henry, Johannes Heuel, Adlène Hicheur, Donal Hill, Martha Hilton, Sophie Elizabeth Hollitt, Ruiwe Hou, Yingrui Hou, Jiangqiao Hu, Jifeng Hu, Wenhua Hu, Xiaofan Hu, Wenqian Huang, Xiaotao Huang, Wouter Hulsbergen, Ross John Hunter, Mikhail Hushchyn, David Hutchcroft, Daniel Hynds, Philipp Ibis, Marek Idzik, Dmitrii Ilin, Philip Ilten, Alexander Inglessi, Artur Ishteev, Kuzma Ivshin, Richard Jacobsson, Hendrik Jage, Sune Jakobsen, Eddy Jans, Brij Kishor Jashal, Abolhassan Jawahery, Vukan Jevtic, Xiaojie Jiang, Malcolm John, Daniel Johnson, Christopher Jones, Thomas Peter Jones, Beat Jost, Nathan Jurik, Sabin Hashmi Kalavan Kadavath, Sergii Kandybei, Youen Kang, Matthias Karacson, Maksim Karpov, Jacob William Kautz, Floris Keizer, Dustin Michael Keller, Matthew Kenzie, Tjeerd Ketel, Basem Khanji, Anastasiia Kharisova, Sergei Kholodenko, Thomas Kirn, Veronica Soelund Kirsebom, Ouail Kitouni, Suzanne Klaver, Nico Kleijne, Konrad Klimaszewski, Mateusz Rafal Kmiec, Serhii Koliiev, Almagul Kondybayeva, Anatoly Konoplyannikov, Pawel Kopciewicz, Renata Kopecna, Patrick Koppenburg, Mikhail Korolev, Igor Kostiuk, Oleksander Kot, Sofia Kotriakhova, Polina Kravchenko, Leonid Kravchuk, Rafal Dominik Krawczyk, Michal Kreps, Felix Johannes Kress, Sophie Katharina Kretzschmar, Pavel Krokovny, Wojciech Krupa, Wojciech Krzemien, Jakub Kubat, Marcin Kucharczyk, Vasily Kudryavtsev, Hilbrand Steffen Kuindersma, Gerd Joachim Kunde, Tengiz Kvaratskheliya, Daniel Lacarrere, George Lafferty, Adriano Lai, Andrea Lampis, Davide Lancierini, John Jake Lane, Richard Lane, Gaia Lanfranchi, Christoph Langenbruch, Jan Langer, Oliver Lantwin, Thomas Latham, Federico Lazzari, Renaud Le Gac, Sook Hyun Lee, Regis Lefèvre, Alexander Leflat, Sergey Legotin, Olivier Leroy, Tadeusz Lesiak, Blake Leverington, Hengne Li, Peilian Li, Shiyang Li, Yiming Li, Yutong Li, Zhuoming Li, Xixin Liang, Tai-hua Lin, Rolf Lindner, Vitalii Lisovskyi, Roman Litvinov, Guoming Liu, Huanhuan Liu, Qian Liu, Shuaiyi Liu, Aniol Lobo Salvia, Angelo Loi, Julian Lomba Castro, Iain Longstaff, Jose Lopes, Saúl López Soliño, George Holger Lovell, Yu Lu, Chiara Lucarelli, Donatella Lucchesi, Stanislav Luchuk, Miriam Lucio Martinez, Valeriia Lukashenko, Yiheng Luo, Anna Lupato, Eleonora Luppi, Oliver Lupton, Alberto Lusiani, Xiao-Rui Lyu, Lishuang Ma, Ruiting Ma, Serena Maccolini, Frederic Machefert, Florin Maciuc, Vladimir Macko, Patrick Mackowiak, Samuel Maddrell-Mander, Olga Madejczyk, Lakshan Ram Madhan Mohan, Oleg Maev, Artem Maevskiy, Maciej Witold Majewski, Jakub Jacek Malczewski, Sneha Malde, Bartosz Malecki, Alexander Malinin, Timofei Maltsev, Hanna Malygina, Giulia Manca, Giampiero Mancinelli, Daniele Manuzzi, Daniele Marangotto, Jan Maratas, Jean François Marchand, Umberto Marconi, Saverio Mariani, Carla Marin Benito, Matthieu Marinangeli, Jörg Marks, Alexander Mclean Marshall, Phillip John Marshall, Gabriele Martelli, Giuseppe Martellotti, Loris Martinazzoli, Maurizio Martinelli, Diego Martinez Santos, Fernando Martinez Vidal, André Massafferri, Marcel Materok, Rosen Matev, Abhijit Mathad, Viacheslav Matiunin, Clara Matteuzzi, Kara Renee Mattioli, Andrea Mauri, Emilie Maurice, Juan Mauricio, Michal Kazimierz Mazurek, Michael McCann, Lucas Mcconnell, Tamaki Holly Mcgrath, Niall Thomas Mchugh, Andrew McNab, Ronan McNulty, James Vincent Mead, Brian Meadows, Gerwin Meier, Dmytro Melnychuk, Simone Meloni, Marcel Merk, Andrea Merli, Lucas Meyer Garcia, Mikhail Mikhasenko, Diego Alejandro Milanes, Edward James Millard, Marko Milovanovic, Marie-Noelle Minard, Alessandro Minotti, Luca Minzoni, Sara Elizabeth Mitchell, Biljana Mitreska, Dominik Stefan Mitzel, Antje Mödden, Rizwaan Adeeb Mohammed, Razvan Daniel Moise, Sergei Mokhnenko, Titus Mombächer, Igancio Alberto Monroy, Stephane Monteil, Mauro Morandin, Gianfranco Morello, Michael Joseph Morello, Jakub Moron, Adam Benjamin Morris, Andrew George Morris, Raymond Mountain, Hongjie Mu, Franz Muheim, Mick Mulder, Dominik Müller, Katharina Müller, Colm Harold Murphy, Donal Murray, Rebecca Murta, Piera Muzzetto, Paras Naik, Tatsuya Nakada, Raja Nandakumar, Tara Nanut, Irina Nasteva, Matthew Needham, Nicola Neri, Sebastian Neubert, Niko Neufeld, Ryan Newcombe, Elisabeth Maria Niel, Simon Nieswand, Nikolay Nikitin, Niklas Stefan Nolte, Camille Normand, Cynthia Nunez, Agnieszka Oblakowska-Mucha, Vladimir Obraztsov, Thomas Oeser, Daniel Patrick O'Hanlon, Shinichi Okamura, Rudolf Oldeman, Federica Oliva, Mario Edgardo Olivares, C.J. G. Onderwater, Ryunosuke Hugo O'Neil, Juan Martin Otalora Goicochea, Tatiana Ovsiannikova, Patrick Owen, Maria Aranzazu Oyanguren, Klaas Ole Padeken, Bhagyashree Pagare, Preema Rennee Pais, Tommaso Pajero, Antimo Palano, Matteo Palutan, Yue Pan, Gennady Panshin, Antonios Papanestis, Marco Pappagallo, Luciano Pappalardo, Cheryl Pappenheimer, William Parker, Christopher Parkes, Barbara Passalacqua, Giovanni Passaleva, Alessandra Pastore, Mitesh Patel, Claudia Patrignani, Christopher James Pawley, Alex Pearce, Antonio Pellegrino, Monica Pepe Altarelli, Stefano Perazzini, Dmitrii Pereima, Asier Pereiro Castro, Pascal Perret, Marko Petric, Konstantinos Petridis, Alessandro Petrolini, Aleksandr Petrov, Stefano Petrucci, Marco Petruzzo, Thi Thuy Hang Pham, Anton Philippov, Roberto Piandani, Lorenzo Pica, Mauro Piccini, Boleslaw Pietrzyk, Guillaume Pietrzyk, Martina Pili, Davide Pinci, Flavio Pisani, Marco Pizzichemi, P.K. Resmi, Vlad-Mihai Placinta, Jonathan Plews, Maximo Plo Casasus, Francesco Polci, Marco Poli Lener, Mariia Poliakova, Anton Poluektov, Natalia Polukhina, Ivan Polyakov, Erica Polycarpo, Sebastien Ponce, Dmitry Popov, Sergei Popov, Stanislav Poslavskii, Kodassery Prasanth, Laura Promberger, Claire Prouve, Valery Pugatch, Veronique Puill, Giovanni Punzi, Hongrong Qi, Wenbin Qian, Ning Qin, Renato Quagliani, Naomi Veronika Raab, Raul Iraq Rabadan Trejo, Bartlomiej Rachwal, Jonas Rademacker, Matteo Rama, Miguel Ramos Pernas, Murilo Rangel, Fedor Ratnikov, Gerhard Raven, Meril Reboud, Federico Redi, Florian Reiss, Clara Remon Alepuz, Zan Ren, Victor Renaudin, Roberto Ribatti, Alessandro Maria Ricci, Stefania Ricciardi, Kurt Rinnert, Patrick Robbe, Gary Robertson, Ana Barbara Rodrigues, Eduardo Rodrigues, Jairo Alexis Rodriguez Lopez, E.R. R. Rodriguez Rodriguez, Alexandra Paige Rollings, Philipp Roloff, Vladimir Romanovskiy, Marcos Romero Lamas, Antonio Romero Vidal, Jordan Daniel Roth, Marcello Rotondo, Matthew Scott Rudolph, Thomas Ruf, Ramon Angel Ruiz Fernandez, Joan Ruiz Vidal, Artem Ryzhikov, Jakub Ryzka, Juan Jose Saborido Silva, Naylya Sagidova, Niladribihari Sahoo, Biagio Saitta, Matteo Salomoni, Cristina Sanchez Gras, Roberta Santacesaria, Cibran Santamarina Rios, Marco Santimaria, Emanuele Santovetti, Danila Saranin, Gediminas Sarpis, Minaugas Sarpis, Alessio Sarti, Celestina Satriano, Alessia Satta, Miroslav Saur, Darya Savrina, Halime Sazak, Luke George Scantlebury Smead, Alessandro Scarabotto, Stefan Schael, Sigrid Scherl, Manuel Schiller, Heinrich Schindler, Michael Schmelling, Burkhard Schmidt, Sebastian Schmitt, Olivier Schneider, Andreas Schopper, Maxime Schubiger, Sebastian Schulte, Marie Helene Schune, Rainer Schwemmer, Barbara Sciascia, Sara Sellam, Alexander Semennikov, Mara Senghi Soares, Antonino Sergi, Nicola Serra, Lorenzo Sestini, Alex Seuthe, Yiduo Shang, Desmond Mzamo Shangase, Mikhail Shapkin, Ivan Shchemerov, Lesya Shchutska, Tara Shears, Lev Shekhtman, Zhihong Shen, Shuqi Sheng, Vladimir Shevchenko, Edward Brendan Shields, Yuya Shimizu, Evgenii Shmanin, Joseph David Shupperd, Benedetto Gianluca Siddi, Rafael Silva Coutinho, Gabriele Simi, Saverio Simone, Nicola Skidmore, Tomasz Skwarnicki, Mark Slater, Igor Slazyk, Jennifer Clare Smallwood, John Gordon Smeaton, Anastasia Smetkina, Eluned Smith, Mark Smith, Aleksandra Snoch, Lais Soares Lavra, Michael Sokoloff, F.J. P. Soler, Aleksandr Solovev, Ivan Solovyev, Felipe Luan Souza De Almeida, Bruno Souza De Paula, Bernhard Spaan, Elisabetta Spadaro Norella, Patrick Spradlin, Federico Stagni, Marian Stahl, Sascha Stahl, Seophine Stanislaus, Olaf Steinkamp, Oleg Stenyakin, Holger Stevens, Sheldon Stone, Daria Strekalina, Fidan Suljik, Jiayin Sun, Liang Sun, Yipeng Sun, Peter Svihra, Paul Nathaniel Swallow, Krzysztof Swientek, Adam Szabelski, Tomasz Szumlak, Maciej Pawel Szymanski, Shantam Taneja, Alastair Roger Tanner, Martin Duy Tat, Aleksandr Terentev, Frederic Teubert, Eric Thomas, Daniel James David Thompson, Kayleigh Anne Thomson, Hanae Tilquin, Vincent Tisserand, Stephane T'Jampens, Mark Tobin, Luca Tomassetti, Xingyu Tong, Diego Torres Machado, Da Yu Tou, Ekaterina Trifonova, Stoyan Miroslavov Trilov, Carina Trippl, Giulia Tuci, Alison Tully, Niels Tuning, Artur Ukleja, Daniel Joachim Unverzagt, Eduard Ursov, Andrii Usachov, Andrey Ustyuzhanin, Ulrich Uwer, Alexander Vagner, Vincenzo Vagnoni, Andrea Valassi, Giovanni Valenti, Nuria Valls Canudas, Martinus van Beuzekom, Maarten Van Dijk, Hubert Van Hecke, Eric van Herwijnen, Maarten van Veghel, Ricardo Vazquez Gomez, Pablo Vazquez Regueiro, Carlos Vázquez Sierra, Stefania Vecchi, Jaap Velthuis, Michele Veltri, Aravindhan Venkateswaran, Michele Veronesi, Mika Vesterinen, Daniel Vieira, Maria Vieites Diaz, Harald Viemann, Xavier Vilasis-Cardona, Eva Vilella Figueras, Andrea Villa, Pascal Vincent, Felicia Carolin Volle, Dorothea Vom Bruch, Alexey Vorobyev, Vitaly Vorobyev, Nikolai Voropaev, Kimberley Vos, Roland Waldi, John Walsh, Chishuai Wang, Jialu Wang, Jianchun Wang, Jianqiao Wang, Jike Wang, Mengzhen Wang, Rui Wang, Yilong Wang, Zhenzi Wang, Zirui Wang, Ziyi Wang, Jake Alexander Ward, Nigel Watson, Steffen Georg Weber, David Websdale, Constantin Weisser, Benedict Donald C Westhenry, Dylan Jaide White, Mark Whitehead, Aidan Richard Wiederhold, Dirk Wiedner, Guy Wilkinson, Michael Wilkinson, Ifan Williams, Mike Williams, Mark Richard James Williams, Fergus Wilson, Wojciech Wislicki, Mariusz Witek, Lukas Witola, Guy Wormser, Stephen Wotton, Hangyi Wu, Kenneth Wyllie, Zhiyu Xiang, Dong Xiao, Yuehong Xie, Ao Xu, Jingyi Xu, Li Xu, Menglin Xu, Qingnian Xu, Zehua Xu, Zhihao Xu, Di Yang, Shuangli Yang, Youhua Yang, Zhenwei Yang, Zishuo Yang, Yuezhe Yao, Lauren Emma Yeomans, Hang Yin, Jiesheng Yu, Xuhao Yuan, Oleg Yushchenko, Ettore Zaffaroni, Mikhail Zavertyaev, Milosz Zdybal, Oleksandr Zenaiev, Ming Zeng, Dongliang Zhang, Liming Zhang, Shulei Zhang, Shunan Zhang, Yanxi Zhang, Yu Zhang, Alina Zharkova, Alexey Zhelezov, Yangheng Zheng, Tianwen Zhou, Xiaokang Zhou, Yixiong Zhou, Valeriia Zhovkovska, Xianglei Zhu, Xiaoyu Zhu, Zhanwen Zhu, Valery Zhukov, Jennifer Brigitta Zonneveld, Quan Zou, Stefano Zucchelli, Davide Zuliani, Gianluca Zunica abstract The multihadron decays$ {\Lambda}_b^0 $→ D+pπ−π− and$ {\Lambda}_b^0 $→ D$^{*}$+pπ−π− are observed in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb$^{−1}$, collected in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV by the LHCb detector. Using the decay$ {\Lambda}_b^0 $→$ {\Lambda}_c^{+} $π$^{+}$π$^{−}$π$^{−}$as a normalisation channel, the ratio of branching fractions is measured to be$ \frac{\mathcal{B}\left({\Lambda}_b^0\to {D}^{+}p{\pi}^{-}{\pi}^{-}\right)}{\mathcal{B}\left({\Lambda}_b^0\to {\Lambda}_c^0{\pi}^{+}{\pi}^{-}{\pi}^{-}\right)}\times \frac{\mathcal{B}\left({D}^{+}\to {K}^{-}{\pi}^{+}{\pi}^{+}\right)}{\mathcal{B}\left({\Lambda}_c^0\to {pK}^{-}{\pi}^{-}\right)}=\left(5.35\pm 0.21\pm 0.16\right)\%, $where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The ratio of branching fractions for the$ {\Lambda}_b^0 $→ D$^{*+}$pπ$^{−}$π$^{−}$and$ {\Lambda}_b^0 $→ D$^{+}$pπ$^{−}$π$^{−}$decays is found to be$ \frac{\mathcal{B}\left({\Lambda}_b^0\to {D}^{\ast +}p{\pi}^{-}{\pi}^{-}\right)}{\mathcal{B}\left({\Lambda}_b^0\to {D}^{+}p{\pi}^{-}{\pi}^{-}\right)}\times \left(\mathcal{B}\left({D}^{\ast +}\to {D}^{+}{\pi}^0\right)+\mathcal{B}\left({D}^{\ast +}\to {D}^{+}\gamma \right)\right)=\left(61.3\pm 4.3\pm 4.0\right)\%. $[graphic not available: see fulltext] journal JHEP publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 03 publication_type eprint 2112.02013 pages 153 issue doi 10.1007/JHEP03(2022)153  source inspirehep id 1995045 title Three-Loop Gluon Scattering in QCD and the Gluon Regge Trajectory first_author Caola, Fabrizio author Fabrizio Caola, Amlan Chakraborty, Giulio Gambuti, Andreas von Manteuffel, Lorenzo Tancredi abstract We compute the three-loop helicity amplitudes for the scattering of four gluons in QCD. We employ projectors in the ’t Hooft-Veltman scheme and construct the amplitudes from a minimal set of physical building blocks, which allows us to keep the computational complexity under control. We obtain relatively compact results that can be expressed in terms of harmonic polylogarithms. In addition, we consider the Regge limit of our amplitude and extract the gluon Regge trajectory in full three-loop QCD. This is the last missing ingredient required for studying single-Reggeon exchanges at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. journal Phys.Rev.Lett. publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 128 publication_type eprint 2112.11097 pages issue 21 doi 10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.212001  source harvard id 20766078 title CLMM: a LSST-DESC cluster weak lensing mass modeling library for cosmology first_author M. Aguena author M. Aguena, C. Avestruz, C. Combet, S. Fu, R. Herbonnet, A. I. Malz, M. Penna-Lima, M. Ricci, S. D. P. Vitenti, L. Baumont, H. Fan, M. Fong, M. Ho, M. Kirby, C. Payerne, D. Boutigny, B. Lee, B. Liu, T. McClintock, H. Miyatake, C. Sifón, A. von der Linden, H. Wu, M. Yoon, LSST Dark Energy Science Collaboration abstract We present the v1.0 release of CLMM, an open source PYTHON library for the estimation of the weak lensing masses of clusters of galaxies. CLMM is designed as a stand-alone toolkit of building blocks to enable end-to-end analysis pipeline validation for upcoming cluster cosmology analyses such as the ones that will be performed by the Vera C. Rubin Legacy Survey of Space and Time-Dark Energy Science Collaboration (LSST-DESC). Its purpose is to serve as a flexible, easy-to-install, and easy-to-use interface for both weak lensing simulators and observers and can be applied to real and mock data to study the systematics affecting weak lensing mass reconstruction. At the core of CLMM are routines to model the weak lensing shear signal given the underlying mass distribution of galaxy clusters and a set of data operations to prepare the corresponding data vectors. The theoretical predictions rely on existing software, used as backends in the code, that have been thoroughly tested and cross-checked. Combined theoretical predictions and data can be used to constrain the mass distribution of galaxy clusters as demonstrated in a suite of example Jupyter Notebooks shipped with the software and also available in the extensive online documentation. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 508 publication_type article eprint pages 19 issue 4 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab2764  source harvard id 20873133 title Taking off the edge -- simultaneous filament and end core formation first_author Stefan Heigl author Stefan Heigl, Elena Hoemann, Andreas Burkert abstract Simulations of idealised star-forming filaments of finite length typically show core growth which is dominated by two cores forming at its respective end. The end cores form due to a strong increasing acceleration at the filament ends which leads to a sweep-up of material during the filament collapse along its axis. As this growth mode is typically faster than any other core formation mode in a filament, the end cores usually dominate in mass and density compared to other cores forming inside a filament. However, observations of star-forming filaments often do not show this prevalence of cores at the filament edges. We use numerical simulations of accreting filaments forming in a finite converging flow to explore a possible mechanism which leads to a suppression of the end cores. While such a setup still leads to end cores that soon begin to move inwards, the continued accumulation of material outside of these makes a key difference: their positions now lie within the larger filamentary structure and not at its edges. This softens their inward gravitational acceleration as they are embedded by new material further out. As a result, these two cores do not grow as fast as expected for the edge effect and thus do not dominate over other core formation modes in the filament. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2021 month 12 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2112.12640 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20871950 title Symplectic quantization of multi-field Generalized Proca electrodynamics first_author Verónica Errasti Díez author Verónica Errasti Díez, Marina Krstic Marinkovic abstract We explicitly carry out the symplectic quantization of a family of multi-field Generalized Proca (GP) electrodynamics theories. In the process, we provide an independent derivation of the so-called secondary constraint enforcing relations -- consistency conditions that significantly restrict the allowed interactions in multi-field settings already at the classical level. Additionally, we unveil the existence of quantum consistency conditions, which apply in both single- and multi-field GP scenarios. Our newly found conditions imply that not all classically well-defined (multi-)GP theories are amenable to quantization. The extension of our results to the most general multi-GP class is conceptually straightforward, albeit algebraically cumbersome. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2021 month 12 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2112.11477 pages issue doi  source harvard id 21047551 title Trade-offs and design principles in the spatial organization of catalytic particles first_author Florian Hinzpeter author Florian Hinzpeter, Filipe Tostevin, Alexander Buchner, Ulrich Gerland abstract Catalytic particles are spatially organized in a number of biological systems across different length scales, from enzyme complexes to metabolically coupled cells. Despite operating on different scales, these systems all feature localized reactions involving partially hindered diffusive transport, which is determined by the collective arrangement of the catalysts. Yet it remains largely unexplored how different arrangements affect the interplay between the reaction and transport dynamics, which ultimately determines the flux through the reaction pathway. Here we show that two fundamental trade-offs arise, the first between efficient inter-catalyst transport and the depletion of substrate, and the second between steric confinement of intermediate products and the accessibility of catalysts to substrate. We use a model reaction pathway to characterize the general design principles for the arrangement of catalysts that emerge from the interplay of these trade-offs. We find that the question of optimal catalyst arrangements generalizes the well-known Thomson problem of electrostatics. journal Nature Physics publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 18 publication_type article eprint pages 9 issue 2 doi 10.1038/s41567-021-01444-4  source harvard id 20903328 title Quantum probing of null singularities first_author Ivo Sachs author Ivo Sachs, Marc Schneider, Maximilian Urban abstract We adapt the dual-null foliation to the functional Schrödinger representation of quantum field theory and study the behavior of quantum probes in plane-wave space-times near the null singularity. A comparison between the Einstein-Rosen and the Brinkmann patch, where the latter extends beyond the first, shows a seeming tension that can be resolved by comparing the configuration spaces. Our analysis concludes that Einstein-Rosen space-times support exclusively configurations with nonempty gravitational memory that are focused to a set of measure zero in the focal plane with respect to a Brinkmann observer. To conclude, we provide a rough framework to estimate the qualitative influence of backreactions on these results. journal Physical Review D publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 104 publication_type article eprint pages issue 12 doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.104.125020  source harvard id 20888705 title Charge radii in covariant density functional theory: A global view first_author U. C. Perera author U. C. Perera, A. V. Afanasjev, P. Ring abstract A systematic global investigation of differential charge radii has been performed within the CDFT framework for the first time. Theoretical results obtained with conventional covariant energy density functionals and the separable pairing interaction of Tian et al. [Phys. Lett. B 676, 44 (2009), 10.1016/j.physletb.2009.04.067] are compared with experimental differential charge radii in the regions of the nuclear chart in which available experimental data crosses the neutron shell closures at N =28 ,50 ,82 , and 126. The analysis of absolute differential radii of different isotopic chains and their relative properties indicate clearly that such properties are reasonably well described in model calculations in the cases when the mean-field approximation is justified. However, while the observed clusterization of differential charge radii of different isotopic chains is well described above the N =50 and N =126 shell closures, it is more difficult to reproduce it above the N =28 and N =82 shell closures because of possible deficiencies in the underlying single-particle structure. The impact of the latter has been evaluated for spherical shapes and it was shown that the relative energies of the single-particle states and the patterns of their occupation with increasing neutron number have an appreciable impact on the evolution of the δ «r2»N ,N' values. These factors also limit the predictive power of model calculations in the regions of high densities of the single-particle states of different origin. It is shown that the kinks in the charge radii at neutron shell closures are due to the underlying single-particle structure and due to weakening or collapse of pairing at these closures. The regions of the nuclear chart in which the correlations beyond mean field are expected to have an impact on charge radii are indicated; the analysis shows that the assignment of a calculated excited prolate minimum to the experimental ground state allows us to understand the trends of the evolution of differential charge radii with neutron number in many cases of shape coexistence even at the mean-field level. It is usually assumed that pairing is a dominant contributor to odd-even staggering (OES) in charge radii. Our analysis paints a more complicated picture. It suggests a new mechanism in which the fragmentation of the single-particle content of the ground state in odd-mass nuclei due to particle-vibration coupling provides a significant contribution to OES in charge radii. journal Physical Review C publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 104 publication_type article eprint pages issue 6 doi 10.1103/PhysRevC.104.064313  source harvard id 20731354 title The angular momentum structure of CR-driven galactic outflows triggered by stream accretion first_author N. Peschken author N. Peschken, M. Hanasz, T. Naab, D. Wóltański, A. Gawryszczak abstract We investigate the impact of gas accretion in streams on the evolution of disc galaxies, using magnetohydrodynamic simulations including advection and anisotropic diffusion of cosmic rays (CRs) generated by supernovae as the only source of feedback. Stream accretion has been suggested as an important galaxy growth mechanism in cosmological simulations and we vary their orientation and angular momentum in idealized setups. We find that accretion streams trigger the formation of galactic rings and enhanced star formation. The star formation rates and consequently the CR-driven outflow rates are higher for low angular momentum accretion streams, which also result in more compact, lower angular momentum discs. The CR generated outflows show a characteristic structure. At low outflow velocities (<50 km s-1), the angular momentum distribution is similar to the disc and the gas is in a fountain flow. Gas at high outflow velocities (>200 km s-1), penetrating deep into the halo, has close to zero angular momentum, and originates from the centre of the galaxies. As the mass loading factors of the CR-driven outflows are of the order of unity and higher, we conclude that this process is important for the removal of low angular momentum gas from evolving disc galaxies and the transport of, potentially metal enriched, material from galactic centres far into the galactic haloes. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 508 publication_type article eprint pages 13 issue 3 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab2784  source harvard id 20869754 title Interplanetary Dust as a Foreground for the LiteBIRD CMB Satellite Mission first_author Ken Ganga author Ken Ganga, Michele Maris, Mathieu Remazeilles, LiteBIRD Collaboration abstract As ever-more sensitive experiments are made in the quest for primordial CMB B Modes, the number of potentially significant astrophysical contaminants becomes larger as well. Thermal emission from interplanetary dust, for example, has been detected by the Planck satellite. While the polarization fraction of this Zodiacal, or interplanetary dust emission (IPDE) is expected to be low, it is bright enough to be detected in total power. Here, estimates of the magnitude of the effect as it might be seen by the LiteBIRD satellite are made. The COBE IPDE model from Kelsall et al. (1998) is combined with a model of the LiteBIRD experiment's scanning strategy to estimate potential contamination of the CMB in both total power and in polarization power spectra. LiteBIRD should detect IPDE in temperature across all of its bands, from 40 through 402 GHz, and should improve limits on the polarization fraction of IPDE at the higher end of this frequency range. If the polarization fraction of IPDE is of order 1%, the current limit from ISO/CAM measurements in the mid-infrared, it may induce large-scale polarization B Modes comparable to cosmological models with an r of order 0.001. In this case, the polarized IPDE would also need to be modeled and removed. As a CMB foreground, IPDE will always be subdominant to Galactic emissions, though because it caused by emission from grains closer to us, it appears variable as the Earth travels around the Sun, and may thereby complicate the data analysis somewhat. But with an understanding of some of the symmetries of the emission and some flexibility in the data processing, it should not be the primary impediment to the CMB polarization measurement. journal The Open Journal of Astrophysics publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 4 publication_type article eprint pages issue 1 doi 10.21105/astro.2110.13856  source harvard id 20851278 title Finite-temperature linear response theory based on relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov model with point-coupling interaction first_author A. Ravlić author A. Ravlić, Y. F. Niu, T. Nikšić, N. Paar, P. Ring abstract The finite-temperature linear response theory based on the finite-temperature relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (FT-RHB) model is developed in the charge-exchange channel to study the temperature evolution of spin-isospin excitations. Calculations are performed self-consistently with relativistic point-coupling interactions DD-PC1 and DD-PCX. In the charge-exchange channel, the pairing interaction can be split into isovector (T =1 ) and isoscalar (T =0 ) parts. For the isovector component, the same separable form of the Gogny D1S pairing interaction is used both for the ground-state calculation as well as for the residual interaction, while the strength of the isoscalar pairing in the residual interaction is determined by comparison with experimental data on Gamow-Teller resonance (GTR) and isobaric analog resonance (IAR) centroid energy differences in even-even tin isotopes. The temperature effects are introduced by treating Bogoliubov quasiparticles within a grand-canonical ensemble. Thus, unlike the conventional formulation of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) based on the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) basis, our model is formulated within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) quasiparticle basis. Implementing a relativistic point-coupling interaction and a separable pairing force allows for the reduction of complicated two-body residual interaction matrix elements, which considerably decreases the dimension of the problem in the coordinate space. The main advantage of this method is to avoid the diagonalization of a large QRPA matrix, especially at finite temperature where the size of configuration space is significantly increased. The implementation of the linear response code is used to study the temperature evolution of IAR, GTR, and spin-dipole resonance (SDR) in even-even tin isotopes in the temperature range T =0 -1.5 MeV. journal Physical Review C publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 104 publication_type article eprint pages issue 6 doi 10.1103/PhysRevC.104.064302  source harvard id 20766141 title The two phases of core formation - orbital evolution in the centres of ellipticals with supermassive black hole binaries first_author M. Frigo author M. Frigo, T. Naab, A. Rantala, P. H. Johansson, B. Neureiter, J. Thomas, F. Rizzuto abstract The flat stellar density cores of massive elliptical galaxies form rapidly due to sinking supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in gas-poor galaxy mergers. After the SMBHs form a bound binary, gravitational slingshot interactions with nearby stars drive the core regions towards a tangentially biased stellar velocity distribution. We use collisionless galaxy merger simulations with accurate collisional orbit integration around the central SMBHs to demonstrate that the removal of stars from the centre by slingshot kicks accounts for the entire change in velocity anisotropy. The rate of strong (unbinding) kicks is constant over several hundred Myr at$\sim 3 \ \mathrm{ M}_\odot\, \rm yr^{-1}$for our most massive SMBH binary (MBH = 1.7 × 1010 M). Using a frequency-based orbit classification scheme (box, x-tube, z-tube, rosette), we demonstrate that slingshot kicks mostly affect box orbits with small pericentre distances, leading to a velocity anisotropy of β ≲ -0.6 within several hundred Myr as observed in massive ellipticals with large cores. We show how different SMBH masses affect the orbital structure of the merger remnants and present a kinematic tomography connecting orbit families to integral field kinematic features. Our direct orbit classification agrees remarkably well with a modern triaxial Schwarzschild analysis applied to simulated mock kinematic maps. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 508 publication_type article eprint pages 15 issue 3 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab2754  source harvard id 20718178 title The dispersal of protoplanetary discs - III. Influence of stellar mass on disc photoevaporation first_author Giovanni Picogna author Giovanni Picogna, Barbara Ercolano, Catherine C. Espaillat abstract The strong X-ray irradiation from young solar-type stars may play a crucial role in the thermodynamics and chemistry of circumstellar discs, driving their evolution in the last stages of disc dispersal as well as shaping the atmospheres of newborn planets. In this paper, we study the influence of stellar mass on circumstellar disc mass-loss rates due to X-ray irradiation, extending our previous study of the mass-loss rate's dependence on the X-ray luminosity and spectrum hardness. We focus on stars with masses between 0.1 and 1 M, which are the main target of current and future missions to find potentially habitable planets. We find a linear relationship between the mass-loss rates and the stellar masses when changing the X-ray luminosity accordingly with the stellar mass. This linear increase is observed also when the X-ray luminosity is kept fixed because of the lower disc aspect ratio which allows the X-ray irradiation to reach larger radii. We provide new analytical relations for the mass-loss rates and profiles of photoevaporative winds as a function of the stellar mass that can be used in disc and planet population synthesis models. Our photoevaporative models correctly predict the observed trend of inner-disc lifetime as a function of stellar mass with an increased steepness for stars smaller than 0.3 M, indicating that X-ray photoevaporation is a good candidate to explain the observed disc dispersal process. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 508 publication_type article eprint pages 9 issue 3 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab2883  source harvard id 20692007 title The dispersal of protoplanetary discs - II: photoevaporation models with observationally derived irradiating spectra first_author Barbara Ercolano author Barbara Ercolano, Giovanni Picogna, Kristina Monsch, Jeremy J. Drake, Thomas Preibisch abstract Young solar-type stars are known to be strong X-ray emitters and their X-ray spectra have been widely studied. X-rays from the central star may play a crucial role in the thermodynamics and chemistry of the circumstellar material as well as in the atmospheric evolution of young planets. In this paper, we present model spectra based on spectral parameters derived from the observations of young stars in the Orion nebula cluster from the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP). The spectra are then used to calculate new photoevaporation prescriptions that can be used in disc and planet population synthesis models. Our models clearly show that disc wind mass loss rates are controlled by the stellar luminosity in the soft ($100\, \mathrm{eV}$to$1\, \mathrm{keV}$) X-ray band. New analytical relations are provided for the mass loss rates and profiles of photoevaporative winds as a function of the luminosity in the soft X-ray band. The agreement between observed and predicted transition disc statistics moderately improved using the new spectra, but the observed population of strongly accreting large cavity discs can still not be reproduced by these models. Furthermore, our models predict a population of non-accreting transition discs that are not observed. This highlights the importance of considering the depletion of millimetre-sized dust grains from the outer disc, which is a likely reason why such discs have not been detected yet. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 508 publication_type article eprint pages 11 issue 2 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab2590  source harvard id 20822017 title Chromo-electric screening length in 2+1 flavor QCD first_author Peter Petreczky author Peter Petreczky, Sebastian Steinbeißer, Johannes Heinrich Weber abstract We study Polyakov loop as well as correlators of real and imaginary parts of the Polyakov loop in 2+1 flavor QCD at finite temperature. We use hypercubic (HYP) smearing to improve the signal in the lattice calculations and to obtain reliable results for the correlators at large distances. From the large distance behavior of the correlators we estimate the chromo-electric screening length to be (0.38-44)/T. Furthermore, we show that the short distance distortions due to HYP smearing do not affect the physics of interest journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2021 month 12 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2112.00788 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20871549 title Three-loop gluon scattering in QCD and the gluon Regge trajectory first_author Fabrizio Caola author Fabrizio Caola, Amlan Chakraborty, Giulio Gambuti, Andreas von Manteuffel, Lorenzo Tancredi abstract We compute the three-loop helicity amplitudes for the scattering of four gluons in QCD. We employ projectors in the 't Hooft-Veltman scheme and construct the amplitudes from a minimal set of physical building blocks, which allows us to keep the computational complexity under control. We obtain relatively compact results that can be expressed in terms of harmonic polylogarithms. In addition, we consider the Regge limit of our amplitude and extract the gluon Regge trajectory in full three-loop QCD. This is the last missing ingredient required for studying single-Reggeon exchanges at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2021 month 12 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2112.11097 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20912584 title From amino acid mixtures to peptides in liquid sulphur dioxide on early Earth first_author Fabian Sauer author Fabian Sauer, Maren Haas, Constanze Sydow, Alexander F. Siegle, Christoph A. Lauer, Oliver Trapp abstract The formation of peptide bonds is one of the most important biochemical reaction steps. Without the development of structurally and catalytically active polymers, there would be no life on our planet. However, the formation of large, complex oligomer systems is prevented by the high thermodynamic barrier of peptide condensation in aqueous solution. Liquid sulphur dioxide proves to be a superior alternative for copper-catalyzed peptide condensations. Compared to water, amino acids are activated in sulphur dioxide, leading to the incorporation of all 20 proteinogenic amino acids into proteins. Strikingly, even extremely low initial reactant concentrations of only 50 mM are sufficient for extensive peptide formation, yielding up to 2.9% of dialanine in 7 days. The reactions carried out at room temperature and the successful use of the Hadean mineral covellite (CuS) as a catalyst, suggest a volcanic environment for the formation of the peptide world on early Earth. journal Nature Communications publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 12 publication_type article eprint pages issue doi 10.1038/s41467-021-27527-7  source harvard id 20731346 title A general framework to test gravity using galaxy clusters IV: cluster and halo properties in DGP gravity first_author Myles A. Mitchell author Myles A. Mitchell, César Hernández-Aguayo, Christian Arnold, Baojiu Li abstract We study and model the properties of galaxy clusters in the normal-branch Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (nDGP) model of gravity, which is representative of a wide class of theories that exhibit the Vainshtein screening mechanism. Using the first cosmological simulations that incorporate both full baryonic physics and nDGP, we find that, despite being efficiently screened within clusters, the fifth force can raise the temperature of the intracluster gas, affecting the scaling relations between the cluster mass and three observable mass proxies: the gas temperature, the Compton Y-parameter of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and the X-ray analogue of the Y-parameter. Therefore, unless properly accounted for, this could lead to biased measurements of the cluster mass in tests that use cluster observations, such as cluster number counts, to probe gravity. Using a suite of dark-matter-only simulations, which span a wide range of box sizes and resolutions, and which feature very different strengths of the fifth force, we also calibrate general fitting formulae that can reproduce the nDGP halo concentration at percent accuracy for 0 ≤ z ≤ 1, and halo mass function with${\lesssim}3{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$accuracy at 0 ≤ z ≤ 1 (increasing to${\lesssim}5{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$for 1 ≤ z ≤ 2), over a halo mass range spanning four orders of magnitude. Our model for the concentration can be used for converting between halo mass overdensities and predicting statistics such as the non-linear matter power spectrum. The results of this work will form part of a framework for unbiased constraints of gravity using the data from ongoing and upcoming cluster surveys. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 508 publication_type article eprint pages 17 issue 3 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab2817  source harvard id 20884394 title BSM master formula for ε'/ε in the WET basis at NLO in QCD first_author Jason Aebischer author Jason Aebischer, Christoph Bobeth, Andrzej J. Buras, Jacky Kumar abstract As an important step towards a complete next-to-leading (NLO) QCD analysis of the ratio ε'/ε within the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT), we present for the first time the NLO master formula for the BSM part of this ratio expressed in terms of the Wilson coefficients of all contributing operators evaluated at the electroweak scale. To this end we use the common Weak Effective Theory (WET) basis (the so-called JMS basis) for which tree-level and one-loop matching to the SMEFT are already known. The relevant hadronic matrix elements of BSM operators at the electroweak scale are taken from Dual QCD approach and the SM ones from lattice QCD. It includes the renormalization group evolution and quark-flavour threshold effects at NLO in QCD from hadronic scales, at which these matrix elements have been calculated, to the electroweak scale. journal Journal of High Energy Physics publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 2021 publication_type article eprint pages issue 12 doi 10.1007/JHEP12(2021)043  source harvard id 20838945 title Rotation Curves in z 1-2 Star-forming Disks: Comparison of Dark Matter Fractions and Disk Properties for Different Fitting Methods first_author S. H. Price author S. H. Price, T. T. Shimizu, R. Genzel, H. Übler, N. M. Förster Schreiber, L. J. Tacconi, R. I. Davies, R. T. Coogan, D. Lutz, S. Wuyts, E. Wisnioski, A. Nestor, A. Sternberg, A. Burkert, R. Bender, A. Contursi, R. L. Davies, R. Herrera-Camus, M. -J. Lee, T. Naab, R. Neri, A. Renzini, R. Saglia, A. Schruba, K. Schuster abstract We present a follow-up analysis examining the dynamics and structures of 41 massive, large star-forming galaxies at z ~ 0.67 - 2.45 using both ionized and molecular gas kinematics. We fit the galaxy dynamics with models consisting of a bulge, a thick, turbulent disk, and an NFW dark matter halo, using code that fully forward-models the kinematics, including all observational and instrumental effects. We explore the parameter space using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling, including priors based on stellar and gas masses and disk sizes. We fit the full sample using extracted 1D kinematic profiles. For a subset of 14 well-resolved galaxies, we also fit the 2D kinematics. The MCMC approach robustly confirms the results from least-squares fitting presented in Paper I: the sample galaxies tend to be baryon-rich on galactic scales (within one effective radius). The 1D and 2D MCMC results are also in good agreement for the subset, demonstrating that much of the galaxy dynamical information is captured along the major axis. The 2D kinematics are more affected by the presence of noncircular motions, which we illustrate by constructing a toy model with constant inflow for one galaxy that exhibits residual signatures consistent with radial motions. This analysis, together with results from Paper I and other studies, strengthens the finding that massive, star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1 - 2 are baryon-dominated on galactic scales, with lower dark matter fractions toward higher baryonic surface densities. Finally, we present details of the kinematic fitting code used in this analysis. journal The Astrophysical Journal publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 922 publication_type article eprint pages 20 issue 2 doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac22ad  source harvard id 20838991 title Mass-ratio and Magnetic Flux Dependence of Modulated Accretion from Circumbinary Disks first_author Scott C. Noble author Scott C. Noble, Julian H. Krolik, Manuela Campanelli, Yosef Zlochower, Bruno C. Mundim, Hiroyuki Nakano, Miguel Zilhão abstract Accreting supermassive binary black holes (SMBBHs) are potential multimessenger sources because they emit both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic (EM) radiation. Past work has shown that their EM output may be periodically modulated by an asymmetric density distribution in the circumbinary disk, often called an "overdensity" or "lump;" this modulation could possibly be used to identify a source as a binary. We explore the sensitivity of the overdensity to SMBBH mass ratio and magnetic flux through the accretion disk. We find that the relative amplitude of the overdensity and its associated EM periodic signal both degrade with diminishing mass ratio, vanishing altogether somewhere between 1:2 and 1:5. Greater magnetization also weakens the lump and any modulation of the light output. We develop a model to describe how lump formation results from internal stress degrading faster in the lump region than it can be rejuvenated through accretion inflow, and predicts a threshold value in specific internal stress below which lump formation should occur and which all our lump-forming simulations satisfy. Thus, detection of such a modulation would provide a constraint on both mass ratio and magnetic flux piercing the accretion flow. journal The Astrophysical Journal publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 922 publication_type article eprint pages 29 issue 2 doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac2229  source harvard id 20766145 title The formation of wide exoKuiper belts from migrating dust traps first_author E. Miller author E. Miller, S. Marino, S. M. Stammler, P. Pinilla, C. Lenz, T. Birnstiel, Th Henning abstract The question of what determines the width of Kuiper belt analogues (exoKuiper belts) is an open one. If solved, this understanding would provide valuable insights into the architecture, dynamics, and formation of exoplanetary systems. Recent observations by ALMA have revealed an apparent paradox in this field, the presence of radially narrow belts in protoplanetary discs that are likely the birthplaces of planetesimals, and exoKuiper belts nearly four times as wide in mature systems. If the parent planetesimals of this type of debris disc indeed form in these narrow protoplanetary rings via streaming instability where dust is trapped, we propose that this width dichotomy could naturally arise if these dust traps form planetesimals whilst migrating radially, e.g. as caused by a migrating planet. Using the dust evolution software DUSTPY, we find that if the initial protoplanetary disc and trap conditions favour planetesimal formation, dust can still effectively accumulate and form planetesimals as the trap moves. This leads to a positive correlation between the inward radial speed and final planetesimal belt width, forming belts up to ~100AU over 10 Myr of evolution. We show that although planetesimal formation is most efficient in low-viscosity (α = 10-4) discs with steep dust traps to trigger the streaming instability, the large widths of most observed planetesimal belts constrain α to values ≥4 × 10-4 at tens of AU, otherwise the traps cannot migrate far enough. Additionally, the large spread in the widths and radii of exoKuiper belts could be due to different trap migration speeds (or protoplanetary disc lifetimes) and different starting locations, respectively. Our work serves as a first step to link exoKuiper belts and rings in protoplanetary discs. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 508 publication_type article eprint pages 19 issue 4 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab2935  source harvard id 20868433 title The DESI$N$-body Simulation Project I: Testing the Robustness of Simulations for the DESI Dark Time Survey first_author Cameron Grove author Cameron Grove, Chia-Hsun Chuang, Ningombam Chandrachani Devi, Lehman Garrison, Benjamin L'Huillier, Yu Feng, John Helly, César Hernández-Aguayo, Shadab Alam, Hanyu Zhang, Yu Yu, Shaun Cole, Daniel Eisenstein, Peder Norberg, Risa Wechsler, David Brooks, Kyle Dawson, Martin Landriau, Aaron Meisner, Claire Poppett, Gregory Tarlé, Octavio Valenzuela abstract Analysis of large galaxy surveys requires confidence in the robustness of numerical simulation methods. The simulations are used to construct mock galaxy catalogs to validate data analysis pipelines and identify potential systematics. We compare three$N$-body simulation codes, ABACUS, GADGET, and SWIFT, to investigate the regimes in which their results agree. We run$N$-body simulations at three different mass resolutions,$6.25\times10^{8}$,$2.11\times10^{9}$, and$5.00\times10^{9}~h^{-1}$M$_{\odot}$, matching phases to reduce the noise within the comparisons. We find systematic errors in the halo clustering between different codes are smaller than the DESI statistical error for$s > 20\, h^{-1}$Mpc in the correlation function in redshift space. Through the resolution comparison we find that simulations run with a mass resolution of$2.1\times10^{9}~h^{-1}$M$_{\odot}$are sufficiently converged for systematic effects in the halo clustering to be smaller than the DESI statistical error at scales larger than$20 \, h^{-1}$Mpc. These findings show that the simulations are robust for extracting cosmological information from large scales which is the key goal of the DESI survey. Comparing matter power spectra, we find the codes agree to within 1% for$k \leq 10~h$Mpc$^{-1}$. We also run a comparison of three initial condition generation codes and find good agreement. In addition, we include a quasi-$N$-body code, FastPM, since we plan use it for certain DESI analyses. The impact of the halo definition and galaxy-halo relation will be presented in a follow up study. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2021 month 12 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2112.09138 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20903302 title Two-loop bispectrum of large-scale structure first_author Tobias Baldauf author Tobias Baldauf, Mathias Garny, Petter Taule, Theo Steele abstract The bispectrum is the leading non-Gaussian statistic in large-scale structure, carrying valuable information on cosmology that is complementary to the power spectrum. To access this information, we need to model the bispectrum in the weakly nonlinear regime. In this work we present the first two-loop, i.e. next-to-next-to-leading order perturbative description of the bispectrum within an effective field theory (EFT) framework. Using an analytic expansion of the perturbative kernels up to F6 we derive a renormalized bispectrum that is demonstrated to be independent of the UV cutoff. We show that the EFT parameters associated with the four independent second-order EFT operators known from the one-loop bispectrum are sufficient to absorb the UV sensitivity of the two-loop contributions in the double-hard region. In addition, we employ a simplified treatment of the single-hard region, introducing one extra EFT parameter at two-loop order. We compare our results to N -body simulations using the realization-based grid perturbation theory method and find good agreement within the expected range, as well as consistent values for the EFT parameters. The two-loop terms start to become relevant at k ≈0.07 h Mpc-1. The range of wave numbers with percent-level agreement, independently of the shape, extends from 0.08 to 0.15 h Mpc-1 when going from one to two loops at z =0 . In addition, we quantify the impact of using exact instead of Einstein-de-Sitter kernels for the one-loop bispectrum, and discuss in how far their impact can be absorbed into a shift of the EFT parameters. journal Physical Review D publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 104 publication_type article eprint pages issue 12 doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.104.123551  source inspirehep id 1985221 title The local PNG bias of neutral Hydrogen, H$_{I}$first_author Barreira, Alexandre author Alexandre Barreira abstract We use separate universe simulations with the IllustrisTNG galaxy formation model to predict the local PNG bias parameters bΦ and bΦδ of atomic neutral hydrogen, H$_{I}$. These parameters and their relation to the linear density bias parameter b$_{1}$play a key role in observational constraints of the local PNG parameter f$_{NL}$using the H$_{I}$power spectrum and bispectrum. Our results show that the popular calculation based on the universality of the halo mass function overpredicts the bΦ(b$_{1}$) and bΦδ(b$_{1}$) relations measured in the simulations. In particular, our results show that at z ≲ 1 the H$_{I}$power spectrum is more sensitive to f$_{NL}$compared to previously thought (bΦ is more negative), but is less sensitive at other epochs (bΦ is less positive). We discuss how this can be explained by the competition of physical effects such as that large-scale gravitational potentials with local PNG (i) accelerate the conversion of hydrogen to heavy elements by star formation, (ii) enhance the effects of baryonic feedback that eject the gas to regions more exposed to ionizing radiation, and (iii) promote the formation of denser structures that shield the H$_{I}$more efficiently. Our numerical results can be used to revise existing forecast studies on f$_{NL}$using 21 cm line-intensity mapping data. Despite this first step towards predictions for the local PNG bias parameters of H$_{I}$, we emphasize that more work is needed to assess their sensitivity on the assumed galaxy formation physics and H$_{I}$modeling strategy. journal JCAP publisher year 2021 month 12 volume 04 publication_type eprint 2112.03253 pages 057 issue 04 doi 10.1088/1475-7516/2022/04/057  source inspirehep id 1980998 title EOS - A Software for Flavor Physics Phenomenology first_author van Dyk, Danny author Danny van Dyk, Frederik Beaujean, Thomas Blake, Christoph Bobeth, Marzia Bordone, Katarina Dugic, Eike Eberhard, Nico Gubernari, Elena Graverini, Martin Jung, Ahmet Kokulu, Stephan Kürten, Domagoj Leljak, Philip Lüghausen, Stefan Meiser, Muslem Rahimi, Méril Reboud, Rafael Silva Coutinho, Javier Virto, K. Keri Vos abstract EOS is an open-source software for a variety of computational tasks in flavor physics. Its use cases include theory predictions within and beyond the Standard Model of particle physics, Bayesian inference of theory parameters from experimental and theoretical likelihoods, and simulation of pseudo events for a number of signal processes. EOS ensures high-performance computations through a C++ back-end and ease of usability through a Python front-end. To achieve this flexibility, EOS enables the user to select from a variety of implementations of the relevant decay processes and hadronic matrix elements at run time. In this article, we describe the general structure of the software framework and provide basic examples. Further details and in-depth interactive examples are provided as part of the EOS online documentation. journal publisher year 2021 month 11 volume publication_type eprint 2111.15428 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 1977337 title The Pacific Ocean Neutrino Experiment first_author Resconi, Elisa author Elisa Resconi abstract Neutrino telescopes are unrivaled tools to explore the Universe at its most extreme. The current generation of telescopes has shown that very high energy neutrinos are produced in the cosmos, even with hints of their possible origin, and that these neutrinos can be used to probe our understanding of particle physics at otherwise inaccessible regimes. The fluxes, however, are low, which means newer, larger telescopes are needed. Here we present the Pacific Ocean Neutrino Experiment, a proposal to build a multi-cubic-kilometer neutrino telescope off the coast of Canada. The idea builds on the experience accumulated by previous sea-water missions, and the technical expertise of Ocean Networks Canada that would facilitate deploying such a large infrastructure. The design and physics potential of the first stage and a full-scale P-ONE are discussed. journal PoS publisher year 2021 month 11 volume ICRC2021 publication_type eprint 2111.13133 pages 024 issue doi 10.22323/1.395.0024  source inspirehep id 1973021 title Searches for rare$ {B}_s^0 $and B$^{0}$decays into four muons first_author Aaij, R. author R. Aaij, A.S.W. Abdelmotteleb, C. Abellán Beteta, F. Abudinén, T. Ackernley, B. Adeva, M. Adinolfi, H. Afsharnia, C. Agapopoulou, C.A. Aidala, S. Aiola, Z. Ajaltouni, S. Akar, J. Albrecht, F. Alessio, M. Alexander, A. Alfonso Albero, Z. Aliouche, G. Alkhazov, P. Alvarez Cartelle, S. Amato, J.L. Amey, Y. Amhis, L. An, L. Anderlini, M. Andersson, A. Andreianov, M. Andreotti, F. Archilli, A. Artamonov, M. Artuso, K. Arzymatov, E. Aslanides, M. Atzeni, B. Audurier, S. Bachmann, M. Bachmayer, J.J. Back, P. Baladron Rodriguez, V. Balagura, W. Baldini, J. Baptista de Souza Leite, M. Barbetti, R.J. Barlow, S. Barsuk, W. Barter, M. Bartolini, F. Baryshnikov, J.M. Basels, S. Bashir, G. Bassi, B. Batsukh, A. Battig, A. Bay, A. Beck, M. Becker, F. Bedeschi, I. Bediaga, A. Beiter, V. Belavin, S. Belin, V. Bellee, K. Belous, I. Belov, I. Belyaev, G. Bencivenni, E. Ben-Haim, A. Berezhnoy, R. Bernet, D. Berninghoff, H.C. Bernstein, C. Bertella, A. Bertolin, C. Betancourt, F. Betti, Ia. Bezshyiko, Iaroslava Bezshyiko, S. Bhasin, J. Bhom, L. Bian, M.S. Bieker, N.V. Biesuz, S. Bifani, P. Billoir, A. Biolchini, M. Birch, F.C.R. Bishop, A. Bitadze, A. Bizzeti, M. Bjørn, M.P. Blago, T. Blake, F. Blanc, S. Blusk, D. Bobulska, J.A. Boelhauve, O. Boente Garcia, T. Boettcher, A. Boldyrev, A. Bondar, N. Bondar, S. Borghi, M. Borisyak, M. Borsato, J.T. Borsuk, S.A. Bouchiba, T.J.V. Bowcock, A. Boyer, C. Bozzi, M.J. Bradley, S. Braun, A. Brea Rodriguez, J. Brodzicka, A. Brossa Gonzalo, D. Brundu, A. Buonaura, L. Buonincontri, A.T. Burke, C. Burr, A. Bursche, A. Butkevich, J.S. Butter, J. Buytaert, W. Byczynski, S. Cadeddu, H. Cai, R. Calabrese, L. Calefice, S. Cali, R. Calladine, M. Calvi, M. Calvo Gomez, P. Camargo Magalhaes, P. Campana, A.F. Campoverde Quezada, S. Capelli, L. Capriotti, A. Carbone, G. Carboni, R. Cardinale, A. Cardini, I. Carli, P. Carniti, L. Carus, K. Carvalho Akiba, A. Casais Vidal, R. Caspary, G. Casse, M. Cattaneo, G. Cavallero, S. Celani, J. Cerasoli, D. Cervenkov, A.J. Chadwick, M.G. Chapman, M. Charles, Philippe Charpentier, Ph. Charpentier, G. Chatzikonstantinidis, C.A. Chavez Barajas, M. Chefdeville, C. Chen, S. Chen, A. Chernov, V. Chobanova, S. Cholak, M. Chrzaszcz, A. Chubykin, V. Chulikov, P. Ciambrone, M.F. Cicala, X. Cid Vidal, G. Ciezarek, P.E. L. Clarke, M. Clemencic, H.V. Cliff, J. Closier, J.L. Cobbledick, V. Coco, J.A.B. Coelho, J. Cogan, E. Cogneras, L. Cojocariu, P. Collins, T. Colombo, L. Congedo, A. Contu, N. Cooke, G. Coombs, I. Corredoira, G. Corti, C.M. Costa Sobral, B. Couturier, D.C. Craik, J. Crkovská, M. Cruz Torres, R. Currie, C.L. Da Silva, S. Dadabaev, L. Dai, E. Dall'Occo, J. Dalseno, C. D'Ambrosio, A. Danilina, P. d'Argent, A. Dashkina, J.E. Davies, A. Davis, O. De Aguiar Francisco, K. De Bruyn, S. De Capua, M. De Cian, E. De Lucia, J.M. De Miranda, L. De Paula, M. De Serio, D. De Simone, P. De Simone, F. De Vellis, J.A. de Vries, C.T. Dean, F. Debernardis, D. Decamp, V. Dedu, L. Del Buono, B. Delaney, H.-P. Dembinski, A. Dendek, V. Denysenko, D. Derkach, O. Deschamps, F. Desse, F. Dettori, B. Dey, A. Di Cicco, P. Di Nezza, S. Didenko, L. Dieste Maronas, H. Dijkstra, V. Dobishuk, C. Dong, A.M. Donohoe, F. Dordei, A.C. dos Reis, L. Douglas, A. Dovbnya, A.G. Downes, M.W. Dudek, L. Dufour, V. Duk, P. Durante, J.M. Durham, D. Dutta, A. Dziurda, A. Dzyuba, S. Easo, U. Egede, V. Egorychev, S. Eidelman, S. Eisenhardt, S. Ek-In, L. Eklund, S. Ely, A. Ene, E. Epple, S. Escher, J. Eschle, S. Esen, T. Evans, L.N. Falcao, Y. Fan, B. Fang, S. Farry, D. Fazzini, M. Féo, A. Fernandez Prieto, A.D. Fernez, F. Ferrari, L. Ferreira Lopes, F. Ferreira Rodrigues, S. Ferreres Sole, M. Ferrillo, M. Ferro-Luzzi, S. Filippov, R.A. Fini, M. Fiorini, M. Firlej, Kamil Leszek Fischer, K.M. Fischer, D.S. Fitzgerald, C. Fitzpatrick, T. Fiutowski, A. Fkiaras, F. Fleuret, M. Fontana, F. Fontanelli, R. Forty, D. Foulds-Holt, V. Franco Lima, M. Franco Sevilla, M. Frank, E. Franzoso, G. Frau, C. Frei, D.A. Friday, J. Fu, Q. Fuehring, E. Gabriel, G. Galati, A. Gallas Torreira, D. Galli, S. Gambetta, Y. Gan, M. Gandelman, P. Gandini, Y. Gao, M. Garau, L.M. Garcia Martin, P. Garcia Moreno, J. García Pardiñas, B. Garcia Plana, F.A. Garcia Rosales, L. Garrido, C. Gaspar, R.E. Geertsema, D. Gerick, L.L. Gerken, E. Gersabeck, M. Gersabeck, T. Gershon, D. Gerstel, L. Giambastiani, V. Gibson, H.K. Giemza, A.L. Gilman, M. Giovannetti, A. Gioventù, P. Gironella Gironell, C. Giugliano, K. Gizdov, E.L. Gkougkousis, V.V. Gligorov, C. Göbel, E. Golobardes, D. Golubkov, A. Golutvin, A. Gomes, S. Gomez Fernandez, F. Goncalves Abrantes, M. Goncerz, G. Gong, P. Gorbounov, I.V. Gorelov, C. Gotti, E. Govorkova, J.P. Grabowski, T. Grammatico, L.A. Granado Cardoso, E. Graugés, E. Graverini, G. Graziani, A. Grecu, L.M. Greeven, N.A. Grieser, L. Grillo, S. Gromov, B.R. Gruberg Cazon, C. Gu, M. Guarise, M. Guittiere, P.A. Günther, E. Gushchin, A. Guth, Y. Guz, T. Gys, T. Hadavizadeh, G. Haefeli, C. Haen, J. Haimberger, T. Halewood-leagas, P.M. Hamilton, J.P. Hammerich, Q. Han, X. Han, T.H. Hancock, E.B. Hansen, S. Hansmann-Menzemer, N. Harnew, T. Harrison, C. Hasse, M. Hatch, J. He, M. Hecker, K. Heijhoff, K. Heinicke, R.D.L. Henderson, A.M. Hennequin, K. Hennessy, L. Henry, J. Heuel, A. Hicheur, D. Hill, M. Hilton, S.E. Hollitt, R. Hou, Y. Hou, Jiangqiao Hu, Jifeng Hu, W. Hu, X. Hu, W. Huang, X. Huang, W. Hulsbergen, R.J. Hunter, M. Hushchyn, D. Hutchcroft, D. Hynds, P. Ibis, M. Idzik, D. Ilin, P. Ilten, A. Inglessi, A. Ishteev, K. Ivshin, R. Jacobsson, H. Jage, S. Jakobsen, E. Jans, B.K. Jashal, A. Jawahery, V. Jevtic, X. Jiang, M. John, D. Johnson, C.R. Jones, T.P. Jones, B. Jost, N. Jurik, S.H. Kalavan Kadavath, S. Kandybei, Y. Kang, M. Karacson, M. Karpov, J.W. Kautz, F. Keizer, D.M. Keller, M. Kenzie, T. Ketel, B. Khanji, A. Kharisova, S. Kholodenko, T. Kirn, V.S. Kirsebom, O. Kitouni, S. Klaver, N. Kleijne, K. Klimaszewski, M.R. Kmiec, S. Koliiev, A. Kondybayeva, A. Konoplyannikov, P. Kopciewicz, R. Kopecna, P. Koppenburg, M. Korolev, I. Kostiuk, O. Kot, S. Kotriakhova, P. Kravchenko, L. Kravchuk, R.D. Krawczyk, M. Kreps, F. Kress, S. Kretzschmar, P. Krokovny, W. Krupa, W. Krzemien, J. Kubat, M. Kucharczyk, V. Kudryavtsev, H.S. Kuindersma, G.J. Kunde, T. Kvaratskheliya, D. Lacarrere, G. Lafferty, A. Lai, A. Lampis, D. Lancierini, J.J. Lane, R. Lane, G. Lanfranchi, C. Langenbruch, J. Langer, O. Lantwin, T. Latham, F. Lazzari, R. Le Gac, S.H. Lee, R. Lefèvre, A. Leflat, S. Legotin, O. Leroy, T. Lesiak, B. Leverington, H. Li, P. Li, S. Li, Yiming Li, Yutong Li, Z. Li, X. Liang, T. Lin, R. Lindner, V. Lisovskyi, R. Litvinov, G. Liu, H. Liu, Q. Liu, S. Liu, A. Lobo Salvia, A. Loi, J. Lomba Castro, I. Longstaff, J.H. Lopes, S. López Soliño, G.H. Lovell, Y. Lu, C. Lucarelli, D. Lucchesi, S. Luchuk, M. Lucio Martinez, V. Lukashenko, Y. Luo, A. Lupato, E. Luppi, O. Lupton, A. Lusiani, X. Lyu, L. Ma, R. Ma, S. Maccolini, F. Machefert, F. Maciuc, V. Macko, P. Mackowiak, S. Maddrell-Mander, O. Madejczyk, L.R. Madhan Mohan, O. Maev, A. Maevskiy, M.W. Majewski, J.J. Malczewski, S. Malde, B. Malecki, A. Malinin, T. Maltsev, H. Malygina, G. Manca, G. Mancinelli, D. Manuzzi, D. Marangotto, J. Maratas, J.F. Marchand, U. Marconi, S. Mariani, C. Marin Benito, M. Marinangeli, J. Marks, A.M. Marshall, P.J. Marshall, G. Martelli, G. Martellotti, L. Martinazzoli, M. Martinelli, D. Martinez Santos, F. Martinez Vidal, A. Massafferri, M. Materok, R. Matev, A. Mathad, V. Matiunin, C. Matteuzzi, K.R. Mattioli, A. Mauri, E. Maurice, J. Mauricio, M. Mazurek, M. McCann, L. Mcconnell, T.H. Mcgrath, N.T. Mchugh, A. McNab, R. McNulty, J.V. Mead, B. Meadows, G. Meier, D. Melnychuk, S. Meloni, M. Merk, A. Merli, L. Meyer Garcia, M. Mikhasenko, D.A. Milanes, E. Millard, M. Milovanovic, M.-N. Minard, A. Minotti, L. Minzoni, S.E. Mitchell, B. Mitreska, D.S. Mitzel, A. Mödden, R.A. Mohammed, R.D. Moise, S. Mokhnenko, T. Mombächer, I.A. Monroy, S. Monteil, M. Morandin, G. Morello, M.J. Morello, J. Moron, A.B. Morris, A.G. Morris, R. Mountain, H. Mu, F. Muheim, M. Mulder, D. Müller, K. Müller, C.H. Murphy, D. Murray, R. Murta, P. Muzzetto, P. Naik, T. Nakada, R. Nandakumar, T. Nanut, I. Nasteva, M. Needham, N. Neri, S. Neubert, N. Neufeld, R. Newcombe, E.M. Niel, S. Nieswand, N. Nikitin, N.S. Nolte, C. Normand, C. Nunez, A. Oblakowska-Mucha, V. Obraztsov, T. Oeser, D.P. O'Hanlon, S. Okamura, R. Oldeman, F. Oliva, M.E. Olivares, C.J. G. Onderwater, R.H. O'Neil, J.M. Otalora Goicochea, T. Ovsiannikova, P. Owen, A. Oyanguren, K.O. Padeken, B. Pagare, P.R. Pais, T. Pajero, A. Palano, M. Palutan, Y. Pan, G. Panshin, A. Papanestis, M. Pappagallo, L.L. Pappalardo, C. Pappenheimer, W. Parker, C. Parkes, B. Passalacqua, G. Passaleva, A. Pastore, M. Patel, C. Patrignani, C.J. Pawley, A. Pearce, A. Pellegrino, M. Pepe Altarelli, S. Perazzini, D. Pereima, A. Pereiro Castro, P. Perret, M. Petric, K. Petridis, A. Petrolini, A. Petrov, S. Petrucci, M. Petruzzo, T.T.H. Pham, A. Philippov, R. Piandani, L. Pica, M. Piccini, B. Pietrzyk, G. Pietrzyk, M. Pili, D. Pinci, F. Pisani, M. Pizzichemi, P.K. Resmi, V. Placinta, J. Plews, M. Plo Casasus, F. Polci, M. Poli Lener, M. Poliakova, A. Poluektov, N. Polukhina, I. Polyakov, E. Polycarpo, S. Ponce, D. Popov, S. Popov, S. Poslavskii, K. Prasanth, L. Promberger, C. Prouve, V. Pugatch, V. Puill, G. Punzi, H. Qi, W. Qian, N. Qin, R. Quagliani, N.V. Raab, R.I. Rabadan Trejo, B. Rachwal, J.H. Rademacker, M. Rama, M. Ramos Pernas, M.S. Rangel, F. Ratnikov, G. Raven, M. Reboud, F. Redi, F. Reiss, C. Remon Alepuz, Z. Ren, V. Renaudin, R. Ribatti, A.M. Ricci, S. Ricciardi, K. Rinnert, P. Robbe, G. Robertson, A.B. Rodrigues, E. Rodrigues, J.A. Rodriguez Lopez, E.R. R. Rodriguez Rodriguez, A. Rollings, P. Roloff, V. Romanovskiy, M. Romero Lamas, A. Romero Vidal, J.D. Roth, M. Rotondo, M.S. Rudolph, T. Ruf, R.A. Ruiz Fernandez, J. Ruiz Vidal, A. Ryzhikov, J. Ryzka, J.J. Saborido Silva, N. Sagidova, N. Sahoo, B. Saitta, M. Salomoni, C. Sanchez Gras, R. Santacesaria, C. Santamarina Rios, M. Santimaria, E. Santovetti, D. Saranin, G. Sarpis, M. Sarpis, A. Sarti, C. Satriano, A. Satta, M. Saur, D. Savrina, H. Sazak, L.G. Scantlebury Smead, A. Scarabotto, S. Schael, S. Scherl, M. Schiller, H. Schindler, M. Schmelling, B. Schmidt, S. Schmitt, O. Schneider, A. Schopper, M. Schubiger, S. Schulte, M.H. Schune, R. Schwemmer, B. Sciascia, S. Sellam, A. Semennikov, M. Senghi Soares, A. Sergi, N. Serra, L. Sestini, A. Seuthe, Y. Shang, D.M. Shangase, M. Shapkin, I. Shchemerov, L. Shchutska, T. Shears, L. Shekhtman, Z. Shen, S. Sheng, V. Shevchenko, E.B. Shields, Y. Shimizu, E. Shmanin, J.D. Shupperd, B.G. Siddi, R. Silva Coutinho, G. Simi, S. Simone, N. Skidmore, T. Skwarnicki, M.W. Slater, I. Slazyk, J.C. Smallwood, J.G. Smeaton, A. Smetkina, E. Smith, M. Smith, A. Snoch, L. Soares Lavra, M.D. Sokoloff, F.J. P. Soler, A. Solovev, I. Solovyev, F.L. Souza De Almeida, B. Souza De Paula, B. Spaan, E. Spadaro Norella, P. Spradlin, F. Stagni, M. Stahl, S. Stahl, S. Stanislaus, O. Steinkamp, O. Stenyakin, H. Stevens, S. Stone, D. Strekalina, F. Suljik, J. Sun, L. Sun, Y. Sun, P. Svihra, P.N. Swallow, K. Swientek, A. Szabelski, T. Szumlak, M. Szymanski, S. Taneja, A.R. Tanner, M.D. Tat, A. Terentev, F. Teubert, E. Thomas, D.J.D. Thompson, K.A. Thomson, H. Tilquin, V. Tisserand, S. T'Jampens, M. Tobin, L. Tomassetti, X. Tong, D. Torres Machado, D.Y. Tou, E. Trifonova, S.M. Trilov, C. Trippl, G. Tuci, A. Tully, N. Tuning, A. Ukleja, D.J. Unverzagt, E. Ursov, A. Usachov, A. Ustyuzhanin, U. Uwer, A. Vagner, V. Vagnoni, A. Valassi, G. Valenti, N. Valls Canudas, M. van Beuzekom, M. Van Dijk, H. Van Hecke, E. van Herwijnen, M. van Veghel, R. Vazquez Gomez, P. Vazquez Regueiro, C. Vázquez Sierra, S. Vecchi, J.J. Velthuis, M. Veltri, A. Venkateswaran, M. Veronesi, M. Vesterinen, D. Vieira, M. Vieites Diaz, H. Viemann, X. Vilasis-Cardona, E. Vilella Figueras, A. Villa, P. Vincent, F.C. Volle, D. Vom Bruch, A. Vorobyev, V. Vorobyev, N. Voropaev, K. Vos, R. Waldi, J. Walsh, C. Wang, Jialu Wang, Jianchun Wang, Jianqiao Wang, Jike Wang, M. Wang, R. Wang, Y. Wang, Zhenzi Wang, Zirui Wang, Ziyi Wang, J.A. Ward, N.K. Watson, S.G. Weber, D. Websdale, C. Weisser, B.D.C. Westhenry, D.J. White, M. Whitehead, A.R. Wiederhold, D. Wiedner, G. Wilkinson, M. Wilkinson, I. Williams, Mike Williams, Mark Richard James Williams, F.F. Wilson, W. Wislicki, M. Witek, L. Witola, G. Wormser, S.A. Wotton, H. Wu, K. Wyllie, Z. Xiang, D. Xiao, Y. Xie, A. Xu, J. Xu, L. Xu, M. Xu, Q. Xu, Zehua Xu, Zhihao Xu, D. Yang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, Zhenwei Yang, Zishuo Yang, Y. Yao, L.E. Yeomans, H. Yin, J. Yu, X. Yuan, O. Yushchenko, E. Zaffaroni, M. Zavertyaev, M. Zdybal, O. Zenaiev, M. Zeng, D. Zhang, L. Zhang, Shulei Zhang, Shunan Zhang, Yanxi Zhang, Yu Zhang, A. Zharkova, A. Zhelezov, Y. Zheng, T. Zhou, X. Zhou, Y. Zhou, V. Zhovkovska, Xianglei Zhu, Xiaoyu Zhu, Z. Zhu, V. Zhukov, J.B. Zonneveld, Q. Zou, S. Zucchelli, D. Zuliani, G. Zunica abstract Searches for rare$ {B}_s^0 $and B$^{0}$decays into four muons are performed using proton-proton collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9 fb$^{−1}$. Direct decays and decays via light scalar and J/ψ resonances are considered. No evidence for the six decays searched for is found and upper limits at the 95% confidence level on their branching fractions ranging between 1.8 × 10$^{−10}$and 2.6 × 10$^{−9}$are set.[graphic not available: see fulltext] journal JHEP publisher year 2021 month 11 volume 03 publication_type eprint 2111.11339 pages 109 issue doi 10.1007/JHEP03(2022)109  source inspirehep id 1968664 title QCD static force in gradient flow first_author Brambilla, Nora author Nora Brambilla, Hee Sok Chung, Antonio Vairo, Xiang-Peng Wang abstract We compute the QCD static force and potential using gradient flow at next-to-leading order in the strong coupling. The static force is the spatial derivative of the static potential: it encodes the QCD interaction at both short and long distances. While on the one side the static force has the advantage of being free of the O(Λ$_{QCD}$) renormalon affecting the static potential when computed in perturbation theory, on the other side its direct lattice QCD computation suffers from poor convergence. The convergence can be improved by using gradient flow, where the gauge fields in the operator definition of a given quantity are replaced by flowed fields at flow time t, which effectively smear the gauge fields over a distance of order$ \sqrt{t} $, while they reduce to the QCD fields in the limit t → 0. Based on our next-to-leading order calculation, we explore the properties of the static force for arbitrary values of t, as well as in the t → 0 limit, which may be useful for lattice QCD studies. journal JHEP publisher year 2021 month 11 volume 01 publication_type eprint 2111.07811 pages 184 issue doi 10.1007/JHEP01(2022)184  source inspirehep id 1969103 title Operation of an archaeological lead PbWO$_4$crystal to search for neutrinos from astrophysical sources with a Transition Edge Sensor first_author Iachellini, N. Ferreiro author N. Ferreiro Iachellini, L. Pattavina, A.H. Abdelhameed, A. Bento, L. Canonica, F. Danevich, O.M. Dubovik, D. Fuchs, A. Garai, M. Mancuso, F. Petricca, I.A. Tupitsyna abstract The experimental detection of the CE$\nu$NS allows the investigation of neutrinos and neutrino sources with all-flavor sensitivity. Given its large content in neutrons and stability, Pb is a very appealing choice as target element. The presence of the radioisotope$^{210}$Pb (T$_{1/2}\sim$22 yrs) makes natural Pb unsuitable for low-background, low-energy event searches. This limitation can be overcome employing Pb of archaeological origin, where several half-lives of$^{210}$Pb have gone by. We present results of a cryogenic measurement of a 15g PbWO$_4$crystal, grown with archaeological Pb (older than$\sim$2000 yrs) that achieved a sub-keV nuclear recoil detection threshold. A ton-scale experiment employing such material, with a detection threshold for nuclear recoils of just 1 keV would probe the entire Milky Way for SuperNovae, with equal sensitivity for all neutrino flavors, allowing the study of the core of such exceptional events. journal publisher year 2021 month 11 volume publication_type eprint 2111.07638 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 1966586 title Inclusive Hadroproduction of$P$-wave Heavy Quarkonia in pNRQCD first_author Chung, Hee Sok author Hee Sok Chung abstract We compute NRQCD long-distance matrix elements that appear in the inclusive production cross sections of$P$-wave heavy quarkonia in the framework of potential NRQCD. The formalism developed in this work applies to strongly coupled charmonia and bottomonia. This makes possible the determination of color-octet NRQCD long-distance matrix elements without relying on measured cross section data, which has not been possible so far. We obtain results for inclusive production cross sections of$\chi_{cJ}$and$\chi_{bJ}$at the LHC, which are in good agreement with measurements. journal publisher year 2021 month 11 volume publication_type eprint 2111.06232 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 1965494 title Quantum gravity phenomenology at the dawn of the multi-messenger era—A review first_author Addazi, A. author A. Addazi, J. Alvarez-Muniz, R. Alves Batista, G. Amelino-Camelia, V. Antonelli, M. Arzano, M. Asorey, J.-L. Atteia, S. Bahamonde, F. Bajardi, A. Ballesteros, B. Baret, D.M. Barreiros, S. Basilakos, D. Benisty, O. Birnholtz, J.J. Blanco-Pillado, D. Blas, J. Bolmont, D. Boncioli, P. Bosso, G. Calcagni, S. Capozziello, J.M. Carmona, S. Cerci, M. Chernyakova, S. Clesse, J.A.B. Coelho, S.M. Colak, J.L. Cortes, S. Das, V. D'Esposito, M. Demirci, M.G. Di Luca, A. di Matteo, D. Dimitrijevic, G. Djordjevic, D. Dominis Prester, A. Eichhorn, J. Ellis, C. Escamilla-Rivera, G. Fabiano, S.A. Franchino-Viñas, A.M. Frassino, D. Frattulillo, S. Funk, A. Fuster, J. Gamboa, A. Gent, L.Á. Gergely, M. Giammarchi, K. Giesel, J.-F. Glicenstein, J. Gracia-Bondía, R. Gracia-Ruiz, G. Gubitosi, E.I. Guendelman, I. Gutierrez-Sagredo, L. Haegel, S. Heefer, A. Held, F.J. Herranz, T. Hinderer, J.I. Illana, A. Ioannisian, P. Jetzer, F.R. Joaquim, K.-H. Kampert, A. Karasu Uysal, T. Katori, N. Kazarian, D. Kerszberg, J. Kowalski-Glikman, S. Kuroyanagi, C. Lämmerzahl, J. Levi Said, S. Liberati, E. Lim, I.P. Lobo, M. López-Moya, G.G. Luciano, M. Manganaro, A. Marcianò, P. Martín-Moruno, Manel Martinez, Mario Martinez, H. Martínez-Huerta, P. Martínez-Miravé, M. Masip, D. Mattingly, N. Mavromatos, A. Mazumdar, F. Méndez, F. Mercati, S. Micanovic, J. Mielczarek, A.L. Miller, M. Milosevic, D. Minic, L. Miramonti, V.A. Mitsou, P. Moniz, S. Mukherjee, G. Nardini, S. Navas, M. Niechciol, A.B. Nielsen, N.A. Obers, F. Oikonomou, D. Oriti, C.F. Paganini, S. Palomares-Ruiz, R. Pasechnik, V. Pasic, C. Pérez de los Heros, C. Pfeifer, M.P. Pieroni, T. Piran, A. Platania, S. Rastgoo, J.J. Relancio, M.A. Reyes, A. Ricciardone, M. Risse, M.D. Rodriguez Frias, G. Rosati, D. Rubiera-Garcia, H. Sahlmann, M. Sakellariadou, F. Salamida, E.N. Saridakis, P. Satunin, M. Schiffer, F. Schüssler, G. Sigl, J. Sitarek, J. Solà Peracaula, C.F. Sopuerta, T.P. Sotiriou, M. Spurio, D. Staicova, N. Stergioulas, S. Stoica, J. Strišković, T. Stuttard, D. Sunar Cerci, Y. Tavakoli, C.A. Ternes, T. Terzić, T. Thiemann, P. Tinyakov, M.D.C. Torri, M. Tórtola, C. Trimarelli, T. Trześniewski, A. Tureanu, F.R. Urban, E.C. Vagenas, D. Vernieri, V. Vitagliano, J.-C. Wallet, J.D. Zornoza abstract The exploration of the universe has recently entered a new era thanks to the multi-messenger paradigm, characterized by a continuous increase in the quantity and quality of experimental data that is obtained by the detection of the various cosmic messengers (photons, neutrinos, cosmic rays and gravitational waves) from numerous origins. They give us information about their sources in the universe and the properties of the intergalactic medium. Moreover, multi-messenger astronomy opens up the possibility to search for phenomenological signatures of quantum gravity. On the one hand, the most energetic events allow us to test our physical theories at energy regimes which are not directly accessible in accelerators; on the other hand, tiny effects in the propagation of very high energy particles could be amplified by cosmological distances. After decades of merely theoretical investigations, the possibility of obtaining phenomenological indications of Planck-scale effects is a revolutionary step in the quest for a quantum theory of gravity, but it requires cooperation between different communities of physicists (both theoretical and experimental). This review, prepared within the COST Action CA18108 “Quantum gravity phenomenology in the multi-messenger approach”, is aimed at promoting this cooperation by giving a state-of-the art account of the interdisciplinary expertise that is needed in the effective search of quantum gravity footprints in the production, propagation and detection of cosmic messengers. journal Prog.Part.Nucl.Phys. publisher year 2021 month 11 volume 125 publication_type eprint 2111.05659 pages issue doi 10.1016/j.ppnp.2022.103948  source inspirehep id 1964800 title Shocks in the Stacked Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Profiles of Clusters II: Measurements from SPT-SZ + Planck Compton-y Map first_author Anbajagane, D. author D. Anbajagane, C. Chang, B. Jain, S. Adhikari, E.J. Baxter, B.A. Benson, L.E. Bleem, S. Bocquet, M.S. Calzadilla, J.E. Carlstrom, C.L. Chang, R. Chown, T.M. Crawford, A.T. Crites, W. Cui, T. de Haan, L. Di Mascolo, M.A. Dobbs, W.B. Everett, E.M. George, S. Grandis, N.W. Halverson, G.P. Holder, W.L. Holzapfel, J.D. Hrubes, A.T. Lee, D. Luong-Van, M.A. McDonald, J.J. McMahon, S.S. Meyer, M. Millea, L.M. Mocanu, J.J. Mohr, T. Natoli, Y. Omori, S. Padin, C. Pryke, C.L. Reichardt, J.E. Ruhl, A. Saro, K.K. Schaffer, E. Shirokoff, Z. Staniszewski, A.A. Stark, J.D. Vieira, R. Williamson abstract We search for the signature of shocks in stacked gas pressure profiles of galaxy clusters using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Specifically, we stack the recently released Compton-y maps from the 2500 deg^2 SPT-SZ survey on the locations of clusters identified in that same dataset. The sample contains 516 clusters with mean mass = 1e14.9 msol and redshift = 0.55. We analyze in parallel a set of zoom-in hydrodynamical simulations from The Three Hundred project. The SPT-SZ data show two features: (i) a pressure deficit at R/R200m =$1.08 \pm 0.09$, measured at$3.1\sigma$significance and not observed in the simulations, and; (ii) a sharp decrease in pressure at R/R200m =$4.58 \pm 1.24$at$2.0\sigma$significance. The pressure deficit is qualitatively consistent with a shock-induced thermal non-equilibrium between electrons and ions, and the second feature is consistent with accretion shocks seen in previous studies. We split the cluster sample by redshift and mass, and find both features exist in all cases. There are also no significant differences in features along and across the cluster major axis, whose orientation roughly points towards filamentary structure. As a consistency test, we also analyze clusters from the Planck and Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter surveys and find quantitatively similar features in the pressure profiles. Finally, we compare the accretion shock radius (Rsh_acc) with existing measurements of the splashback radius (Rsp) for SPT-SZ and constrain the lower limit of the ratio, Rsh_acc/Rsp >$2.16 \pm 0.59$. journal publisher year 2021 month 11 volume publication_type eprint 2111.04778 pages issue doi  source inspirehep id 1960979 title Study of$ {\mathrm{B}}_{\mathrm{c}}^{+} $decays to charmonia and three light hadrons first_author Aaij, Roel author Roel Aaij, Ahmed Sameh Wagih Abdelmotteleb, Carlos Abellán Beteta, Fernando Jesus Abudinen Gallego, Thomas Ackernley, Bernardo Adeva, Marco Adinolfi, Hossein Afsharnia, Christina Agapopoulou, Christine Angela Aidala, Salvatore Aiola, Ziad Ajaltouni, Simon Akar, Johannes Albrecht, Federico Alessio, Michael Alexander, Alejandro Alfonso Albero, Zakariya Aliouche, Georgy Alkhazov, Paula Alvarez Cartelle, Sandra Amato, Jake Lewis Amey, Yasmine Amhis, Liupan An, Lucio Anderlini, Aleksei Andreianov, Mirco Andreotti, Flavio Archilli, Alexander Artamonov, Marina Artuso, Kenenbek Arzymatov, Elie Aslanides, Michele Atzeni, Benjamin Audurier, Sebastian Bachmann, Marie Bachmayer, John Back, Pablo Baladron Rodriguez, Vladislav Balagura, Wander Baldini, Juan Baptista Leite, Matteo Barbetti, Roger Barlow, Sergey Barsuk, William Barter, Matteo Bartolini, Fedor Baryshnikov, Jan-Marc Basels, Saliha Bashir, Giovanni Bassi, Baasansuren Batsukh, Alexander Battig, Aurelio Bay, Anja Beck, Maik Becker, Franco Bedeschi, Ignacio Bediaga, Andrew Beiter, Vladislav Belavin, Samuel Belin, Violaine Bellee, Konstantin Belous, Ilia Belov, Ivan Belyaev, Giovanni Bencivenni, Eli Ben-Haim, Alexander Berezhnoy, Roland Bernet, Daniel Berninghoff, Harris Conan Bernstein, Claudia Bertella, Alessandro Bertolin, Christopher Betancourt, Federico Betti, Ia. Bezshyiko, Iaroslava Bezshyiko, Srishti Bhasin, Jihyun Bhom, Lingzhu Bian, Martin Stefan Bieker, Simone Bifani, Pierre Billoir, Alice Biolchini, Matthew Birch, Fionn Caitlin Ros Bishop, Alexander Bitadze, Andrea Bizzeti, Mikkel Bjørn, Michele Piero Blago, Thomas Blake, Frederic Blanc, Steven Blusk, Dana Bobulska, Julian Alexander Boelhauve, Oscar Boente Garcia, Thomas Boettcher, Alexey Boldyrev, Alexander Bondar, Nikolay Bondar, Silvia Borghi, Maxim Borisyak, Martino Borsato, Jozef Tomasz Borsuk, Sonia Amina Bouchiba, Themistocles Bowcock, Alexandre Boyer, Concezio Bozzi, Matthew John Bradley, Svende Braun, Alexandre Brea Rodriguez, Jolanta Brodzicka, Arnau Brossa Gonzalo, Davide Brundu, Annarita Buonaura, Laura Buonincontri, Aodhan Tomas Burke, Christopher Burr, Albert Bursche, Anatoly Butkevich, Jordy Sebastiaan Butter, Jan Buytaert, Wiktor Byczynski, Sandro Cadeddu, Hao Cai, Roberto Calabrese, Lukas Calefice, Stefano Cali, Ryan Calladine, Marta Calvi, Miriam Calvo Gomez, Patricia Camargo Magalhaes, Pierluigi Campana, Angel Fernando Campoverde Quezada, Simone Capelli, Lorenzo Capriotti, Angelo Carbone, Giovanni Carboni, Roberta Cardinale, Alessandro Cardini, Ina Carli, Paolo Carniti, Leon David Carus, Kazuyoshi Carvalho Akiba, Adrian Casais Vidal, Rowina Caspary, Gianluigi Casse, Marco Cattaneo, Giovanni Cavallero, Sara Celani, Jacopo Cerasoli, Daniel Cervenkov, Abbie Jane Chadwick, Matthew George Chapman, Matthew Charles, Philippe Charpentier, Ph. Charpentier, Georgios Chatzikonstantinidis, Carlos Alberto Chavez Barajas, Maximilien Chefdeville, Chen Chen, Shanzhen Chen, Aleksei Chernov, Veronika Chobanova, Serhii Cholak, Marcin Chrzaszcz, Alexsei Chubykin, Vladimir Chulikov, Paolo Ciambrone, Maria Flavia Cicala, Xabier Cid Vidal, Gregory Ciezarek, P.E. L. Clarke, Marco Clemencic, Harry Cliff, Joel Closier, John Leslie Cobbledick, Victor Coco, Joao A B Coelho, Julien Cogan, Eric Cogneras, Lucian Cojocariu, Paula Collins, Tommaso Colombo, Liliana Congedo, Andrea Contu, Naomi Cooke, George Coombs, Imanol Corredoira, Gloria Corti, Cayo Mar Costa Sobral, Benjamin Couturier, Daniel Charles Craik, Jana Crkovská, Melissa Maria Cruz Torres, Robert Currie, Cesar Luiz Da Silva, Shakhzod Dadabaev, Lingyun Dai, Elena Dall'Occo, Jeremy Dalseno, Carmelo D'Ambrosio, Anna Danilina, Philippe d'Argent, Aigerim Dashkina, Jonathan Edward Davies, Adam Davis, Oscar De Aguiar Francisco, Kristof De Bruyn, Stefano De Capua, Michel De Cian, Erika De Lucia, Jussara De Miranda, Leandro De Paula, Marilisa De Serio, Dario De Simone, Patrizia De Simone, Fabio De Vellis, Jacco de Vries, Cameron Thomas Dean, Francesco Debernardis, Daniel Decamp, Vlad-George Dedu, Luigi Del Buono, Blaise Delaney, Hans Peter Dembinski, Adam Dendek, Vadym Denysenko, Denis Derkach, Olivier Deschamps, Fabrice Desse, Francesco Dettori, Biplab Dey, Alessandro Di Cicco, Pasquale Di Nezza, Sergey Didenko, Lorena Dieste Maronas, Hans Dijkstra, Vasyl Dobishuk, Chenzhi Dong, Amanda May Donohoe, Francesca Dordei, Alberto dos Reis, Lauren Douglas, Anatoliy Dovbnya, Anthony Gavin Downes, Maciej Wojciech Dudek, Laurent Dufour, Viacheslav Duk, Paolo Durante, John Matthew Durham, Deepanwita Dutta, Agnieszka Dziurda, Alexey Dzyuba, Sajan Easo, Ulrik Egede, Artem Egorychev, Victor Egorychev, Semen Eidelman, Stephan Eisenhardt, Surapat Ek-In, Lars Eklund, Scott Ely, Alexandru Ene, Eliane Epple, Stephan Escher, Jonas Nathanael Eschle, Sevda Esen, Timothy Evans, Yanting Fan, Bo Fang, Stephen Farry, Davide Fazzini, Mauricio Féo, Antonio Fernandez Prieto, Alex Daniel Fernez, Fabio Ferrari, Lino Ferreira Lopes, Fernando Ferreira Rodrigues, Silvia Ferreres Sole, Martina Ferrillo, Massimiliano Ferro-Luzzi, Sergey Filippov, Rosa Anna Fini, Massimiliano Fiorini, Miroslaw Firlej, Kamil Leszek Fischer, K.M. Fischer, Dillon Scott Fitzgerald, Conor Fitzpatrick, Tomasz Fiutowski, Aristeidis Fkiaras, Frederic Fleuret, Marianna Fontana, Flavio Fontanelli, Roger Forty, Daniel Foulds-Holt, Vinicius Franco Lima, Manuel Franco Sevilla, Markus Frank, Edoardo Franzoso, Giulia Frau, Christoph Frei, David Anthony Friday, Jinlin Fu, Quentin Fuehring, Emmy Gabriel, Giuliana Galati, Abraham Gallas Torreira, Domenico Galli, Silvia Gambetta, Yuyue Gan, Miriam Gandelman, Paolo Gandini, Yuanning Gao, Michela Garau, Luis Miguel Garcia Martin, Paula Garcia Moreno, Julián García Pardiñas, Beatriz Garcia Plana, Felipe Andres Garcia Rosales, Lluis Garrido, Clara Gaspar, Robbert Erik Geertsema, David Gerick, Louis Lenard Gerken, Evelina Gersabeck, Marco Gersabeck, Timothy Gershon, Dawid Gerstel, Luca Giambastiani, Valerie Gibson, Henryk Karol Giemza, Alexander Leon Gilman, Matteo Giovannetti, Alessandra Gioventù, Pere Gironella Gironell, Carmen Giugliano, Konstantin Gizdov, Evangelos Leonidas Gkougkousis, Vladimir Gligorov, Carla Göbel, Elisabet Golobardes, Dmitry Golubkov, Andrey Golutvin, Alvaro Gomes, Sergio Gomez Fernandez, Fernanda Goncalves Abrantes, Mateusz Goncerz, Guanghua Gong, Petr Gorbounov, Igor Vladimirovich Gorelov, Claudio Gotti, Ekaterina Govorkova, Jascha Peter Grabowski, Thomas Grammatico, Luis Alberto Granado Cardoso, Eugeni Graugés, Elena Graverini, Giacomo Graziani, Alexandru Grecu, Lex Marinus Greeven, Nathan Allen Grieser, Lucia Grillo, Sergey Gromov, Barak Raimond Gruberg Cazon, Chenxi Gu, Marco Guarise, Manuel Guittiere, Paul Andre Günther, Evgeny Gushchin, Andreas Guth, Yury Guz, Thierry Gys, Thomas Hadavizadeh, Guido Haefeli, Christophe Haen, Jakob Haimberger, Tabitha Halewood-leagas, Phoebe Meredith Hamilton, Jan Patrick Hammerich, Qundong Han, Xiaoxue Han, Thomas Henry Hancock, Eva Brottmann Hansen, Stephanie Hansmann-Menzemer, Neville Harnew, Thomas Harrison, Christoph Hasse, Mark Hatch, Jibo He, Malte Hecker, Kevin Heijhoff, Kevin Heinicke, Riley Dylan Leslie Henderson, Arthur Marius Hennequin, Karol Hennessy, Louis Henry, Johannes Heuel, Adlène Hicheur, Donal Hill, Martha Hilton, Sophie Elizabeth Hollitt, Ruiwe Hou, Yingrui Hou, Jiangqiao Hu, Jifeng Hu, Wenhua Hu, Xiaofan Hu, Wenqian Huang, Xiaotao Huang, Wouter Hulsbergen, Ross John Hunter, Mikhail Hushchyn, David Hutchcroft, Daniel Hynds, Philipp Ibis, Marek Idzik, Dmitrii Ilin, Philip Ilten, Alexander Inglessi, Artur Ishteev, Kuzma Ivshin, Richard Jacobsson, Hendrik Jage, Sune Jakobsen, Eddy Jans, Brij Kishor Jashal, Abolhassan Jawahery, Vukan Jevtic, Xiaojie Jiang, Malcolm John, Daniel Johnson, Christopher Jones, Thomas Peter Jones, Beat Jost, Nathan Jurik, Sabin Hashmi Kalavan Kadavath, Sergii Kandybei, Youen Kang, Matthias Karacson, Maksim Karpov, Floris Keizer, Dustin Michael Keller, Matthew Kenzie, Tjeerd Ketel, Basem Khanji, Anastasiia Kharisova, Sergei Kholodenko, Thomas Kirn, Veronica Soelund Kirsebom, Ouail Kitouni, Suzanne Klaver, Nico Kleijne, Konrad Klimaszewski, Mateusz Rafal Kmiec, Serhii Koliiev, Almagul Kondybayeva, Anatoly Konoplyannikov, Pawel Kopciewicz, Renata Kopecna, Patrick Koppenburg, Mikhail Korolev, Igor Kostiuk, Oleksander Kot, Sofia Kotriakhova, Polina Kravchenko, Leonid Kravchuk, Rafal Dominik Krawczyk, Michal Kreps, Felix Johannes Kress, Sophie Katharina Kretzschmar, Pavel Krokovny, Wojciech Krupa, Wojciech Krzemien, Jakub Kubat, Marcin Kucharczyk, Vasily Kudryavtsev, Hilbrand Steffen Kuindersma, Gerd Joachim Kunde, Tengiz Kvaratskheliya, Daniel Lacarrere, George Lafferty, Adriano Lai, Andrea Lampis, Davide Lancierini, John Jake Lane, Richard Lane, Gaia Lanfranchi, Christoph Langenbruch, Jan Langer, Oliver Lantwin, Thomas Latham, Federico Lazzari, Renaud Le Gac, Sook Hyun Lee, Regis Lefèvre, Alexander Leflat, Sergey Legotin, Olivier Leroy, Tadeusz Lesiak, Blake Leverington, Hengne Li, Peilian Li, Shiyang Li, Yiming Li, Yutong Li, Zhuoming Li, Xixin Liang, Tai-hua Lin, Rolf Lindner, Vitalii Lisovskyi, Roman Litvinov, Guoming Liu, Huanhuan Liu, Qian Liu, Shuaiyi Liu, Aniol Lobo Salvia, Angelo Loi, Julian Lomba Castro, Iain Longstaff, Jose Lopes, Saul Lopez Solino, George Holger Lovell, Yu Lu, Chiara Lucarelli, Donatella Lucchesi, Stanislav Luchuk, Miriam Lucio Martinez, Valeriia Lukashenko, Yiheng Luo, Anna Lupato, Eleonora Luppi, Oliver Lupton, Alberto Lusiani, Xiao-Rui Lyu, Lishuang Ma, Ruiting Ma, Serena Maccolini, Frederic Machefert, Florin Maciuc, Vladimir Macko, Patrick Mackowiak, Samuel Maddrell-Mander, Olga Madejczyk, Lakshan Ram Madhan Mohan, Oleg Maev, Artem Maevskiy, Dmitrii Maisuzenko, Maciej Witold Majewski, Jakub Jacek Malczewski, Sneha Malde, Bartosz Malecki, Alexander Malinin, Timofei Maltsev, Hanna Malygina, Giulia Manca, Giampiero Mancinelli, Daniele Manuzzi, Daniele Marangotto, Jan Maratas, Jean François Marchand, Umberto Marconi, Saverio Mariani, Carla Marin Benito, Matthieu Marinangeli, Jörg Marks, Alexander Mclean Marshall, Phillip John Marshall, Gabriele Martelli, Giuseppe Martellotti, Loris Martinazzoli, Maurizio Martinelli, Diego Martinez Santos, Fernando Martinez Vidal, André Massafferri, Marcel Materok, Rosen Matev, Abhijit Mathad, Viacheslav Matiunin, Clara Matteuzzi, Kara Renee Mattioli, Andrea Mauri, Emilie Maurice, Juan Mauricio, Michal Kazimierz Mazurek, Michael McCann, Lucas Mcconnell, Tamaki Holly Mcgrath, Niall Thomas Mchugh, Andrew McNab, Ronan McNulty, James Vincent Mead, Brian Meadows, Gerwin Meier, Nis Meinert, Dmytro Melnychuk, Simone Meloni, Marcel Merk, Andrea Merli, Lucas Meyer Garcia, Mikhail Mikhasenko, Diego Alejandro Milanes, Edward James Millard, Marko Milovanovic, Marie-Noelle Minard, Alessandro Minotti, Luca Minzoni, Sara Elizabeth Mitchell, Biljana Mitreska, Dominik Stefan Mitzel, Antje Mödden, Rizwaan Adeeb Mohammed, Razvan Daniel Moise, Sergei Mokhnenko, Titus Mombächer, Igancio Alberto Monroy, Stephane Monteil, Mauro Morandin, Gianfranco Morello, Michael Joseph Morello, Jakub Moron, Adam Benjamin Morris, Andrew George Morris, Raymond Mountain, Hongjie Mu, Franz Muheim, Mick Mulder, Dominik Müller, Katharina Müller, Colm Harold Murphy, Donal Murray, Rebecca Murta, Piera Muzzetto, Paras Naik, Tatsuya Nakada, Raja Nandakumar, Tara Nanut, Irina Nasteva, Matthew Needham, Nicola Neri, Sebastian Neubert, Niko Neufeld, Ryan Newcombe, Elisabeth Maria Niel, Simon Nieswand, Nikolay Nikitin, Niklas Stefan Nolte, Camille Normand, Cynthia Nunez, Agnieszka Oblakowska-Mucha, Vladimir Obraztsov, Thomas Oeser, Daniel Patrick O'Hanlon, Shinichi Okamura, Rudolf Oldeman, Federica Oliva, Mario Edgardo Olivares, C.J. G. Onderwater, Ryunosuke Hugo O'Neil, Juan Martin Otalora Goicochea, Tatiana Ovsiannikova, Patrick Owen, Maria Aranzazu Oyanguren, Klaas Ole Padeken, Bhagyashree Pagare, Preema Rennee Pais, Tommaso Pajero, Antimo Palano, Matteo Palutan, Yue Pan, Gennady Panshin, Antonios Papanestis, Marco Pappagallo, Luciano Pappalardo, Cheryl Pappenheimer, William Parker, Christopher Parkes, Barbara Passalacqua, Giovanni Passaleva, Alessandra Pastore, Mitesh Patel, Claudia Patrignani, Christopher James Pawley, Alex Pearce, Antonio Pellegrino, Monica Pepe Altarelli, Stefano Perazzini, Dmitrii Pereima, Asier Pereiro Castro, Pascal Perret, Marko Petric, Konstantinos Petridis, Alessandro Petrolini, Aleksandr Petrov, Stefano Petrucci, Marco Petruzzo, Thi Thuy Hang Pham, Anton Philippov, Lorenzo Pica, Mauro Piccini, Boleslaw Pietrzyk, Guillaume Pietrzyk, Martina Pili, Davide Pinci, Flavio Pisani, Marco Pizzichemi, P.K. Resmi, Vlad-Mihai Placinta, Jonathan Plews, Maximo Plo Casasus, Francesco Polci, Marco Poli Lener, Mariia Poliakova, Anton Poluektov, Natalia Polukhina, Ivan Polyakov, Erica Polycarpo, Sebastien Ponce, Dmitry Popov, Sergei Popov, Stanislav Poslavskii, Kodassery Prasanth, Laura Promberger, Claire Prouve, Valery Pugatch, Veronique Puill, Hannah Louise Pullen, Giovanni Punzi, Hongrong Qi, Wenbin Qian, Jia-Jia Qin, Ning Qin, Renato Quagliani, Boris Quintana, Naomi Veronika Raab, Raul Iraq Rabadan Trejo, Bartlomiej Rachwal, Jonas Rademacker, Matteo Rama, Miguel Ramos Pernas, Murilo Rangel, Fedor Ratnikov, Gerhard Raven, Meril Reboud, Federico Redi, Florian Reiss, Clara Remon Alepuz, Zan Ren, Victor Renaudin, Roberto Ribatti, Stefania Ricciardi, Kurt Rinnert, Patrick Robbe, Gary Robertson, Ana Barbara Rodrigues, Eduardo Rodrigues, Jairo Alexis Rodriguez Lopez, E.R. R. Rodriguez Rodriguez, Alexandra Paige Rollings, Philipp Roloff, Vladimir Romanovskiy, Marcos Romero Lamas, Antonio Romero Vidal, Jordan Daniel Roth, Marcello Rotondo, Matthew Scott Rudolph, Thomas Ruf, Ramon Angel Ruiz Fernandez, Joan Ruiz Vidal, Artem Ryzhikov, Jakub Ryzka, Juan Jose Saborido Silva, Naylya Sagidova, Niladribihari Sahoo, Biagio Saitta, Matteo Salomoni, Cristina Sanchez Gras, Roberta Santacesaria, Cibran Santamarina Rios, Marco Santimaria, Emanuele Santovetti, Danila Saranin, Gediminas Sarpis, Minaugas Sarpis, Alessio Sarti, Celestina Satriano, Alessia Satta, Miroslav Saur, Darya Savrina, Halime Sazak, Luke George Scantlebury Smead, Alessandro Scarabotto, Stefan Schael, Sigrid Scherl, Manuel Schiller, Heinrich Schindler, Michael Schmelling, Burkhard Schmidt, Sebastian Schmitt, Olivier Schneider, Andreas Schopper, Maxime Schubiger, Sebastian Schulte, Marie Helene Schune, Rainer Schwemmer, Barbara Sciascia, Sara Sellam, Alexander Semennikov, Mara Senghi Soares, Antonino Sergi, Nicola Serra, Lorenzo Sestini, Alex Seuthe, Yiduo Shang, Desmond Mzamo Shangase, Mikhail Shapkin, Ivan Shchemerov, Lesya Shchutska, Tara Shears, Lev Shekhtman, Zhihong Shen, Shuqi Sheng, Vladimir Shevchenko, Edward Brendan Shields, Yuya Shimizu, Evgenii Shmanin, Joseph David Shupperd, Benedetto Gianluca Siddi, Rafael Silva Coutinho, Gabriele Simi, Saverio Simone, Nicola Skidmore, Tomasz Skwarnicki, Mark Slater, Igor Slazyk, Jennifer Clare Smallwood, John Gordon Smeaton, Anastasia Smetkina, Eluned Smith, Mark Smith, Aleksandra Snoch, Lais Soares Lavra, Michael Sokoloff, F.J. P. Soler, Aleksandr Solovev, Ivan Solovyev, Felipe Luan Souza De Almeida, Bruno Souza De Paula, Bernhard Spaan, Elisabetta Spadaro Norella, Patrick Spradlin, Federico Stagni, Marian Stahl, Sascha Stahl, Seophine Stanislaus, Olaf Steinkamp, Oleg Stenyakin, Holger Stevens, Sheldon Stone, Daria Strekalina, Fidan Suljik, Jiayin Sun, Liang Sun, Yipeng Sun, Peter Svihra, Paul Nathaniel Swallow, Krzysztof Swientek, Adam Szabelski, Tomasz Szumlak, Maciej Pawel Szymanski, Shantam Taneja, Alastair Roger Tanner, Martin Duy Tat, Aleksandr Terentev, Frederic Teubert, Eric Thomas, Daniel James David Thompson, Kayleigh Anne Thomson, Hanae Tilquin, Vincent Tisserand, Stephane T'Jampens, Mark Tobin, Luca Tomassetti, Xingyu Tong, Diego Torres Machado, Da Yu Tou, Ekaterina Trifonova, Carina Trippl, Giulia Tuci, Alison Tully, Niels Tuning, Artur Ukleja, Daniel Joachim Unverzagt, Eduard Ursov, Andrii Usachov, Andrey Ustyuzhanin, Ulrich Uwer, Alexander Vagner, Vincenzo Vagnoni, Andrea Valassi, Giovanni Valenti, Nuria Valls Canudas, Martinus van Beuzekom, Maarten Van Dijk, Hubert Van Hecke, Eric van Herwijnen, Maarten van Veghel, Ricardo Vazquez Gomez, Pablo Vazquez Regueiro, Carlos Vázquez Sierra, Stefania Vecchi, Jaap Velthuis, Michele Veltri, Aravindhan Venkateswaran, Michele Veronesi, Mika Vesterinen, Daniel Vieira, Maria Vieites Diaz, Harald Viemann, Xavier Vilasis-Cardona, Eva Vilella Figueras, Andrea Villa, Pascal Vincent, Felicia Carolin Volle, Dorothea Vom Bruch, Alexey Vorobyev, Vitaly Vorobyev, Nikolai Voropaev, Kimberley Vos, Roland Waldi, John Walsh, Chishuai Wang, Jialu Wang, Jianchun Wang, Jianqiao Wang, Jike Wang, Mengzhen Wang, Rui Wang, Yilong Wang, Zhenzi Wang, Zirui Wang, Ziyi Wang, Jake Alexander Ward, Nigel Watson, Steffen Georg Weber, David Websdale, Constantin Weisser, Benedict Donald C Westhenry, Dylan Jaide White, Mark Whitehead, Aidan Richard Wiederhold, Dirk Wiedner, Guy Wilkinson, Michael Wilkinson, Ifan Williams, Mike Williams, Mark Richard James Williams, Fergus Wilson, Wojciech Wislicki, Mariusz Witek, Lukas Witola, Guy Wormser, Stephen Wotton, Hangyi Wu, Kenneth Wyllie, Zhiyu Xiang, Dong Xiao, Yuehong Xie, Ao Xu, Jingyi Xu, Li Xu, Menglin Xu, Qingnian Xu, Zehua Xu, Zhihao Xu, Di Yang, Shuangli Yang, Youhua Yang, Zhenwei Yang, Zishuo Yang, Yuezhe Yao, Lauren Emma Yeomans, Hang Yin, Jiesheng Yu, Xuhao Yuan, Oleg Yushchenko, Ettore Zaffaroni, Mikhail Zavertyaev, Milosz Zdybal, Oleksandr Zenaiev, Ming Zeng, Dongliang Zhang, Liming Zhang, Shulei Zhang, Shunan Zhang, Yanxi Zhang, Yu Zhang, Alina Zharkova, Alexey Zhelezov, Yangheng Zheng, Tianwen Zhou, Xiaokang Zhou, Yixiong Zhou, Valeriia Zhovkovska, Xianglei Zhu, Xiaoyu Zhu, Zhanwen Zhu, Valery Zhukov, Jennifer Brigitta Zonneveld, Quan Zou, Stefano Zucchelli, Davide Zuliani, Gianluca Zunica abstract Using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9 fb$^{−1}$collected with the LHCb detector, seven decay modes of the$ {\mathrm{B}}_{\mathrm{c}}^{+} $meson into a J/ψ or ψ(2S) meson and three charged hadrons, kaons or pions, are studied. The decays$ {\mathrm{B}}_{\mathrm{c}}^{+} $→ (ψ(2S) → J/ψπ$^{+}$π$^{−}$)π$^{+}$,$ {\mathrm{B}}_{\mathrm{c}}^{+} $→ ψ(2S)π$^{+}$π$^{−}$π$^{+}$,$ {\mathrm{B}}_{\mathrm{c}}^{+} $→ J/ψK$^{+}$π$^{−}$π$^{+}$and$ {\mathrm{B}}_{\mathrm{c}}^{+} $→ J/ψK$^{+}$K$^{−}$K$^{+}$are observed for the first time, and evidence for the$ {\mathrm{B}}_{\mathrm{c}}^{+} $→ ψ(2S)K$^{+}$K$^{−}$π$^{+}$, decay is found, where J/ψ and ψ(2S) mesons are reconstructed in their dimuon decay modes. The ratios of branching fractions between the different$ {\mathrm{B}}_{\mathrm{c}}^{+} $decays are reported as well as the fractions of the decays proceeding via intermediate resonances. The results largely support the factorisation approach used for a theoretical description of the studied decays.[graphic not available: see fulltext] journal JHEP publisher year 2021 month 11 volume 01 publication_type eprint 2111.03001 pages 065 issue doi 10.1007/JHEP01(2022)065  source inspirehep id 1959540 title A goodness-of-fit test based on a recursive product of spacings first_author Eller, Philipp author Philipp Eller, Lolian Shtembari abstract We introduce a new statistical test based on the observed spacings of ordered data. The statistic is sensitive to detect non-uniformity in random samples, or short-lived features in event time series. Under some conditions, this new test can outperform existing ones, such as the well known Kolmogorov-Smirnov or Anderson-Darling tests, in particular when the number of samples is small and differences occur over a small quantile of the null hypothesis distribution. A detailed description of the test statistic is provided including an illustration and examples, together with a parameterization of its distribution based on simulation. journal publisher year 2021 month 11 volume publication_type eprint 2111.02252 pages issue doi  source harvard id 20734902 title The static energy in 2+1+1-flavor QCD first_author Sebastian Steinbeißer author Sebastian Steinbeißer, Nora Brambilla, Rafael L. Delgado, Andreas S. Kronfeld, Viljami Leino, Peter Petreczky, Antonio Vairo, Johannes Heinrich Weber abstract We report on the status of the analysis of the static energy in$2+1+1$-flavor QCD. The static energy is obtained by measuring Wilson line correlators in Coulomb gauge using the HISQ action, yielding the scales$r_{0}/a$,$r_{1}/a$,$r_{2}/a$, their ratios, and the string tension$\sigma r_{i}^{2}\$. We put emphasis on the possible effects due to the dynamical charm-quark by comparing the lattice results to continuum results of the static energy with and without a massive flavor at two-loop accuracy. We employ gauge-field ensembles from the HotQCD and MILC Collaborations. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2021 month 11 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2111.02288 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 20774460 title Top-pair production via gluon fusion in the Standard Model effective field theory first_author Christoph Müller author Christoph Müller abstract We compute the leading corrections to the differential cross section for top-pair production via gluon fusion due to third-generation dimension-six operators at leading order in QCD. The Standard Model fields are assumed to couple only weakly to the hypothetical new sector. A systematic approach then suggests treating single insertions of the operator class containing gluon field strength tensors on the same footing as explicitly loop suppressed contributions from four-fermion operators. This is in particular the case for the chromomagnetic operator Q(u G ) and the purely bosonic operators Q(G ) and Q(φ G ). All leading order dimension-six contributions are consequently suppressed with a loop factor 1 /16 π2. journal Physical Review D publisher year 2021 month 11 volume 104 publication_type article eprint pages issue 9 doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.104.095003

 source harvard id 20617283 title Merging filaments I: a race against collapse first_author Elena Hoemann author Elena Hoemann, Stefan Heigl, Andreas Burkert abstract The interstellar medium is characterized by an intricate filamentary network that exhibits complex structures. These show a variety of different shapes (e.g. junctions, rings, etc.) deviating strongly from the usually assumed cylindrical shape. A possible formation mechanism are filament mergers that we analyse in this study. Indeed, the proximity of filaments in networks suggests mergers to be rather likely. As the merger has to be faster than the end dominated collapse of the filament along its major axis, we expect three possible results: (a) The filaments collapse before a merger can happen, (b) the merged filamentary complex shows already signs of cores at the edges, or (c) the filaments merge into a structure which is not end-dominated. We develop an analytic formula for the merging and core-formation time-scale at the edge and validate our model via hydrodynamical simulations with the adaptive-mesh-refinement-code RAMSES. This allows us to predict the outcome of a filament merger, given different initial conditions which are the initial distance and the respective line-masses of each filament as well as their relative velocities. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2021 month 11 volume 507 publication_type article eprint pages 9 issue 3 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab1698

 source harvard id 20617253 title Correcting correlation functions for redshift-dependent interloper contamination first_author Daniel J. Farrow author Daniel J. Farrow, Ariel G. Sánchez, Robin Ciardullo, Erin Mentuch Cooper, Dustin Davis, Maximilian Fabricius, Eric Gawiser, Henry S. Grasshorn Gebhardt, Karl Gebhardt, Gary J. Hill, Donghui Jeong, Eiichiro Komatsu, Martin Landriau, Chenxu Liu, Shun Saito, Jan Snigula, Isak G. B. Wold abstract The construction of catalogues of a particular type of galaxy can be complicated by interlopers contaminating the sample. In spectroscopic galaxy surveys this can be due to the misclassification of an emission line; for example in the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) low-redshift [O II] emitters may make up a few per cent of the observed Ly α emitter (LAE) sample. The presence of contaminants affects the measured correlation functions and power spectra. Previous attempts to deal with this using the cross-correlation function have assumed sources at a fixed redshift, or not modelled evolution within the adopted redshift bins. However, in spectroscopic surveys like HETDEX, where the contamination fraction is likely to be redshift dependent, the observed clustering of misclassified sources will appear to evolve strongly due to projection effects, even if their true clustering does not. We present a practical method for accounting for the presence of contaminants with redshift-dependent contamination fractions and projected clustering. We show using mock catalogues that our method, unlike existing approaches, yields unbiased clustering measurements from the upcoming HETDEX survey in scenarios with redshift-dependent contamination fractions within the redshift bins used. We show our method returns autocorrelation functions with systematic biases much smaller than the statistical noise for samples with at least as high as 7 per cent contamination. We also present and test a method for fitting for the redshift-dependent interloper fraction using the LAE-[O II] galaxy cross-correlation function, which gives less biased results than assuming a single interloper fraction for the whole sample. journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society publisher year 2021 month 11 volume 507 publication_type article eprint pages 20 issue 3 doi 10.1093/mnras/stab1986

 source harvard id 20767318 title Global performance of covariant density functional theory in description of charge radii and related indicators first_author A. V. Afanasjev author A. V. Afanasjev, U. C. Perera, P. Ring abstract A short review of existing efforts to understand charge radii and related indicators on a global scale within the covariant density functional theory (CDFT) is presented. Using major classes of covariant energy density functionals (CEDFs), the global accuracy of the description of experimental absolute and differential charge radii within the CDFT framework has been established. This assessment is supplemented by an evaluation of theoretical statistical and systematic uncertainties in the description of charge radii. New results on the accuracy of the description of differential charge radii in deformed actinides and light superheavy nuclei are presented and the role of octupole deformation in their reproduction is evaluated. Novel mechanisms leading to odd-even staggering in charge radii are discussed. Finally, we analyze the role of self-consistency effects in an accurate description of differential charge radii. journal arXiv e-prints publisher year 2021 month 11 volume publication_type eprint eprint 2111.04782 pages issue doi

 source harvard id 20862782 title General non-leptonic ∆F = 1 WET at the NLO in QCD first_author Jason Aebischer author Jason Aebischer, Christoph Bobeth, Andrzej J. Buras, Jacky Kumar, Mikołaj Misiak abstract We reconsider the complete set of four-quark operators in the Weak Effective Theory (WET) for non-leptonic ∆F = 1 decays that govern s → d and b → d, s transitions in the Standard Model (SM) and beyond, at the Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) in QCD. We discuss cases with different numbers Nf of active flavours, intermediate threshold corrections, as well as the issue of transformations between operator bases beyond leading order to facilitate the matching to high-energy completions or the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT) at the electroweak scale. As a first step towards a SMEFT NLO analysis of K → ππ and non-leptonic B-meson decays, we calculate the relevant WET Wilson coefficients including two-loop contributions to their renormalization group running, and express them in terms of the Wilson coefficients in a particular operator basis for which the one-loop matching to SMEFT is already known. journal Journal of High Energy Physics publisher year 2021 month 11 volume 2021 publication_type article eprint pages issue 11 doi 10.1007/JHEP11(2021)227

 source harvard id 20790206 title Large gaps and high accretion rates in photoevaporative transition disks with a dead zone first_author Matías Gárate author Matías Gárate, Timmy N. Delage, Jochen Stadler, Paola Pinilla, Til Birnstiel, Sebastian Markus Stammler, Giovanni Picogna, Barbara Ercolano, Raphael Franz, Christian Lenz abstract Context. Observations of young stars hosting transition disks show that several of them have high accretion rates, despite their disks presenting extended cavities in their dust component. This represents a challenge for theoretical models, which struggle to reproduce both features simultaneously.
Aims: We aim to explore if a disk evolution model, including a dead zone and disk dispersal by X-ray photoevaporation, can explain the high accretion rates and large gaps (or cavities) measured in transition disks.
Methods: We implemented a dead zone turbulence profile and a photoevaporative mass-loss profile into numerical simulations of gas and dust. We performed a population synthesis study of the gas component and obtained synthetic images and SEDs of the dust component through radiative transfer calculations.
Results: This model results in long-lived inner disks and fast dispersing outer disks that can reproduce both the accretion rates and gap sizes observed in transition disks. For a dead zone of turbulence αdz = 10−4 and an extent rdz = 10 AU, our population synthesis study shows