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Was haben wir Menschen mit den Sternen gemeinsam? Menschen werden geboren, leben und sterben eines Tages – Sterne ebenso. Aber bei Sternen passiert alles über kosmologisch lange Zeitskalen und mit…

source harvard
id 21832723
title Long term neutron irradiation studies of square meter sized resistive strip micromegas detectors
first_author Fabian Vogel
author Fabian Vogel, Otmar Biebel, Christoph Jagfeld, Katrin Penski, Maximilian Rinnagel, Chrysostomos Valderanis, Ralf Hertenberger
abstract Resistive strip Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GAseous Structure) detectors provide even at square meter sizes a high spatial resolution for the reconstruction of Minimum Ionizing Particles (MIPs) like muons. Micromegas detectors consist of three parallel planar structures. A cathode, a grounded mesh and a segmented anode structure form the detector. Square meter sizes challenge the high-voltage stability during operation, especially when using the frequently used gas mixture of Ar:CO<SUB>2</SUB> (93:7 vol%) with low quencher content. To improve the HV-stability and to enhance the discharge quenching different gas mixtures have been investigated. A very promising one has an 2% admixture of isobutane forming the ternary gas Ar:CO<SUB>2</SUB>:iC<SUB>4</SUB>H<SUB>10</SUB> (93:5:2 vol%). Long term irradiation studies investigating both gas mixtures interrupted by cosmic muon tracking efficiency measurements have been performed by irradiation with neutrons and gammas from a 10 GBq Am-Be source for a period of two years. The comparison shows gain increase under Ar:CO<SUB>2</SUB>:iC<SUB>4</SUB>H<SUB>10</SUB> and a considerably improved HV-stable operation of the detector. It is investigated for any performance deterioration for each of the two gas mixtures with focus on pulse-height and changes of efficiency.
journal Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A
publisher
year 2023
month 01
volume 1045
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1016/j.nima.2022.167653

source
id
title The signature of large-scale turbulence driving on the structure of the interstellar medium
first_author Colman, Tine
author Colman, T., Robitaille, J.-F., Hennebelle, P., Miville-Deschênes, M.-A., Brucy, N., Klessen, R. S., Glover, S. C. O., Soler, J. D., Elia, D., Traficante, A., Molinari, S., & Testi, L
abstract The mechanisms that maintain turbulence in the interstellar medium (ISM) are still not identified. This work investigates how we can distinguish between two fundamental driving mechanisms: the accumulated effect of stellar feedback versus the energy injection from galactic scales. We perform a series of numerical simulations describing a stratified star-forming ISM subject to self-consistent stellar feedback. Large-scale external turbulent driving, of various intensities, is added to mimic galactic driving mechanisms. We analyse the resulting column density maps with a technique called Multi-scale non-Gaussian segmentation, which separates the coherent structures and the Gaussian background. This effectively discriminates between the various simulations and is a promising method to understand the ISM structure. In particular, the power spectrum of the coherent structures flattens above 60 pc when turbulence is driven only by stellar feedback. When large-scale driving is applied, the turn-over shifts to larger scales. A systematic comparison with the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is then performed. Only 1 out of 25 regions has a coherent power spectrum that is consistent with the feedback-only simulation. A detailed study of the turn-over scale leads us to conclude that regular stellar feedback is not enough to explain the observed ISM structure on scales larger than 60 pc. Extreme feedback in the form of supergiant shells likely plays an important role but cannot explain all the regions of the LMC. If we assume ISM structure is generated by turbulence, another large-scale driving mechanism is needed to explain the entirety of the observations.
journal MNRAS
publisher
year 2022
month 8
volume 514
publication_type
eprint arXiv:2206.00451
pages
issue 3
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1543

source harvard
id 21220450
title Shared Data and Algorithms for Deep Learning in Fundamental Physics
first_author Lisa Benato
author Lisa Benato, Erik Buhmann, Martin Erdmann, Peter Fackeldey, Jonas Glombitza, Nikolai Hartmann, Gregor Kasieczka, William Korcari, Thomas Kuhr, Jan Steinheimer, Horst Stöcker, Tilman Plehn, Kai Zhou
abstract We introduce a PYTHON package that provides simple and unified access to a collection of datasets from fundamental physics research—including particle physics, astroparticle physics, and hadron- and nuclear physics—for supervised machine learning studies. The datasets contain hadronic top quarks, cosmic-ray-induced air showers, phase transitions in hadronic matter, and generator-level histories. While public datasets from multiple fundamental physics disciplines already exist, the common interface and provided reference models simplify future work on cross-disciplinary machine learning and transfer learning in fundamental physics. We discuss the design and structure and line out how additional datasets can be submitted for inclusion. As showcase application, we present a simple yet flexible graph-based neural network architecture that can easily be applied to a wide range of supervised learning tasks. We show that our approach reaches performance close to dedicated methods on all datasets. To simplify adaptation for various problems, we provide easy-to-follow instructions on how graph-based representations of data structures, relevant for fundamental physics, can be constructed and provide code implementations for several of them. Implementations are also provided for our proposed method and all reference algorithms.
journal Computing and Software for Big Science
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 6
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1007/s41781-022-00082-6

source harvard
id 21834603
title Clash of Titans: A MUSE dynamical study of the extreme cluster merger SPT-CL J0307-6225
first_author D. Hernández-Lang
author D. Hernández-Lang, A. Zenteno, A. Diaz-Ocampo, H. Cuevas, J. Clancy, P. H. Prado, F. Aldás, D. Pallero, R. Monteiro-Oliveira, F. A. Gómez, Amelia Ramirez, J. Wynter, E. R. Carrasco, G. K. T. Hau, B. Stalder, M. McDonald, M. Bayliss, B. Floyd, G. Garmire, A. Katzenberger, K. J. Kim, M. Klein, G. Mahler, J. L. Nilo Castellon, A. Saro, T. Somboonpanyakul
abstract We present MUSE spectroscopy, Megacam imaging, and Chandra X-ray emission for SPT-CL J0307-6225, a $z = 0.58$ major merging galaxy cluster with a large BCG-SZ centroid separation and a highly disturbed X-ray morphology. The galaxy density distribution shows two main overdensities with separations of 0.144 and 0.017 arcmin to their respective BCGs. We characterize the central regions of the two colliding structures, namely 0307-6225N and 0307-6225S, finding velocity derived masses of M<SUB>200, N</SUB> = 2.44 ± 1.41 × 10<SUP>14</SUP>M<SUB>⊙</SUB> and M<SUB>200, S</SUB> = 3.16 ± 1.88 × 10<SUP>14</SUP>M<SUB>⊙</SUB>, with a line-of-sight velocity difference of |Δv| = 342 km s<SUP>-1</SUP>. The total dynamically derived mass is consistent with the SZ derived mass of 7.63 h$_{70}^{-1}$ ± 1.36 × 10<SUP>14</SUP>M<SUB>⊙</SUB>. We model the merger using the Monte Carlo Merger Analysis Code, estimating a merging angle of 36$^{+14}_{-12}$ ° with respect to the plane of the sky. Comparing with simulations of a merging system with a mass ratio of 1:3, we find that the best scenario is that of an ongoing merger that began 0.96$^{+0.31}_{-0.18}$ Gyr ago. We also characterize the galaxy population using Hδ and [O II] λ3727 Å lines. We find that most of the emission-line galaxies belong to 0307-6225S, close to the X-ray peak position with a third of them corresponding to red-cluster sequence galaxies, and the rest to blue galaxies with velocities consistent with recent periods of accretion. Moreover, we suggest that 0307-6225S suffered a previous merger, evidenced through the two equally bright BCGs at the centre with a velocity difference of ~674 km s<SUP>-1</SUP>.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 517
publication_type article
eprint
pages 24
issue 3
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2480

source harvard
id 21876246
title Taking off the edge - simultaneous filament and end core formation
first_author S. Heigl
author S. Heigl, E. Hoemann, A. Burkert
abstract Simulations of idealized star-forming filaments of finite length typically show core growth that is dominated by two cores forming at its respective end. The end cores form due to a strong increasing acceleration at the filament ends that leads to a sweep-up of material during the filament collapse along its axis. As this growth mode is typically faster than any other core formation mode in a filament, the end cores usually dominate in mass and density compared to other cores forming inside a filament. However, observations of star-forming filaments do not show this prevalence of cores at the filament ends. We explore a possible mechanism to slow the growth of the end cores using numerical simulations of simultaneous filament and embedded core formation, in our case a radially accreting filament forming in a finite converging flow. While such a set-up still leads to end cores, they soon begin to move inwards and a density gradient is formed outside of the cores by the continued accumulation of material. As a result, the outermost cores are no longer located at the exact ends of the filament and the density gradient softens the inward gravitational acceleration of the cores. Therefore, the two end cores do not grow as fast as expected and thus do not dominate over other core formation modes in the filament.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 517
publication_type article
eprint
pages 9
issue 4
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac3110

source harvard
id 21682801
title Fragmentation with discontinuous Galerkin schemes: non-linear fragmentation
first_author Maxime Lombart
author Maxime Lombart, Mark Hutchison, Yueh-Ning Lee
abstract Small grains play an essential role in astrophysical processes such as chemistry, radiative transfer, and gas/dust dynamics. The population of small grains is mainly maintained by the fragmentation process due to colliding grains. An accurate treatment of dust fragmentation is required in numerical modelling. However, current algorithms for solving fragmentation equation suffer from an overdiffusion in the conditions of 3D simulations. To tackle this challenge, we developed a discontinuous Galerkin scheme to solve efficiently the non-linear fragmentation equation with a limited number of dust bins.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 517
publication_type article
eprint
pages 16
issue 2
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2232

source harvard
id 21876253
title A multisimulation study of relativistic SZ temperature scalings in galaxy clusters and groups
first_author Elizabeth Lee
author Elizabeth Lee, Dhayaa Anbajagane, Priyanka Singh, Jens Chluba, Daisuke Nagai, Scott T. Kay, Weiguang Cui, Klaus Dolag, Gustavo Yepes
abstract The Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect is a powerful tool in modern cosmology. With future observations promising ever improving SZ measurements, the relativistic corrections to the SZ signals from galaxy groups and clusters are increasingly relevant. As such, it is important to understand the differences between three temperature measures: (a) the average relativistic SZ (rSZ) temperature, (b) the mass-weighted temperature relevant for the thermal SZ (tSZ) effect, and (c) the X-ray spectroscopic temperature. In this work, we compare these cluster temperatures, as predicted by the BAHAMAS &amp; MACSIS, ILLUSTRISTNG, MAGNETICUM, and THE THREE HUNDRED PROJECT simulations. Despite the wide range of simulation parameters, we find the SZ temperatures are consistent across the simulations. We estimate a $\simeq 10{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ level correction from rSZ to clusters with Y ≃ 10<SUP>-4</SUP> Mpc<SUP>-2</SUP>. Our analysis confirms a systematic offset between the three temperature measures; with the rSZ temperature $\simeq 20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ larger than the other measures, and diverging further at higher redshifts. We demonstrate that these measures depart from simple self-similar evolution and explore how they vary with the defined radius of haloes. We investigate how different feedback prescriptions and resolutions affect the observed temperatures, and discover the SZ temperatures are rather insensitive to these details. The agreement between simulations indicates an exciting avenue for observational and theoretical exploration, determining the extent of relativistic SZ corrections. We provide multiple simulation-based fits to the scaling relations for use in future SZ modelling.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 517
publication_type article
eprint
pages 22
issue 4
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2781

source harvard
id 21697498
title The interplay between forming planets and photoevaporating discs I: forbidden line diagnostics
first_author Michael L. Weber
author Michael L. Weber, Barbara Ercolano, Giovanni Picogna, Christian Rab
abstract Disc winds and planet formation are considered to be two of the most important mechanisms that drive the evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary discs and in turn define the environment in which planets form and evolve. While both have been studied extensively in the past, we combine them into one model by performing three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of giant planet hosting discs that are undergoing X-ray photoevaporation, with the goal to analyse the interactions between both mechanisms. In order to study the effect on observational diagnostics, we produce synthetic observations of commonly used wind-tracing forbidden emission lines with detailed radiative transfer and photoionization calculations. We find that a sufficiently massive giant planet carves a gap in the gas disc that is deep enough to affect the structure and kinematics of the pressure-driven photoevaporative wind significantly. This effect can be strong enough to be visible in the synthetic high-resolution observations of some of our wind diagnostic lines, such as the [O I] 6300 Å or [S II] 6730 Å lines. When the disc is observed at inclinations around 40° and higher, the spectral line profiles may exhibit a peak in the redshifted part of the spectrum, which cannot easily be explained by simple wind models alone. Moreover, massive planets can induce asymmetric substructures within the disc and the photoevaporative wind, giving rise to temporal variations of the line profiles that can be strong enough to be observable on time-scales of less than a quarter of the planet's orbital period.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 517
publication_type article
eprint
pages 15
issue 3
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2954

source harvard
id 21697486
title Accuracy and precision of triaxial orbit models - II. Viewing angles, shape, and orbital structure
first_author Stefano de Nicola
author Stefano de Nicola, Bianca Neureiter, Jens Thomas, Roberto P. Saglia, Ralf Bender
abstract We explore the potential of our novel triaxial modelling machinery in recovering the viewing angles, the shape, and the orbit distribution of galaxies by using a high-resolution N-body merger simulation. Our modelling technique includes several recent advancements. (i) Our new triaxial deprojection algorithm shape3d is able to significantly shrink the range of possible orientations of a triaxial galaxy and therefore to constrain its shape relying only on photometric information. It also allows to probe degeneracies, i.e. to recover different deprojections at the same assumed orientation. With this method we can constrain the intrinsic shape of the N-body simulation, i.e. the axis ratios p = b/a and q = c/a, with Δp and Δq ≲ 0.1 using only photometric information. The typical accuracy of the viewing angles reconstruction is 15°-20°. (ii) Our new triaxial Schwarzschild code smart exploits the full kinematic information contained in the entire non-parametric line-of-sight velocity distributions along with a 5D orbital sampling in phase space. (iii) We use a new generalized Akaike information criterion AIC<SUB>p</SUB> to optimize the smoothing and to select the best-fitting model, avoiding potential biases in purely χ<SUP>2</SUP>-based approaches. With our deprojected densities, we recover the correct orbital structure and anisotropy parameter β with Δβ ≲ 0.1. These results are valid regardless of the tested orientation of the simulation and suggest that even despite the known intrinsic photometric and kinematic degeneracies the above described advanced methods make it possible to recover the shape and the orbital structure of triaxial bodies with unprecedented accuracy.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 517
publication_type article
eprint
pages 14
issue 3
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2852

source harvard
id 21120160
title Fast radio bursts at the dawn of the 2020s
first_author E. Petroff
author E. Petroff, J. W. T. Hessels, D. R. Lorimer
abstract Since the discovery of the first fast radio burst (FRB) in 2007, and their confirmation as an abundant extragalactic population in 2013, the study of these sources has expanded at an incredible rate. In our 2019 review on the subject, we presented a growing, but still mysterious, population of FRBs—60 unique sources, 2 repeating FRBs, and only 1 identified host galaxy. However, in only a few short years, new observations and discoveries have given us a wealth of information about these sources. The total FRB population now stands at over 600 published sources, 24 repeaters, and 19 host galaxies. Higher time resolution data, sustained monitoring, and precision localisations have given us insight into repeaters, host galaxies, burst morphology, source activity, progenitor models, and the use of FRBs as cosmological probes. The recent detection of a bright FRB-like burst from the Galactic magnetar SGR 1935 + 2154 provides an important link between FRBs and magnetars. There also continue to be surprising discoveries, like periodic modulation of activity from repeaters and the localisation of one FRB source to a relatively nearby globular cluster associated with the M81 galaxy. In this review, we summarise the exciting observational results from the past few years. We also highlight their impact on our understanding of the FRB population and proposed progenitor models. We build on the introduction to FRBs in our earlier review, update our readers on recent results, and discuss interesting avenues for exploration as the field enters a new regime where hundreds to thousands of new FRBs will be discovered and reported each year.
journal Astronomy and Astrophysics Review
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 30
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1007/s00159-022-00139-w

source harvard
id 20950069
title Spatio-temporal distribution of shallow very-low-frequency earthquakes between December 2020 and January 2021 in Kumano-nada, Nankai subduction zone, detected by a permanent seafloor seismic network
first_author Yojiro Yamamoto
author Yojiro Yamamoto, Keisuke Ariyoshi, Shuichiro Yada, Masaru Nakano, Takane Hori
abstract We estimate the hypocenter locations and the centroid moment tensor solutions of the shallow very-low-frequency earthquake (sVLFE) activity that occurred in the Kumano-nada region of the Nankai Trough megathrust zone in central Japan from December 2020 to January 2021. Using seafloor observation data, we examined the detailed spatio-temporal distribution of the sVLFE activity. During this episode, the activity area was within the vicinity in which the sVLFE activity has been observed in the past and can be divided into two major parts. The sVLFE activity started from the eastern side and remained there for the first 5 days and then migrated to the western side via secondary expansion. The eastern active area is located just below the outer ridge and coincides with the location where the paleo-Zenith Ridge subducted. The western activity area is centered between the outer wedge and the outer ridge with the primary active area being at the outer wedge. Comparing the activity in the eastern and western areas, the eastern side is more active, but the individual moment releases on this side are smaller than those on the western side. This may indicate a difference in the fluid pressure along the plate boundary between the eastern and western areas. After the second expansion of the active area, we observed several migration patterns within the expanded area with a faster velocity than those of the initial and second expansions. The direction of these migrations is opposite to that of the first and second expansions. This indicates that the fluid pressure and/or stress level in the sVLFE generation region changed with time within this episode. Furthermore, many waveforms with sVLFE characteristics were observed at only one or a few observation points near the trough axis in the middle to latter half of January 2021. This indicates the occurrence of small-scale sVLFEs in the vicinity of the trough axis at the end of this sVLFE episode.
journal Earth, Planets and Space
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 74
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1186/s40623-022-01573-x

source harvard
id 21169452
title The varied experience of undergraduate students during the transition to mandatory online chem lab during the initial lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic
first_author Joseph Watts
author Joseph Watts, Kent J. Crippen, Corey Payne, Lorelie Imperial, Melanie Veige
abstract The radical global shift to online teaching that resulted from the initial lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic forced many science educators into the predicament of translating courses, including teaching laboratories, that were based upon face-to-face or practical goals and conventions into ones that could be delivered online. We used this phenomenon at the scale of a research-intensive, land-grant public institution to understand the various ways that the switch was experienced by a large cohort of 702 undergraduate students taking General Chemistry Laboratory. Data was collected over 3 weeks with identical surveys involving four prompts for open-ended responses. Analysis involved sequential explanatory mixed methods where topic modeling, a machine learning technique, was used to identify 21 topics. As categories of experience, these topics were defined and further delineated into 52 dimensions by inductive coding with constant comparison. Reported strengths and positive implications tie predominantly to the topics of Time Management Across a Lab Activity and a Critique of Instruction. Consistent with other reports of teaching and learning during the pandemic, participants perceived Availability of the Teaching Assistant for Help as a positive implication. Perceptions of weakness were most associated with Having to Work Individually, the Hands On Experience, a Critique of Instruction, and Learning by Doing. Hands on Experience, which was interpreted as the lack thereof, was the only topic made up nearly entirely of weaknesses and negative implications. The topic of Learning by Doing was the topic of greatest occurrence, but was equally indicated as strengths, positive implication, weakness, and negative implication. Ramifications are drawn from the weaknesses indicated by students who identified as members of an underrepresented ethnic minority. The results serve as a reminder that the student experience must be the primary consideration for any educational endeavor and needs to continue as a principal point of emphasis for research and development for online science environments.
journal Disciplinary and Interdisciplinary Science Education Research
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 4
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1186/s43031-022-00055-0

source harvard
id 21131345
title An ultralight geometry processing library for parallel mesh refinement
first_author Bohan Wang
author Bohan Wang, Bo Chen, Kaixin Yu, Lijun Xie, Jianjun Chen
abstract In applications such as parallel mesh refinement, it remains a challenging issue to ensure the refined surface respects the original Computer-Aided Design (CAD) model accurately. In this paper, an ultralight geometry processing library is developed to resolve this issue effectively and efficiently. Here, we say the kernel is ultralight because it has a very small set of data-structures and algorithms by comparison with industrial-level geometry kernels. Within the library, a simplified surface boundary representation (B-rep) and a radial edge structure are developed respectively to depict the geometry model and the surface mesh, plus hash tables that record the connections between the geometry model and the surface mesh. Based on these data structures, a set of efficient algorithms are developed, which initializes the connection tables, projects a point back to the original geometry, etc. With these data-structure and algorithmic infrastructures set up, the callings of eight well-designed Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are powerful enough to enable the parallel mesh refinement algorithm outputs a mesh respecting the input CAD model accurately. Numerical experiments will be finally presented to evaluate the performance of the overall parallel mesh refinement algorithm and the algorithms in relation with the developed library.
journal Advances in Aeronautics
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 4
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1186/s42774-021-00093-8

source harvard
id 20993147
title Influence of hydrothermal recharge on the evolution of eruption styles and hazards during the 2018-2019 activity at Kuchinoerabujima Volcano, Japan
first_author Yusuke Minami
author Yusuke Minami, Keiko Matsumoto, Nobuo Geshi, Hiroshi Shinohara
abstract The activity of the 2018-2019 eruption of Kuchinoerabujima Volcano in Japan changed from continuous ejection of ash-laden plumes between October 21 and the middle of December, to intermittent explosive activity accompanied by several pyroclastic density currents until January 2019. To understand the behaviors of magma and hydrothermal fluid that controlled the eruptive sequence, we carried out component analysis, X-ray diffractometry, and leachate analysis for ash samples. The proportion of non-altered volcanic ash particles is ~ 15% in the earlier phase, then it decreased to less than 10% in the later explosive phase. Accordingly, the mineral assemblage of the volcanic ash samples changed from plagioclase-dominant to sulfate minerals-dominant. Concentration of SO<SUB>4</SUB><SUP>2−</SUP> and Cl/SO<SUB>4</SUB> values of the ash-leachates decreased toward the later activity. These results indicate that the proportion of fresh volcanic rocks decreased and sulfuric acid fluid-derived sulfate minerals increased toward the later activities. Consequently, the 2018-2019 eruption at Kuchinoerabujima Volcano changed from magmatic activity to phreatomagmatic activity. Weak glowing of the crater was observed during the magmatic activity, indicating the volcanic conduit was hot enough to dry up the sub-volcanic hydrothermal system. The following phreatomagmatic activity indicates that the hydrothermal fluid recharged after the magmatic eruption phase. Recharge of the hydrothermal fluid likely caused the variation of the eruption style, and is a process that may control the evolution of hazards during future eruption scenarios at similar active volcanoes in Japan and worldwide.
journal Earth, Planets and Space
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 74
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1186/s40623-022-01580-y

source harvard
id 20960390
title Biological Stability of Water-Based Cutting Fluids: Progress and Application
first_author Lizhi Tang
author Lizhi Tang, Yanbin Zhang, Changhe Li, Zongming Zhou, Xiaolin Nie, Yun Chen, Huajun Cao, Bo Liu, Naiqing Zhang, Zafar Said, Sujan Debnath, Muhammad Jamil, Hafiz Muhammad Ali, Shubham Sharma
abstract The application of cutting fluid in the field of engineering manufacturing has a history of hundreds of years, and it plays a vital role in the processing efficiency and surface quality of parts. Among them, water-based cutting fluid accounts for more than 90% of the consumption of cutting fluid. However, long-term recycling of water-based cutting fluid could easily cause deterioration, and the breeding of bacteria could cause the cutting fluid to fail, increase manufacturing costs, and even endanger the health of workers. Traditional bactericides could improve the biological stability of cutting fluids, but they are toxic to the environment and do not conform to the development trend of low-carbon manufacturing. Low-carbon manufacturing is inevitable and the direction of sustainable manufacturing. The use of nanomaterials, transition metal complexes, and physical sterilization methods on the bacterial cell membrane and genetic material could effectively solve this problem. In this article, the mechanism of action of additives and microbial metabolites was first analyzed. Then, the denaturation mechanism of traditional bactericides on the target protein and the effect of sterilization efficiency were summarized. Further, the mechanism of nanomaterials disrupting cell membrane potential was discussed. The effects of lipophilicity and the atomic number of transition metal complexes on cell membrane penetration were also summarized, and the effects of ultraviolet rays and ozone on the destruction of bacterial genetic material were reviewed. In other words, the bactericidal performance, hazard, degradability, and economics of various sterilization methods were comprehensively evaluated, and the potential development direction of improving the biological stability of cutting fluid was proposed.
journal Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 35
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1186/s10033-021-00667-z

source harvard
id 21136229
title Recent Advances in Design Strategies and Multifunctionality of Flexible Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Materials
first_author Junye Cheng
author Junye Cheng, Chuanbing Li, Yingfei Xiong, Huibin Zhang, Hassan Raza, Sana Ullah, Jinyi Wu, Guangping Zheng, Qi Cao, Deqing Zhang, Qingbin Zheng, Renchao Che
abstract With rapid development of 5G communication technologies, electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding for electronic devices has become an urgent demand in recent years, where the development of corresponding EMI shielding materials against detrimental electromagnetic radiation plays an essential role. Meanwhile, the EMI shielding materials with high flexibility and functional integrity are highly demanded for emerging shielding applications. Hitherto, a variety of flexible EMI shielding materials with lightweight and multifunctionalities have been developed. In this review, we not only introduce the recent development of flexible EMI shielding materials, but also elaborate the EMI shielding mechanisms and the index for "green EMI shielding" performance. In addition, the construction strategies for sophisticated multifunctionalities of flexible shielding materials are summarized. Finally, we propose several possible research directions for flexible EMI shielding materials in near future, which could be inspirational to the fast-growing next-generation flexible electronic devices with reliable and multipurpose protections as offered by EMI shielding materials.
journal Nano-Micro Letters
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 14
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1007/s40820-022-00823-7

source harvard
id 21158960
title Joint optimization of dynamic resource allocation and packet scheduling for virtual switches in cognitive internet of vehicles
first_author Yang Wang
author Yang Wang, Xiong Wang, Zhuobin Huang, Wei Li, Shizhong Xu
abstract The rapidly evolving machine learning technologies have reshaped the transportation system and played an essential role in the Cognitive Internet of Vehicles (CIoV). Most of the cognitive services are computation-intensive or storage-intensive, and thus they are usually deployed in edge or cloud data centers. In today's data center networks, the virtual machines hosted in a server are connected to a virtual switch responsible for forwarding all packets for the cognitive services deployed on the virtual machines. Therefore, the virtual switches will become a performance bottleneck for cognitive services without an efficient resource allocation and data scheduling strategy. However, the highly dynamic characteristics of cognitive services make the resource allocation and packet scheduling problem for virtual switches surprisingly challenging. To guarantee the performance of cognitive services, we investigate the joint optimization problem of dynamic resource allocation and packet scheduling for virtual switches. We first model the joint optimization problem of dynamic resource allocation and packet scheduling for virtual switches as a mathematical optimization problem. Then, we analyze the problem with Lyapunov Optimization Framework and derive efficient optimization algorithms with performance tradeoff bounds. At last, we evaluate these algorithms on a testbed and a network-wide simulation platform. Experiment results show that our algorithms outperform other designs and meet the theoretical performance bound.
journal EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 2022
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1186/s13634-022-00862-7

source harvard
id 21340120
title Electromagnetic counterparts to massive black-hole mergers
first_author Tamara Bogdanović
author Tamara Bogdanović, M. Coleman Miller, Laura Blecha
abstract The next two decades are expected to open the door to the first coincident detections of electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational-wave (GW) signatures associated with massive black-hole (MBH) binaries heading for coalescence. These detections will launch a new era of multimessenger astrophysics by expanding this growing field to the low-frequency GW regime and will provide an unprecedented understanding of the evolution of MBHs and galaxies. They will also constitute fundamentally new probes of cosmology and would enable unique tests of gravity. The aim of this Living Review is to provide an introduction to this research topic by presenting a summary of key findings, physical processes and ideas pertaining to EM counterparts to MBH mergers as they are known at the time of this writing. We review current observational evidence for close MBH binaries, discuss relevant physical processes and timescales, and summarize the possible EM counterparts to GWs in the precursor, coalescence, and afterglow stages of a MBH merger. We also describe open questions and discuss future prospects in this dynamic and quick-paced research area.
journal Living Reviews in Relativity
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 25
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1007/s41114-022-00037-8

source harvard
id 20959336
title Generalization enhancement of artificial neural network for turbulence closure by feature selection
first_author Linyang Zhu
author Linyang Zhu, Weiwei Zhang, Guohua Tu
abstract Feature selection targets for selecting relevant and useful features, and is a vital challenge in turbulence modeling by machine learning methods. In this paper, a new posterior feature selection method based on validation dataset is proposed, which is an efficient and universal method for complex systems including turbulence. Different from the priori feature importance ranking of the filter method and the exhaustive search for feature subset of the wrapper method, the proposed method ranks the features according to the model performance on the validation dataset, and generates the feature subsets in the order of feature importance. Using the features from the proposed method, a black-box model is built by artificial neural network (ANN) to reproduce the behavior of Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) turbulence model for high Reynolds number (Re) airfoil flows in aeronautical engineering. The results show that compared with the model without feature selection, the generalization ability of the model after feature selection is significantly improved. To some extent, it is also demonstrated that although the feature importance can be reflected by the model parameters during the training process, artificial feature selection is still very necessary.
journal Advances in Aeronautics
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 4
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1186/s42774-021-00088-5

source harvard
id 21055302
title Climate, vegetation and fire history during the past 18,000 years, recorded in high altitude lacustrine sediments on the Sanetti Plateau, Bale Mountains (Ethiopia)
first_author Betelhem Mekonnen
author Betelhem Mekonnen, Bruno Glaser, Roland Zech, Michael Zech, Frank Schlütz, Robert Bussert, Agerie Addis, Graciela Gil-Romera, Sileshi Nemomissa, Tamrat Bekele, Lucas Bittner, Dawit Solomon, Andreas Manhart, Wolfgang Zech
abstract Low-altitude lakes in eastern Africa have long been investigated and have provided valuable information about the Late Quaternary paleohydrological evolution, such as the African Humid Period. However, records often suffer from poor age control, resolution, and/or ambiguous proxy interpretation, and only little focus has been put on high-altitude regions despite their sensitivity to global, regional, and local climate change phenomena. Here we report on Last Glacial environmental fluctuations at about 4000 m asl on the Sanetti Plateau in the Bale Mountains (SE Ethiopia), based on biogeochemical and palynological analyses of laminated lacustrine sediments. After deglaciation at about 18 cal kyr BP, a steppe-like herb-rich grassland with maximum Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Plantago existed. Between 16.6 and 15.7 cal kyr BP, conditions were dry with a desiccation layer at ~ 16.3 cal kyr BP, documenting a temporary phase of maximum aridity on the plateau. While that local event lasted for only a few decades, concentrations of various elements (e.g. Zr, HF, Nb, Nd, and Na) started to increase and reached a maximum at ~ 15.8-15.7 cal kyr BP. We interpret those elements to reflect allochthonous, aeolian dust input via dry northerly winds and increasingly arid conditions in the lowlands. We suggest an abrupt versus delayed response at high and low altitudes, respectively, in response to Northern Hemispheric cooling events (the Heinrich Event 1). The delayed response at low altitudes might be caused by slow negative vegetation and monsoon feedbacks that make the ecosystem somewhat resilient. At ~ 15.7 cal kyr BP, our record shows an abrupt onset of the African Humid Period, almost 1000 years before the onset of the Bølling-Allerød warming in the North-Atlantic region, and about 300 years earlier than in the Lake Tana region. Erica pollen increased significantly between 14.4 and 13.6 cal kyr BP in agreement with periodically wet and regionally warm conditions. Similarly, intense fire events, documented by increased black carbon, correlate with wet and warm environmental conditions that promote the growth of Erica shrubs. This allows to conclude that biomass and thus fuel availability is one important factor controlling fire events in the Bale Mountains.
journal Progress in Earth and Planetary Science
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 9
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1186/s40645-022-00472-9

source harvard
id 21192669
title Strong-field physics with nanospheres
first_author Lennart Seiffert
author Lennart Seiffert, Sergey Zherebtsov, Matthias F. Kling, Thomas Fennel
abstract When intense laser fields interact with nanoscale targets, strong-field physics meets plasmonic near-field enhancement and sub-wavelength localization of light. Photoemission spectra reflect the associated attosecond optical and electronic response and encode the collisional and collective dynamics of the solid. Nanospheres represent an ideal platform to explore the underlying attosecond nanophysics because of their particularly simple geometry. This review summarizes key results from the last decade and aims to provide the essential stepping stones for students and researchers to enter this field.
journal Advances in Physics X
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 7
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1080/23746149.2021.2010595

source harvard
id 21216328
title On the characterization of tidal ocean-dynamo signals in coastal magnetic observatories
first_author Johannes Petereit
author Johannes Petereit, Jan Saynisch-Wagner, Achim Morschhauser, Leonie Pick, Maik Thomas
abstract Periodic tidal ocean currents induce electric currents and, therefore, magnetic field signals that are observable using spaceborne and ground-based observation techniques. In theory, the signals can be used to monitor oceanic temperature and salinity variations. Tidal magnetic field amplitudes and phases have been extracted from magnetometer measurements in the past. However, due to uncertainties caused by a plentitude of influencing factors, the shape and temporal variation of these signals are only known to a limited extent. This study uses past extraction methods to characterize seasonal variations and long-term trends in the ten year magnetometer time series of three coastal island observatories. First, we assess data processing procedures used to prepare ground-based magnetometer observations for tidal ocean dynamo signal extraction to demonstrate that existing approaches, i.e., subtraction of core field models or first-order differencing, are unable to reliably remove low-frequency contributions. We hence propose low-frequency filtering using smoothing splines and demonstrate the advantages over the existing approaches. Second, we determine signal and side peak magnitudes of the M2 tide induced magnetic field signal by spectral analysis of the processed data. We find evidence for seasonal magnetic field signal variations of up to 25 % from the annual mean. Third, to characterize the long-term behavior of tidal ocean dynamo signal amplitudes and phases, we apply different signal extraction techniques to identify tidal ocean-dynamo signal amplitudes and phases in sub-series of the ten-year time series with incrementally increasing lengths. The analyses support three main findings: (1) trends cause signal amplitude changes of up to ≈1 nT and phase changes are in the order of O (10<SUP>∘</SUP> ) within the observation period; (2) at least four years of data are needed to obtain reliable amplitude and phase values with the extraction methods used and (3) signal phases are a less dependent on the chosen extraction method than signal amplitudes.
journal Earth, Planets and Space
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 74
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1186/s40623-022-01610-9

source harvard
id 21538335
title Gain-controlled broadband tuneability in self-mode-locked Thulium-doped fibre laser
first_author Dennis C. Kirsch
author Dennis C. Kirsch, Anastasia Bednyakova, Petr Varak, Pavel Honzatko, Benoit Cadier, Thierry Robin, Andrei Fotiadi, Pavel Peterka, Maria Chernysheva
abstract Ensuring self-driven mode-locking and broadband wavelength tuneability in all-fibre-integrated femtosecond laser sources enables a new level of their versatility and extends areas of their applications. Principle limitations for this are traditionally available ultrafast modulators and tuneability techniques. Here, we exploit Thulium-doped fibre to perform three roles in the cavity: laser gain, saturable absorber, and tuneability element via controlling its excitation level. We confirmed that Tm-doped fibre saturable absorption is defined by a reinforced quenching of Tm<SUP>3+</SUP> pairs. As a result, we present both numerically and experimentally a highly stable sub-picosecond pulse generation with a ~90 nm tuneability range spanning from 1873 to 1962 nm via adjusting the cavity feedback. The maximum laser efficiency corresponds to 25% cavity feedback, enabling the highest output energy of 1 nJ in 600-fs solitons at 1877 nm. Overall, the presented laser system establishes a compact and straightforward approach for ultrafast generation, which can be translated to other fibre laser operation wavelengths.
journal Communications Physics
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 5
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1038/s42005-022-00989-x

source harvard
id 21458664
title The origin of galactic cosmic rays
first_author Siming Liu
author Siming Liu, Houdun Zeng, Yuliang Xin, Yiran Zhang
abstract Thanks to advances in γ -ray astronomy and precise measurements of cosmic ray (CR) properties, the last decade has witnessed significant progresses in our understanding of the origin of Galactic CRs. In particular, GeV CRs have been associated with supernova remnants (SNRs) with soft γ -ray spectra, while there is evidence of efficient TeV CR acceleration in SNRs with hard γ -ray spectra. Nevertheless, no ultra-high-energy (&gt;50 TeV) γ -ray emission has been detected from shocks of SNRs, implying their limited contributions to PeV CR fluxes. Most ultra-high-energy γ -ray sources detected so far can be associated with pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), that are known PeV electron/positron accelerators. Their contributions to PeV CRs are still a matter of debate. The Galactic center region and some star clusters, on the other hand, are known sources of PeV CRs. Detailed modelings of CR spectra and anisotropy show that the supernova that gave rise to the Geminga pulsar may have significant contributions to TeV CR fluxes, and PeV CRs should have significant contributions from source(s) in the direction of the Galactic center.
journal Reviews of Modern Plasma Physics
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 6
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1007/s41614-022-00080-6

source harvard
id 21263465
title Quantum Floquet engineering with an exactly solvable tight-binding chain in a cavity
first_author Christian J. Eckhardt
author Christian J. Eckhardt, Giacomo Passetti, Moustafa Othman, Christoph Karrasch, Fabio Cavaliere, Michael A. Sentef, Dante M. Kennes
abstract Recent experimental advances enable the manipulation of quantum matter by exploiting the quantum nature of light. However, paradigmatic exactly solvable models, such as the Dicke, Rabi or Jaynes-Cummings models for quantum-optical systems, are scarce in the corresponding solid-state, quantum materials context. Focusing on the long-wavelength limit for the light, here, we provide such an exactly solvable model given by a tight-binding chain coupled to a single cavity mode via a quantized version of the Peierls substitution. We show that perturbative expansions in the light-matter coupling have to be taken with care and can easily lead to a false superradiant phase. Furthermore, we provide an analytical expression for the groundstate in the thermodynamic limit, in which the cavity photons are squeezed by the light-matter coupling. In addition, we derive analytical expressions for the electronic single-particle spectral function and optical conductivity. We unveil quantum Floquet engineering signatures in these dynamical response functions, such as analogs to dynamical localization and replica side bands, complementing paradigmatic classical Floquet engineering results. Strikingly, the Drude weight in the optical conductivity of the electrons is partially suppressed by the presence of a single cavity mode through an induced electron-electron interaction.
journal Communications Physics
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 5
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1038/s42005-022-00880-9

source harvard
id 21485893
title HR-LCMS assisted phytochemical screening and an assessment of anticancer activity of Sargassum Squarrossum and Dictyota Dichotoma using in vitro and molecular docking approaches
first_author Mohini Salunke
author Mohini Salunke, Balaji Wakure, Pravin Wakte
abstract The research in the area of marine bioactives have substantially improved in the last few decades. The identified marine algae namely Sargassum squarrossum and Dictyota dichotoma were subjected to phytochemical profiling using the most sophisticated High-resolution-LCMS, <SUP>1</SUP>H NMR and revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds. <P />In vitro MTT tests on lung and breast cancer cells revealed that the DCM fractions of Sargassum squarrossum and Dictyota dichotoma have anticancer characteristics, and they also demonstrated significant dose-dependant cytotoxicity on tumour cell lines. In MCF7 cells, the IC50 values for Sargassum squarrossum and Dictyota dichotoma were 139.51 μg/ml and 241.89 μg/ml whereas in A549 the cell line, the IC 50 values for the DCM fractions of Sargassum squarrossum and Dictyota dichotoma were 95.37 μg/ml and 92.09 μg/ml, respectively. Sargassum squarrossum shows potent anticancer activity in MCF7 and A549 whereas Dictyota dichotoma has potent anticancer activity in A549 and moderate activity in MCF7 cell lines. <P />The most prevalent enzymes VEGFR-2 and AXL tyrosine kinase, contribute to the development of cancer. A computational method was used to confirm the anticancer effects of the newly identified compounds targeting the above enzymes. According to the molecular docking studies, most of the detected compounds from marine algae were selectively interacting with AXL and VEGFR receptors with good binding affinity scores. The current work demonstrated the phytochemical assessment of marine algae and showed the ability of marine natural products to provide unique metabolites with significant biological activity.
journal Journal of Molecular Structure
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 1270
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1016/j.molstruc.2022.133833

source harvard
id 20943723
title A Comparison of CPU and GPU Implementations for the LHCb Experiment Run 3 Trigger
first_author R. Aaij
author R. Aaij, M. Adinolfi, S. Aiola, S. Akar, J. Albrecht, M. Alexander, S. Amato, Y. Amhis, F. Archilli, M. Bala, G. Bassi, L. Bian, M. P. Blago, T. Boettcher, A. Boldyrev, S. Borghi, A. Brea Rodriguez, L. Calefice, M. Calvo Gomez, D. H. Cámpora Pérez, A. Cardini, M. Cattaneo, V. Chobanova, G. Ciezarek, X. Cid Vidal, J. L. Cobbledick, J. A. B. Coelho, T. Colombo, A. Contu, B. Couturier, D. C. Craik, R. Currie, P. d'Argent, M. De Cian, D. Derkach, F. Dordei, M. Dorigo, L. Dufour, P. Durante, A. Dziurda, A. Dzyuba, S. Easo, S. Esen, P. Fernandez Declara, S. Filippov, C. Fitzpatrick, M. Frank, P. Gandini, V. V. Gligorov, E. Golobardes, G. Graziani, L. Grillo, P. A. Günther, S. Hansmann-Menzemer, A. M. Hennequin, L. Henry, D. Hill, S. E. Hollitt, J. Hu, W. Hulsbergen, R. J. Hunter, M. Hushchyn, B. K. Jashal, C. R. Jones, S. Klaver, K. Klimaszewski, R. Kopecna, W. Krzemien, M. Kucharczyk, R. Lane, F. Lazzari, R. Le Gac, P. Li, J. H. Lopes, M. Lucio Martinez, A. Lupato, O. Lupton, X. Lyu, F. Machefert, O. Madejczyk, S. Malde, J. F. Marchand, S. Mariani, C. Marin Benito, D. Martinez Santos, F. Martinez Vidal, R. Matev, M. Mazurek, B. Mitreska, D. S. Mitzel, M. J. Morello, H. Mu, P. Muzzetto, P. Naik, M. Needham, N. Neri, N. Neufeld, N. S. Nolte, D. O'Hanlon, A. Oyanguren, M. Pepe Altarelli, S. Petrucci, M. Petruzzo, L. Pica, F. Pisani, A. Piucci, F. Polci, A. Poluektov, E. Polycarpo, C. Prouve, G. Punzi, R. Quagliani, R. I. Rabadan Trejo, M. Ramos Pernas, M. S. Rangel, F. Ratnikov, G. Raven, F. Reiss, V. Renaudin, P. Robbe, A. Ryzhikov, M. Santimaria, M. Saur, M. Schiller, R. Schwemmer, B. Sciascia, A. Solomin, F. Suljik, N. Skidmore, M. D. Sokoloff, P. Spradlin, M. Stahl, S. Stahl, H. Stevens, L. Sun, A. Szabelski, T. Szumlak, M. Szymanski, D. Y. Tou, G. Tuci, A. Usachov, N. Valls Canudas, R. Vazquez Gomez, S. Vecchi, M. Vesterinen, X. Vilasis-Cardona, D. Vom Bruch, Z. Wang, T. Wojton, M. Whitehead, M. Williams, M. Witek, Y. Xie, A. Xu, H. Yin, M. Zdybal, O. Zenaiev, D. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Zhu, LHCb Collaboration
abstract The Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) experiment at CERN is undergoing an upgrade in preparation for the Run 3 data collection period at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As part of this upgrade, the trigger is moving to a full software implementation operating at the LHC bunch crossing rate. We present an evaluation of a CPU-based and a GPU-based implementation of the first stage of the high-level trigger. After a detailed comparison, both options are found to be viable. This document summarizes the performance and implementation details of these options, the outcome of which has led to the choice of the GPU-based implementation as the baseline.
journal Computing and Software for Big Science
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 6
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1007/s41781-021-00070-2

source harvard
id 21373859
title New horizons for fundamental physics with LISA
first_author K. G. Arun
author K. G. Arun, Enis Belgacem, Robert Benkel, Laura Bernard, Emanuele Berti, Gianfranco Bertone, Marc Besancon, Diego Blas, Christian G. Böhmer, Richard Brito, Gianluca Calcagni, Alejandro Cardenas-Avendaño, Katy Clough, Marco Crisostomi, Valerio De Luca, Daniela Doneva, Stephanie Escoffier, José María Ezquiaga, Pedro G. Ferreira, Pierre Fleury, Stefano Foffa, Gabriele Franciolini, Noemi Frusciante, Juan García-Bellido, Carlos Herdeiro, Thomas Hertog, Tanja Hinderer, Philippe Jetzer, Lucas Lombriser, Elisa Maggio, Michele Maggiore, Michele Mancarella, Andrea Maselli, Sourabh Nampalliwar, David Nichols, Maria Okounkova, Paolo Pani, Vasileios Paschalidis, Alvise Raccanelli, Lisa Randall, Sébastien Renaux-Petel, Antonio Riotto, Milton Ruiz, Alexander Saffer, Mairi Sakellariadou, Ippocratis D. Saltas, B. S. Sathyaprakash, Lijing Shao, Carlos F. Sopuerta, Thomas P. Sotiriou, Nikolaos Stergioulas, Nicola Tamanini, Filippo Vernizzi, Helvi Witek, Kinwah Wu, Kent Yagi, Stoytcho Yazadjiev, Nicolás Yunes, Miguel Zilhão, Niayesh Afshordi, Marie-Christine Angonin, Vishal Baibhav, Enrico Barausse, Tiago Barreiro, Nicola Bartolo, Nicola Bellomo, Ido Ben-Dayan, Eric A. Bergshoeff, Sebastiano Bernuzzi, Daniele Bertacca, Swetha Bhagwat, Béatrice Bonga, Lior M. Burko, Geoffrey Compére, Giulia Cusin, Antonio da Silva, Saurya Das, Claudia de Rham, Kyriakos Destounis, Ema Dimastrogiovanni, Francisco Duque, Richard Easther, Hontas Farmer, Matteo Fasiello, Stanislav Fisenko, Kwinten Fransen, Jörg Frauendiener, Jonathan Gair, László Árpád Gergely, Davide Gerosa, Leonardo Gualtieri, Wen-Biao Han, Aurelien Hees, Thomas Helfer, Jörg Hennig, Alexander C. Jenkins, Eric Kajfasz, Nemanja Kaloper, Vladimír Karas, Bradley J. Kavanagh, Sergei A. Klioner, Savvas M. Koushiappas, Macarena Lagos, Christophe Le Poncin-Lafitte, Francisco S. N. Lobo, Charalampos Markakis, Prado Martín-Moruno, C. J. A. P. Martins, Sabino Matarrese, Daniel R. Mayerson, José P. Mimoso, Johannes Noller, Nelson J. Nunes, Roberto Oliveri, Giorgio Orlando, George Pappas, Igor Pikovski, Luigi Pilo, Jiří Podolský, Geraint Pratten, Tomislav Prokopec, Hong Qi, Saeed Rastgoo, Angelo Ricciardone, Rocco Rollo, Diego Rubiera-Garcia, Olga Sergijenko, Stuart Shapiro, Deirdre Shoemaker, Alessandro Spallicci, Oleksandr Stashko, Leo C. Stein, Gianmassimo Tasinato, Andrew J. Tolley, Elias C. Vagenas, Stefan Vandoren, Daniele Vernieri, Rodrigo Vicente, Toby Wiseman, Valery I. Zhdanov, Miguel Zumalacárregui
abstract The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has the potential to reveal wonders about the fundamental theory of nature at play in the extreme gravity regime, where the gravitational interaction is both strong and dynamical. In this white paper, the Fundamental Physics Working Group of the LISA Consortium summarizes the current topics in fundamental physics where LISA observations of gravitational waves can be expected to provide key input. We provide the briefest of reviews to then delineate avenues for future research directions and to discuss connections between this working group, other working groups and the consortium work package teams. These connections must be developed for LISA to live up to its science potential in these areas.
journal Living Reviews in Relativity
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 25
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1007/s41114-022-00036-9

source harvard
id 21482636
title Transition state theory characterizes thin film macrospin dynamics driven by an oscillatory magnetic field: Inertial effects
first_author Michael Maihöfer
author Michael Maihöfer, Johannes Reiff, Jörg Main, Rigoberto Hernandez
abstract Understanding the magnetization switching process in ferromagnetic thin films is essential for many technological applications. We investigate the effects of periodic driving via magnetic fields on a macrospin system under explicit consideration of inertial dynamics. This is usually achieved by extending the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with a term including the second time derivative of the magnetization. The dynamics of the magnetization switching can then be characterized by its switching rate. We apply methods from transition state theory for driven systems to resolve the rate of magnetization switching in this general case. In doing so, we find that magnetization exhibits resonance-like behavior under certain driving conditions, and it can be affected strongly by the system's relaxation rate.
journal Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulations
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 115
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1016/j.cnsns.2022.106764

source harvard
id 21336819
title Direct observation of significant hot carrier cooling suppression in a two-dimensional silicon phononic crystal
first_author Wensheng Yan
author Wensheng Yan, Liyuan Long, Yue Zang, Gaoyuan Yang, Guijie Liang
abstract Finding hot carrier cooling suppression in new material structures is fundamentally important for developing promising technological applications. These phenomenona have not been reported for crystalline silicon phononic crystals. Herein, we experimentally design two-dimensional (2D) silicon samples consisting of airy hole arrays in a crystalline silicon matrix. For reference, the determined hot carrier cooling times were 0.45 ps and 0.37 ps, respectively, at probe wavelengths of 1080 nm and 1100 nm. Surprisingly, when the 2D structured silicon possessed the properties of a phononic crystal, significant suppression of hot carrier cooling was observed. In these cases, the observed hot carrier cooling times were as long as 15.9 ps and 10.7 ps at probe wavelengths of 1080 nm and 1100 nm, respectively, indicating prolongation by orders of magnitude. This remarkable enhancement was also observed with other probe wavelengths. The present work presents experimental evidence for hot carrier cooling suppression in 2D silicon phononic crystals and opens opportunities for promising applications.
journal npj Asia Materials
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 14
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1038/s41427-022-00397-1

source harvard
id 21002652
title Emulating the impact of additional proton-proton interactions in the ATLAS simulation by presampling sets of inelastic Monte Carlo events
first_author G. Aad
author G. Aad, B. Abbott, D. C. Abbott, A. Abed Abud, K. Abeling, D. K. Abhayasinghe, S. H. Abidi, O. S. Abouzeid, N. L. Abraham, H. Abramowicz, H. Abreu, Y. Abulaiti, A. C. Abusleme Hoffman, B. S. Acharya, B. Achkar, L. Adam, C. Adam Bourdarios, L. Adamczyk, L. Adamek, J. Adelman, A. Adiguzel, S. Adorni, T. Adye, A. A. Affolder, Y. Afik, C. Agapopoulou, M. N. Agaras, A. Aggarwal, C. Agheorghiesei, J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra, A. Ahmad, F. Ahmadov, W. S. Ahmed, X. Ai, G. Aielli, S. Akatsuka, M. Akbiyik, T. P. A. Åkesson, E. Akilli, A. V. Akimov, K. Al Khoury, G. L. Alberghi, J. Albert, M. J. Alconada Verzini, S. Alderweireldt, M. Aleksa, I. N. Aleksandrov, C. Alexa, T. Alexopoulos, A. Alfonsi, F. Alfonsi, M. Alhroob, B. Ali, S. Ali, M. Aliev, G. Alimonti, C. Allaire, B. M. M. Allbrooke, P. P. Allport, A. Aloisio, F. Alonso, C. Alpigiani, E. Alunno Camelia, M. Alvarez Estevez, M. G. Alviggi, Y. Amaral Coutinho, A. Ambler, L. Ambroz, C. Amelung, D. Amidei, S. P. Amor Dos Santos, S. Amoroso, C. S. Amrouche, C. Anastopoulos, N. Andari, T. Andeen, J. K. Anders, S. Y. Andrean, A. Andreazza, V. Andrei, C. R. Anelli, S. Angelidakis, A. Angerami, A. V. Anisenkov, A. Annovi, C. Antel, M. T. Anthony, E. Antipov, M. Antonelli, D. J. A. Antrim, F. Anulli, M. Aoki, J. A. Aparisi Pozo, M. A. Aparo, L. Aperio Bella, N. Aranzabal, V. Araujo Ferraz, C. Arcangeletti, A. T. H. Arce, J. -F. Arguin, S. Argyropoulos, J. -H. Arling, A. J. Armbruster, A. Armstrong, O. Arnaez, H. Arnold, Z. P. Arrubarrena Tame, G. Artoni, H. Asada, K. Asai, S. Asai, N. A. Asbah, E. M. Asimakopoulou, L. Asquith, J. Assahsah, K. Assamagan, R. Astalos, R. J. Atkin, M. Atkinson, N. B. Atlay, H. Atmani, P. A. Atmasiddha, K. Augsten, V. A. Austrup, G. Avolio, M. K. Ayoub, G. Azuelos, D. Babal, H. Bachacou, K. Bachas, F. Backman, P. Bagnaia, H. Bahrasemani, A. J. Bailey, V. R. Bailey, J. T. Baines, C. Bakalis, O. K. Baker, P. J. Bakker, E. Bakos, D. Bakshi Gupta, S. Balaji, R. Balasubramanian, E. M. Baldin, P. Balek, F. Balli, W. K. Balunas, J. Balz, E. Banas, M. Bandieramonte, A. Bandyopadhyay, L. Barak, W. M. Barbe, E. L. Barberio, D. Barberis, M. Barbero, G. Barbour, K. N. Barends, T. Barillari, M. -S. Barisits, J. Barkeloo, T. Barklow, B. M. Barnett, R. M. Barnett, Z. Barnovska-Blenessy, A. Baroncelli, G. Barone, A. J. Barr, L. Barranco Navarro, F. Barreiro, J. Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, U. Barron, S. Barsov, F. Bartels, R. Bartoldus, G. Bartolini, A. E. Barton, P. Bartos, A. Basalaev, A. Basan, A. Bassalat, M. J. Basso, C. R. Basson, R. L. Bates, S. Batlamous, J. R. Batley, B. Batool, M. Battaglia, M. Bauce, F. Bauer, P. Bauer, H. S. Bawa, A. Bayirli, J. B. Beacham, T. Beau, P. H. Beauchemin, F. Becherer, P. Bechtle, H. P. Beck, K. Becker, C. Becot, A. J. Beddall, V. A. Bednyakov, C. P. Bee, T. A. Beermann, M. Begalli, M. Begel, A. Behera, J. K. Behr, J. F. Beirer, F. Beisiegel, M. Belfkir, G. Bella, L. Bellagamba, A. Bellerive, P. Bellos, K. Beloborodov, K. Belotskiy, N. 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Solovyev, P. Sommer, H. Son, A. Sonay, W. Y. Song, A. Sopczak, A. L. Sopio, F. Sopkova, S. Sottocornola, R. Soualah, A. M. Soukharev, Z. Soumaimi, D. South, S. Spagnolo, M. Spalla, M. Spangenberg, F. Spanò, D. Sperlich, T. M. Spieker, G. Spigo, M. Spina, D. P. Spiteri, M. Spousta, A. Stabile, B. L. Stamas, R. Stamen, M. Stamenkovic, A. Stampekis, E. Stanecka, B. Stanislaus, M. M. Stanitzki, M. Stankaityte, B. Stapf, E. A. Starchenko, G. H. Stark, J. Stark, P. Staroba, P. Starovoitov, S. Stärz, R. Staszewski, G. Stavropoulos, P. Steinberg, A. L. Steinhebel, B. Stelzer, H. J. Stelzer, O. Stelzer-Chilton, H. Stenzel, T. J. Stevenson, G. A. Stewart, M. C. Stockton, G. Stoicea, M. Stolarski, S. Stonjek, A. Straessner, J. Strandberg, S. Strandberg, M. Strauss, T. Strebler, P. Strizenec, R. Ströhmer, D. M. Strom, L. R. Strom, R. Stroynowski, A. Strubig, S. A. Stucci, B. Stugu, J. Stupak, N. A. Styles, D. Su, W. Su, X. Su, N. B. Suarez, V. V. Sulin, M. J. Sullivan, D. M. S. Sultan, S. Sultansoy, T. Sumida, S. Sun, S. Sun, X. Sun, C. J. E. Suster, M. R. Sutton, M. Svatos, M. Swiatlowski, S. P. Swift, T. Swirski, A. Sydorenko, I. Sykora, M. Sykora, T. Sykora, D. Ta, K. Tackmann, A. Taffard, R. Tafirout, E. Tagiev, R. H. M. Taibah, R. Takashima, K. Takeda, T. Takeshita, E. P. Takeva, Y. Takubo, M. Talby, A. A. Talyshev, K. C. Tam, N. M. Tamir, J. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, S. Tapia Araya, S. Tapprogge, A. Tarek Abouelfadl Mohamed, S. Tarem, K. Tariq, G. Tarna, G. F. Tartarelli, P. Tas, M. Tasevsky, E. Tassi, G. Tateno, Y. Tayalati, G. N. Taylor, W. Taylor, H. Teagle, A. S. Tee, R. Teixeira de Lima, P. Teixeira-Dias, H. Ten Kate, J. J. Teoh, K. Terashi, J. Terron, S. Terzo, M. Testa, R. J. Teuscher, N. Themistokleous, T. Theveneaux-Pelzer, D. W. Thomas, J. P. Thomas, E. A. Thompson, P. D. Thompson, E. Thomson, E. J. Thorpe, V. O. Tikhomirov, Yu. A. Tikhonov, S. Timoshenko, P. Tipton, S. Tisserant, S. H. Tlou, A. Tnourji, K. Todome, S. Todorova-Nova, S. Todt, J. Tojo, S. Tokár, K. Tokushuku, E. Tolley, R. Tombs, M. Tomoto, L. Tompkins, P. Tornambe, E. Torrence, H. Torres, E. Torró Pastor, M. Toscani, C. Tosciri, J. Toth, D. R. Tovey, A. Traeet, C. J. Treado, T. Trefzger, A. Tricoli, I. M. Trigger, S. Trincaz-Duvoid, D. A. Trischuk, W. Trischuk, B. Trocmé, A. Trofymov, C. Troncon, F. Trovato, L. Truong, M. Trzebinski, A. Trzupek, F. Tsai, P. V. Tsiareshka, A. Tsirigotis, V. Tsiskaridze, E. G. Tskhadadze, M. Tsopoulou, I. I. Tsukerman, V. Tsulaia, S. Tsuno, D. Tsybychev, Y. Tu, A. Tudorache, V. Tudorache, A. N. Tuna, S. Turchikhin, D. Turgeman, I. Turk Cakir, R. J. Turner, R. Turra, P. M. Tuts, S. Tzamarias, P. Tzanis, E. Tzovara, K. Uchida, F. Ukegawa, G. Unal, M. Unal, A. Undrus, G. Unel, F. C. Ungaro, K. Uno, J. Urban, P. Urquijo, G. Usai, Z. Uysal, V. Vacek, B. Vachon, K. O. H. Vadla, T. Vafeiadis, C. Valderanis, E. Valdes Santurio, M. Valente, S. Valentinetti, A. Valero, L. Valéry, R. A. Vallance, A. Vallier, J. A. Valls Ferrer, T. R. Van Daalen, P. Van Gemmeren, S. Van Stroud, I. Van Vulpen, M. Vanadia, W. Vandelli, M. Vandenbroucke, E. R. Vandewall, D. Vannicola, R. Vari, E. W. Varnes, C. Varni, T. Varol, D. Varouchas, K. E. Varvell, M. E. Vasile, L. Vaslin, G. A. Vasquez, F. Vazeille, D. Vazquez Furelos, T. Vazquez Schroeder, J. Veatch, V. Vecchio, M. J. Veen, L. M. Veloce, F. Veloso, S. Veneziano, A. Ventura, A. Verbytskyi, M. Verducci, C. Vergis, W. Verkerke, A. T. Vermeulen, J. C. Vermeulen, C. Vernieri, P. J. Verschuuren, M. L. Vesterbacka, M. C. Vetterli, N. Viaux Maira, T. Vickey, O. E. Vickey Boeriu, G. H. A. Viehhauser, L. Vigani, M. Villa, M. Villaplana Perez, E. M. Villhauer, E. Vilucchi, M. G. Vincter, G. S. Virdee, A. Vishwakarma, C. Vittori, I. Vivarelli, V. Vladimirov, M. Vogel, P. Vokac, J. Von Ahnen, S. E. Von Buddenbrock, E. Von Toerne, V. Vorobel, K. Vorobev, M. Vos, J. H. Vossebeld, M. Vozak, N. Vranjes, M. Vranjes Milosavljevic, V. Vrba, M. Vreeswijk, N. K. Vu, R. Vuillermet, I. Vukotic, S. Wada, C. Wagner, P. Wagner, W. Wagner, S. Wahdan, H. Wahlberg, R. Wakasa, V. M. Walbrecht, J. Walder, R. Walker, S. D. Walker, W. Walkowiak, V. Wallangen, A. M. Wang, A. Z. Wang, C. Wang, C. Wang, H. Wang, J. Wang, P. Wang, R. -J. Wang, R. Wang, R. Wang, S. M. Wang, S. Wang, T. Wang, W. T. Wang, W. X. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Wang, C. Wanotayaroj, A. Warburton, C. P. Ward, R. J. Ward, N. Warrack, A. T. Watson, M. F. Watson, G. Watts, B. M. Waugh, A. F. Webb, C. Weber, M. S. Weber, S. A. Weber, S. M. Weber, C. Wei, Y. Wei, A. R. Weidberg, J. Weingarten, M. Weirich, C. Weiser, P. S. Wells, T. Wenaus, B. Wendland, T. Wengler, S. Wenig, N. Wermes, M. Wessels, T. D. Weston, K. Whalen, A. M. Wharton, A. S. White, A. White, M. J. White, D. Whiteson, W. Wiedenmann, C. Wiel, M. Wielers, N. Wieseotte, C. Wiglesworth, L. A. M. Wiik-Fuchs, H. G. Wilkens, L. J. Wilkins, D. M. Williams, H. H. Williams, S. Williams, S. Willocq, P. J. Windischhofer, I. Wingerter-Seez, F. Winklmeier, B. T. Winter, M. Wittgen, M. Wobisch, A. Wolf, R. Wölker, J. Wollrath, M. W. Wolter, H. Wolters, V. W. S. Wong, A. F. Wongel, N. L. Woods, S. D. Worm, B. K. Wosiek, K. W. Woźniak, K. Wraight, J. Wu, S. L. Wu, X. Wu, Y. Wu, Z. Wu, J. Wuerzinger, T. R. Wyatt, B. M. Wynne, S. Xella, J. Xiang, X. Xiao, X. Xie, I. Xiotidis, D. Xu, H. Xu, H. Xu, L. Xu, R. Xu, T. Xu, W. Xu, Y. Xu, Z. Xu, Z. Xu, B. Yabsley, S. Yacoob, D. P. Yallup, N. Yamaguchi, Y. Yamaguchi, M. Yamatani, H. Yamauchi, T. Yamazaki, Y. Yamazaki, J. Yan, Z. Yan, H. J. Yang, H. T. Yang, S. Yang, T. Yang, X. Yang, X. Yang, Y. Yang, Z. Yang, W. -M. Yao, Y. C. Yap, H. Ye, J. Ye, S. Ye, I. Yeletskikh, M. R. Yexley, P. Yin, K. Yorita, K. Yoshihara, C. J. S. Young, C. Young, R. Yuan, X. Yue, M. Zaazoua, B. Zabinski, G. Zacharis, E. Zaffaroni, J. Zahreddine, A. M. Zaitsev, T. Zakareishvili, N. Zakharchuk, S. Zambito, D. Zanzi, S. V. Zeißner, C. Zeitnitz, G. Zemaityte, J. C. Zeng, O. Zenin, T. Ženiš, S. Zenz, S. Zerradi, D. Zerwas, M. Zgubič, B. Zhang, D. F. Zhang, G. Zhang, J. Zhang, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, M. Zhang, R. Zhang, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, P. Zhao, Y. Zhao, Z. Zhao, A. Zhemchugov, Z. Zheng, D. Zhong, B. Zhou, C. Zhou, H. Zhou, M. Zhou, N. Zhou, Y. Zhou, C. G. Zhu, C. Zhu, H. L. Zhu, H. Zhu, J. Zhu, Y. Zhu, X. Zhuang, K. Zhukov, V. Zhulanov, D. Zieminska, N. I. Zimine, S. Zimmermann, Z. Zinonos, M. Ziolkowski, L. Živković, A. Zoccoli, K. Zoch, T. G. Zorbas, R. Zou, W. Zou, L. Zwalinski, Atlas Collaboration
abstract The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015-2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hard scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.
journal Computing and Software for Big Science
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 6
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1007/s41781-021-00062-2

source harvard
id 20984735
title Coexisting Z-type charge and bond order in metallic NaRu<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>4</SUB>
first_author Arvind Kumar Yogi
author Arvind Kumar Yogi, Alexander Yaresko, C. I. Sathish, Hasung Sim, Daisuke Morikawa, Juergen Nuss, Kenji Tsuda, Yukio. Noda, Daniel I. Khomskii, Je-Geun Park
abstract How particular bonds form in quantum materials has been a long-standing puzzle. Two key concepts dealing with charge degrees of freedom are dimerization (forming metal-metal bonds) and charge ordering. Since the 1930s, these two concepts have been frequently invoked to explain numerous exciting quantum materials, typically insulators. Here we report dimerization and charge ordering within the dimers coexisting in metallic NaRu<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>4</SUB>. By combining high-resolution x-ray diffraction studies and theoretical calculations, we demonstrate that this unique phenomenon occurs through a new type of bonding, which we call Z-type ordering. The low-temperature superstructure has strong dimerization in legs of zigzag ladders, with short dimers in legs connected by short zigzag bonds, forming Z-shape clusters: simultaneously, site-centered charge ordering also appears. Our results demonstrate the yet unknown flexibility of quantum materials with the intricate interplay among orbital, charge, and lattice degrees of freedom.
journal Communications Materials
publisher
year 2022
month 12
volume 3
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1038/s43246-022-00224-8

source harvard
id 21554786
title B-meson decay into a proton and dark antibaryon from QCD light-cone sum rules
first_author Alexander Khodjamirian
author Alexander Khodjamirian, Marcel Wald
abstract The recently developed B-Mesogenesis scenario predicts decays of B mesons into a baryon and hypothetical dark antibaryon Ψ. We suggest a method to calculate the amplitude of the simplest exclusive decay mode B<SUP>+</SUP> → pΨ. Considering two models of B-Mesogenesis, we obtain the B → p hadronic matrix elements by applying QCD light-cone sum rules with the proton light-cone distribution amplitudes. We estimate the B<SUP>+</SUP> → pΨ decay width as a function of the mass and effective coupling of the dark antibaryon.
journal Physics Letters B
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume 834
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1016/j.physletb.2022.137434

source harvard
id 21558658
title Primordial dusty rings and episodic outbursts in protoplanetary discs
first_author Kundan Kadam
author Kundan Kadam, Eduard Vorobyov, Shantanu Basu
abstract We investigate the formation and evolution of 'primordial' dusty rings occurring in the inner regions of protoplanetary discs, with the help of long-term, coupled dust-gas, magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The simulations are global and start from the collapse phase of the parent cloud core, while the dead zone is calculated via an adaptive α formulation by taking into account the local ionization balance. The evolution of the dusty component includes its growth and back reaction on to the gas. Previously, using simulations with only a gas component, we showed that dynamical rings form at the inner edge of the dead zone. We find that when dust evolution, as well as magnetic field evolution in the flux-freezing limit are included, the dusty rings formed are more numerous and span a larger radial extent in the inner disc, while the dead zone is more robust and persists for a much longer time. We show that these dynamical rings concentrate enough dust mass to become streaming unstable, which should result in a rapid planetesimal formation even in the embedded phases of the system. The episodic outbursts caused by the magnetorotational instability have a significant impact on the evolution of the rings. The outbursts drain the inner disc of grown dust, however, the period between bursts is sufficiently long for the planetesimal growth via streaming instability. The dust mass contained within the rings is large enough to ultimately produce planetary systems with the core accretion scenario. The low-mass systems rarely undergo outbursts, and, thus, the conditions around such stars can be especially conducive for planet formation.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume 516
publication_type article
eprint
pages 21
issue 3
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2455

source harvard
id 21642808
title Onboard performance of the level 1 trigger of the mini-EUSO telescope
first_author M. Battisti
author M. Battisti, D. Barghini, A. Belov, M. Bertaina, F. Bisconti, K. Bolmgren, G. Cambiè, F. Capel, M. Casolino, T. Ebisuzaki, F. Fenu, M. A. Franceschi, C. Fuglesang, A. Golzio, P. Gorodetzki, F. Kajino, P. Klimov, M. Manfrin, L. Marcelli, W. Marszał, H. Miyamoto, T. Napolitano, E. Parizot, P. Picozza, L. W. Piotrowski, Z. Plebaniak, G. Prévôt, E. Reali, M. Ricci, N. Sakaki, K. Shinozaki, J. Szabelski, Y. Takizawa
abstract The Mini-EUSO telescope was launched for the International Space Station on August 22<SUP>nd</SUP> , 2019 to observe from the ISS orbit (∼ 400 km altitude) various phenomena occurring in the Earth's atmosphere through a UV-transparent window located in the Russian Zvezda Module. Mini-EUSO is based on a set of two Fresnel lenses of 25 cm diameter each and a focal plane of 48 × 48 pixels, for a total field of view of 44 ° . Until July 2021, Mini-EUSO performed a total of 41 data acquisition sessions, obtaining UV images of the Earth in the 290 nm - 430 nm band with temporal and spatial resolution on ground of 2.5 μs and 6.3 × 6.3 km<SUP>2</SUP>, respectively. The data acquisition was performed with a 2.5 μs sampling rate, using a dedicated trigger looking for signals with a typical duration of tens of μs. <P />In the present paper the analysis of the performance of the 2.5 μs trigger logic is presented, with a focus on the method used for the analysis and the categories of triggered events. The expected functioning of the trigger logic has been confirmed, with the trigger rate on spurious events that remains within the requirements in nominal background conditions. The trigger logic detected several different phenomena, including lightning strikes, elves, ground-based flashers and events with EAS-like characteristics.
journal Advances in Space Research
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume 70
publication_type article
eprint
pages 17
issue 9
doi 10.1016/j.asr.2022.07.077

source harvard
id 21643303
title Ammonia in the interstellar medium of a starbursting disc at z = 2.6
first_author M. J. Doherty
author M. J. Doherty, J. E. Geach, R. J. Ivison, K. M. Menten, A. M. Jacob, J. Forbrich, S. Dye
abstract We report the detection of the ground state rotational emission of ammonia, ortho-NH<SUB>3</SUB> (J<SUB>K</SUB> = 1<SUB>0</SUB> → 0<SUB>0</SUB>) in a gravitationally lensed intrinsically hyperluminous star-bursting galaxy at z = 2.6. The integrated line profile is consistent with other molecular and atomic emission lines which have resolved kinematics well modelled by a 5 kpc-diameter rotating disc. This implies that the gas responsible for NH<SUB>3</SUB> emission is broadly tracing the global molecular reservoir, but likely distributed in pockets of high density (n ≳ 5 × 10<SUP>4</SUP> cm<SUP>-3</SUP>). With a luminosity of 2.8 × 10<SUP>6</SUP> L<SUB>⊙</SUB>, the NH<SUB>3</SUB> emission represents 2.5 × 10<SUP>-7</SUP> of the total infrared luminosity of the galaxy, comparable to the ratio observed in the Kleinmann-Low nebula in Orion and consistent with sites of massive star formation in the Milky Way. If $L_{\rm NH_3}/L_{\rm IR}$ serves as a proxy for the 'mode' of star formation, this hints that the nature of star formation in extreme starbursts in the early Universe is similar to that of Galactic star-forming regions, with a large fraction of the cold interstellar medium in this state, plausibly driven by a storm of violent disc instabilities in the gas-dominated disc. This supports the 'full of Orions' picture of star formation in the most extreme galaxies seen close to the peak epoch of stellar mass assembly.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume 517
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1093/mnrasl/slac111

source harvard
id 21837513
title SN 2019ewu: A Peculiar Supernova with Early Strong Carbon and Weak Oxygen Features from a New Sample of Young SN Ic Spectra
first_author Marc Williamson
author Marc Williamson, Christian Vogl, Maryam Modjaz, Wolfgang Kerzendorf, Jaladh Singhal, Teresa Boland, Jamison Burke, Zhihao Chen, Daichi Hiramatsu, Lluis Galbany, Estefania Padilla Gonzalez, D. Andrew Howell, Saurabh W. Jha, Lindsey A. Kwok, Curtis McCully, Megan Newsome, Craig Pellegrino, Jeonghee Rho, Giacomo Terreran, Xiaofeng Wang
abstract With the advent of high cadence, all-sky automated surveys, supernovae (SNe) are now discovered closer than ever to their dates of explosion. However, young pre-maximum light follow-up spectra of Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic), probably arising from the most stripped massive stars, remain rare despite their importance. In this paper we present a set of 49 optical spectra observed with the Las Cumbres Observatory through the Global Supernova Project for 6 SNe Ic, including a total of 17 pre-maximum spectra, of which 8 are observed more than a week before V-band maximum light. This dataset increases the total number of publicly available pre-maximum light SN Ic spectra by 25% and we provide publicly available SNID templates that will significantly aid in the fast identification of young SNe Ic in the future. We present detailed analysis of these spectra, including Fe II 5169 velocity measurements, O I 7774 line strengths, and continuum shapes. We compare our results to published samples of stripped supernovae in the literature and find one SN in our sample that stands out. SN 2019ewu has a unique combination of features for a SN Ic: an extremely blue continuum, high absorption velocities, a P-cygni shaped feature almost 2 weeks before maximum light that TARDIS radiative transfer modeling attributes to C II rather than H$\alpha$, and weak or non-existent O I 7774 absorption feature until maximum light.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.04482
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21837996
title Can neutron star mergers alone explain the r-process enrichment of the Milky Way?
first_author Chiaki Kobayashi
author Chiaki Kobayashi, Ilya Mandel, Krzysztof Belczynski, Stephane Goriely, Thomas H. Janka, Oliver Just, Ashley J. Ruiter, Dany Van Beveren, Matthias U. Kruckow, Max M. Briel, Jan J. Eldridge, Elizabeth Stanway
abstract Comparing Galactic chemical evolution models to the observed elemental abundances in the Milky Way, we show that neutron star mergers can be a leading r-process site only if such mergers have very short delay times and/or beneficial masses of the compact objects at low metallicities. Namely, black hole-neutron star mergers, depending on the black-hole spins, can play an important role in the early chemical enrichment of the Milky Way. We also show that none of the binary population synthesis models used in this paper, i.e., COMPAS, StarTrack, Brussels, ComBinE, and BPASS, can currently reproduce the elemental abundance observations. The predictions are problematic not only for neutron star mergers, but also for Type Ia supernovae, which may point to shortcomings in binary evolution models.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.04964
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21837151
title A Neural Network Subgrid Model of the Early Stages of Planet Formation
first_author Thomas Pfeil
author Thomas Pfeil, Miles Cranmer, Shirley Ho, Philip J. Armitage, Tilman Birnstiel, Hubert Klahr
abstract Planet formation is a multi-scale process in which the coagulation of $\mathrm{\mu m}$-sized dust grains in protoplanetary disks is strongly influenced by the hydrodynamic processes on scales of astronomical units ($\approx 1.5\times 10^8 \,\mathrm{km}$). Studies are therefore dependent on subgrid models to emulate the micro physics of dust coagulation on top of a large scale hydrodynamic simulation. Numerical simulations which include the relevant physical effects are complex and computationally expensive. Here, we present a fast and accurate learned effective model for dust coagulation, trained on data from high resolution numerical coagulation simulations. Our model captures details of the dust coagulation process that were so far not tractable with other dust coagulation prescriptions with similar computational efficiency.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.04160
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21834642
title STRIDES: Automated uniform models for 30 quadruply imaged quasars
first_author T. Schmidt
author T. Schmidt, T. Treu, S. Birrer, A. J. Shajib, C. Lemon, M. Millon, D. Sluse, A. Agnello, T. Anguita, M. W. Auger-Williams, R. G. McMahon, V. Motta, P. Schechter, C. Spiniello, I. Kayo, F. Courbin, S. Ertl, C. D. Fassnacht, J. A. Frieman, A. More, S. Schuldt, S. H. Suyu, M. Aguena, F. Andrade-Oliveira, J. Annis, D. Bacon, E. Bertin, D. Brooks, D. L. Burke, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, C. Conselice, M. Costanzi, L. N. da Costa, M. E. S. Pereira, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, P. Doel, S. Everett, I. Ferrero, D. Friedel, J. García-Bellido, E. Gaztanaga, D. Gruen, R. A. Gruendl, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, S. R. Hinton, D. L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, D. J. James, K. Kuehn, O. Lahav, F. Menanteau, R. Miquel, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A. A. Plazas Malagón, J. Prat, M. Rodriguez-Monroy, A. K. Romer, E. Sanchez, V. Scarpine, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, M. Smith, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, C. To, T. N. Varga, DES Collaboration
abstract Gravitational time delays provide a powerful one step measurement of H<SUB>0</SUB>, independent of all other probes. One key ingredient in time delay cosmography are high accuracy lens models. Those are currently expensive to obtain, both, in terms of computing and investigator time (10<SUP>5 - 6</SUP> CPU hours and ~0.5-1 year, respectively). Major improvements in modeling speed are therefore necessary to exploit the large number of lenses that are forecast to be discovered over the current decade. In order to bypass this roadblock, we develop an automated modeling pipeline and apply it to a sample of 31 lens systems, observed by the Hubble Space Telescope in multiple bands. Our automated pipeline can derive models for 30/31 lenses with few hours of human time and &lt;100 CPU hours of computing time for a typical system. For each lens, we provide measurements of key parameters and predictions of magnification as well as time delays for the multiple images. We characterize the cosmography-readiness of our models using the stability of differences in Fermat potential (proportional to time delay) w.r.t. modeling choices. We find that for 10/30 lenses our models are cosmography or nearly cosmography grade (&lt;3 per cent and 3-5 per cent variations). For 6/30 lenses the models are close to cosmography grade (5-10 per cent). These results utilize informative priors and will need to be confirmed by further analysis. However, they are also likely to improve by extending the pipeline modeling sequence and options. In conclusion, we show that uniform cosmography grade modeling of large strong lens samples is within reach.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2235

source harvard
id 21700708
title Perfecting one-loop BCJ numerators in SYM and supergravity
first_author Alex Edison
author Alex Edison, Song He, Henrik Johansson, Oliver Schlotterer, Fei Teng, Yong Zhang
abstract We take a major step towards computing $D$-dimensional one-loop amplitudes in general gauge theories, compatible with the principles of unitarity and the color-kinematics duality. For $n$-point amplitudes with either supersymmetry multiplets or generic non-supersymmetric matter in the loop, simple all-multiplicity expressions are obtained for the maximal cuts of kinematic numerators of $n$-gon diagrams. At $n=6,7$ points with maximal supersymmetry, we extend the cubic-diagram numerators to encode all contact terms, and thus solve the long-standing problem of \emph{simultaneously} realizing the following properties: color-kinematics duality, manifest locality, optimal power counting of loop momenta, quadratic rather than linearized Feynman propagators, compatibility with double copy as well as all graph symmetries. Color-kinematics dual representations with similar properties are presented in the half-maximally supersymmetric case at $n=4,5$ points. The resulting gauge-theory integrands and their supergravity counterparts obtained from the double copy are checked to reproduce the expected ultraviolet divergences.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.00638
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21837528
title Rapid Formation of Massive Planetary Cores in a Pressure Bump
first_author Tommy Chi Ho Lau
author Tommy Chi Ho Lau, Joanna Drążkowska, Sebastian M. Stammler, Tilman Birnstiel, Cornelis P. Dullemond
abstract Models of planetary core growth by either planetesimal or pebble accretion are traditionally disconnected from the models of dust evolution and formation of the first gravitationally-bound planetesimals. The state-of-the-art models typically start with massive planetary cores already present. We aim to study the formation and growth of planetary cores in a pressure bump, motivated by the annular structures observed in protoplanetary disks, starting with sub-micron-sized dust grains. We connect the models of dust coagulation and drift, planetesimal formation in the streaming instability, gravitational interactions between planetesimals, pebble accretion, and planet migration, into one uniform framework. We find that planetesimals forming early at the massive end of the size distribution grow quickly dominantly by pebble accretion. These few massive bodies grow on the timescales of ~100 000 years and stir the planetesimals formed later preventing the emergence of further planetary cores. Additionally, a migration trap occurs allowing for retention of the growing cores. Pressure bumps are favourable locations for the emergence and rapid growth of planetary cores by pebble accretion as the dust density and grain size are increased and the pebble accretion onset mass is reduced compared to a smooth-disk model.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.04497
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21894034
title QuantumFDTD -- A computational framework for the relativistic Schrödinger equation
first_author Rafael L. Delgado
author Rafael L. Delgado, Sebastian Steinbeißer, Michael Strickland, Johannes H. Weber
abstract We extend the publicly available quantumfdtd code. It was originally intended for solving the time-independent three-dimensional Schrödinger equation via the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and for extracting the ground, first, and second excited states. We (a) include the case of the relativistic Schrödinger equation and (b) add two optimized FFT-based kinetic energy terms for the non-relativistic case. All the three new kinetic terms are computed using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). We release the resulting code as version 3 of quantumfdtd. Finally, the code now supports arbitrary external file-based potentials and the option to project out distinct parity eigenstates from the solutions. Our goal is quark models used for phenomenological descriptions of QCD bound states, described by the three-dimensional Schrödinger equation. However, we target any field where solving either the non-relativistic or the relativistic three-dimensional Schrödinger equation is required.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.10185
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21879531
title Towards an electrostatic storage ring for fundamental physics measurements
first_author Chiara Brandenstein
author Chiara Brandenstein, Stefan Stelzl, Erwin Gutsmiedl, Wolfgang Schott, Andreas Weiler, Peter Fierlinger
abstract We describe a new table-top electrostatic storage ring concept for $30$ keV polarized ions at frozen spin condition. The device will ultimately be capable of measuring magnetic fields with a resolution of 10$^{-21}$ T with sub-mHz bandwidth. With the possibility to store different kinds of ions or ionic molecules and access to prepare and probe states of the systems using lasers and SQUIDs, it can be used to search for electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electrons and nucleons, as well as axion-like particle dark matter and dark photon dark matter. Its sensitivity potential stems from several hours of storage time, comparably long spin coherence times, and the possibility to trap up to 10$^9$ particles in bunches with possibly different state preparations for differential measurements. As a dark matter experiment, it is most sensitive in the mass range of 10$^{-10}$ to 10$^{-19}$ eV, where it can potentially probe couplings orders of magnitude below current and proposed laboratory experiments.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.08439
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21836716
title LensWatch: I. Resolved HST Observations and Constraints on the Strongly-Lensed Type Ia Supernova 2022qmx ("SN Zwicky")
first_author J. D. R. Pierel
author J. D. R. Pierel, N. Arendse, S. Ertl, X. Huang, L. A. Moustakas, S. Schuldt, A. J. Shajib, Y. Shu, S. Birrer, M. Bronikowski, J. Hjorth, S. H. Suyu, S. Agarwal, A. Agnello, A. S. Bolton, S. Chakrabarti, C. Cold, F. Courbin, J. M. Della Costa, S. Dhawan, M. Engesser, O. D. Fox, C. Gall, S. Gomez, A. Goobar, C. Jimenez, J. Johansson, G. Li, R. Marques-Chaves, S. Mao, P. A. Mazzali, I. Perez-Fournon, T. Petrushevska, F. Poidevin, A. Rest, W. Sheu, R. Shirley, E. Silver, C. Storfer, T. Treu, R. Wojtak, Y. Zenati
abstract Supernovae (SNe) that have been multiply-imaged by gravitational lensing are rare and powerful probes for cosmology. Each detection is an opportunity to develop the critical tools and methodologies needed as the sample of lensed SNe increases by orders of magnitude with the upcoming Vera C. Rubin Observatory and Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope. The latest such discovery is of the quadruply-imaged Type Ia SN 2022qmx (aka, "SN Zwicky"; Goobar et al. 2022) at z = 0.3544. SN Zwicky was discovered by the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) in spatially unresolved data. Here we present follow-up Hubble Space Telescope observations of SN Zwicky, the first from the multi-cycle "LensWatch" program (www.lenswatch.org). We measure photometry for each of the four images of SN Zwicky, which are resolved in three WFC3/UVIS filters (F475W, F625W, F814W) but unresolved with WFC3/IR F160W, and produce an analysis of the lensing system using a variety of independent lens modeling methods. We find consistency between time delays estimated with the single epoch of HST photometry and the lens model predictions constrained through the multiple image positions, with both inferring time delays of &lt;1 day. Our lens models converge to an Einstein radius of (0.168+0.009-0.005)", the smallest yet seen in a lensed SN. The "standard candle" nature of SN Zwicky provides magnification estimates independent of the lens modeling that are brighter by ~1.5 mag and ~0.8 mag for two of the four images, suggesting significant microlensing and/or additional substructure beyond the flexibility of our image-position mass models.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.03772
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21835594
title White dwarfs as a probe of light QCD axions
first_author Reuven Balkin
author Reuven Balkin, Javi Serra, Konstantin Springmann, Stefan Stelzl, Andreas Weiler
abstract We study the effects of light QCD axions on the stellar configuration of white dwarfs. At finite baryon density, the non-derivative coupling of the axion to nucleons displaces the axion from its in-vacuum minimum which implies a reduction of the nucleon mass. This dramatically alters the composition of stellar remnants. In particular, the modifications of the mass-radius relationship of white dwarfs allow us to probe large regions of unexplored axion parameter space without requiring it to be a significant fraction of dark matter.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.02661
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21692543
title Novel approaches in hadron spectroscopy
first_author Miguel Albaladejo
author Miguel Albaladejo, Łukasz Bibrzycki, Sebastian M. Dawid, César Fernández-Ramírez, Sergi Gonzàlez-Solís, Astrid N. Hiller Blin, Andrew W. Jackura, Vincent Mathieu, Mikhail Mikhasenko, Victor I. Mokeev, Emilie Passemar, Alessandro Pilloni, Arkaitz Rodas, Jorge A. Silva-Castro, Wyatt A. Smith, Adam P. Szczepaniak, Daniel Winney, (Joint Physics Analysis Center)
abstract The last two decades have witnessed the discovery of a myriad of new and unexpected hadrons. The future holds more surprises for us, thanks to new-generation experiments. Understanding the signals and determining the properties of the states requires a parallel theoretical effort. To make full use of available and forthcoming data, a careful amplitude modeling is required, together with a sound treatment of the statistical uncertainties, and a systematic survey of the model dependencies. We review the contributions made by the Joint Physics Analysis Center to the field of hadron spectroscopy.
journal Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume 127
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1016/j.ppnp.2022.103981

source harvard
id 21875690
title Beam functions for $N$-jettiness at N$^3$LO in perturbative QCD
first_author Daniel Baranowski
author Daniel Baranowski, Arnd Behring, Kirill Melnikov, Lorenzo Tancredi, Christopher Wever
abstract We present a calculation of all matching coefficients for $N$-jettiness beam functions at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N$^3$LO) in perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Our computation is performed starting from the respective collinear splitting kernels, which we integrate using the axial gauge. We use reverse unitarity to map the relevant phase-space integrals to loop integrals, which allows us to employ multi-loop techniques including integration-by-parts identities and differential equations. We find a canonical basis and use an algorithm to establish non-trivial partial fraction relations among the resulting master integrals, which allows us to reduce their number substantially. By use of regularity conditions, we express all necessary boundary constants in terms of an independent set, which we compute by direct integration of the corresponding integrals in the soft limit. In this way, we provide an entirely independent calculation of the matching coefficients which were previously computed in arXiv:2006.03056.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.05722
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21700634
title Towards an automated data cleaning with deep learning in CRESST
first_author G. Angloher
author G. Angloher, S. Banik, D. Bartolot, G. Benato, A. Bento, A. Bertolini, R. Breier, C. Bucci, J. Burkhart, L. Canonica, A. D'Addabbo, S. Di Lorenzo, L. Einfalt, A. Erb, F. v. Feilitzsch, N. Ferreiro Iachellini, S. Fichtinger, D. Fuchs, A. Fuss, A. Garai, V. M. Ghete, S. Gerster, P. Gorla, P. V. Guillaumon, S. Gupta, D. Hauff, M. Ješkovský, J. Jochum, M. Kaznacheeva, A. Kinast, H. Kluck, H. Kraus, M. Lackner, A. Langenkämper, M. Mancuso, L. Marini, L. Meyer, V. Mokina, A. Nilima, M. Olmi, T. Ortmann, C. Pagliarone, L. Pattavina, F. Petricca, W. Potzel, P. Povinec, F. Pröbst, F. Pucci, F. Reindl, D. Rizvanovic, J. Rothe, K. Schäffner, J. Schieck, D. Schmiedmayer, S. Schönert, C. Schwertner, M. Stahlberg, L. Stodolsky, C. Strandhagen, R. Strauss, I. Usherov, F. Wagner, M. Willers, V. Zema, W. Waltenberger
abstract The CRESST experiment employs cryogenic calorimeters for the sensitive measurement of nuclear recoils induced by dark matter particles. The recorded signals need to undergo a careful cleaning process to avoid wrongly reconstructed recoil energies caused by pile-up and read-out artefacts. We frame this process as a time series classification task and propose to automate it with neural networks. With a data set of over one million labeled records from 68 detectors, recorded between 2013 and 2019 by CRESST, we test the capability of four commonly used neural network architectures to learn the data cleaning task. Our best performing model achieves a balanced accuracy of 0.932 on our test set. We show on an exemplary detector that about half of the wrongly predicted events are in fact wrongly labeled events, and a large share of the remaining ones have a context-dependent ground truth. We furthermore evaluate the recall and selectivity of our classifiers with simulated data. The results confirm that the trained classifiers are well suited for the data cleaning task.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.00564
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21692544
title Cosmic nucleosynthesis: A multi-messenger challenge
first_author Roland Diehl
author Roland Diehl, Andreas J. Korn, Bruno Leibundgut, Maria Lugaro, Anton Wallner
abstract The origins of the elements and isotopes of cosmic material is a critical aspect of understanding the evolution of the universe. Nucleosynthesis typically requires physical conditions of high temperatures and densities. These are found in the Big Bang, in the interiors of stars, and in explosions with their compressional shocks and high neutrino and neutron fluxes. Many different tools are available to disentangle the composition of cosmic matter, in material of extraterrestrial origins such as cosmic rays, meteorites, stardust grains, lunar and terrestrial sediments, and through astronomical observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. Understanding cosmic abundances and their evolution requires combining such measurements with approaches of astrophysical, nuclear theories and laboratory experiments, and exploiting additional cosmic messengers, such as neutrinos and gravitational waves. Recent years have seen significant progress in almost all these fields; they are presented in this review. <P />The Sun and the solar system are our reference system for abundances of elements and isotopes. Many direct and indirect methods are employed to establish a refined abundance record from the time when the Sun and the Earth were formed. Indications for nucleosynthesis in the local environment when the Sun was formed are derived from meteoritic material and inclusion of radioactive atoms in deep-sea sediments. Spectroscopy at many wavelengths and the neutrino flux from the hydrogen fusion processes in the Sun have established a refined model of how the nuclear energy production shapes stars. Models are required to explore nuclear fusion of heavier elements. These stellar evolution calculations have been confirmed by observations of nucleosynthesis products in the ejecta of stars and supernovae, as captured by stardust grains and by characteristic lines in spectra seen from these objects. One of the successes has been to directly observe γ rays from radioactive material synthesised in stellar explosions, which fully support the astrophysical models. Another has been the observation of radioactive afterglow and characteristic heavy-element spectrum from a neutron-star merger, confirming the neutron rich environments encountered in such rare explosions. The ejecta material captured by Earth over millions of years in sediments and identified through characteristic radio-isotopes suggests that nearby nucleosynthesis occurred in recent history, with further indications for sites of specific nucleosynthesis. Together with stardust and diffuse γ rays from radioactive ejecta, these help to piece together how cosmic materials are transported in interstellar space and re-cycled into and between generations of stars. Our description of cosmic compositional evolution needs such observational support, as it rests on several assumptions that appear challenged by recent recognition of violent events being common during evolution of a galaxy. This overview presents the flow of cosmic matter and the various sites of nucleosynthesis, as understood from combining many techniques and observations, towards the current knowledge of how the universe is enriched with elements.
journal Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume 127
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1016/j.ppnp.2022.103983

source harvard
id 21893677
title Compact jets dominate the continuum emission in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei
first_author J. A. Fernández-Ontiveros
author J. A. Fernández-Ontiveros, X. López-López, A. Prieto
abstract The disappearance of the accretion disc in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGN) leaves behind a faint optical nuclear continuum whose nature has been largely debated, mainly due to serious observational limitations in the IR to UV range. We combine multi-wavelength sub-arcsecond resolution observations -- able to isolate the genuine nuclear continuum -- with nebular lines in the mid-IR, to indirectly probe the shape of the extreme UV continuum. We found that 8 of the nearest prototype LLAGN are compatible with pure compact jet emission (self-absorbed synchrotron plus the associated self-Compton component) over more than ten orders of magnitude in frequency. When compared with typical radio galaxies, the LLAGN continua show two peculiarities: $i)$ a very steep spectral slope in the IR-to-optical/UV range ($-3.7 &lt; \alpha_0 &lt; -1.3$; $F_\nu \propto \nu^{\alpha_0}$); and $ii)$ a very high turnover frequency ($0.2-30\, \rm{THz}$; $1.3\,\rm{mm}-10\,\rm{\mu m}$). These attributes can be explained if the synchrotron continuum is mainly dominated by thermalised particles at the jet base or corona with considerably high temperatures, whereas only a small fraction of the energy ($\sim 20\%$) would be distributed along the high-energy power-law tail of accelerated particles. On the other hand, the nebular gas excitation in LLAGN is in agreement with photo-ionisation from inverse Compton radiation ($\alpha_{\rm x} \sim -0.7$), which would dominate the nuclear continuum shortwards of $\sim 3000$ Å. Our results suggest that the LLAGN continuum can be dominated at all wavelengths by undeveloped jets, powered by a thermalised particle distribution, similar to the behaviour observed in compact jets of quiescent black hole X-ray binaries. This has important implications in the context of galaxy evolution, since LLAGN may represent a major but underestimated source of kinetic feedback in galaxies.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.09828
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21875640
title Impact of half-wave plate systematics on the measurement of cosmic birefringence from CMB polarization
first_author Marta Monelli
author Marta Monelli, Eiichiro Komatsu, Alexandre E. Adler, Matteo Billi, Paolo Campeti, Nadia Dachlythra, Adriaan J. Duivenvoorden, Jon E. Gudmundsson, Martin Reinecke
abstract Polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) can probe new parity-violating physics such as cosmic birefringence (CB), which requires exquisite control over instrumental systematics. The non-idealities of the half-wave plate (HWP) represent a source of systematics when used as a polarization modulator. We study their impact on the CMB angular power spectra, which is partially degenerate with CB and miscalibration of the polarization angle. We use full-sky beam convolution simulations including HWP to generate mock noiseless time-ordered data, process them through a bin averaging map-maker, and calculate the power spectra including $TB$ and $EB$ correlations. We also derive analytical formulae which accurately model the observed spectra. For our choice of HWP parameters, the HWP-induced angle amounts to a few degrees, which could be misinterpreted as CB. Accurate knowledge of the HWP is required to mitigate this. Our simulation and analytical formulae will be useful for deriving requirements for the accuracy of HWP calibration.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.05685
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21876632
title Is the star formation rate in $z\sim 6$ quasars overestimated?
first_author Fabio Di Mascia
author Fabio Di Mascia, Stefano Carniani, Simona Gallerani, Fabio Vito, Andrea Pallottini, Andrea Ferrara, Milena Valentini
abstract The large total infrared (TIR) luminosities ($L_{\rm TIR} \gtrsim 10^{12}~L_\odot$) observed in $z \sim 6$ quasars are generally converted into high star formation rates ($SFR \gtrsim 10^2~M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$) of their host galaxies. However, these estimates rely on the assumption that dust heating is dominated by stellar radiation, neglecting the contribution from the central Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We test the validity of this assumption by combining cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with radiative transfer calculations. We find that, when AGN radiation is included in the simulations, the mass (luminosity)-weighted dust temperature in the host galaxies increases from $T\approx 50$ K ($T \approx 70$ K) to $T\approx 80$ K ($T\approx 200$ K), suggesting that AGN effectively heat the bulk of dust in the host galaxy. We compute the AGN-host galaxy $SFR$ from the synthetic spectral energy distribution by using standard $SFR - L_{\rm TIR}$ relations, and compare the results with the "true" values in the simulations. We find that the $SFR$ is overestimated by a factor of $\approx 3$ ($\gtrsim 10$) for AGN bolometric luminosities of $L_{\rm bol} \approx 10^{12}~L_\odot$ ($\gtrsim 10^{13}~ L_\odot$), implying that the star formation rates of $z\sim 6$ quasars can be overestimated by over an order of magnitude.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.05790
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21875742
title MGLenS: Modified gravity weak lensing simulations for emulation-based cosmological inference
first_author Joachim Harnois-Déraps
author Joachim Harnois-Déraps, Cesar Hernandez-Aguayo, Carolina Cuesta-Lazaro, Christian Arnold, Baojiu Li, Christopher T. Davies, Yan-Chuan Cai
abstract We present MGLenS, a large series of modified gravity lensing simulations tailored for cosmic shear data analyses and forecasts in which cosmological and modified gravity parameters are varied simultaneously. Based on the FORGE and BRIDGE $N$-body simulation suites presented in companion papers, we construct 500,000 deg$^2$ of mock Stage-IV lensing data, sampling a pair of 4-dimensional volumes designed for the training of emulators. We validate the accuracy of MGLenS with inference analyses based on the lensing power spectrum exploiting our implementation of $f(R)$ and nDGP theoretical predictions within the cosmoSIS cosmological inference package. A Fisher analysis reveals that the vast majority of the constraining power from such a survey comes from the highest redshift galaxies alone. We further find from a full likelihood sampling that cosmic shear can achieve 95% CL constraints on the modified gravity parameters of log$_{10}\left[ f_{R_0}\right] &lt; -5.24$ and log$_{10}\left[ H_0 r_c\right] &gt; -0.05$, after marginalising over intrinsic alignments of galaxies and including scales up to $\ell=5000$. Such a survey setup could in fact detect with more than $3\sigma$ confidence $f(R)$ values larger than $3 \times 10^{-6}$ and $H_0 r_c$ smaller than 1.0. Scale cuts at $\ell=3000$ reduce the degeneracy breaking between $S_8$ and the modified gravity parameters, while photometric redshift uncertainty seem to play a subdominant role in our error budget. We finally explore the consequences of analysing data with the wrong gravity model, and report the catastrophic biases for a number of possible scenarios. The Stage-IV MGLenS simulations, the FORGE and BRIDGE emulators and the cosmoSIS interface modules will be made publicly available upon journal acceptance.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.05779
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21876833
title Testing the galaxy collision induced formation scenario for the trail of dark matter deficient galaxies with the susceptibility of globular clusters to the tidal force
first_author Go Ogiya
author Go Ogiya, Frank C. van den Bosch, Andreas Burkert, Xi Kang
abstract It has been suggested that a trail of diffuse galaxies, including two dark matter deficient galaxies (DMDGs), in the vicinity of NGC1052 formed because of a high-speed collision between two gas-rich dwarf galaxies, one bound to NGC1052 and the other one on an unbound orbit. The collision compresses the gas reservoirs of the colliding galaxies, which in turn triggers a burst of star formation. In contrast, the dark matter and pre-existing stars in the progenitor galaxies pass through it. Since the high pressures in the compressed gas are conducive to the formation of massive globular clusters (GCs), this scenario can explain the formation of DMDGs with large populations of massive GCs, consistent with the observations of NGC1052-DF2 (DF2) and NGC1052-DF4. A potential difficulty with this `mini bullet cluster' scenario is that the observed spatial distributions of GCs in DMDGs are extended. GCs experience dynamical friction causing their orbits to decay with time. Consequently, their distribution at formation should have been even more extended than that observed at present. Using a semi-analytic model, we show that the observed positions and velocities of the GCs in DF2 imply that they must have formed at a radial distance of 5-10kpc from the center of DF2. However, as we demonstrate, the scenario is difficult to reconcile with the fact that the strong tidal forces from NGC1052 strip the extendedly distributed GCs from DF2, requiring 33-59 massive GCs to form at the collision to explain observations.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.05993
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21836986
title PANDORA project: photo-nuclear reactions below $A=60$
first_author A. Tamii
author A. Tamii, L. Pellegri, P. -A. Söderström, D. Allard, S. Goriely, T. Inakura, E. Khan, E. Kido, M. Kimura, E. Litvinova, S. Nagataki, P. von Neumann-Cosel, N. Pietralla, N. Shimizu, N. Tsoneva, Y. Utsuno, S. Adachi, P. Adsley, A. Bahini, D. Balabanski, B. Baret, J. A. C. Bekker, S. D. Binda, E. Boicu, A. Bracco, I. Brandherm, M. Brezeanu, J. W. Brummer, F. Camera, F. C. L. Crespi, R. Dalal, L. M. Donaldson, Y. Fujikawa, T. Furuno, H. Haoning, Y. Honda, A. Gavrilescu, A. Inoue, J. Isaak, H. Jivan, P. M. Jones, S. Jongile, O. Just, T. Kawabata, T. Khumalo, J. Kiener, J. Kleemann, N. Kobayashi, Y. Koshio, A. Kuşoğlu, K. C. W. Li, K. L. Malatji, R. E. Molaeng, H. Motoki, M. Murata, A. A. Netshiya, R. Neveling, R. Niina, S. Okamoto, S. Ota, O. Papst, E. Parizot, T. Petruse, M. S. Reen, P. Ring, K. Sakanashi, E. Sideras-Haddad, S. Siem, M. Spall, T. Suda, T. Sudo, Y. Taniguchi, V. Tatischeff, H. Utsunomiya, H. Wang, V. Werner, H. Wibowo, M. Wiedeking, O. Wieland, Y. Xu, Z. H. Yang
abstract Photo-nuclear reactions of light nuclei below a mass of $A=60$ are studied experimentally and theoretically by the PANDORA (Photo-Absorption of Nuclei and Decay Observation for Reactions in Astrophysics) project. Two experimental methods, virtual-photon excitation by proton scattering and real-photo absorption by a high-brilliance gamma-ray beam produced by laser Compton scattering, will be applied to measure the photo-absorption cross sections and the decay branching ratio of each decay channel as a function of the photon energy. Several nuclear models, e.g. anti-symmetrized molecular dynamics, mean-field type models, a large-scale shell model, and ab initio models, will be employed to predict the photo-nuclear reactions. The uncertainty in the model predictions will be evaluated from the discrepancies between the model predictions and the experimental data. The data and the predictions will be implemented in a general reaction calculation code TALYS . The results will be applied to the simulation of the photo-disintegration process of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays in inter-galactic propagation.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.03986
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21893991
title Modelling photo-evaporation in planet forming discs
first_author Barbara Ercolano
author Barbara Ercolano, Giovanni Picogna
abstract Planets are born from the gas and dust discs surrounding young stars. Energetic radiation from the central star can drive thermal outflows from the discs atmospheres, strongly affecting the evolution of the discs and the nascent planetary system. In this context several numerical models of varying complexity have been developed to study the process of disc photoevaporation from their central stars. We describe the numerical techniques, the results and the predictivity of current models and identify observational tests to constrain them.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2211.10130
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21545223
title The short ionizing photon mean free path at z = 6 in Cosmic Dawn III, a new fully coupled radiation-hydrodynamical simulation of the Epoch of Reionization
first_author Joseph S. W. Lewis
author Joseph S. W. Lewis, Pierre Ocvirk, Jenny G. Sorce, Yohan Dubois, Dominique Aubert, Luke Conaboy, Paul R. Shapiro, Taha Dawoodbhoy, Romain Teyssier, Gustavo Yepes, Stefan Gottlöber, Yann Rasera, Kyungjin Ahn, Ilian T. Iliev, Hyunbae Park, Émilie Thélie
abstract Recent determinations of the mean free path of ionizing photons (mfp) in the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z = 6 are lower than many theoretical predictions. In order to gain insight, we investigate the evolution of the mfp in our new massive fully coupled radiation-hydrodynamics cosmological simulation of reionization: Cosmic Dawn III (CoDa III). CoDa III's scale ($\rm 94^3 \, cMpc^3$) and resolution ($\rm 8192^3$ grid) make it particularly suitable to study the IGM during reionization. The simulation was performed with RAMSES-CUDATON on Summit, and used 13 1072 processors coupled to 24 576 GPUs, making it the largest reionization simulation, and largest ever RAMSES simulation. A superior agreement with global constraints on reionization is obtained in CoDa III over Cosmic Dawn II (CoDa II), especially for the evolution of the neutral hydrogen fraction and the cosmic photoionization rate, thanks to an improved calibration, later end of reionization (z = 5.6), and higher spatial resolution. Analysing the mfp, we find that CoDa III reproduces the most recent observations very well, from z = 6 to z = 4.6. We show that the distribution of the mfp in CoDa III is bimodal, with short (neutral) and long (ionized) mfp modes, due to the patchiness of reionization and the coexistence of neutral versus ionized regions during reionization. The neutral mode peaks at sub-kpc to kpc scales of mfp, while the ionized mode peak evolves from 0.1 Mpc h<SUP>-1</SUP> at z = 7 to ~10 Mpc h<SUP>-1</SUP> at z = 5.2. Computing the mfp as the average of the ionized mode provides the best match to the recent observational determinations. The distribution reduces to a single neutral (ionized) mode at z &gt; 13 (z &lt; 5).
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume 516
publication_type article
eprint
pages 9
issue 3
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2383

source harvard
id 21500605
title Seismic source analysis of two anomalous earthquakes in Northern Chile
first_author Carlos Tassara
author Carlos Tassara, Simone Cesca, Matthew Miller, José Ángel López-Comino, Christian Sippl, Joaquín Cortés-Aranda, Bernd Schurr
abstract Northern Chile is a seismically very active region driven by subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate. Anomalous focal mechanisms were reported by international agencies for two recent earthquakes with magnitudes larger than Mw 6. The September 11, 2020, Mw 6.2 Loa River earthquake occurred in the forearc under the Coastal Cordillera and had a strike-slip mechanism, while most common regional seismicity is characterised by NS-oriented, trench-parallel, thrust mechanisms, consistent with the subduction geometry. The June 3, 2020, Mw 6.8 San Pedro de Atacama earthquake occurred at intermediate depth with a normal faulting mechanism. In this case, the anomalous behavior involves the NW-SE striking of the focal mechanism, which deviate from the typical NS orientation in the region. In this study we reconstruct the rupture geometry for these two earthquakes by means of moment tensor inversion, rupture directivity analysis and aftershock distribution. Seismological results are discussed in the frame of the spatial and temporal distribution of local seismicity, which are analyzed using clustering techniques. Our results show that both earthquakes reveal the activation of seismogenic structures in the continental crust or within the subducting oceanic crust close to the subduction interface. The Loa River earthquake occurred at the base of the continental crust, at the contact with the slab. This finding highlights the role of seismicity associated with crustal faults in the South American plate, which poses a secondary seismic hazard for the region, alongside the seismicity directly associated with the subduction zone. The San Pedro de Atacama earthquake, in turn, occurred within the subducting slab. Its anomalous mechanism may indicate a local anomaly in the geometry of the subducting slab.
journal Journal of South American Earth Sciences
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume 119
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1016/j.jsames.2022.103948

source harvard
id 21545198
title Testing the key role of the stellar mass-halo mass relation in galaxy merger rates and morphologies via DECODE, a novel Discrete statistical sEmi-empiriCal mODEl
first_author Hao Fu
author Hao Fu, Francesco Shankar, Mohammadreza Ayromlou, Max Dickson, Ioanna Koutsouridou, Yetli Rosas-Guevara, Christopher Marsden, Kristina Brocklebank, Mariangela Bernardi, Nikolaos Shiamtanis, Joseph Williams, Lorenzo Zanisi, Viola Allevato, Lumen Boco, Silvia Bonoli, Andrea Cattaneo, Paola Dimauro, Fangzhou Jiang, Andrea Lapi, Nicola Menci, Stefani Petropoulou, Carolin Villforth
abstract The relative roles of mergers and star formation in regulating galaxy growth are still a matter of intense debate. We here present our DECODE, a new Discrete statistical sEmi-empiriCal mODEl specifically designed to predict rapidly and efficiently, in a full cosmological context, galaxy assembly, and merger histories for any given input stellar mass-halo mass (SMHM) relation. DECODE generates object-by-object dark matter merger trees (hence discrete) from accurate subhalo mass and infall redshift probability functions (hence statistical) for all subhaloes, including those residing within other subhaloes, with virtually no resolution limits on mass or volume. Merger trees are then converted into galaxy assembly histories via an input, redshift-dependent SMHM relation, which is highly sensitive to the significant systematics in the galaxy stellar mass function and on its evolution with cosmic time. DECODE can accurately reproduce the predicted mean galaxy merger rates and assembly histories of hydrodynamic simulations and semi-analytical models, when adopting in input their SMHM relations. In this work, we use DECODE to prove that only SMHM relations implied by stellar mass functions characterized by large abundances of massive galaxies and significant redshift evolution, at least at $M_\star \gtrsim 10^{11} \, \mathrm{M}_\odot$, can simultaneously reproduce the local abundances of satellite galaxies, the galaxy (major merger) pairs since z ~ 3, and the growth of Brightest Cluster Galaxies. The same models can also reproduce the local fraction of elliptical galaxies, on the assumption that these are strictly formed by major mergers, but not the full bulge-to-disc ratio distributions, which require additional processes.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 11
volume 516
publication_type article
eprint
pages 28
issue 3
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2205

source harvard
id 21647298
title The MADPSZ catalogue of Planck clusters over the DES region: extending to lower mass and higher redshift
first_author D. Hernández-Lang
author D. Hernández-Lang, J. J. Mohr, M. Klein, S. Grandis, J. -B. Melin, P. Tarrío, M. Arnaud, G. W. Pratt, T. M. C. Abbott, M. Aguena, O. Alves, F. Andrade-Oliveira, D. Bacon, E. Bertin, D. Brooks, D. L. Burke, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, F. J. Castander, M. Costanzi, L. N. da Costa, M. E. S. Pereira, S. Desai, H. T. Diehl, P. Doel, S. Everett, I. Ferrero, B. Flaugher, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, D. Gruen, R. A. Gruendl, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, S. R. Hinton, D. L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, D. J. James, K. Kuehn, N. Kuropatkin, O. Lahav, C. Lidman, P. Melchior, J. Mena-Fernández, F. Menanteau, R. Miquel, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A. A. Plazas Malagón, M. Raveri, M. Rodriguez-Monroy, A. K. Romer, V. Scarpine, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, M. Smith, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, N. Weaverdyck
abstract We present the first systematic follow-up of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) selected candidates down to signal-to-noise (S/N) of 3 over the 5000 deg$^2$ covered by the Dark Energy Survey. Using the MCMF cluster confirmation algorithm, we identify optical counterparts, determine photometric redshifts and richnesses and assign a parameter, $f_{\rm cont}$, that reflects the probability that each SZE-optical pairing represents a real cluster rather than a random superposition of physically unassociated systems. The new MADPSZ cluster catalogue consists of 1092 MCMF confirmed clusters and has a purity of 85%. We present the properties of subsamples of the MADPSZ catalogue that have purities ranging from 90% to 97.5%, depending on the adopted $f_{\rm cont}$ threshold. $M_{500}$ halo mass estimates, redshifts, richnesses, and optical centers are presented for all MADPSZ clusters. The MADPSZ catalogue adds 828 previously unknown Planck identified clusters over the DES footprint and provides redshifts for an additional 50 previously published Planck selected clusters with S/N&gt;4.5. Using the subsample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate excellent cluster photo-$z$ performance with an RMS scatter in $\Delta z/(1+z)$ of 0.47%. Our MCMF based analysis allows us to infer the contamination fraction of the initial S/N&gt;3 Planck selected candidate list, which is 50%. We present a method of estimating the completeness of the MADPSZ cluster sample and $f_{\rm cont}$ selected subsamples. In comparison to the previously published Planck cluster catalogues. this new S/N $&gt;$ 3 MCMF confirmed cluster catalogue populates the lower mass regime at all redshifts and includes clusters up to z$\sim$1.3.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.04666
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21628371
title The Loop Momentum Amplituhedron
first_author Livia Ferro
author Livia Ferro, Tomasz Lukowski
abstract In this paper we focus on scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and define a long sought-after geometry, the loop momentum amplituhedron, which we conjecture to encode tree and (the integrands of) loop amplitudes in spinor helicity variables. Motivated by the structure of amplitude singularities, we define an extended positive space, which enhances the Grassmannian space featuring at tree level, and a map which associates to each of its points tree-level kinematic variables and loop momenta. The image of this map is the loop momentum amplituhedron. Importantly, our formulation provides a global definition of the loop momenta. We conjecture that for all multiplicities and helicity sectors, there exists a canonical logarithmic differential form defined on this space, and provide its explicit form in a few examples.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.01127
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21660378
title Modified gravity approaches to the cosmological constant problem
first_author The FADE Collaboration
author The FADE Collaboration, Heliudson Bernardo, Benjamin Bose, Guilherme Franzmann, Steffen Hagstotz, Yutong He, Aliki Litsa, Florian Niedermann
abstract The cosmological constant and its phenomenology remain among the greatest puzzles in theoretical physics. We review how modifications of Einstein's general relativity could alleviate the different problems associated with it that result from the interplay of classical gravity and quantum field theory. We introduce a modern and concise language to describe the problems associated with its phenomenology, and inspect no-go theorems and their loopholes to motivate the approaches discussed here. Constrained gravity approaches exploit minimal departures from general relativity; massive gravity introduces mass to the graviton; Horndeski theories lead to the breaking of translational invariance of the vacuum; and models with extra dimensions change the symmetries of the vacuum. We also review screening mechanisms that have to be present in some of these theories if they aim to recover the success of general relativity on small scales as well. Finally, we summarise the statuses of these models in their attempt to solve the different cosmological constant problems while being able to account for current astrophysical and cosmological observations.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.06810
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21663808
title Pushing forward jet substructure measurements in heavy-ion collisions
first_author Daniel Pablos
author Daniel Pablos, Alba Soto-Ontoso
abstract Energetic jets that traverse the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy-ion collisions serve as excellent probes to study this new state of deconfined QCD matter. Presently, however, our ability to achieve a crisp theoretical interpretation of the crescent number of jet observables measured in experiments is hampered by the presence of selection biases. The aim of this work is to minimise those selection biases associated to the modification of the quark- vs. gluon-initiated jet fraction in order to assess the presence of other medium-induced effects, namely color decoherence, by exploring the rapidity dependence of jet substructure observables. So far, all jet substructure measurements at mid-rapidity have shown that heavy-ion jets are narrower than vacuum jets. We show both analytically and with Monte Carlo simulations that if the narrowing effect persists at forward rapidities, where the quark-initiated jet fraction is greatly increased, this could serve as an unambiguous experimental observation of color decoherence dynamics in heavy-ion collisions.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.07901
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21642769
title Monitoring accretion rate variability in the Orion Nebula Cluster with the Wendelstein Wide Field Imager
first_author S. Flaischlen
author S. Flaischlen, T. Preibisch, M. Kluge, C. F. Manara, B. Ercolano
abstract Context. The understanding of the accretion process has a central role in the understanding of star and planet formation. <BR /> Aims: We aim to test how accretion variability influences previous correlation analyses of the relation between X-ray activity and accretion rates, which is important for understanding the evolution of circumstellar disks and disk photoevaporation. <BR /> Methods: We monitored accreting stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster from November 24, 2014, until February 17, 2019, for 42 epochs with the Wendelstein Wide Field Imager in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey u'g'r' filters on the 2 m Fraunhofer Telescope on Mount Wendelstein. Mass accretion rates were determined from the measured ultraviolet excess. The influence of the mass accretion rate variability on the relation between X-ray luminosities and mass accretion rates was analyzed statistically. <BR /> Results: We find a typical interquartile range of ∼0.3 dex for the mass accretion rate variability on timescales from weeks to ∼2 yr. The variability has likely no significant influence on a correlation analysis of the X-ray luminosity and the mass accretion rate observed at different times when the sample size is large enough. <BR /> Conclusions: The observed anticorrelation between the X-ray luminosity and the mass accretion rate predicted by models of photoevaporation-starved accretion is likely not due to a bias introduced by different observing times. <P />Full Tables 1-3 and reduced data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/">cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/666/A55">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/666/A55</A>
journal Astronomy and Astrophysics
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume 666
publication_type article
eprint
pages 12
issue
doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202142630

source harvard
id 21639689
title Enhancing Searches for Heavy QCD Axions via Dimuon Final States
first_author Raymond T. Co
author Raymond T. Co, Soubhik Kumar, Zhen Liu
abstract Heavy QCD axions are well-motivated extensions of the QCD axion that address the quality problem while still solving the strong CP problem. Owing to the gluon coupling, critical for solving the strong CP problem, these axions can be produced in significant numbers in beam dump and collider environments for axion decay constants as large as PeV, relevant for addressing the axion quality problem. In addition, if these axions have leptonic couplings, they can give rise to long-lived decay into lepton pairs, in particular, dominantly into muons above the dimuon threshold and below the GeV scale in a broad class of axion models. Considering existing constraints, primarily from rare meson decays, we demonstrate that current and future neutrino facilities and long-lived particle searches have the potential to probe significant parts of the heavy QCD axion parameter space via dimuon final states.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.02462
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21664713
title Mapping gas around massive galaxies: cross-correlation of DES Y3 galaxies and Compton-$y$-maps from SPT and Planck
first_author J. Sánchez
author J. Sánchez, Y. Omori, C. Chang, L. E. Bleem, T. Crawford, A. Drlica-Wagner, S. Raghunathan, G. Zacharegkas, T. M. C. Abbott, M. Aguena, A. Alarcon, S. Allam, O. Alves, A. Amon, S. Avila, E. Baxter, K. Bechtol, B. A. Benson, G. M. Bernstein, E. Bertin, S. Bocquet, D. Brooks, D. L. Burke, A. Campos, J. E. Carlstrom, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, F. J. Castander, R. Cawthon, C. L. Chang, A. Chen, A. Choi, R. Chown, M. Costanzi, A. T. Crites, M. Crocce, L. N. da Costa, M. E. S. Pereira, T. de Haan, J. De Vicente, J. DeRose, S. Desai, H. T. Diehl, M. A. Dobbs, S. Dodelson, P. Doel, J. Elvin-Poole, W. Everett, S. Everett, I. Ferrero, B. Flaugher, P. Fosalba, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, M. Gatti, E. M. George, D. W. Gerdes, G. Giannini, D. Gruen, R. A. Gruendl, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, N. W. Halverson, S. R. Hinton, G. P. Holder, D. L. Hollowood, W. L. Holzapfel, K. Honscheid, J. D. Hrubes, D. J. James, L. Knox, K. Kuehn, N. Kuropatkin, O. Lahav, A. T. Lee, D. Luong-Van, N. MacCrann, J. L. Marshall, J. McCullough, J. J. McMahon, P. Melchior, J. Mena-Fernández, F. Menanteau, R. Miquel, L. Mocanu, J. J. Mohr, J. Muir, J. Myles, T. Natoli, S. Padin, A. Palmese, S. Pandey, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A. A. Plazas Malagón, A. Porredon, C. Pryke, M. Raveri, C. L. Reichardt, M. Rodriguez-Monroy, A. J. Ross, J. E. Ruhl, E. Rykoff, C. Sánchez, E. Sanchez, V. Scarpine, K. K. Schaffer, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, E. Sheldon, E. Shirokoff, M. Smith, M. Soares-Santos, Z. Staniszewski, A. A. Stark, E. Suchyta, M. E. C. Swanson, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, M. A. Troxel, D. L. Tucker, J. D. Vieira, M. Vincenzi, N. Weaverdyck, R. Williamson, B. Yanny, B. Yin
abstract We cross-correlate positions of galaxies measured in data from the first three years of the Dark Energy Survey with Compton-$y$-maps generated using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the {\it Planck} mission. We model this cross-correlation measurement together with the galaxy auto-correlation to constrain the distribution of gas in the Universe. We measure the hydrostatic mass bias or, equivalently, the mean halo bias-weighted electron pressure $\langle b_{h}P_{e}\rangle$, using large-scale information. We find $\langle b_{h}P_{e}\rangle$ to be $[0.16^{+0.03}_{-0.04},0.28^{+0.04}_{-0.05},0.45^{+0.06}_{-0.10},0.54^{+0.08}_{-0.07},0.61^{+0.08}_{-0.06},0.63^{+0.07}_{-0.08}]$ meV cm$^{-3}$ at redshifts $z \sim [0.30, 0.46, 0.62,0.77, 0.89, 0.97]$. These values are consistent with previous work where measurements exist in the redshift range. We also constrain the mean gas profile using small-scale information, enabled by the high-resolution of the SPT data. We compare our measurements to different parametrized profiles based on the cosmo-OWLS hydrodynamical simulations. We find that our data are consistent with the simulation that assumes an AGN heating temperature of $10^{8.5}$K but are incompatible with the model that assumes an AGN heating temperature of $10^{8.0}$K. These comparisons indicate that the data prefer a higher value of electron pressure than the simulations within $r_{500c}$ of the galaxies' halos.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.08633
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21665480
title ALMACAL IX: multi-band ALMA survey for dusty star-forming galaxies and the resolved fractions of the cosmic infrared background
first_author Jianhang Chen
author Jianhang Chen, R. J. Ivison, Martin A. Zwaan, Ian Smail, Anne Klitsch, Céline Péroux, Gergö Popping, Andrew D. Biggs, Roland Szakacs, Aleksandra Hamanowicz, Claudia Lagos
abstract Wide, deep, blind continuum surveys at submillimetre/millimetre (submm/mm) wavelengths are required to provide a full inventory of the dusty, distant Universe. However, conducting such surveys to the necessary depth, with sub-arcsec angular resolution, is prohibitively time-consuming, even for the most advanced submm/mm telescopes. Here, we report the most recent results from the ALMACAL project, which exploits the 'free' calibration data from the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) to map the lines of sight towards and beyond the ALMA calibrators. ALMACAL has now covered 1,001 calibrators, with a total sky coverage around 0.3 deg2, distributed across the sky accessible from the Atacama desert, and has accumulated more than 1,000h of integration. The depth reached by combining multiple visits to each field makes ALMACAL capable of searching for faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), with detections at multiple frequencies to constrain the emission mechanism. Based on the most up-to-date ALMACAL database, we report the detection of 186 DSFGs with flux densities down to S870um ~ 0.2mJy, comparable with existing ALMA large surveys but less susceptible to cosmic variance. We report the number counts at five wavelengths between 870um and 3mm, in ALMA bands 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, providing a benchmark for models of galaxy formation and evolution. By integrating the observed number counts and the best-fitting functions, we also present the resolved fraction of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and the CIB spectral shape. Combining existing surveys, ALMA has currently resolved about half of the CIB in the submm/mm regime.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.09329
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21663208
title Beyond $\Lambda$CDM constraints from the full shape clustering measurements from BOSS and eBOSS
first_author Agne Semenaite
author Agne Semenaite, Ariel G. Sánchez, Andrea Pezzotta, Jiamin Hou, Alexander Eggemeier, Martin Crocce, Cheng Zhao, Joel R. Brownstein, Graziano Rossi, Donald P. Schneider
abstract We analyse the full shape of anisotropic clustering measurements from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic survey (eBOSS) quasar sample together with the combined galaxy sample from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We obtain constraints on the cosmological parameters independent of the Hubble parameter $h$ for the extensions of the $\Lambda$CDM models, focusing on cosmologies with free dark energy equation of state parameter $w$. We combine the clustering constraints with those from the latest CMB data from Planck to obtain joint constraints for these cosmologies for $w$ and the additional extension parameters - its time evolution $w_{\rm{a}}$, the physical curvature density $\omega_{K}$ and the neutrino mass sum $\sum m_{\nu}$. Our joint constraints are consistent with flat $\Lambda$CDM cosmological model within 68\% confidence limits. We demonstrate that the Planck data are able to place tight constraints on the clustering amplitude today, $\sigma_{12}$, in cosmologies with varying $w$ and present the first constraints for the clustering amplitude for such cosmologies, which is found to be slightly higher than the $\Lambda$CDM value. Additionally, we show that when we vary $w$ and allow for non-flat cosmologies and the physical curvature density is used, Planck prefers a curved universe at $4\sigma$ significance, which is $\sim2\sigma$ higher than when using the relative curvature density $\Omega_{\rm{K}}$. Finally, when $w$ is varied freely, clustering provides only a modest improvement (of 0.021 eV) on the upper limit of $\sum m_{\nu}$.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.07304
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21623424
title Evidence for past interaction with an asymmetric circumstellar shell in the young SNR Cassiopeia A
first_author S. Orlando
author S. Orlando, A. Wongwathanarat, H. -T. Janka, M. Miceli, S. Nagataki, M. Ono, F. Bocchino, J. Vink, D. Milisavljevic, D. J. Patnaude, G. Peres
abstract Context. Observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cassiopeia A (Cas A) show significant asymmetries in the reverse shock that cannot be explained by models describing a remnant expanding through a spherically symmetric wind of the progenitor star. <BR /> Aims: We investigate whether a past interaction of Cas A with a massive asymmetric shell of the circumstellar medium can account for the observed asymmetries of the reverse shock. <BR /> Methods: We performed three-dimensional (3D) (magneto)-hydrodynamic simulations that describe the remnant evolution from the SN explosion to its interaction with a massive circumstellar shell. The initial conditions (soon after the shock breakout at the stellar surface) are provided by a 3D neutrino-driven SN model whose morphology closely resembles Cas A and the SNR simulations cover ≈2000 yr of evolution. We explored the parameter space of the shell, searching for a set of parameters able to produce an inward-moving reverse shock in the western hemisphere of the remnant at the age of ≈350 yr, analogous to that observed in Cas A. <BR /> Results: The interaction of the remnant with the shell can produce asymmetries resembling those observed in the reverse shock if the shell was asymmetric with the densest portion in the (blueshifted) nearside to the northwest (NW). According to our favorite model, the shell was thin (thickness σ ≈ 0.02 pc) with a radius r<SUB>sh</SUB> ≈ 1.5 pc from the center of the explosion. The reverse shock shows the following asymmetries at the age of Cas A: (i) it moves inward in the observer frame in the NW region, while it moves outward in most other regions; (ii) the geometric center of the reverse shock is offset to the NW by ≈0.1 pc from the geometric center of the forward shock; and (iii) the reverse shock in the NW region has enhanced nonthermal emission because, there, the ejecta enter the reverse shock with a higher relative velocity (between 4000 and 7000 km s<SUP>−1</SUP>) than in other regions (below 2000 km s<SUP>−1</SUP>). <BR /> Conclusions: The large-scale asymmetries observed in the reverse shock of Cas A can be interpreted as signatures of the interaction of the remnant with an asymmetric dense circumstellar shell that occurred between ≈180 and ≈240 yr after the SN event. We suggest that the shell was, most likely, the result of a massive eruption from the progenitor star that occurred between 10<SUP>4</SUP> and 10<SUP>5</SUP> yr prior to core-collapse. We estimate a total mass of the shell of the order of 2 M<SUB>⊙</SUB>.
journal Astronomy and Astrophysics
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume 666
publication_type article
eprint
pages 19
issue
doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202243258

source harvard
id 21639703
title BIFROST: simulating compact subsystems in star clusters using a hierarchical fourth-order forward symplectic integrator code
first_author Antti Rantala
author Antti Rantala, Thorsten Naab, Francesco Paolo Rizzuto, Matias Mannerkoski, Christian Partmann, Kristina Lautenschütz
abstract We present BIFROST, an extended version of the GPU-accelerated hierarchical fourth-order forward symplectic integrator code FROST. BIFROST (BInaries in FROST) can efficiently evolve collisional stellar systems with arbitrary binary fractions up to $f_\mathrm{bin}=100\%$ by using secular and regularised integration for binaries, triples, multiple systems or small clusters around black holes within the fourth-order forward integrator framework. Post-Newtonian (PN) terms up to order PN3.5 are included in the equations of motion of compact subsystems with optional three-body and spin-dependent terms. PN1.0 terms for interactions with black holes are computed everywhere in the simulation domain. The code has several merger criteria (gravitational-wave inspirals, tidal disruption events and stellar and compact object collisions) with the addition of relativistic recoil kicks for compact object mergers. We show that for systems with $N$ particles the scaling of the code remains good up to $N_\mathrm{GPU} \sim 40\times N / 10^6$ GPUs and that the increasing binary fractions up to 100 per cent hardly increase the code running time (less than a factor $\sim 1.5$). We also validate the numerical accuracy of BIFROST by presenting a number of star clusters simulations the most extreme ones including a core collapse and a merger of two intermediate mass black holes with a relativistic recoil kick.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.02472
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21663147
title Exploring the cosmological synergy between galaxy cluster and cosmic void number counts
first_author Davide Pelliciari
author Davide Pelliciari, Sofia Contarini, Federico Marulli, Lauro Moscardini, Carlo Giocoli, Giorgio Francesco Lesci, Klaus Dolag
abstract Galaxy clusters and cosmic voids are the most extreme objects of our Universe in terms of mass and size, tracing two opposite sides of the large-scale matter density field. By studying their abundance as a function of their mass and radius, respectively, i.e. the halo mass function (HMF) and void size function (VSF), it is possible to achieve fundamental constraints on the cosmological model. While the HMF has already been extensively exploited providing robust constraints on the main cosmological model parameters (e.g. $\Omega_{\rm m}$, $\sigma_8$ and $S_8$), the VSF is still emerging as a viable and effective cosmological probe. Given the expected complementarity of these statistics, in this work we aim at estimating the costraining power deriving from their combination. To achieve this goal, we exploit realistic mock samples of galaxy clusters and voids extracted from state-of-the-art large hydrodynamical simulations, in the redshift range $0.2 \leq z \leq 1$. We perform an accurate calibration of the free parameters of the HMF and VSF models, needed to take into account the differences between the types of mass tracers used in this work and those considered in previous literature analyses. Then, we obtain constraints on $\Omega_{\rm m}$ and $\sigma_8$ by performing a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis. We find that cluster and void counts represent powerful independent and complementary probes to test the cosmological framework. In particular, we found that the constraining power of the HMF on $\Omega_{\rm m}$ and $\sigma_8$ improves drastically with the VSF contribution, increasing the $S_8$ constraint precision by a factor of about $60\%$.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.07248
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21648835
title The interplay between forming planets and photo-evaporating discs I: Forbidden line diagnostics
first_author Michael L. Weber
author Michael L. Weber, Barbara Ercolano, Giovanni Picogna, Christian Rab
abstract Disc winds and planet formation are considered to be two of the most important mechanisms that drive the evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary discs and in turn define the environment in which planets form and evolve. While both have been studied extensively in the past, we combine them into one model by performing three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of giant planet hosting discs that are undergoing X-ray photo-evaporation, with the goal to analyse the interactions between both mechanisms. In order to study the effect on observational diagnostics, we produce synthetic observations of commonly used wind-tracing forbidden emission lines with detailed radiative transfer and photo-ionisation calculations. We find that a sufficiently massive giant planet carves a gap in the gas disc that is deep enough to affect the structure and kinematics of the pressure-driven photo-evaporative wind significantly. This effect can be strong enough to be visible in the synthetic high-resolution observations of some of our wind diagnostic lines, such as the [OI] 6300 Å or [SII] 6730 Å lines. When the disc is observed at inclinations around 40° and higher, the spectral line profiles may exhibit a peak in the redshifted part of the spectrum, which cannot easily be explained by simple wind models alone. Moreover, massive planets can induce asymmetric substructures within the disc and the photo-evaporative wind, giving rise to temporal variations of the line profiles that can be strong enough to be observable on timescales of less than a quarter of the planet's orbital period.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.06097
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21665486
title Soft-Collinear Gravity and Soft Theorems
first_author Martin Beneke
author Martin Beneke, Patrick Hager, Robert Szafron
abstract This chapter reviews the construction of ``soft-collinear gravity'', the effective field theory which describes the interaction of collinear and soft gravitons with matter (and themselves), to all orders in the soft-collinear power expansion, focusing on the essential concepts. Among them are an emergent soft background gauge symmetry, which lives on the light-like trajectories of energetic particles and allows for a manifestly gauge-invariant representation of the interactions in terms of a soft covariant derivative and the soft Riemann tensor, and a systematic treatment of collinear interactions, which are absent at leading power in gravity. The gravitational soft theorems are derived from soft-collinear gravity at the Lagrangian level. The symmetries of the effective theory provide a transparent explanation of why soft graviton emission is universal to sub-sub-leading power, but gauge boson emission is not and suggest a physical interpretation of the form of the universal soft factors in terms of the charges corresponding to the soft symmetries. The power counting of soft-collinear gravity further provides an understanding of the structure of loop corrections to the soft theorems.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.09336
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21639796
title Multi-messenger characterization of Mrk 501 during historically low X-ray and $\gamma$-ray activity
first_author H. Abe
author H. Abe, S. Abe, V. A. Acciari, I. Agudo, T. Aniello, S. Ansoldi, L. A. Antonelli, A. Arbet Engels, C. Arcaro, M. Artero, K. Asano, D. Baack, A. Babić, A. Baquero, U. Barres de Almeida, J. A. Barrio, I. Batković, J. Baxter, J. Becerra González, W. Bednarek, E. Bernardini, M. Bernardos, A. Berti, J. Besenrieder, W. Bhattacharyya, C. Bigongiari, A. Biland, O. Blanch, G. Bonnoli, Ž. Bošnjak, I. Burelli, G. Busetto, R. Carosi, M. Carretero-Castrillo, A. J. Castro-Tirado, G. Ceribella, Y. Chai, A. Chilingarian, S. Cikota, E. Colombo, J. L. Contreras, J. Cortina, S. Covino, G. D'Amico, V. D'Elia, P. Da Vela, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, B. De Lotto, A. Del Popolo, M. Delfino, J. Delgado, C. Delgado Mendez, D. Depaoli, F. Di Pierro, L. Di Venere, E. Do Souto Espiñeira, D. Dominis Prester, A. Donini, D. Dorner, M. Doro, D. Elsaesser, G. Emery, J. Escudero, V. Fallah Ramazani, L. Fariña, A. Fattorini, L. Foffano, L. Font, C. Fruck, S. Fukami, Y. Fukazawa, R. J. García López, M. Garczarczyk, S. Gasparyan, M. Gaug, J. G. Giesbrecht Paiva, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, P. Gliwny, N. Godinović, R. Grau, D. Green, J. G. Green, D. Hadasch, A. Hahn, T. Hassan, L. Heckmann, J. Herrera, D. Hrupec, M. Hütten, R. Imazawa, T. Inada, R. Iotov, K. Ishio, I. Jiménez Martínez, J. Jormanainen, D. Kerszberg, Y. Kobayashi, H. Kubo, J. Kushida, A. Lamastra, D. Lelas, F. Leone, E. Lindfors, L. Linhoff, S. Lombardi, F. Longo, R. López-Coto, M. López-Moya, A. López-Oramas, S. Loporchio, A. Lorini, E. Lyard, B. Machado de Oliveira Fraga, P. Majumdar, M. Makariev, G. Maneva, N. Mang, M. Manganaro, S. Mangano, K. Mannheim, M. Mariotti, M. Martínez, A. Mas-Aguilars, D. Mazin, S. Menchiari, S. Mender, S. Mićanović, D. Miceli, T. Miener, J. M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, E. Molina, H. A. Mondal, A. Moralejo, D. Morcuende, V. Moreno, T. Nakamori, C. Nanci, L. Nava, V. Neustroev, M. Nievas Rosillo, C. Nigro, K. Nilsson, K. Nishijima, T. Njoh Ekoume, K. Noda, S. Nozaki, Y. Ohtani, T. Oka, A. Okumura, J. Otero-Santos, S. Paiano, M. Palatiello, D. Paneque, R. Paoletti, J. M. Paredes, L. Pavletić, M. Persic, M. Pihet, G. Pirola, F. Podobnik, P. G. Prada Moroni, E. Prandini, G. Principe, C. Priyadarshi, W. Rhode, M. Ribó, J. Rico, C. Righi, A. Rugliancich, N. Sahakyan, T. Saito, S. Sakurai, K. Satalecka, F. G. Saturni, B. Schleicher, K. Schmidt, F. Schmuckermaier, J. L. Schubert, T. Schweizer, J. Sitarek, V. Sliusar, D. Sobczynska, A. Spolon, A. Stamerra, J. Strišković, D. Strom, M. Strzys, Y. Suda, T. Surić, H. Tajima, M. Takahashi, R. Takeishi, F. Tavecchio, P. Temnikov, K. Terauchi, T. Terzić, M. Teshima, L. Tosti, S. Truzzi, A. Tutone, S. Ubach, J. van Scherpenberg, M. Vazquez Acosta, S. Ventura, V. Verguilov, I. Viale, C. F. Vigorito, V. Vitale, I. Vovk, R. Walter, M. Will, C. Wunderlich, T. Yamamoto, D. Zarić, Other groups, collaborations, :, M. Cerruti, J. A. Acosta-Pulido, G. Apolonio, R. Bachev, M. Baloković, E. Benítez, I. Björklund, V. Bozhilov, L. F. Brown, A. Bugg, W. Carbonell, M. I. Carnerero, D. Carosati, C. Casadio, W. Chamani, W. P. Chen, R. A. Chigladze, G. Damljanovic, K. Epps, A. Erkenov, M. Feige, J. Finke, A. Fuentes, K. Gazeas, M. Giroletti, T. S. Grishina, A. C. Gupta, M. A. Gurwell, E. Heidemann, D. Hiriart, W. J. Hou, T. Hovatta, S. Ibryamov, M. D. Joner, S. G. Jorstad, J. Kania, S. Kiehlmann, G. N. Kimeridze, E. N. Kopatskaya, M. Kopp, M. Korte, B. Kotas, S. Koyama, J. A. Kramer, L. Kunkel, S. O. Kurtanidze, O. M. Kurtanidze, A. Lähteenmäki, J. M. López, V. M. Larionov, E. G. Larionova, L. V. Larionova, C. Leto, C. Lorey, R. Mújica, G. M. Madejski, N. Marchili, A. P. Marscher, M. Minev, A. Modaressi, D. A. Morozova, T. Mufakharov, I. Myserlis, A. A. Nikiforova, M. G. Nikolashvili, E. Ovcharov, M. Perri, C. M. Raiteri, A. C. S. Readhead, A. Reimer, D. Reinhart, S. Righini, K. Rosenlehner, A. C. Sadun, S. S. Savchenko, A. Scherbantin, L. Schneider, K. Schoch, D. Seifert, E. Semkov, L. A. Sigua, C. Singh, P. Sola, Y. Sotnikova, M. Spencer, R. Steineke, M. Stojanovic, A. Strigachev, M. Tornikoski, E. Traianou, A. Tramacere, Yu. V. Troitskaya, I. S. Troitskiy, J. B. Trump, A. Tsai, A. Valcheva, A. A. Vasilyev, F. Verrecchia, M. Villata, O. Vince, K. Vrontaki, Z. R. Weaver, E. Zaharieva, N. Zottmann
abstract We study the broadband emission of the TeV blazar Mrk501 using multi-wavelength (MWL) observations from 2017 to 2020 performed with a multitude of instruments, involving, among others, MAGIC, Fermi-LAT, NuSTAR, Swift, GASP-WEBT, and OVRO. During this period, Mrk501 showed an extremely low broadband activity, which may help to unravel its baseline emission. Despite the low activity, significant flux variations are detected at all wavebands, with the highest variations occurring at X-rays and VHE $\gamma$-rays. A significant correlation (&gt;3$\sigma$) between X-rays and VHE $\gamma$-rays is measured, supporting leptonic scenarios to explain the variable parts of the spectral energy distribution (SED), also during low activity states. Extending our data set to 12-years (from 2008 to 2020), we find significant correlations between X-rays and HE $\gamma$-rays, indicating, for the first time, a common physical origin driving the variability between these two bands. We additionally find a correlation between HE $\gamma$-rays and radio, with the radio emission lagging the HE $\gamma$-ray emission by more than 100 days. This is consistent with the $\gamma$-ray emission zone being located upstream of the radio-bright regions of the Mrk501 jet. Furthermore, Mrk501 showed a historically low activity in both X-rays and VHE $\gamma$-rays from mid-2017 to mid-2019 with a stable VHE flux (&gt;2TeV) of 5% the emission of the Crab Nebula. The broadband SED of this 2-year long low-state, the potential baseline emission of Mrk501, can be adequately characterized with a one-zone leptonic model, and with (lepto)-hadronic models that fulfill the neutrino flux constraints from IceCube. We explore the time evolution of the SED towards the historically low-state, revealing that the stable baseline emission may be ascribed to a standing shock, and the variable emission to an additional expanding or traveling shock.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.02547
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21639674
title Why Cosmic Voids Matter: Nonlinear Structure &amp; Linear Dynamics
first_author Nico Schuster
author Nico Schuster, Nico Hamaus, Klaus Dolag, Jochen Weller
abstract We use the Magneticum suite of state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations to identify cosmic voids based on the watershed technique and investigate their most fundamental properties across different resolutions in mass and scale. This encompasses the distributions of void sizes, shapes, and content, as well as their radial density and velocity profiles traced by the distribution of cold dark matter particles and halos. We also study the impact of various tracer properties, such as their sparsity and mass, and the influence of void merging on these summary statistics. Our results reveal that all of the analyzed void properties are physically related to each other and describe universal characteristics that are largely independent of tracer type and resolution. Most notably, we find that the motion of tracers around void centers is perfectly consistent with linear dynamics, both for individual, as well as stacked voids. Despite the large range of scales accessible in our simulations, we are unable to identify the occurrence of nonlinear dynamics even inside voids of only a few Mpc in size. This suggests voids to be among the most pristine probes of cosmology down to scales that are commonly referred to as highly nonlinear in the field of large-scale structure.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.02457
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21666020
title Landau and leading singularities in arbitrary space-time dimensions
first_author Wojciech Flieger
author Wojciech Flieger, William J. Torres Bobadilla
abstract Using the decomposition of the $D$-dimensional space-time into parallel and perpendicular subspaces, we study and prove a connection between Landau and leading singularities for $N$-point one-loop Feynman integrals by applying multi-dimensional theory of residues. We show that if $D=N$ and $D=N+1$, the leading singularity corresponds to the inverse of the square root of the leading Landau singularity of the first and second type, respectively. We make use of this outcome to systematically provide differential equations of Feynman integrals in canonical forms and the extension of the connection of these singularities at multi-loop level by exploiting the loop-by-loop approach. Illustrative examples with the calculation of Landau and leading singularities are provided to supplement our results.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.09872
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21664177
title Perturbation theory with dispersion and higher cumulants: non-linear regime
first_author Mathias Garny
author Mathias Garny, Dominik Laxhuber, Roman Scoccimarro
abstract We present non-linear solutions of Vlasov Perturbation Theory (VPT), describing gravitational clustering of collisionless dark matter with dispersion and higher cumulants induced by orbit crossing. We show that VPT can be cast into a form that is formally analogous to standard perturbation theory (SPT), but including additional perturbation variables, non-linear interactions, and a more complex propagation. VPT non-linear kernels have a crucial decoupling property: for fixed total momentum, the kernels becomes strongly suppressed when any of the individual momenta cross the dispersion scale into the non-linear regime. This screening of UV modes allows us to compute non-linear corrections to power spectra even for cosmologies with very blue power-law input spectra, for which SPT diverges. We compare predictions for the density and velocity divergence power spectra as well as the bispectrum at one-loop order to N-body results in a scaling universe with spectral indices $-1\leq n_s\leq +2$. We find a good agreement up to the non-linear scale for all cases, with a reach that increases with the spectral index $n_s$. We discuss the generation of vorticity as well as vector and tensor modes of the velocity dispersion, showing that neglecting vorticity when including dispersion would lead to a violation of momentum conservation. We verify momentum conservation when including vorticity, and compute the vorticity power spectrum at two-loop order, necessary to recover the correct large-scale limit with slope $n_w=2$. Comparing to our N-body measurements confirms the cross-over from $k^4$ to $k^2$ scaling on large scales. Our results provide a proof-of-principle that perturbative techniques for dark matter clustering can be systematically improved based on the known underlying collisionless dynamics.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.08089
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21663554
title Robustness of cosmic birefringence measurement against Galactic foreground emission and instrumental systematics
first_author P. Diego-Palazuelos
author P. Diego-Palazuelos, E. Martínez-González, P. Vielva, R. B. Barreiro, M. Tristram, E. de la Hoz, J. R. Eskilt, Y. Minami, R. M. Sullivan, A. J. Banday, K. M. Górski, R. Keskitalo, E. Komatsu, D. Scott
abstract The polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) can be used to search for parity-violating processes like that predicted by a Chern-Simons coupling to a light pseudoscalar field. Such an interaction rotates $E$ modes into $B$ modes in the observed CMB signal by an effect known as cosmic birefringence. Even though isotropic birefringence can be confused with the rotation produced by a miscalibration of the detectors' polarization angles the degeneracy between both effects is broken when Galactic foreground emission is used as a calibrator. In this work, we use realistic simulations of the High-Frequency Instrument of the Planck mission to test the impact that Galactic foreground emission and instrumental systematics have on the recent birefringence measurements obtained through this technique. Our results demonstrate the robustness of the methodology against the miscalibration of polarization angles and other systematic effects, like intensity-to-polarization leakage, beam leakage, or cross-polarization effects. However, our estimator is sensitive to the $EB$ correlation of polarized foreground emission. Here we propose to correct the bias induced by dust $EB$ by modeling the foreground signal with templates produced in Bayesian component-separation analyses that fit parametric models to CMB data. Acknowledging the limitations of currently available dust templates like that of the Commander sky model, high-precision CMB data and a characterization of dust beyond the modified blackbody paradigm are needed to obtain a definitive measurement of cosmic birefringence in the future.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.07655
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21664174
title Perturbation theory with dispersion and higher cumulants: framework and linear theory
first_author Mathias Garny
author Mathias Garny, Dominik Laxhuber, Roman Scoccimarro
abstract The standard perturbation theory (SPT) approach to gravitational clustering is based on a fluid approximation of the underlying Vlasov-Poisson dynamics, taking only the zeroth and first cumulant of the phase-space distribution function into account (density and velocity fields). This assumption breaks down when dark matter particle orbits cross and leads to well-known problems, e.g. an anomalously large backreaction of small-scale modes onto larger scales that compromises predictivity. We extend SPT by incorporating second and higher cumulants generated by orbit crossing. For collisionless matter, their equations of motion are completely fixed by the Vlasov-Poisson system, and thus we refer to this approach as Vlasov Perturbation Theory (VPT). Even cumulants develop a background value, and they enter the hierarchy of coupled equations for the fluctuations. The background values are in turn sourced by power spectra of the fluctuations. The latter can be brought into a form that is formally analogous to SPT, but with an extended set of variables and linear as well as non-linear terms, that we derive explicitly. In this paper, we focus on linear solutions, which are far richer than in SPT, showing that modes that cross the dispersion scale set by the second cumulant are highly suppressed. We derive stability conditions on the background values of even cumulants from the requirement that exponential instabilities be absent. We also compute the expected magnitude of averaged higher cumulants for various halo models and show that they satisfy the stability conditions. Finally, we derive self-consistent solutions of perturbations and background values for a scaling universe and study the convergence of the cumulant expansion. The VPT framework provides a conceptually straightforward and deterministic extension of SPT that accounts for the decoupling of small-scale modes.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.08088
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21648441
title Indirect upper limits on $\ell_i\to\ell_j\gamma\gamma$ from $\ell_i\to\ell_j\gamma$
first_author Fabiola Fortuna
author Fabiola Fortuna, Alejandro Ibarra, Xabier Marcano, Marcela Marín, Pablo Roig
abstract We perform an effective field theory analysis to correlate the charged lepton flavor violating processes $\ell_i\to\ell_j\gamma\gamma$ and $\ell_i\to\ell_j\gamma$. Using the current upper bounds on the rate for $\ell_i\to\ell_j\gamma$, we derive model-independent upper limits on the rates for $\ell_i\to\ell_j\gamma\gamma$. Our indirect limits are about three orders of magnitude stronger than the direct bounds from current searches for $\mu\to e\gamma\gamma$, and four orders of magnitude better than current bounds for $\tau\to\ell\gamma\gamma$. We also stress the relevance of Belle II or a Super Tau Charm Facility to discover the rare decay $\tau\to\ell\gamma\gamma$.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.05703
pages
issue
doi

source inspirehep
id 2163501
title The MADPSZ catalogue of Planck clusters over the DES region: extending to lower mass and higher redshift
first_author Hernández-Lang, D.
author D. Hernández-Lang, J.J. Mohr, M. Klein, S. Grandis, J.-B. Melin, P. Tarrío, M. Arnaud, G.W. Pratt, T.M.C. Abbott, M. Aguena, O. Alves, F. Andrade-Oliveira, D. Bacon, E. Bertin, D. Brooks, D.L. Burke, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, F.J. Castander, M. Costanzi, L.N. da Costa, M.E.S. Pereira, S. Desai, H.T. Diehl, P. Doel, S. Everett, I. Ferrero, B. Flaugher, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, D. Gruen, R.A. Gruendl, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, S.R. Hinton, D.L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, D.J. James, K. Kuehn, N. Kuropatkin, O. Lahav, C. Lidman, P. Melchior, J. Mena-Fernández, F. Menanteau, R. Miquel, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A.A. Plazas Malagón, M. Raveri, M. Rodriguez-Monroy, A.K. Romer, V. Scarpine, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, M. Smith, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, N. Weaverdyck
abstract We present the first systematic follow-up of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) selected candidates down to signal-to-noise (S/N) of 3 over the 5000 deg$^2$ covered by the Dark Energy Survey. Using the MCMF cluster confirmation algorithm, we identify optical counterparts, determine photometric redshifts and richnesses and assign a parameter, $f_{\rm cont}$, that reflects the probability that each SZE-optical pairing represents a real cluster rather than a random superposition of physically unassociated systems. The new MADPSZ cluster catalogue consists of 1092 MCMF confirmed clusters and has a purity of 85%. We present the properties of subsamples of the MADPSZ catalogue that have purities ranging from 90% to 97.5%, depending on the adopted $f_{\rm cont}$ threshold. $M_{500}$ halo mass estimates, redshifts, richnesses, and optical centers are presented for all MADPSZ clusters. The MADPSZ catalogue adds 828 previously unknown Planck identified clusters over the DES footprint and provides redshifts for an additional 50 previously published Planck selected clusters with S/N>4.5. Using the subsample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate excellent cluster photo-$z$ performance with an RMS scatter in $\Delta z/(1+z)$ of 0.47%. Our MCMF based analysis allows us to infer the contamination fraction of the initial S/N>3 Planck selected candidate list, which is 50%. We present a method of estimating the completeness of the MADPSZ cluster sample and $f_{\rm cont}$ selected subsamples. In comparison to the previously published Planck cluster catalogues. this new S/N $>$ 3 MCMF confirmed cluster catalogue populates the lower mass regime at all redshifts and includes clusters up to z$\sim$1.3.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type
eprint 2210.04666
pages
issue
doi

source inspirehep
id 2161833
title Why Cosmic Voids Matter: Nonlinear Structure & Linear Dynamics
first_author Schuster, Nico
author Nico Schuster, Nico Hamaus, Klaus Dolag, Jochen Weller
abstract We use the Magneticum suite of state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations to identify cosmic voids based on the watershed technique and investigate their most fundamental properties across different resolutions in mass and scale. This encompasses the distributions of void sizes, shapes, and content, as well as their radial density and velocity profiles traced by the distribution of cold dark matter particles and halos. We also study the impact of various tracer properties, such as their sparsity and mass, and the influence of void merging on these summary statistics. Our results reveal that all of the analyzed void properties are physically related to each other and describe universal characteristics that are largely independent of tracer type and resolution. Most notably, we find that the motion of tracers around void centers is perfectly consistent with linear dynamics, both for individual, as well as stacked voids. Despite the large range of scales accessible in our simulations, we are unable to identify the occurrence of nonlinear dynamics even inside voids of only a few Mpc in size. This suggests voids to be among the most pristine probes of cosmology down to scales that are commonly referred to as highly nonlinear in the field of large-scale structure.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type
eprint 2210.02457
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21491610
title Forecasting cosmological parameter constraints using multiple sparsity measurements as tracers of the mass profiles of dark matter haloes
first_author P. S. Corasaniti
author P. S. Corasaniti, A. M. C. Le Brun, T. R. G. Richardson, Y. Rasera, S. Ettori, M. Arnaud, G. W. Pratt
abstract The dark matter halo sparsity, i.e. the ratio between spherical halo masses enclosing two different overdensities, provides a non-parametric proxy of the halo mass distribution that has been shown to be a sensitive probe of the cosmological imprint encoded in the mass profile of haloes hosting galaxy clusters. Mass estimations at several overdensities would allow for multiple sparsity measurements, which can potentially retrieve the entirety of the cosmological information imprinted on the halo profile. Here, we investigate the impact of multiple sparsity measurements on the cosmological model parameter inference. For this purpose, we analyse N-body halo catalogues from the Raygal and M2Csims simulations and evaluate the correlations among six different sparsities from spherical overdensity halo masses at Δ = 200, 500, 1000, and 2500 (in units of the critical density). Remarkably, sparsities associated to distinct halo mass shells are not highly correlated. This is not the case for sparsities obtained using halo masses estimated from the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) best-fitting profile, which artificially correlates different sparsities to order one. This implies that there is additional information in the mass profile beyond the NFW parametrization and that it can be exploited with multiple sparsities. In particular, from a likelihood analysis of synthetic average sparsity data, we show that cosmological parameter constraints significantly improve when increasing the number of sparsity combinations, though the constraints saturate beyond four sparsity estimates. We forecast constraints for the CHEX-MATE cluster sample and find that systematic mass bias errors mildly impact the parameter inference, though more studies are needed in this direction.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume 516
publication_type article
eprint
pages 16
issue 1
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2196

source harvard
id 21666230
title The MillenniumTNG Project: High-precision predictions for matter clustering and halo statistics
first_author César Hernández-Aguayo
author César Hernández-Aguayo, Volker Springel, Rüdiger Pakmor, Monica Barrera, Fulvio Ferlito, Simon D. M. White, Lars Hernquist, Boryana Hadzhiyska, Ana Maria Delgado, Rahul Kannan, Sownak Bose, Carlos Frenk
abstract Cosmological inference with large galaxy surveys requires theoretical models that combine precise predictions for large-scale structure with robust and flexible galaxy formation modelling throughout a sufficiently large cosmic volume. Here, we introduce the MillenniumTNG (MTNG) project which combines the hydrodynamical galaxy formation model of IllustrisTNG with the large volume of the Millennium simulation. Our largest hydrodynamic simulation, covering (500 Mpc/h)^3 = (740 Mpc)^3, is complemented by a suite of dark-matter-only simulations with up to 4320^3 dark matter particles (a mass resolution of 1.32 x 10^8 Msun/h) using the fixed-and-paired technique to reduce large-scale cosmic variance. The hydro simulation adds 4320^3 gas cells, achieving a baryonic mass resolution of 2 x 10^7 Msun/h. High time-resolution merger trees and direct lightcone outputs facilitate the construction of a new generation of semi-analytic galaxy formation models that can be calibrated against both the hydro simulation and observation, and then applied to even larger volumes - MTNG includes a flagship simulation with 1.1 trillion dark matter particles and massive neutrinos in a volume of (3000 Mpc)^3. In this introductory analysis we carry out convergence tests on basic measures of non-linear clustering such as the matter power spectrum, the halo mass function and halo clustering, and we compare simulation predictions to those from current cosmological emulators. We also use our simulations to study matter and halo statistics, such as halo bias and clustering at the baryonic acoustic oscillation scale. Finally we measure the impact of baryonic physics on the matter and halo distributions.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.10059
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21666257
title The MillenniumTNG Project: Inferring cosmology from galaxy clustering with accelerated N-body scaling and subhalo abundance matching
first_author Sergio Contreras
author Sergio Contreras, Raul E. Angulo, Volker Springel, Simon D. M. White, Boryana Hadzhiyska, Lars Hernquist, Rüdiger Pakmor, Rahul Kannan, César Hernández-Aguayo, Monica Barrera, Fulvio Ferlito, Ana Maria Delgado, Sownak Bose, Carlos Frenk
abstract We introduce a novel technique for constraining cosmological parameters and galaxy assembly bias using non-linear redshift-space clustering of galaxies. We scale cosmological N-body simulations and insert galaxies with the SubHalo Abundance Matching extended (SHAMe) empirical model to generate over 175,000 clustering measurements spanning all relevant cosmological and SHAMe parameter values. We then build an emulator capable of reproducing the projected galaxy correlation function at the monopole, quadrupole and hexadecapole level for separations between $0.1\,h^{-1}{\rm Mpc}$ and $25\,h^{-1}{\rm Mpc}$. We test this approach by using the emulator and Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) inference to jointly estimate cosmology and assembly bias parameters both for the MTNG740 hydrodynamic simulation and for a semi-analytical galaxy formation model (SAM) built on the MTNG740-DM dark matter-only simulation, obtaining unbiased results for all cosmological parameters. For instance, for MTNG740 and a galaxy number density of $n\sim 0.01 h^{3}{\rm Mpc}^{-3}$, we obtain $\sigma_{8}=0.799^{+0.039}_{-0.044}$ ($\sigma_{8,{\rm MTNG}} =$ 0.8159), and $\Omega_\mathrm{M}h^2= 0.138^{+ 0.025}_{- 0.018}$ ($\Omega_{\mathrm{M}} h^2_{\rm MTNG} =$ 0.142). For fixed Hubble parameter ($h$), the constraint becomes $\Omega_\mathrm{M}h^2= 0.137^{+ 0.011}_{- 0.012}$. Our method performs similarly well for the SAM and for other tested sample densities. We almost always recover the true amount of galaxy assembly bias within one sigma. The best constraints are obtained when scales smaller than $2\,h^{-1}{\rm Mpc}$ are included, as well as when at least the projected correlation function and the monopole are incorporated. These methods offer a powerful way to constrain cosmological parameters using galaxy surveys.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.10075
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21695189
title Endpoint factorization and next-to-leading power resummation of gluon thrust
first_author M. Beneke
author M. Beneke, M. Garny, S. Jaskiewicz, J. Strohm, R. Szafron, L. Vernazza, J. Wang
abstract Endpoint divergences in the convolution integrals appearing in next-to-leading-power factorization theorems prevent a straightforward application of standard methods to resum large logarithmic power-suppressed corrections in collider physics. We study the power-suppressed configuration of the thrust distribution in the two-jet region, where a gluon-initiated jet recoils against a quark-antiquark pair. With the aid of operatorial endpoint factorization conditions, we derive a factorization formula where the individual terms are free from endpoint divergences and can be written in terms of renormalized hard, (anti) collinear, and soft functions in four dimensions. This framework enables us to perform the first resummation of the endpoint-divergent SCET$_{\rm I}$ observables at the leading logarithmic accuracy using exclusively renormalization-group methods.
journal Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type inproceedings
eprint
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21666256
title The MillenniumTNG Project: An improved two-halo model for the galaxy-halo connection of red and blue galaxies
first_author Boryana Hadzhiyska
author Boryana Hadzhiyska, Daniel Eisenstein, Lars Hernquist, Rüdiger Pakmor, Sownak Bose, Ana Maria Delgado, Sergio Contreras, Rahul Kannan, Simon D. M. White, Volker Springel, Carlos Frenk, César Hernández-Aguayo, Fulvio Ferlito, Monica Barrera
abstract Approximate methods to populate dark matter halos with galaxies are of great utility to large galaxy surveys. However, the limitations of simple halo occupation models (HODs) preclude a full use of small-scale galaxy clustering data and call for more sophisticated models. We study two galaxy populations, luminous red galaxies (LRGs) and star-forming emission-line galaxies (ELGs), at two epochs, $z=1$ and $z=0$, in the large volume, high-resolution hydrodynamical simulation of the MillenniumTNG project. In a partner study we concentrated on the small-scale, one-halo regime down to $r\sim 0.1{\rm Mpc}/h$, while here we focus on modeling galaxy assembly bias in the two-halo regime, $r\gtrsim 1{\rm Mpc}/h$. Interestingly, the ELG signal exhibits scale dependence out to relatively large scales ($r\sim 20{\rm Mpc}/h$), implying that the linear bias approximation for this tracer is invalid on these scales, contrary to common assumptions. The 10-15\% discrepancy present in the standard halo model prescription is only reconciled when we augment our halo occupation model with a dependence on extrinsic halo properties ("shear" being the best-performing one) rather than intrinsic ones (e.g., concentration, peak mass). We argue that this fact constitutes evidence for two-halo galaxy conformity. Including tertiary assembly bias (i.e. a property beyond mass and "shear") is not an essential requirement for reconciling the galaxy assembly bias signal of LRGs, but the combination of external and internal properties is beneficial for recovering ELG the clustering. We find that centrals in low-mass haloes dominate the assembly bias signal of both populations. Finally, we explore the predictions of our model for higher-order statistics such as nearest-neighbor counts. The latter supplies additional information about galaxy assembly bias and can be used to break degeneracies between halo model parameters.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.10072
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21827852
title Systematic parametrization of the leading B-meson light-cone distribution amplitude
first_author Thorsten Feldmann
author Thorsten Feldmann, Philip Lüghausen, Danny van Dyk
abstract We propose a parametrization of the leading B-meson light-cone distribution amplitude (LCDA) in heavy-quark effective theory (HQET). In position space, it uses a conformal transformation that yields a systematic Taylor expansion and an integral bound, which enables control of the truncation error. Our parametrization further produces compact analytical expressions for a variety of derived quantities. At a given reference scale, our momentum-space parametrization corresponds to an expansion in associated Laguerre polynomials, which turn into confluent hypergeometric functions <SUB>1</SUB>F<SUB>1</SUB> under renormalization-group evolution at one-loop accuracy. Our approach thus allows a straightforward and transparent implementation of a variety of phenomenological constraints, regardless of their origin. Moreover, we can include theoretical information on the Taylor coefficients by using the local operator product expansion. We showcase the versatility of the parametrization in a series of phenomenological pseudo-fits.
journal Journal of High Energy Physics
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume 2022
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 10
doi 10.1007/JHEP10(2022)162

source harvard
id 21681887
title Lower-than-expected flare temperatures for TRAPPIST-1
first_author A. J. Maas
author A. J. Maas, E. Ilin, M. Oshagh, E. Pallé, H. Parviainen, K. Molaverdikhani, A. Quirrenbach, E. Esparza-Borges, F. Murgas, V. J. S. Béjar, N. Narita, A. Fukui, C. -L. Lin, M. Mori, P. Klagyivik
abstract Although high energetic radiation from flares is a potential threat to exoplanet atmospheres and may lead to surface sterilization, it might also provide the extra energy for low-mass stars needed to trigger and sustain prebiotic chemistry. We investigate two flares on TRAPPIST-1, an ultra-cool dwarf star that hosts seven exoplanets of which three lie within its habitable zone. The flares are detected in all four passbands of the MuSCAT2 allowing a determination of their temperatures and bolometric energies. We analyzed the light curves of the MuSCAT1 and MuSCAT2 instruments obtained between 2016 and 2021 in $g,r,i,z_\mathrm{s}$-filters. We conducted an automated flare search and visually confirmed possible flare events. We studied the temperature evolution, the global temperature, and the peak temperature of both flares. For the first time we infer effective black body temperatures of flares that occurred on TRAPPIST-1. The black body temperatures for the two TRAPPIST-1 flares derived from the SED are consistent with $T_\mathrm{SED} = 7940_{-390}^{+430}$K and $T_\mathrm{SED} = 6030_{-270}^{+300}$K. The flare black body temperatures at the peak are also calculated from the peak SED yielding $T_\mathrm{SEDp} = 13620_{-1220}^{1520}$K and $T_\mathrm{SEDp} = 8290_{-550}^{+660}$K. We show that for the ultra-cool M-dwarf TRAPPIST-1 the flare black body temperatures associated with the total continuum emission are lower and not consistent with the usually adopted assumption of 9000-10000 K. This could imply different and faster cooling mechanisms. Further multi-color observations are needed to investigate whether or not our observations are a general characteristic of ultra-cool M-dwarfs. This would have significant implications for the habitability of exoplanets around these stars because the UV surface flux is likely to be overestimated by the models with higher flare temperatures.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.11103
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21689584
title Spin fields for the spinning particle
first_author E. Boffo
author E. Boffo, I. Sachs
abstract We propose an analogue of spin fields for the relativistic RNS-particle in 4 dimensions, in order to describe Ramond-Ramond states as "two-particle" excitations on the world line. On a natural representation space we identify a differential whose cohomology agrees with RR-fields equations. We then discuss the non-linear theory encoded in deformations of the latter by background fields. We also formulate a sigma model for this spin field from which we recover the RNS-formulation by imposing suitable constraints.
journal Journal of High Energy Physics
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume 2022
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 10
doi 10.1007/JHEP10(2022)117

source harvard
id 21661295
title Toward a population synthesis of disks and planets. I. Evolution of dust with entrainment in winds and radiation pressure
first_author R. Burn
author R. Burn, A. Emsenhuber, J. Weder, O. Völkel, H. Klahr, T. Birnstiel, B. Ercolano, C. Mordasini
abstract Context. Millimeter astronomy provides valuable information on the birthplaces of planetary systems. In order to compare theoretical models with observations, the dust component has to be carefully calculated. <BR /> Aims: Here, we aim to study the effects of dust entrainment in photoevaporative winds, and the ejection and drag of dust due to the effects caused by radiation from the central star. <BR /> Methods: We improved and extended the existing implementation of a two-population dust and pebble description in the global Bern/Heidelberg planet formation and evolution model. Modern prescriptions for photoevaporative winds were used and we accounted for settling and advection of dust when calculating entrainment rates. In order to prepare for future population studies with varying conditions, we explored a wide range of disk, photoevaporation, and dust parameters. <BR /> Results: If dust can grow to pebble sizes, that is, if they are resistant to fragmentation or turbulence is weak, drift dominates and the entrained mass is small but larger than under the assumption of no vertical advection of grains with the gas flow. For the case of fragile dust shattering at velocities of 1m s<SUP>−1</SUP> - as indicated in laboratory experiments -, an order of magnitude more dust is entrained, which becomes the main dust removal process. Radiation pressure effects disperse massive, dusty disks on timescales of a few hundred Myr. <BR /> Conclusions: These results highlight the importance of dust entrainment in winds as a solid-mass removal process. Furthermore, this model extension lays the foundations for future statistical studies of the formation of planets in their birth environment.
journal Astronomy and Astrophysics
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume 666
publication_type article
eprint
pages 15
issue
doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202243262

source harvard
id 21699782
title The phase structure of cosmic ray driven outflows in stream fed disc galaxies
first_author Nicolas Peschken
author Nicolas Peschken, Michał Hanasz, Thorsten Naab, Dominik Wóltański, Artur Gawryszczak
abstract Feeding with gas in streams is predicted to be an important galaxy growth mechanism. Using an idealised setup, we study the impact of stream feeding (with 10$^7$ M$_{\odot}$ Myr$^{-1}$ rate) on the star formation and outflows of disc galaxies with $\sim$10$^{11}$ M$_{\odot}$ baryonic mass. The magneto-hydrodynamical simulations are carried out with the PIERNIK code and include star formation, feedback from supernova, and cosmic ray advection and diffusion. We find that stream accretion enhances galactic star formation. Lower angular momentum streams result in more compact discs, higher star formation rates and stronger outflows. In agreement with previous studies, models including cosmic rays launch stronger outflows travelling much further into the galactic halo. Cosmic ray supported outflows are also cooler than supernova only driven outflows. With cosmic rays, the star formation is suppressed and the thermal pressure is reduced. We find evidence for two distinct outflow phases. The warm outflows have high angular momentum and stay close to the galactic disc, while the hot outflow phase has low angular momentum and escapes from the centre deep into the halo. Cosmic rays can therefore have a strong impact on galaxy evolution by removing low angular momentum, possibly metal enriched gas from the disc and injecting it into the circumgalactic medium.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.17328
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21697585
title ALMACAL IX: Multi-band ALMA survey for dusty star-forming galaxies and the resolved fractions of the cosmic infrared background
first_author Jianhang Chen
author Jianhang Chen, R. J. Ivison, Martin A. Zwaan, Ian Smail, Anne Klitsch, Céline Péroux, Gergö Popping, Andrew D. Biggs, Roland Szakacs, Aleksandra Hamanowicz, Claudia Lagos
abstract Wide, deep, blind continuum surveys at submillimetre/millimetre (submm/mm) wavelengths are required to provide a full inventory of the dusty, distant Universe. However, conducting such surveys to the necessary depth, with sub-arcsec angular resolution, is prohibitively time-consuming, even for the most advanced submm/mm telescopes. Here, we report the most recent results from the ALMACAL project, which exploits the 'free' calibration data from the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) to map the lines of sight towards and beyond the ALMA calibrators. ALMACAL has now covered 1,001 calibrators, with a total sky coverage around 0.3 deg<SUP>2</SUP>, distributed across the sky accessible from the Atacama desert, and has accumulated more than 1,000 h of integration. The depth reached by combining multiple visits to each field makes ALMACAL capable of searching for faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), with detections at multiple frequencies to constrain the emission mechanism. Based on the most up-to-date ALMACAL database, we report the detection of 186 DSFGs with flux densities down to S<SUB>870μm</SUB> ~ 0.2 mJy, comparable with existing ALMA large surveys but less susceptible to cosmic variance. We report the number counts at five wavelengths between 870 μm and 3 mm, in ALMA bands 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, providing a benchmark for models of galaxy formation and evolution. By integrating the observed number counts and the best-fitting functions, we also present the resolved fraction of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and the CIB spectral shape. Combining existing surveys, ALMA has currently resolved about half of the CIB in the submm/mm regime.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2989

source harvard
id 21699915
title Cosmic voids as cosmological laboratories
first_author Carlos Mauricio Correa
author Carlos Mauricio Correa
abstract Cosmic voids are promising cosmological laboratories for studying the dark energy phenomenon and alternative gravity theories. They are receiving special attention nowadays in view of the new generation of galaxy spectroscopic surveys, which are covering an unprecedented volume and redshift range. There are two primary statistics in void studies: (i) the void size function, which characterises the abundance of voids, and (ii) the void-galaxy cross-correlation function, which contains information about the density and velocity fields in these regions. However, it is necessary a complete description of the effects of geometrical (Alcock-Paczynski effect, AP) and dynamical (Kaiser effect, RSD) distortions around voids in order to design reliable cosmological tests based on these statistics. Observational measurements show prominent anisotropic patterns that lead to biased cosmological constraints if they are not properly modelled. This thesis addresses this problematic by presenting a theoretical and statistical framework based on dynamical and cosmological foundations capable of describing all the underlying effects involved: the expansion effect (t-RSD), the off-centring effect (v-RSD), the AP-volume effect and the ellipticity effect (e-RSD). These effects can be understood by studying the mapping of voids between real and redshift space. In this way, we lay the foundations for a proper modelling of the aforementioned statistics. In addition, we present a new cosmological test based on two perpendicular projections of the correlation function. The method is fiducial-cosmology free, which allows us to effectively break any possible degeneracy between the cosmological parameters involved. Moreover, it allows us to significantly reduce the number of mock catalogues needed to estimate covariances.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.17459
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21685593
title Razor-thin dust layers in protoplanetary disks: Limits on the vertical shear instability
first_author C. P. Dullemond
author C. P. Dullemond, A. Ziampras, D. Ostertag, C. Dominik
abstract Context: Recent observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) have shown that the large dust aggregates observed at millimeter wavelengths settle to the midplane into a remarkably thin layer. Aims: We intend to find out if the geometric thinness of these layers is evidence against the vertical shear instability (VSI) operating in these disks. Methods: We performed hydrodynamic simulations of a protoplanetary disk with a locally isothermal equation of state, and let the VSI fully develop. We sprinkled dust particles and followed their motion as they got stirred up by the VSI. We determined for which grain size the layer becomes geometrically thin enough to be consistent with ALMA observations. We then verified if, with these grain sizes, it is still possible to generate a moderately optically thick layer at millimeter wavelengths, as observations appear to indicate. Results: We found that even very large dust aggregates with Stokes numbers close to unity get stirred up to relatively large heights above the midplane by the VSI, which is in conflict with the observed geometric thinness. For grains so large that the Stokes number exceeds unity, the layer can be made to remain thin, but we show that it is hard to make dust layers optically thick at ALMA wavelengths (e.g., tau(1.3mm)&gt;=1) with such large dust aggregates. Conclusions: We conclude that protoplanetary disks with geometrically thin midplane dust layers cannot be VSI unstable, at least not down to the disk midplane. Explanations for the inhibition of the VSI include a reduced dust-to-gas ratio of the small dust grains that are responsible for the radiative cooling of the disk. A reduction of small grains by a factor of between 10 and 100 is sufficient to quench the VSI. Such a reduction is plausible in dust growth models, and still consistent with observations at optical and infrared wavelengths.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.13413
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21699801
title Inclusive production of $J/\psi$, $\psi(2S)$, and $\Upsilon$ states in pNRQCD
first_author Nora Brambilla
author Nora Brambilla, Hee Sok Chung, Antonio Vairo, Xiang-Peng Wang
abstract Under some assumptions on the hierarchy of relevant energy scales, we compute the nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) long-distance matrix elements (LDMEs) for inclusive production of $J/\psi$, $\psi(2S)$, and $\Upsilon$ states based on the potential NRQCD (pNRQCD) effective field theory. Based on the pNRQCD formalism, we obtain expressions for the LDMEs in terms of the quarkonium wavefunctions at the origin and universal gluonic correlators, which do not depend on the heavy quark flavor or the radial excitation. This greatly reduces the number of nonperturbative unknowns and substantially enhances the predictive power of the nonrelativistic effective field theory formalism. We obtain improved determinations of the LDMEs for $J/\psi$, $\psi(2S)$, and $\Upsilon$ states thanks to the universality of the gluonic correlators, and obtain phenomenological results for cross sections and polarizations at large transverse momentum that agree well with measurements at the LHC.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.17345
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21698132
title Strong lensing time-delay cosmography in the 2020s
first_author T. Treu
author T. Treu, S. H. Suyu, P. J. Marshall
abstract Multiply imaged time-variable sources can be used to measure absolute distances as a function of redshifts and thus determine cosmological parameters, chiefly the Hubble Constant H$_0$. In the two decades up to 2020, through a number of observational and conceptual breakthroughs, this so-called time-delay cosmography has reached a precision sufficient to be an important independent voice in the current ``Hubble tension'' debate between early- and late-universe determinations of H$_0$. The 2020s promise to deliver major advances in time-delay cosmography, owing to the large number of lenses to be discovered by new and upcoming surveys and the vastly improved capabilities for follow-up and analysis. In this review -- after a brief summary of the foundations of the method and recent advances -- we outline the opportunities for the decade and the challenges that will need to be overcome in order to meet the goal of the determination of H$_0$ from time-delay cosmography with 1\% precision and accuracy.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.15794
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21666251
title The MillenniumTNG Project: Refining the one-halo model of red and blue galaxies at different redshifts
first_author Boryana Hadzhiyska
author Boryana Hadzhiyska, Lars Hernquist, Daniel Eisenstein, Ana Maria Delgado, Sownak Bose, Rahul Kannan, Rüdiger Pakmor, Volker Springel, Sergio Contreras, Monica Barrera, Fulvio Ferlito, César Hernández-Aguayo, Simon D. M. White, Carlos Frenk
abstract Luminous red galaxies (LRGs) and blue star-forming emission-line galaxies (ELGs) are key tracers of large-scale structure used by cosmological surveys. Theoretical predictions for such data are often done via simplistic models for the galaxy-halo connection. In this work, we use the large, high-fidelity hydrodynamical simulation of the MillenniumTNG project (MTNG) to inform a new phenomenological approach for obtaining an accurate and flexible galaxy-halo model on small scales. Our aim is to study LRGs and ELGs at two distinct epochs, $z = 1$ and $z = 0$, and recover their clustering down to very small scales, $r \sim 0.1 \ {\rm Mpc}/h$, i.e. the one-halo regime, while a companion paper extends this to a two-halo model for larger distances. The occupation statistics of ELGs in MTNG inform us that: (1) the satellite occupations exhibit a slightly super-Poisson distribution, contrary to commonly made assumptions, and (2) that haloes containing at least one ELG satellite are twice as likely to host a central ELG. We propose simple recipes for modeling these effects, each of which calls for the addition of a single free parameter to simpler halo occupation models. To construct a reliable satellite population model, we explore the LRG and ELG satellite radial and velocity distributions and compare them with those of subhalos and particles in the simulation. We find that ELGs are anisotropically distributed within halos, which together with our occupation results provides strong evidence for cooperative galaxy formation (manifesting itself as one-halo galaxy conformity); i.e.~galaxies with similar properties form in close proximity to each other. Our refined galaxy-halo model represents a useful improvement of commonly used analysis tools and thus can be of help to increase the constraining power of large-scale structure surveys.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.10068
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21666600
title The MillenniumTNG Project: Semi-analytic galaxy formation models on the past lightcone
first_author Monica Barrera
author Monica Barrera, Volker Springel, Simon White, César Hernández-Aguayo, Lars Hernquist, Carlos Frenk, Rüdiger Pakmor, Fulvio Ferlito, Boryana Hadzhiyska, Ana Maria Delgado, Rahul Kannan, Sownak Bose
abstract Upcoming large galaxy surveys will subject the standard cosmological model, $\Lambda$CDM, to new precision tests. These can be tightened considerably if theoretical models of galaxy formation are available that can predict galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing on the full range of measurable scales throughout volumes as large as those of the surveys and with sufficient flexibility that uncertain aspects of the underlying astrophysics can be marginalised over. This, in particular, requires mock galaxy catalogues in large cosmological volumes that can be directly compared to observation, and can be optimised empirically by Monte Carlo Markov Chains or other similar schemes to eliminate or estimate astrophysical parameters related to galaxy formation when constraining cosmology. Semi-analytic galaxy formation methods implemented on top of cosmological dark matter simulations offer a computationally efficient approach to construct physically based and flexibly parametrised galaxy formation models, and as such they are more potent than still faster, but purely empirical models. Here we introduce an updated methodology for the semi-analytic L-GALAXIES code, allowing it to be applied to simulations of the new MillenniumTNG project, producing galaxies directly on fully continuous past lightcones, potentially over the full sky, out to high redshift, and for all galaxies more massive than $\sim 10^8\,{\rm M}_\odot$. We investigate the numerical convergence of the resulting predictions, and study the projected galaxy clustering signals of different samples. The new methodology can be viewed as an important step towards more faithful forward-modelling of observational data, helping to reduce systematic distortions in the comparison of theory to observations.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.10419
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21666235
title The MillenniumTNG Project: The hydrodynamical full physics simulation and a first look at its galaxy clusters
first_author Ruediger Pakmor
author Ruediger Pakmor, Volker Springel, Jonathan P. Coles, Thomas Guillet, Christoph Pfrommer, Sownak Bose, Monica Barrera, Ana Maria Delgado, Fulvio Ferlito, Carlos Frenk, Boryana Hadzhiyska, César Hernández-Aguayo, Lars Hernquist, Rahul Kannan, Simon D. M. White
abstract Cosmological simulations are an important theoretical pillar for understanding nonlinear structure formation in our Universe and for relating it to observations on large scales. In several papers, we introduce our MillenniumTNG (MTNG) project that provides a comprehensive set of high-resolution, large volume simulations of cosmic structure formation aiming to better understand physical processes on large scales and to help interpreting upcoming large-scale galaxy surveys. We here focus on the full physics box MTNG740 that computes a volume of $(740\,\mathrm{Mpc})^3$ with a baryonic mass resolution of $3.1\times~10^7\,\mathrm{M_\odot}$ using \textsc{arepo} with $80.6$~billion cells and the IllustrisTNG galaxy formation model. We verify that the galaxy properties produced by MTNG740 are consistent with the TNG simulations, including more recent observations. We focus on galaxy clusters and analyse cluster scaling relations and radial profiles. We show that both are broadly consistent with various observational constraints. We demonstrate that the SZ-signal on a deep lightcone is consistent with Planck limits. Finally, we compare MTNG740 clusters with galaxy clusters found in Planck and the SDSS-8 RedMaPPer richness catalogue in observational space, finding very good agreement as well. However, {\it simultaneously} matching cluster masses, richness, and Compton-$y$ requires us to assume that the SZ mass estimates for Planck clusters are underestimated by $0.2$~dex on average. Thanks to its unprecedented volume for a high-resolution hydrodynamical calculation, the MTNG740 simulation offers rich possibilities to study baryons in galaxies, galaxy clusters, and in large scale structure, and in particular their impact on upcoming large cosmological surveys.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.10060
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21666243
title The MillenniumTNG Project: The large-scale clustering of galaxies
first_author Sownak Bose
author Sownak Bose, Boryana Hadzhiyska, Monica Barrera, Ana Maria Delgado, Fulvio Ferlito, Carlos Frenk, César Hernández-Aguayo, Lars Hernquist, Rahul Kannan, Rüdiger Pakmor, Volker Springel, Simon D. M. White
abstract Modern redshift surveys are tasked with mapping out the galaxy distribution over enormous distance scales. Existing hydrodynamical simulations, however, do not reach the volumes needed to match upcoming surveys. We present results for the clustering of galaxies using a new, large volume hydrodynamical simulation as part of the MillenniumTNG (MTNG) project. With a computational volume that is $\approx15$ times larger than the next largest such simulation currently available, we show that MTNG is able to accurately reproduce the observed clustering of galaxies as a function of stellar mass. When separated by colour, there are some discrepancies with respect to the observed population, which can be attributed to the quenching of satellite galaxies in our model. We combine MTNG galaxies with those generated using a semi-analytic model to emulate the sample selection of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) and emission line galaxies (ELGs), and show that although the bias of these populations is approximately (but not exactly) constant on scales larger than $\approx10$ Mpc, there is significant scale-dependent bias on smaller scales. The amplitude of this effect varies between the two galaxy types, and also between the semi-analytic model and MTNG. We show that this is related to the distribution of haloes hosting LRGs and ELGs. Using mock SDSS-like catalogues generated on MTNG lightcones, we demonstrate the existence of prominent baryonic acoustic features in the large-scale galaxy clustering. We also demonstrate the presence of realistic redshift space distortions in our mocks, finding excellent agreement with the multipoles of the redshift-space clustering measured in SDSS data.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.10065
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21697079
title TOI-1468: A system of two transiting planets, a super-Earth and a mini-Neptune, on opposite sides of the radius valley
first_author P. Chaturvedi
author P. Chaturvedi, P. Bluhm, E. Nagel, A. P. Hatzes, G. Morello, M. Brady, J. Korth, K. Molaverdikhani, D. Kossakowski, J. A. Caballero, E. W. Guenther, E. Pallé, N. Espinoza, A. Seifahrt, N. Lodieu, C. Cifuentes, E. Furlan, P. J. Amado, T. Barclay, J. Bean, V. J. S. Béjar, G. Bergond, A. W. Boyle, D. Ciardi, K. A. Collins, K. I. Collins, E. Esparza-Borges, A. Fukui, C. L. Gnilka, R. Goeke, P. Guerra, Th. Henning, E. Herrero, S. B. Howell, S. V. Jeffers, J. M. Jenkins, E. L. N. Jensen, D. Kasper, T. Kodama, D. W. Latham, M. J. López-González, R. Luque, D. Montes, J. C. Morales, M. Mori, F. Murgas, N. Narita, G. Nowak, H. Parviainen, V. M. Passegger, A. Quirrenbach, S. Reffert, A. Reiners, I. Ribas, G. R. Ricker, E. Rodriguez, C. Rodríguez-López, M. Schlecker, R. P. Schwarz, A. Schweitzer, S. Seager, G. Stefánsson, C. Stockdale, L. Tal-Or, J. D. Twicken, S. Vanaverbeke, G. Wang, D. Watanabe, J. N. Winn, M. Zechmeister
abstract We report the discovery and characterization of two small transiting planets orbiting the bright M3.0V star TOI-1468 (LSPM J0106+1913), whose transit signals were detected in the photometric time series in three sectors of the TESS mission. We confirm the planetary nature of both of them using precise radial velocity measurements from the CARMENES and MAROON-X spectrographs, and supplement them with ground-based transit photometry. A joint analysis of all these data reveals that the shorter-period planet, TOI-1468 b (P<SUB>b</SUB> = 1.88 d), has a planetary mass of M<SUB>b</SUB> = 3.21 ± 0.24M<SUB>⊕</SUB> and a radius of R<SUB>b</SUB> = 1.280<SUB>−0.039</SUB><SUP>+0.038</SUP> R<SUB>⊕</SUB>, resulting in a density of ρ<SUB>b</SUB> = 8.39<SUB>−0.92</SUB><SUP>+1.05</SUP> g cm<SUP>−3</SUP>, which is consistent with a mostly rocky composition. For the outer planet, TOI-1468 c (P<SUB>c</SUB> = 15.53 d), we derive a mass of M<SUB>c</SUB> = 6.64<SUB>−0.68</SUB><SUP>+0.67</SUP> M<SUB>⊕</SUB>,aradius of R<SUB>c</SUB> = 2.06 ± 0.04 R<SUB>⊕</SUB>, and a bulk density of ρ<SUB>c</SUB> = 2.00<SUB>−0.19</SUB><SUP>+0.21</SUP> g cm<SUP>−3</SUP>, which corresponds to a rocky core composition with a H/He gas envelope. These planets are located on opposite sides of the radius valley, making our system an interesting discovery as there are only a handful of other systems with the same properties. This discovery can further help determine a more precise location of the radius valley for small planets around M dwarfs and, therefore, shed more light on planet formation and evolution scenarios. <P />Radial velocities and photometry are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/666/A155">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/666/A155</A>
journal Astronomy and Astrophysics
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume 666
publication_type article
eprint
pages 25
issue
doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202244056

source harvard
id 21681623
title Time-Delay Cosmography: Measuring the Hubble Constant and other cosmological parameters with strong gravitational lensing
first_author S. Birrer
author S. Birrer, M. Millon, D. Sluse, A. J. Shajib, F. Courbin, L. V. E. Koopmans, S. H. Suyu, T. Treu
abstract Multiply lensed sources experience a relative time delay in the arrival of photons. This effect can be used to measure absolute distances and the Hubble constant ($H_0$) and is known as time-delay cosmography. The methodology is independent of the local distance ladder and early-universe physics and provides a precise and competitive measurement of $H_0$. With upcoming observatories, time-delay cosmography can provide a 1% precision measurement of $H_0$ and can decisively shed light on the current reported 'Hubble tension'. This paper presents the theoretical background and the current techniques applied for time-delay cosmographic studies and the measurement of the Hubble constant. The paper describes the challenges and systematics in the different components of the analysis and strategies to mitigate them. The current measurements are discussed in context and the opportunities with the anticipated data sets in the future are laid out.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.10833
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21696915
title Super-sample covariance of the power spectrum, bispectrum, halos, voids, and their cross-covariances
first_author Adrian E. Bayer
author Adrian E. Bayer, Jia Liu, Ryo Terasawa, Alexandre Barreira, Yici Zhong, Yu Feng
abstract We study the effect of super-sample covariance (SSC) on the power spectrum and higher-order statistics: bispectrum, halo mass function, and void size function. We also investigate the effect of SSC on the cross-covariance between the statistics. We consider both the matter and halo fields. Higher-order statistics of the large-scale structure contain additional cosmological information beyond the power spectrum and are a powerful tool to constrain cosmology. They are a promising probe for ongoing and upcoming high precision cosmological surveys such as DESI, PFS, Rubin Observatory LSST, Euclid, SPHEREx, SKA, and Roman Space Telescope. Cosmological simulations used in modeling and validating these statistics often have sizes that are much smaller than the observed Universe. Density fluctuations on scales larger than the simulation box, known as super-sample modes, are not captured by the simulations and in turn can lead to inaccuracies in the covariance matrix. We compare the covariance measured using simulation boxes containing super-sample modes to those without. We also compare with the Separate Universe approach. We find that while the power spectrum, bispectrum and halo mass function show significant scale- or mass-dependent SSC, the void size function shows relatively small SSC. We also find significant SSC contributions to the cross-covariances between the different statistics, implying that future joint-analyses will need to carefully take into consideration the effect of SSC.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.15647
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21666241
title The MillenniumTNG Project: The galaxy population at $z\geq 8$
first_author Rahul Kannan
author Rahul Kannan, Volker Springel, Lars Hernquist, Rüdiger Pakmor, Ana Maria Delgado, Boryana Hadzhiyska, César Hernández-Aguayo, Monica Barrera, Fulvio Ferlito, Sownak Bose, Simon White, Carlos Frenk, Aaron Smith, Enrico Garaldi
abstract The early release science results from the $\textit{James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)}$ have yielded an unexpected abundance of high-redshift luminous galaxies that seems to be in tension with current theories of galaxy formation. However, it is currently difficult to draw definitive conclusions form these results as the sources have not yet been spectroscopically confirmed. It is in any case important to establish baseline predictions from current state-of-the-art galaxy formation models that can be compared and contrasted with these new measurements. In this work, we use the new large-volume ($L_\mathrm{box}\sim 740 \, \mathrm{cMpc}$) hydrodynamic simulation of the MillenniumTNG project to make predictions for the high-redshift ($z\gtrsim8$) galaxy population and compare them to recent $\textit{JWST}$ observations. We show that the simulated galaxy population is broadly consistent with observations until $z\sim10$. From $z\approx10-12$, the observations indicate a preference for a galaxy population that is largely dust-free, but is still consistent with the simulations. Beyond $z\gtrsim12$, however, our simulation results underpredict the abundance of luminous galaxies and their star-formation rates by almost an order of magnitude. This indicates either an incomplete understanding of the new $\textit{JWST}$ data or a need for more sophisticated galaxy formation models that account for additional physical processes such as Population~III stars, variable stellar initial mass functions, or even deviations from the standard $\Lambda$CDM model. We emphasise that any new process invoked to explain this tension should only significantly influence the galaxy population beyond $z\gtrsim10$, while leaving the successful galaxy formation predictions of the fiducial model intact below this redshift.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.10066
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21696762
title Interpreting molecular hydrogen and atomic oxygen line emission of T Tauri disks with photoevaporative disk-wind models
first_author Ch. Rab
author Ch. Rab, M. Weber, T. Grassi, B. Ercolano, G. Picogna, P. Caselli, W. -F. Thi, I. Kamp, P. Woitke
abstract Winds in protoplanetary disks play an important role in their evolution and dispersal. However, what physical process is driving the winds is still unclear (i.e. magnetically vs thermally driven), and can only be understood by directly confronting theoretical models with observational data. We use hydrodynamic photoevaporative disk-wind models and post-process them with a thermo-chemical model to produce synthetic observables for the o-H$_2$ at 2.12 micron and [OI] at 0.63 micron spectral lines and directly compare the results to a sample of observations. Our photoevaporative disk-wind model is consistent with the observed signatures of the blueshifted narrow low-velocity component (NLVC), which is usually associated with slow disk winds, for both tracers. Only for one out of seven targets that show blueshifted NLVCs does the photoevaporative model fail to explain the observed line kinematics. Our results also indicate that interpreting spectral line profiles by simple methods, such as the thin-disk approximation, to determine the line emitting region can yield misleading conclusions. The photoevaporative disk-wind models are largely consistent with the studied observational data set, but it is not possible to clearly discriminate between different wind-driving mechanisms. Further improvements to the models, such as consistent modelling of the dynamics and chemistry and detailed modelling of individual targets would be beneficial. Furthermore, a direct comparison of magnetically driven disk-wind models to the observational data set is necessary in order to determine whether or not spatially unresolved observations of multiple wind tracers are sufficient to discriminate between theoretical models.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2210.15486
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21533460
title Cosmological simulations with rare and frequent dark matter self-interactions
first_author Moritz S. Fischer
author Moritz S. Fischer, Marcus Brüggen, Kai Schmidt-Hoberg, Klaus Dolag, Felix Kahlhoefer, Antonio Ragagnin, Andrew Robertson
abstract Dark matter (DM) with self-interactions is a promising solution for the small-scale problems of the standard cosmological model. Here we perform the first cosmological simulation of frequent DM self-interactions, corresponding to small-angle DM scatterings. The focus of our analysis lies in finding and understanding differences to the traditionally assumed rare DM (large-angle) self-scatterings. For this purpose, we compute the distribution of DM densities, the matter power spectrum, the two-point correlation function, and the halo and subhalo mass functions. Furthermore, we investigate the density profiles of the DM haloes and their shapes. We find that overall large-angle and small-angle scatterings behave fairly similarly with a few exceptions. In particular, the number of satellites is considerably suppressed for frequent compared to rare self-interactions with the same cross-section. Overall, we observe that while differences between the two cases may be difficult to establish using a single measure, the degeneracy may be broken through a combination of multiple ones. For instance, the combination of satellite counts with halo density or shape profiles could allow discriminating between rare and frequent self-interactions. As a by-product of our analysis, we provide - for the first time - upper limits on the cross-section for frequent self-interactions.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume 516
publication_type article
eprint
pages 18
issue 2
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2207

source harvard
id 21533529
title Arp 58 and Arp 68: two M 51-type systems
first_author Anatoly V. Zasov
author Anatoly V. Zasov, Anna S. Saburova, Oleg V. Egorov, Vsevolod Yu Lander, Dmitry I. Makarov
abstract We study two M 51-type systems Arp 68 and Arp 58, which strongly differ by their stellar masses, gas content, and environment. Long-slit spectral observations obtained at the Russian 6-m telescope were used to trace the distributions of a line-of-sight (LOS) velocity and a gas-phase oxygen abundance along the spectral cuts. Two systems are compared by their observed properties. We found a very strong large-scale non-circular motion of gas in both systems and a kpc-size saw-edged velocity profile along the tidal spiral arm of Arp 68, probably caused by the gas outflow due to the stellar feedback. A deep decrease of LOS velocity is also found in the 'hinge' region in Arp 58, where the inner spiral arm transforms into the tidal spiral arm, which was predicted earlier for M 51-type galaxies. Local sites of star formation and the satellites are compared with the evolutionary models at the colour-colour diagrams. Unlike the spiral galaxy Arp 58, the main galaxy in Arp 68 system is experiencing an ongoing burst of star formation. Gas-phase metallicity estimates show that Arp 58 has a higher metal abundance and reveals a shallow negative radial gradient of the gas-phase oxygen abundance. The emission gas in Arp 68 has noticeably lower metallicity than it is expected for a given luminosity of this galaxy, which may be connected with its space position in the local void.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume 516
publication_type article
eprint
pages 12
issue 1
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2165

source harvard
id 21539593
title Convective mesoscale turbulence at very low Prandtl numbers
first_author Ambrish Pandey
author Ambrish Pandey, Dmitry Krasnov, Katepalli R. Sreenivasan, Jörg Schumacher
abstract Horizontally extended turbulent convection, termed mesoscale convection in natural systems, remains a challenge to investigate in both experiments and simulations. This is particularly so for very low molecular Prandtl numbers, such as occur in stellar convection and in the Earth's outer core. The present study reports three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection in square boxes of side length $L$ and height $H$ with the aspect ratio $\varGamma =L/H$ of 25, for Prandtl numbers that span almost 4 orders of magnitude, $10^{-3}\le Pr \le 7$ , and Rayleigh numbers $10^5 \le Ra \le 10^7$ , obtained by massively parallel computations on grids of up to $5.36\times 10^{11}$ points. The low end of this $Pr$ -range cannot be accessed in controlled laboratory measurements. We report the essential properties of the flow and their trends with the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers, in particular, the global transport of momentum and heat – the latter decomposed into convective and diffusive contributions – across the convection layer, mean vertical profiles of the temperature and temperature fluctuations and the kinetic energy and thermal dissipation rates. We also explore the degree to which the turbulence in the bulk of the convection layer resembles classical homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in terms of spectra, increment moments and dissipative anomaly, and find close similarities. Finally, we show that a characteristic scale of the order of the mesoscale seems to saturate to a wavelength of $\lambda \gtrsim 3H$ for $Pr\lesssim 0.005$ . We briefly discuss possible implications of these results for the development of subgrid-scale parameterization of turbulent convection.
journal Journal of Fluid Mechanics
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume 948
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1017/jfm.2022.694

source harvard
id 21431152
title Science Requirements and Detector Concepts for the Electron-Ion Collider. EIC Yellow Report
first_author R. Abdul Khalek
author R. Abdul Khalek, A. Accardi, J. Adam, D. Adamiak, W. Akers, M. Albaladejo, A. Al-bataineh, M. G. Alexeev, F. Ameli, P. Antonioli, N. Armesto, W. R. Armstrong, M. Arratia, J. Arrington, A. Asaturyan, M. Asai, E. C. Aschenauer, S. Aune, H. Avagyan, C. Ayerbe Gayoso, B. Azmoun, A. Bacchetta, M. D. Baker, F. Barbosa, L. Barion, K. N. Barish, P. C. Barry, M. Battaglieri, A. Bazilevsky, N. K. Behera, F. Benmokhtar, V. V. Berdnikov, J. C. Bernauer, V. Bertone, S. Bhattacharya, C. Bissolotti, D. Boer, M. Boglione, M. Bondì, P. Boora, I. Borsa, F. Bossù, G. Bozzi, J. D. Brandenburg, N. Brei, A. Bressan, W. K. Brooks, S. Bufalino, M. H. S. Bukhari, V. Burkert, N. H. Buttimore, A. Camsonne, A. Celentano, F. G. Celiberto, W. Chang, C. Chatterjee, K. Chen, T. Chetry, T. Chiarusi, Y. -T. Chien, M. Chiosso, X. Chu, E. Chudakov, G. Cicala, E. Cisbani, I. C. Cloet, C. Cocuzza, P. L. Cole, D. Colella, J. L. Collins, M. Constantinou, M. Contalbrigo, G. Contin, R. Corliss, W. Cosyn, A. Courtoy, J. Crafts, R. Cruz-Torres, R. C. Cuevas, U. D'Alesio, S. Dalla Torre, D. Das, S. S. Dasgupta, C. Da Silva, W. Deconinck, M. Defurne, W. DeGraw, K. Dehmelt, A. Del Dotto, F. Delcarro, A. Deshpande, W. Detmold, R. De Vita, M. Diefenthaler, C. Dilks, D. U. Dixit, S. Dulat, A. Dumitru, R. Dupré, J. M. Durham, M. G. Echevarria, L. El Fassi, D. Elia, R. Ent, R. Esha, J. J. Ethier, O. Evdokimov, K. O. Eyser, C. Fanelli, R. Fatemi, S. Fazio, C. Fernandez-Ramirez, M. Finger, M. Finger, D. Fitzgerald, C. Flore, T. Frederico, I. Friščić, S. Fucini, S. Furletov, Y. Furletova, C. Gal, L. Gamberg, H. Gao, P. Garg, D. Gaskell, K. Gates, M. B. Gay Ducati, M. Gericke, G. Gil Da Silveira, F. -X. Girod, D. I. Glazier, K. Gnanvo, V. P. Goncalves, L. Gonella, J. O. Gonzalez Hernandez, Y. Goto, F. Grancagnolo, L. C. Greiner, W. Guryn, V. Guzey, Y. Hatta, M. Hattawy, F. Hauenstein, X. He, T. K. Hemmick, O. Hen, G. Heyes, D. W. Higinbotham, A. N. Hiller Blin, T. J. Hobbs, M. Hohlmann, T. Horn, T. -J. Hou, J. Huang, Q. Huang, G. M. Huber, C. E. Hyde, G. Iakovidis, Y. Ilieva, B. V. Jacak, P. M. Jacobs, M. Jadhav, Z. Janoska, A. Jentsch, T. Jezo, X. Jing, P. G. Jones, K. Joo, S. Joosten, V. Kafka, N. Kalantarians, G. Kalicy, D. Kang, Z. B. Kang, K. Kauder, S. J. D. Kay, C. E. Keppel, J. Kim, A. Kiselev, M. Klasen, S. Klein, H. T. Klest, O. Korchak, A. Kostina, P. Kotko, Y. V. Kovchegov, M. Krelina, S. Kuleshov, S. Kumano, K. S. Kumar, R. Kumar, L. Kumar, K. Kumerički, A. Kusina, K. Kutak, Y. S. Lai, K. Lalwani, T. Lappi, J. Lauret, M. Lavinsky, D. Lawrence, D. Lednicky, C. Lee, K. Lee, S. H. Lee, S. Levorato, H. Li, S. Li, W. Li, X. Li, X. Li, W. B. Li, T. Ligonzo, H. Liu, M. X. Liu, X. Liu, S. Liuti, N. Liyanage, C. Lorcé, Z. Lu, G. Lucero, N. S. Lukow, E. Lunghi, R. Majka, Y. Makris, I. Mandjavidze, S. Mantry, H. Mäntysaari, F. Marhauser, P. Markowitz, L. Marsicano, A. Mastroserio, V. Mathieu, Y. Mehtar-Tani, W. Melnitchouk, L. Mendez, A. Metz, Z. -E. Meziani, C. Mezrag, M. Mihovilovič, R. Milner, M. Mirazita, H. Mkrtchyan, A. Mkrtchyan, V. Mochalov, V. Moiseev, M. M. Mondal, A. Morreale, D. Morrison, L. Motyka, H. Moutarde, C. Muñoz Camacho, F. Murgia, M. J. Murray, P. Musico, P. Nadel-Turonski, P. M. Nadolsky, J. Nam, P. R. Newman, D. Neyret, D. Nguyen, E. R. Nocera, F. Noferini, F. Noto, A. S. Nunes, V. A. Okorokov, F. Olness, J. D. Osborn, B. S. Page, S. Park, A. Parker, K. Paschke, B. Pasquini, H. Paukkunen, S. Paul, C. Pecar, I. L. Pegg, C. Pellegrino, C. Peng, L. Pentchev, R. Perrino, F. Petriello, R. Petti, A. Pilloni, C. Pinkenburg, B. Pire, C. Pisano, D. Pitonyak, A. A. Poblaguev, T. Polakovic, M. Posik, M. Potekhin, R. Preghenella, S. Preins, A. Prokudin, P. Pujahari, M. L. Purschke, J. R. Pybus, M. Radici, R. Rajput-Ghoshal, P. E. Reimer, M. Rinaldi, F. Ringer, C. D. Roberts, S. Rodini, J. Rojo, D. Romanov, P. Rossi, E. Santopinto, M. Sarsour, R. Sassot, N. Sato, B. Schenke, W. B. Schmidke, I. Schmidt, A. Schmidt, B. Schmookler, G. Schnell, P. Schweitzer, J. Schwiening, I. Scimemi, S. Scopetta, J. Segovia, R. Seidl, S. Sekula, K. Semenov-Tian-Shanskiy, D. Y. Shao, N. Sherrill, E. Sichtermann, M. Siddikov, A. Signori, B. K. Singh, S. Širca, K. Slifer, W. Slominski, D. Sokhan, W. E. Sondheim, Y. Song, O. Soto, H. Spiesberger, A. M. Stasto, P. Stepanov, G. Sterman, J. R. Stevens, I. W. Stewart, I. Strakovsky, M. Strikman, M. Sturm, M. L. Stutzman, M. Sullivan, B. Surrow, P. Svihra, S. Syritsyn, A. Szczepaniak, P. Sznajder, H. Szumila-Vance, L. Szymanowski, A. S. Tadepalli, J. D. Tapia Takaki, G. F. Tassielli, J. Terry, F. Tessarotto, K. Tezgin, L. Tomasek, F. Torales Acosta, P. Tribedy, A. Tricoli, Triloki, S. Tripathi, R. L. Trotta, O. D. Tsai, Z. Tu, C. Tuvè, T. Ullrich, M. Ungaro, G. M. Urciuoli, A. Valentini, P. Vancura, M. Vandenbroucke, C. Van Hulse, G. Varner, R. Venugopalan, I. Vitev, A. Vladimirov, G. Volpe, A. Vossen, E. Voutier, J. Wagner, S. Wallon, H. Wang, Q. Wang, X. Wang, S. Y. Wei, C. Weiss, T. Wenaus, H. Wennlöf, N. Wickramaarachchi, A. Wikramanayake, D. Winney, C. P. Wong, C. Woody, L. Xia, B. W. Xiao, J. Xie, H. Xing, Q. H. Xu, J. Zhang, S. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Z. W. Zhao, Y. X. Zhao, L. Zheng, Y. Zhou, P. Zurita
abstract This report describes the physics case, the resulting detector requirements, and the evolving detector concepts for the experimental program at the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC). The EIC will be a powerful new high-luminosity facility in the United States with the capability to collide high-energy electron beams with high-energy proton and ion beams, providing access to those regions in the nucleon and nuclei where their structure is dominated by gluons. Moreover, polarized beams in the EIC will give unprecedented access to the spatial and spin structure of the proton, neutron, and light ions. The studies leading to this document were commissioned and organized by the EIC User Group with the objective of advancing the state and detail of the physics program and developing detector concepts that meet the emerging requirements in preparation for the realization of the EIC. The effort aims to provide the basis for further development of concepts for experimental equipment best suited for the science needs, including the importance of two complementary detectors and interaction regions. <P />This report consists of three volumes. Volume I is an executive summary of our findings and developed concepts. In Volume II we describe studies of a wide range of physics measurements and the emerging requirements on detector acceptance and performance. Volume III discusses general-purpose detector concepts and the underlying technologies to meet the physics requirements. These considerations will form the basis for a world-class experimental program that aims to increase our understanding of the fundamental structure of all visible matter.
journal Nuclear Physics A
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume 1026
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2022.122447

source harvard
id 21491576
title Milky Way-like galaxies: stellar population properties of dynamically defined discs, bulges and stellar haloes
first_author Sara Ortega-Martinez
author Sara Ortega-Martinez, Aura Obreja, Rosa Dominguez-Tenreiro, Susana E. Pedrosa, Yetli Rosas-Guevara, Patricia B. Tissera
abstract The formation of galaxies can be understood in terms of the assembly patterns of each type of galactic component. To perform this kind of analysis, it is necessary to define some criteria to separate those components. Decomposition methods based on dynamical properties are more physically motivated than photometry-based ones. We use the unsupervised Gaussian Mixture model of galactic structure finder to extract the components of a sub-sample of galaxies with Milky Way-like masses from the EAGLE simulations. A clustering in the space of first- and second-order dynamical moments of all identified substructures reveals five types of galaxy components: thin and thick discs, stellar haloes, bulges and spheroids. We analyse the dynamical, morphological and stellar population (SP) properties of these five component types, exploring to what extent these properties correlate with each other, and how much they depend on the total galaxy stellar and dark matter halo masses. All galaxies contain a bulge, a stellar halo and a disc. In total, 60 per cent of objects host two discs (thin and thick), and 68 per cent host also a spheroid. The dynamical disc-to-total ratio does not depend on stellar mass, but the median rotational velocities of the two discs do. Thin discs are well separated in stellar ages, [Fe/H] and α-enhancement from the three dispersion-dominated components, while thick discs are in between. Except for thin discs, all components show correlations among their SP properties: older ages mean lower metallicities and larger α-enhancement. Finally, we quantify the weak dependence of SP properties on each component's dynamics.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume 516
publication_type article
eprint
pages 19
issue 1
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2033

source harvard
id 21491681
title External or internal companion exciting the spiral arms in CQ Tau?
first_author Iain Hammond
author Iain Hammond, Valentin Christiaens, Daniel J. Price, Maria Giulia Ubeira-Gabellini, Jennifer Baird, Josh Calcino, Myriam Benisty, Giuseppe Lodato, Leonardo Testi, Christophe Pinte, Claudia Toci, Davide Fedele
abstract We present new high-contrast images in near-infrared wavelengths (λ<SUB>c</SUB> = 1.04, 1.24, 1.62, 2.18, and 3.78 μm) of the young variable star CQ Tau, aiming to constrain the presence of companions in the protoplanetary disc. We reached a Ks-band contrast of 14 mag with SPHERE/IRDIS at separations greater than 0${_{.}^{\prime\prime}}$4 from the star. Our mass sensitivity curve rules out giant planets above 4 M<SUB>Jup</SUB> immediately outside the spiral arms at ~60 au and above 2-3 M<SUB>Jup</SUB> beyond 100 au to 5σ confidence assuming hot-start models. We do, however, detect four spiral arms, a double-arc and evidence for shadows in scattered light cast by a misaligned inner disc. Our observations may be explained by an unseen close-in companion on an inclined and eccentric orbit. Such a hypothesis would also account for the disc CO cavity and disturbed kinematics.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 10
volume 515
publication_type article
eprint
pages 13
issue 4
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2119

source harvard
id 21367476
title Beyond-mean-field approaches for nuclear neutrinoless double beta decay in the standard mechanism
first_author J. M. Yao
author J. M. Yao, J. Meng, Y. F. Niu, P. Ring
abstract Nuclear weak decays provide important probes to fundamental symmetries in nature. A precise description of these processes in atomic nuclei requires comprehensive knowledge on both the strong and weak interactions in the nuclear medium and on the dynamics of quantum many-body systems. In particular, an observation of the hypothetical double beta decay without emission of neutrinos (0 νββ) would unambiguously demonstrate the Majorana nature of neutrinos and the existence of the lepton-number-violation process. It would also provide unique information on the ordering and absolute scale of neutrino masses. The next-generation tonne-scale experiments with sensitivity up to 10<SUP>28</SUP> years after a few years of running will probably provide a definite answer to these fundamental questions based on our current knowledge on the nuclear matrix element (NME), the precise determination of which is a challenge to nuclear theory. Beyond-mean-field approaches have been frequently adapted for the study of nuclear structure and decay throughout the nuclear chart for several decades. In this review, we summarize the status of beyond-mean-field calculations of the NMEs of 0 νββ decay assuming the standard mechanism of an exchange of light Majorana neutrinos. The challenges and prospects in the extension and application of beyond-mean-field approaches for 0 νββ decay are discussed.
journal Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume 126
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1016/j.ppnp.2022.103965

source harvard
id 21560664
title Strong Supernova 1987A Constraints on Bosons Decaying to Neutrinos
first_author Damiano F. G. Fiorillo
author Damiano F. G. Fiorillo, Georg G. Raffelt, Edoardo Vitagliano
abstract Majoron-like bosons would emerge from a supernova (SN) core by neutrino coalescence of the form $\nu\nu\to\phi$ and $\bar\nu\bar\nu\to\phi$ with 100 MeV-range energies. Subsequent decays to (anti)neutrinos of all flavors provide a flux component with energies much larger than the usual flux from the "neutrino sphere." The absence of 100 MeV-range events in the Kamiokande II and IMB signal of SN 1987A implies that $\lesssim0.03$ of the total energy was thus emitted and provides the strongest constraint on the majoron-neutrino coupling of $g\lesssim 10^{-9}\,{\rm MeV}/m_\phi$ for $100~{\rm eV}\lesssim m_\phi\lesssim100~{\rm MeV}$. It is straightforward to extend our new argument to other hypothetical feebly interacting particles.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.11773
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21643268
title A multi-simulation study of relativistic SZ temperature scalings in galaxy clusters and groups
first_author Elizabeth Lee
author Elizabeth Lee, Dhayaa Anbajagane, Priyanka Singh, Jens Chluba, Daisuke Nagai, Scott T. Kay, Weiguang Cui, Klaus Dolag, Gustavo Yepes
abstract The Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect is a powerful tool in modern cosmology. With future observations promising ever improving SZ measurements, the relativistic corrections to the SZ signals from galaxy groups and clusters are increasingly relevant. As such, it is important to understand the differences between three temperature measures: (a) the average relativistic SZ (rSZ) temperature, (b) the mass-weighted temperature relevant for the thermal SZ (tSZ) effect, and (c) the X-ray spectroscopic temperature. In this work, we compare these cluster temperatures, as predicted by the BAHAMAS &amp; MACSIS, ILLUSTRISTNG, MAGNETICUM, and THE THREE HUNDRED PROJECT simulations. Despite the wide range of simulation parameters, we find the SZ temperatures are consistent across the simulations. We estimate a $\simeq 10{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ level correction from rSZ to clusters with Y ≃ 10<SUP>-4</SUP> Mpc<SUP>-2</SUP>. Our analysis confirms a systematic offset between the three temperature measures; with the rSZ temperature $\simeq 20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ larger than the other measures, and diverging further at higher redshifts. We demonstrate that these measures depart from simple self-similar evolution and explore how they vary with the defined radius of haloes. We investigate how different feedback prescriptions and resolutions affect the observed temperatures, and discover the SZ temperatures are rather insensitive to these details. The agreement between simulations indicates an exciting avenue for observational and theoretical exploration, determining the extent of relativistic SZ corrections. We provide multiple simulation-based fits to the scaling relations for use in future SZ modelling.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2781

source harvard
id 21560024
title Neutrino Fast Flavor Pendulum. Part 2: Collisional Damping
first_author Ian Padilla-Gay
author Ian Padilla-Gay, Irene Tamborra, Georg G. Raffelt
abstract In compact astrophysical objects, the neutrino density can be so high that neutrino-neutrino refraction can lead to fast flavor conversion of the kind $\nu_e \bar\nu_e \leftrightarrow \nu_x \bar\nu_x$ with $x=\mu,\tau$, depending on the neutrino angle distribution. Previously, we have shown that in a homogeneous, axisymmetric two-flavor system, these collective solutions evolve in analogy to a gyroscopic pendulum. In flavor space, its deviation from the weak-interaction direction is quantified by a variable $\cos\vartheta$ that moves between $+1$ and $\cos\vartheta_{\rm min}$, the latter following from a linear mode analysis. As a next step, we include collisional damping of flavor coherence, assuming a common damping rate $\Gamma$ for all modes. Empirically we find that the damped pendular motion reaches an asymptotic level of pair conversion $f=A+(1-A)\cos\vartheta_{\rm min}$ (numerically $A\simeq 0.370$) that does not depend on details of the angular distribution (except for fixing $\cos\vartheta_{\rm min}$), the initial seed, nor $\Gamma$. On the other hand, even a small asymmetry between the neutrino and antineutrino damping rates strongly changes this picture and can even enable flavor instabilities in otherwise stable systems. Furthermore, we establish a formal connection with a stationary and inhomogeneous neutrino ensemble, showing that our findings also apply to this system.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.11235
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21637922
title Vacuum stability and scalar masses in the superweak extension of the standard model
first_author Zoltán Péli
author Zoltán Péli, Zoltán Trócsányi
abstract We study the allowed parameter space of the scalar sector in the superweak extension of the standard model (SM). The allowed region is defined by the following conditions: (i) stability of the vacuum, (ii) perturbativity up to the Planck scale, and (iii) the pole mass of the Higgs boson falling into its experimentally measured range. We employ renormalization group equations and quantum corrections at two-loop accuracy. We study the dependence on the Yukawa couplings of the sterile neutrinos at selected values. We also check the exclusion limit set by the precise measurement of the mass of the W boson. Our method for constraining the parameter space using two-loop predictions can also be applied to simpler models such as the singlet scalar extension of the SM in a straightforward way.
journal Physical Review D
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume 106
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 5
doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.106.055045

source harvard
id 21614380
title Effective field theory of Stückelberg vector bosons
first_author Graham D. Kribs
author Graham D. Kribs, Gabriel Lee, Adam Martin
abstract We explore the effective field theory of a vector field X<SUP>μ</SUP> that has a Stückelberg mass. The absence of a gauge symmetry for X<SUP>μ</SUP> implies Lorentz-invariant operators are constructed directly from X<SUP>μ</SUP>. Beyond the kinetic and mass terms, allowed interactions at the renormalizable level include X<SUB>μ</SUB>X<SUP>μ</SUP>H<SUP>†</SUP>H , (X<SUB>μ</SUB>X<SUP>μ</SUP>)<SUP>2</SUP>, and X<SUB>μ</SUB>j<SUP>μ</SUP>, where j<SUP>μ</SUP> is a global current of the SM or of a hidden sector. We show that all of these interactions lead to scattering amplitudes that grow with powers of √{s }/m<SUB>X</SUB>, except for the case of X<SUB>μ</SUB>j<SUP>μ</SUP> where j<SUP>μ</SUP> is a nonanomalous global current. The latter is well known when X is identified as a dark photon coupled to the electromagnetic current, often written equivalently as kinetic mixing between X and the photon. The power counting for the energy growth of the scattering amplitudes is facilitated by isolating the longitudinal enhancement. We examine in detail the interaction with an anomalous global vector current X<SUB>μ</SUB>j<SUB>anom</SUB><SUP>μ</SUP>, carefully isolating the finite contribution to the fermion triangle diagram. We calculate the longitudinally-enhanced observables Z →X γ (when m<SUB>X</SUB>&lt;m<SUB>Z</SUB>), f f ¯→X γ , and Z γ →Z γ when X couples to the baryon number current. Introducing a "fake" gauge-invariance by writing X<SUP>μ</SUP>=A<SUP>μ</SUP>-∂<SUP>μ</SUP>π /m<SUB>X</SUB>, the would-be gauge anomaly associated with A<SUB>μ</SUB>j<SUB>anom</SUB><SUP>μ</SUP> is canceled by j<SUB>anom</SUB><SUP>μ</SUP>∂<SUB>μ</SUB>π /m<SUB>X</SUB>; this is the four-dimensional Green-Schwarz anomaly-cancellation mechanism at work. Our analysis demonstrates there is a much larger set of possible interactions that an EFT with a Stückelberg vector field can have, revealing scattering amplitudes that grow with energy. The growth of these amplitudes can be tamed by a dark Higgs sector, but this requires dark Higgs boson interactions (and reintroduces fine-tuning in the dark Higgs sector) that can be separated from X interactions only in the limit g ≪1 .
journal Physical Review D
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume 106
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 5
doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.106.055020

source harvard
id 21562074
title The metallicity and distance of NGC 2403 from blue supergiants
first_author Fabio Bresolin
author Fabio Bresolin, Rolf-Peter Kudritzki, Miguel A. Urbaneja
abstract We present the first quantitative spectral analysis of blue supergiant stars in the nearby galaxy NGC 2403. Out of a sample of 47 targets observed with the LRIS spectrograph at the Keck I telescope we have extracted 16 B- and A-type supergiants for which we have data of sufficient quality to carry out a comparison with model spectra of evolved massive stars and infer the stellar parameters. The radial metallicity gradient of NGC 2403 that we derive has a slope of -0.14 (+/- 0.05) dex/r_e, and is in accordance with the analysis of H II region oxygen abundances. We present evidence that the stellar metallicities that we obtain in extragalactic systems in general agree with the nebular abundances based on the analysis of the auroral lines, over more than one order of magnitude in metallicity. Adopting the known relation between stellar parameters and intrinsic luminosity we find a distance modulus m-M = 27.38 +/- 0.08 mag. While this can be brought into agreement with Cepheid-based determinations, it is 0.14 mag short of the value measured from the tip of the red giant branch. We update the mass-metallicity relation secured from chemical abundance studies of stars in resolved star-forming galaxies.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.13135
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21562511
title Probing Axions via Light Circular Polarization and Event Horizon Telescope
first_author Soroush Shakeri
author Soroush Shakeri, Fazlollah Hajkarim
abstract The impact of axion-like particles on the light polarization around the horizon of suppermassive black hole (SMBH) is discussed in the light of the latest polarization measurement of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). We investigate different sources of the polarization due to axion interaction with photons and the magnetic field of SMBH. These can modify the linear and circular polarization parameters of the emitted light. We have shown that a significant circular polarization can be produced via the photon scattering from the background magnetic field with axions as off-shell particles. This can further constrain the parameter space of ultralight axion-like particles and their couplings with photons. The future precise measurements of circular polarization can probe the features of ultralight axions in the near vicinity of SMBH.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.13572
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21637861
title Revisiting constraints on WIMPs around primordial black holes
first_author Estanis Utrilla Ginés
author Estanis Utrilla Ginés, Olga Mena, Samuel J. Witte
abstract While primordial black holes (PBHs) with masses M<SUB>PBH</SUB>≳10<SUP>-11</SUP> M<SUB>⊙</SUB> cannot comprise the entirety of dark matter, the existence of even a small population of these objects can have profound astrophysical consequences. A subdominant population of PBHs will efficiently accrete dark matter particles before matter-radiation equality, giving rise to high-density dark matter spikes. We consider here the scenario in which dark matter is comprised primarily of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with a small subdominant contribution coming from PBHs, and revisit the constraints on the annihilation of WIMPs in these spikes using observations of the isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB), for a range of WIMP masses, annihilation channels, cross sections, and PBH mass functions. We find that the constraints derived using the IGRB have been significantly overestimated (in some cases by many orders of magnitude), and that limits obtained using observations of the CMB are typically stronger than, or comparable to, those coming from the IGRB. Importantly, we show that ∼O (M<SUB>⊙</SUB>) PBHs can still contribute significantly to the dark matter density for sufficiently low WIMP masses and p-wave annihilation cross sections.
journal Physical Review D
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume 106
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 6
doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.106.063538

source harvard
id 21558228
title A detailed analysis of the Gl 486 planetary system
first_author J. A. Caballero
author J. A. Caballero, E. González-Álvarez, M. Brady, T. Trifonov, T. G. Ellis, C. Dorn, C. Cifuentes, K. Molaverdikhani, J. L. Bean, T. Boyajian, E. Rodríguez, J. Sanz-Forcada, M. R. Zapatero Osorio, C. Abia, P. J. Amado, N. Anugu, V. J. S. Béjar, C. L. Davies, S. Dreizler, F. Dubois, J. Ennis, N. Espinoza, C. D. Farrington, A. García López, T. Gardner, A. P. Hatzes, Th. Henning, E. Herrero, E. Herrero-Cisneros, A. Kaminski, D. Kasper, R. Klement, S. Kraus, A. Labdon, C. Lanthermann, J. -B. Le Bouquin, M. J. López González, R. Luque, A. W. Mann, E. Marfil, J. D. Monnier, D. Montes, J. C. Morales, E. Pallé, S. Pedraz, A. Quirrenbach, S. Reffert, A. Reiners, I. Ribas, C. Rodríguez-López, G. Schaefer, A. Schweitzer, A. Seifahrt, B. R. Setterholm, Y. Shan, D. Shulyak, E. Solano, K. R. Sreenivas, G. Stefánsson, J. Stürmer, H. M. Tabernero, L. Tal-Or, T. ten Brummelaar, S. Vanaverbeke, K. von Braun, A. Youngblood, M. Zechmeister
abstract Context. The Gl 486 system consists of a very nearby, relatively bright, weakly active M3.5 V star at just 8 pc with a warm transiting rocky planet of about 1.3 R<SUB>⊕</SUB> and 3.0 M<SUB>⊕</SUB>. It is ideal for both transmission and emission spectroscopy and for testing interior models of telluric planets. <BR /> Aims: To prepare for future studies, we aim to thoroughly characterise the planetary system with new accurate and precise data collected with state-of-the-art photometers from space and spectrometers and interferometers from the ground. <BR /> Methods: We collected light curves of seven new transits observed with the CHEOPS space mission and new radial velocities obtained with MAROON-X at the 8.1 m Gemini North telescope and CARMENES at the 3.5 m Calar Alto telescope, together with previously published spectroscopic and photometric data from the two spectrographs and TESS. We also performed near-infrared interferometric observations with the CHARA Array and new photometric monitoring with a suite of smaller telescopes (AstroLAB, LCOGT, OSN, TJO). This extraordinary and rich data set was the input for our comprehensive analysis. <BR /> Results: From interferometry, we measure a limb-darkened disc angular size of the star Gl 486 at θ<SUB>LDD</SUB> = 0.390 ± 0.018 mas. Together with a corrected Gaia EDR3 parallax, we obtain a stellar radius R<SUB>*</SUB> = 0.339 ± 0.015 R<SUB>⊕</SUB>. We also measure a stellar rotation period at P<SUB>rot</SUB> = 49.9 ± 5.5 days, an upper limit to its XUV (5-920 A) flux informed by new Hubble/STIS data, and, for the first time, a variety of element abundances (Fe, Mg, Si, V, Sr, Zr, Rb) and C/O ratio. Moreover, we imposed restrictive constraints on the presence of additional components, either stellar or sub-stellar, in the system. With the input stellar parameters and the radial-velocity and transit data, we determine the radius and mass of the planet Gl 486 b at R<SUB>p</SUB> = 1.343<SUB>−0.062</SUB><SUP>+0.063</SUP> R<SUB>⊕</SUB> and M<SUB>p</SUB> = 3.00<SUB>−0.12</SUB><SUP>+0.13</SUP> M<SUB>⊕</SUB>, with relative uncertainties of the planet radius and mass of 4.7% and 4.2%, respectively. From the planet parameters and the stellar element abundances, we infer the most probable models of planet internal structure and composition, which are consistent with a relatively small metallic core with respect to the Earth, a deep silicate mantle, and a thin volatile upper layer. With all these ingredients, we outline prospects for Gl 486 b atmospheric studies, especially with forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope (Webb) observations.
journal Astronomy and Astrophysics
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume 665
publication_type article
eprint
pages 41
issue
doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202243548

source harvard
id 21541842
title Improved constraints on cosmic birefringence from the WMAP and Planck cosmic microwave background polarization data
first_author Johannes R. Eskilt
author Johannes R. Eskilt, Eiichiro Komatsu
abstract The observed pattern of linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background photons is a sensitive probe of physics violating parity symmetry under inversion of spatial coordinates. A new parity-violating interaction might have rotated the plane of linear polarization by an angle β as the cosmic microwave background photons have been traveling for more than 13 billion years. This effect is known as "cosmic birefringence." In this paper, we present new measurements of cosmic birefringence from a joint analysis of polarization data from two space missions, P l a n c k and WMAP. This dataset covers a wide range of frequencies from 23 to 353 GHz. We measure β =0.342 °<SUB>-0.091</SUB><SUP>° +0.094 °</SUP> [68% confidence level (CL)] for nearly full-sky data, which excludes β =0 at 99.987% CL. This corresponds to the statistical significance of 3.6 σ . There is no evidence for frequency dependence of β . We find a similar result, albeit with a larger uncertainty, when removing the Galactic plane from the analysis.
journal Physical Review D
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume 106
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 6
doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.106.063503

source harvard
id 21536535
title New constraints on the dark matter-neutrino and dark matter-photon scattering cross sections from TXS 0506+056
first_author Francesc Ferrer
author Francesc Ferrer, Gonzalo Herrera, Alejandro Ibarra
abstract The flux of high energy neutrinos and photons produced in a blazar could get attenuated when they propagate through the dark matter spike around the central black hole and the halo of the host galaxy. Using the observation by IceCube of a few high-energy neutrino events from TXS 0506+056, and their coincident gamma ray events, we obtain new constraints on the dark matter-neutrino and dark matter-photon scattering cross sections. Our constraints are orders of magnitude more stringent than those derived from considering the attenuation through the intergalactic medium and the Milky Way dark matter halo. When the cross-section increases with energy, our constraints are also stronger than those derived from the CMB and large-scale structure.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.06339
pages
issue
doi

source inspirehep
id 2156003
title On the Sensitivity of Halo Shape Measurements
first_author Fischer, Moritz S.
author Moritz S. Fischer, Lucas M. Valenzuela
abstract Shape measurements of galaxies and galaxy clusters are widespread in the analysis of cosmological simulations. But the limitations of those measurements have been poorly investigated. In this paper, we explain why the quality of the shape measurement does not only depend on the numerical resolution, but also on the density gradient. In particular, this can limit the quality of measurements in the central regions of haloes. We propose a criterion to estimate the sensitivity of the measured shapes based on the density gradient of the halo and apply it to cosmological simulations of collisionless and self-interacting dark matter. By this, we demonstrate where reliable measurements of the halo shape are possible and how cored density profiles limit their applicability.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type
eprint 2209.11244
pages
issue
doi

source inspirehep
id 2154439
title Dark Energy Survey Year 3 results: Magnification modeling and impact on cosmological constraints from galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing
first_author Elvin-Poole, J.
author J. Elvin-Poole, N. MacCrann, S. Everett, J. Prat, E.S. Rykoff, J. De Vicente, B. Yanny, K. Herner, A. Ferté, E. Di Valentino, A. Choi, D.L. Burke, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, A. Alarcon, O. Alves, A. Amon, F. Andrade-Oliveira, E. Baxter, K. Bechtol, M.R. Becker, G.M. Bernstein, J. Blazek, H. Camacho, A. Campos, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, R. Cawthon, C. Chang, R. Chen, J. Cordero, M. Crocce, C. Davis, J. DeRose, H.T. Diehl, S. Dodelson, C. Doux, A. Drlica-Wagner, K. Eckert, T.F. Eifler, F. Elsner, X. Fang, P. Fosalba, O. Friedrich, M. Gatti, G. Giannini, D. Gruen, R.A. Gruendl, I. Harrison, W.G. Hartley, H. Huang, E.M. Huff, D. Huterer, E. Krause, N. Kuropatkin, P.-F. Leget, P. Lemos, A.R. Liddle, J. McCullough, J. Muir, J. Myles, A. Navarro-Alsina, S. Pandey, Y. Park, A. Porredon, M. Raveri, M. Rodriguez-Monroy, R.P. Rollins, A. Roodman, R. Rosenfeld, A.J. Ross, C. Sánchez, J. Sanchez, L.F. Secco, E. Sheldon, T. Shin, M.A. Troxel, I. Tutusaus, T.N. Varga, N. Weaverdyck, R.H. Wechsler, B. Yin, Y. Zhang, J. Zuntz, M. Aguena, S. Avila, D. Bacon, E. Bertin, S. Bocquet, D. Brooks, J. García-Bellido, K. Honscheid, M. Jarvis, T.S. Li, J. Mena-Fernández, C. To, R.D. Wilkinson
abstract We study the effect of magnification in the Dark Energy Survey Year 3 analysis of galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing, using two different lens samples: a sample of Luminous red galaxies, redMaGiC, and a sample with a redshift-dependent magnitude limit, MagLim. We account for the effect of magnification on both the flux and size selection of galaxies, accounting for systematic effects using the Balrog image simulations. We estimate the impact of magnification on the galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing cosmology analysis, finding it to be a significant systematic for the MagLim sample. We show cosmological constraints from the galaxy clustering auto-correlation and galaxy-galaxy lensing signal with different magnifications priors, finding broad consistency in cosmological parameters in $\Lambda$CDM and $w$CDM. However, when magnification bias amplitude is allowed to be free, we find the two-point correlations functions prefer a different amplitude to the fiducial input derived from the image simulations. We validate the magnification analysis by comparing the cross-clustering between lens bins with the prediction from the baseline analysis, which uses only the auto-correlation of the lens bins, indicating systematics other than magnification may be the cause of the discrepancy. We show adding the cross-clustering between lens redshift bins to the fit significantly improves the constraints on lens magnification parameters and allows uninformative priors to be used on magnification coefficients, without any loss of constraining power or prior volume concerns.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type
eprint 2209.09782
pages
issue
doi

source inspirehep
id 2149139
title Spectra of Puffy Accretion Discs: the kynbb Fit
first_author Lančová, Debora
author Debora Lančová, Anastasiya Yilmaz, Maciek Wielgus, Michal Dovčiak, Odele Straub, Gabriel Török
abstract Puffy disc is a numerical model, expected to capture the properties of the accretion flow in X-ray black hole binaries in the luminous, mildly sub-Eddington state. We fit the kerrbb and kynbb spectral models in XSPEC to synthetic spectra of puffy accretion discs, obtained in general relativistic radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations, to see if they correctly recover the black hole spin and mass accretion rate assumed in the numerical simulation. We conclude that neither of the two models is capable of correctly interpreting the puffy disc parameters, which highlights a necessity to develop new, more accurate, spectral models for the luminous regime of accretion in X-ray black hole binaries. We propose that such spectral models should be based on the results of numerical simulations of accretion.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type
eprint 2209.03713
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21435909
title Simulating radio synchrotron emission in star-forming galaxies: small-scale magnetic dynamo and the origin of the far-infrared-radio correlation
first_author Christoph Pfrommer
author Christoph Pfrommer, Maria Werhahn, Rüdiger Pakmor, Philipp Girichidis, Christine M. Simpson
abstract In star-forming galaxies, the far-infrared (FIR) and radio-continuum luminosities obey a tight empirical relation over a large range of star-formation rates (SFR). To understand the physics, we examine magnetohydrodynamic galaxy simulations, which follow the genesis of cosmic ray (CR) protons at supernovae and their advective and anisotropic diffusive transport. We show that gravitational collapse of the proto-galaxy generates a corrugated accretion shock, which injects turbulence and drives a small-scale magnetic dynamo. As the shock propagates outwards and the associated turbulence decays, the large velocity shear between the supersonically rotating cool disc with respect to the (partially) pressure-supported hot circumgalactic medium excites Kelvin-Helmholtz surface and body modes. Those interact non-linearly, inject additional turbulence and continuously drive multiple small-scale dynamos, which exponentially amplify weak seed magnetic fields. After saturation at small scales, they grow in scale to reach equipartition with thermal and CR energies in Milky Way-mass galaxies. In small galaxies, the magnetic energy saturates at the turbulent energy while it fails to reach equipartition with thermal and CR energies. We solve for steady-state spectra of CR protons, secondary electrons/positrons from hadronic CR-proton interactions with the interstellar medium, and primary shock-accelerated electrons at supernovae. The radio-synchrotron emission is dominated by primary electrons, irradiates the magnetized disc and bulge of our simulated Milky Way-mass galaxy and weakly traces bubble-shaped magnetically loaded outflows. Our star-forming and star-bursting galaxies with saturated magnetic fields match the global FIR-radio correlation (FRC) across four orders of magnitude. Its intrinsic scatter arises due to (i) different magnetic saturation levels that result from different seed magnetic fields, (ii) different radio synchrotron luminosities for different specific SFRs at fixed SFR, and (iii) a varying radio intensity with galactic inclination. In agreement with observations, several 100-pc-sized regions within star-forming galaxies also obey the FRC, while the centres of starbursts substantially exceed the FRC.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume 515
publication_type article
eprint
pages 36
issue 3
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1808

source harvard
id 21491731
title Response approach to the integrated shear 3-point correlation function: the impact of baryonic effects on small scales
first_author Anik Halder
author Anik Halder, Alexandre Barreira
abstract The integrated shear 3-point correlation function ζ<SUB>±</SUB> is a higher-order statistic of the cosmic shear field that describes the modulation of the 2-point correlation function ξ<SUB>±</SUB> by long-wavelength features in the field. Here, we introduce a new theoretical model to calculate ζ<SUB>±</SUB> that is accurate on small angular scales, and that allows to take baryonic feedback effects into account. Our model builds on the realization that the small-scale ζ<SUB>±</SUB> is dominated by the non-linear matter bispectrum in the squeezed limit, which can be evaluated accurately using the non-linear matter power spectrum and its first-order response functions to density and tidal field perturbations. We demonstrate the accuracy of our model by showing that it reproduces the small-scale ζ<SUB>±</SUB> measured in simulated cosmic shear maps. The impact of baryonic feedback enters effectively only through the corresponding impact on the non-linear matter power spectrum, thereby permitting to account for these astrophysical effects on ζ<SUB>±</SUB> similarly to how they are currently accounted for on ξ<SUB>±</SUB>. Using a simple idealized Fisher matrix forecast for a DES-like survey we find that, compared to ξ<SUB>±</SUB>, a combined $\xi _{\pm }\ \&amp;\ \zeta _{\pm }$ analysis can lead to improvements of order $20\!-\!40{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ on the constraints of cosmological parameters such as σ<SUB>8</SUB> or the dark energy equation of state parameter w<SUB>0</SUB>. We find similar levels of improvement on the constraints of the baryonic feedback parameters, which strengthens the prospects for cosmic shear data to obtain tight constraints not only on cosmology but also on astrophysical feedback models. These encouraging results motivate future works on the integrated shear 3-point correlation function towards applications to real survey data.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume 515
publication_type article
eprint
pages 16
issue 3
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2046

source harvard
id 21416508
title Dust evolution with MUPPI in cosmological volumes
first_author Massimiliano Parente
author Massimiliano Parente, Cinthia Ragone-Figueroa, Gian Luigi Granato, Stefano Borgani, Giuseppe Murante, Milena Valentini, Alessandro Bressan, Andrea Lapi
abstract We study the evolution of dust in a cosmological volume using a hydrodynamical simulation in which the dust production is coupled with the MUPPI (MUlti Phase Particle Integrator) sub-resolution model of star formation and feedback. As for the latter, we keep as reference the model setup calibrated previously to match the general properties of Milky Way-like galaxies in zoom-in simulations. However, we suggest that an increase of the star formation efficiency with the local dust-to-gas ratio would better reproduce the observed evolution of the cosmic star formation density. Moreover, the paucity of quenched galaxies at low redshift demands a stronger role of active galactic nucleus feedback. We tune the parameters ruling direct dust production from evolved stars and accretion in the interstellar medium to get scaling relations involving dust, stellar mass and metallicity in good agreement with observations. In low-mass galaxies, the accretion process is inefficient. As a consequence, they remain poorer in silicate and small grains than higher mass ones. We reproduce reasonably well the few available data on the radial distribution of dust outside the galactic region, supporting the assumption that the dust and gas dynamics are well coupled at galactic scales.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume 515
publication_type article
eprint
pages 19
issue 2
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1913

source harvard
id 21509623
title Machine Learning Post-Minkowskian Integrals
first_author Ryusuke Jinno
author Ryusuke Jinno, Gregor Kälin, Zhengwen Liu, Henrique Rubira
abstract We study a neural network framework for the numerical evaluation of Feynman loop integrals that are fundamental building blocks for perturbative computations of physical observables in gauge and gravity theories. We show that such a machine learning approach improves the convergence of the Monte Carlo algorithm for high-precision evaluation of multi-dimensional integrals compared to traditional algorithms. In particular, we use a neural network to improve the importance sampling. For a set of representative integrals appearing in the computation of the conservative dynamics for a compact binary system in General Relativity, we perform a quantitative comparison between the Monte Carlo integrators VEGAS and i-flow, an integrator based on neural network sampling.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.01091
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21509648
title Anomalous collective dynamics of auto-chemotactic populations
first_author Jasper van der Kolk
author Jasper van der Kolk, Florian Rasshofer, Richard Swiderski, Astik Haldar, Abhik Basu, Erwin Frey
abstract While the role of local interactions in nonequilibrium phase transitions is well studied, a fundamental understanding of the effects of long-range interactions is lacking. We study the critical dynamics of reproducing agents subject to auto-chemotactic interactions and limited resources. A renormalization group analysis reveals distinct scaling regimes for fast (attractive or repulsive) interactions; for slow signal transduction the dynamics is dominated by a diffusive fixed point. Further, we present a novel nonlinear mechanism that stabilizes the continuous transition against the emergence of a characteristic length scale due to a chemotactic collapse.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.01047
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21510875
title Disk Evolution Study Through Imaging of Nearby Young Stars (DESTINYS): Scattered light detection of a possible disk wind in RY Tau
first_author P. -G. Valegård
author P. -G. Valegård, C. Ginski, C. Dominik, J. Bae, M. Benisty, T. Birnstiel, S. Facchini, A. Garufi, M. Hogerheijde, R. G. van Holstein, M. Langlois, C. F. Manara, P. Pinilla, Ch. Rab, Á. Ribas, L. B. F. M. Waters, J. Williams
abstract Disk winds are an important mechanism for accretion and disk evolution around young stars. The accreting intermediate-mass T-Tauri star RY Tau has an active jet and a previously known disk wind. Archival optical and new near-infrared observations of the RY Tau system show two horn-like components stretching out as a cone from RY Tau. Scattered light from the disk around RY Tau is visible in near-infrared but not seen at optical wavelengths. In the near-infrared, dark wedges that separates the horns from the disk, indicating we may see the scattered light from a disk wind. We use archived ALMA and SPHERE/ZIMPOL I-band observations combined with newly acquired SPEHRE/IRDIS H-band observations and available literature to build a simple geometric model of the RY Tau disk and disk wind. We use Monte Carlo radiative transfer modelling \textit{MCMax3D} to create comparable synthetic observations that test the effect of a dusty wind on the optical effect in the observations. We constrain the grain size and dust mass needed in the disk wind to reproduce the effect from the observations. A model geometrically reminiscent of a dusty disk wind with small micron to sub-micron size grains elevated above the disk can reproduce the optical effect seen in the observations. The mass in the obscuring component of the wind has been constrained to $1\times10^{-9} M_{\odot} \leq M \leq 5\times10^{-8} M_{\odot}$ which corresponds to a lower limit mass loss rate in the wind of about $\sim 1\times10^{-8}M_{\odot}\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$. While an illuminate dust cavity cannot be ruled out without measurements of the gas velocity, we argue that a magnetically launched disk wind is the most likely scenario.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.01969
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21510123
title Suppressing variance in 21-cm signal simulations during reionization
first_author Sambit K. Giri
author Sambit K. Giri, Aurel Schneider, Francisco Maion, Raul E. Angulo
abstract Current best limits on the 21-cm signal during reionization are provided at large scales ($\gtrsim$100 Mpc). To model these scales, enormous simulation volumes are required which are computationally expensive. We find that the primary source of uncertainty at these large scales is sample variance, which decides the minimum size of simulations required to analyse current and upcoming observations. In large-scale structure simulations, the method of `fixing' the initial conditions (ICs) to exactly follow the initial power spectrum and `pairing' two simulations with exactly out-of-phase ICs has been shown to significantly reduce sample variance. Here we apply this `fixing and pairing' (F\&amp;P) approach to reionization simulations whose clustering signal originates from both density fluctuations and reionization bubbles. Using a semi-numerical code, we show that with the traditional method, simulation boxes of $L\simeq 500$ (300) Mpc are required to model the large-scale clustering signal at $k$=0.1 Mpc$^{-1}$ with a precision of 5 (10) per cent. Using F\&amp;P, the simulation boxes can be reduced by a factor of 2 to obtain the same precision level. We conclude that the computing costs can be reduced by at least a factor of 4 when using the F\&amp;P approach.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.01225
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21512050
title TDCOSMO XI. Automated Modeling of 9 Strongly Lensed Quasars and Comparison Between Lens Modeling Software
first_author S. Ertl
author S. Ertl, S. Schuldt, S. H. Suyu, T. Schmidt, T. Treu, S. Birrer, A. J. Shajib, D. Sluse
abstract To use strong gravitational lenses as an astrophysical or cosmological probe, models of their mass distributions are often needed. We present a new, time-efficient automation code for uniform modeling of strongly lensed quasars with GLEE, a lens modeling software, for high-resolution multi-band data. By using the observed positions of the lensed quasars and the spatially extended surface brightness distribution of the lensed quasar host galaxy, we obtain a model of the mass distribution of the lens galaxy. We apply this uniform modeling pipeline to a sample of nine strongly lensed quasars with HST WFC 3 images. The models show in most cases well reconstructed light components and a good alignment between mass and light centroids. We find that the automated modeling code significantly reduces the user input time during the modeling process. The preparation time of required input files is reduced significantly. This automated modeling pipeline can efficiently produce uniform models of extensive lens system samples which can be used for further cosmological analysis. A blind test through a comparison with the results of an independent automated modeling pipeline based on the modeling software Lenstronomy reveals important lessons. Quantities such as Einstein radius, astrometry, mass flattening and position angle are generally robustly determined. Other quantities depend crucially on the quality of the data and the accuracy of the PSF reconstruction. Better data and/or more detailed analysis will be necessary to elevate our automated models to cosmography grade. Nevertheless, our pipeline enables the quick selection of lenses for follow-up monitoring and further modeling, significantly speeding up the construction of cosmography-grade models. This is an important step forward to take advantage of the orders of magnitude increase in the number of lenses expected in the coming decade.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.03094
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21655177
title Improved theory predictions and global analysis of exclusive b → sμ<SUP>+</SUP>μ<SUP>−</SUP> processes
first_author Nico Gubernari
author Nico Gubernari, Méril Reboud, Danny van Dyk, Javier Virto
abstract We provide improved Standard Model theory predictions for the exclusive rare semimuonic processes B → K<SUP>(*)</SUP>μ<SUP>+</SUP>μ<SUP>−</SUP> and B<SUB>s</SUB> → ϕμ<SUP>+</SUP>μ<SUP>−</SUP>. Our results are based on a novel parametrization of the non-local form factors, which manifestly respects a recently developed dispersive bound. We critically compare our predictions to those obtained in the framework of QCD factorization. Our predictions provide, for the first time, parametric estimates of the systematic uncertainties due to non-local contributions. Comparing our predictions within the Standard Model to available experimental data, we find a large tension for B → Kμ<SUP>+</SUP>μ<SUP>−</SUP>. A simple model-independent analysis of potential effects beyond the Standard Model yields results compatible with other approaches, albeit with larger uncertainties for the B → K<SUP>*</SUP>μ<SUP>+</SUP>μ<SUP>−</SUP> and B<SUB>s</SUB> → ϕμ<SUP>+</SUP>μ<SUP>−</SUP> decays. Our approach yields systematically improvable predictions, and we look forward to its application in further analyses beyond the Standard Model.
journal Journal of High Energy Physics
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume 2022
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 9
doi 10.1007/JHEP09(2022)133

source harvard
id 21653646
title A low-threshold diamond cryogenic detector for sub-GeV dark matter searches
first_author A. H. Abdelhameed
author A. H. Abdelhameed, G. Angloher, A. Bento, E. Bertoldo, A. Bertolini, L. Canonica, N. Ferreiro Iachellini, D. Fuchs, A. Garai, D. Hauff, A. Nilima, M. Mancuso, F. Petricca, F. Pröbst, F. Pucci, J. Rothe
abstract In this work we report the realization of the first low-threshold cryogenic detector that uses diamond as absorber for astroparticle physics applications. We tested two 0.175 g CVD diamond samples, each instrumented with a W-TES. The sensors showed transitions at about 25 mK. We present the performance of the diamond detectors and we highlight the best performing one, where we obtained an energy threshold as low as 16.8 eV. This promising result lays the foundation for the use of diamond for different fields of applications where low threshold and excellent energy resolution are required, as i.e. light dark matter searches and BSM physics with coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering.
journal European Physical Journal C
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume 82
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 9
doi 10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-10829-5

source harvard
id 21505283
title Characterizing the 3D Kinematics of Young Stars in the Radcliffe Wave
first_author Alan J. Tu
author Alan J. Tu, Catherine Zucker, Joshua S. Speagle, Angus Beane, Alyssa Goodman, João Alves, Jacqueline Faherty, Andreas Burkert
abstract We present an analysis of the kinematics of the Radcliffe Wave, a 2.7 kpc long sinusoidal band of molecular clouds in the solar neighborhood recently detected via 3D dust mapping. With Gaia DR2 astrometry and spectroscopy, we analyze the 3D space velocities of ~1500 young stars along the Radcliffe Wave in action-angle space, using the motion of the wave's newly born stars as a proxy for its gas motion. We find that the vertical angle of young stars-corresponding to their orbital phase perpendicular to the Galactic plane-varies significantly as a function of position along the structure, in a pattern potentially consistent with a wavelike oscillation. This kind of oscillation is not seen in a control sample of older stars from Gaia occupying the same volume, disfavoring formation channels caused by long-lived physical processes. We use a "wavy midplane" model to try to account for the trend in vertical angles seen in young stars, and find that while the best-fit parameters for the wave's spatial period and amplitude are qualitatively consistent with the existing morphology defined by 3D dust, there is no evidence for additional velocity structure. These results support more recent and/or transitory processes in the formation of the Radcliffe Wave, which would primarily affect the motion of the wave's gaseous material. Comparisons of our results with new and upcoming simulations, in conjunction with new stellar radial velocity measurements in Gaia DR3, should allow us to further discriminate between various competing hypotheses.
journal The Astrophysical Journal
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume 936
publication_type article
eprint
pages 17
issue 1
doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac82f0

source harvard
id 21533980
title Standard Model Predictions for Rare K and B Decays without New Physics Infection
first_author Andrzej J. Buras
author Andrzej J. Buras
abstract The Standard Model (SM) does not contain by definition any new physics (NP) contributions to any observable but contains four CKM parameters which are not predicted by this model. We point out that if these four parameters are determined in a global fit that includes processes which are infected by NP, the resulting SM contributions to rare decay branching ratios cannot be considered as true SM contributions to the latter. On the other hand true SM predictions, that are free from the CKM dependence, can be obtained for suitable ratios of the $K$ and $B$ rare decay branching ratios to $\Delta M_s$, $\Delta M_d$ and $|\varepsilon_K|$, all calculated within the SM. These three observables contain by now only small hadronic uncertainties and are already well measured so that rather precise true SM predictions for the ratios in question can be obtained. In this context the rapid test of NP infection in the $\Delta F=2$ sector is provided by a $|V_{cb}|-\gamma$ plot that involves $\Delta M_s$, $\Delta M_d$, $|\varepsilon_K|$, and the mixing induced CP-asymmetry $S_{\psi K_S}$. As with the present hadronic matrix elements this test turns out to be negative, assuming negligible NP infection in the $\Delta F=2$ sector and setting the values of these four observables to the experimental ones, allows to obtain SM predictions for all $K$ and $B$ rare decay branching ratios that are most accurate to date and as a byproduct to obtain the full CKM matrix on the basis of $\Delta F=2$ transitions alone. Using this strategy we obtain SM predictions for 26 branching ratios for rare semileptonic and leptonic $K$ and $B$ decays with the $\mu^+\mu^-$ pair or the $\nu\bar\nu$ pair in the final state. Most interesting turn out to be the anomalies in the low $q^2$ bin in $B^+\to K^+\mu^+\mu^-$ ($5.1\sigma$) and $B_s\to \phi\mu^+\mu^-$ ($4.8\sigma$).
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.03968
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21533977
title Full-shape BOSS constraints on dark matter interacting with dark radiation and lifting the $S_8$ tension
first_author Henrique Rubira
author Henrique Rubira, Asmaa Mazoun, Mathias Garny
abstract In this work we derive constraints on interacting dark matter-dark radiation models from a full-shape analysis of BOSS-DR12 galaxy clustering data, combined with Planck legacy cosmic microwave background (CMB) and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements. We consider a set of models parameterized within the effective theory of structure formation (ETHOS), quantifying the lifting of the $S_8$ tension in view of KiDS weak-lensing results. The most favorable scenarios point to a fraction $f\sim 10-100\%$ of interacting dark matter as well as a dark radiation temperature that is smaller by a factor $\xi\sim 0.1-0.15$ compared to the CMB, leading to a reduction of the tension to the $\sim 1\sigma$ level. The temperature dependence of the interaction rate favored by relaxing the $S_8$ tension is realized for a weakly coupled unbroken non-Abelian $SU(N)$ gauge interaction in the dark sector. To map our results onto this $SU(N)$ model, we compute higher-order corrections due to Debye screening. We find a lower bound $\alpha_d\equiv g_d^2/(4\pi)\gtrsim 10^{-8} (10^{-9})$ for dark matter mass $1000 (1)$ GeV for relaxing the $S_8$ tension, consistent with upper bounds from galaxy ellipticities and compatible with self-interactions relevant for small-scale structure formation.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.03974
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21534372
title Higgsless simulations of cosmological phase transitions and gravitational waves
first_author Ryusuke Jinno
author Ryusuke Jinno, Thomas Konstandin, Henrique Rubira, Isak Stomberg
abstract First-order cosmological phase transitions in the early Universe source sound waves and, subsequently, a background of stochastic gravitational waves. Currently, predictions of these gravitational waves rely heavily on simulations of a Higgs field coupled to the plasma of the early Universe, the former providing the latent heat of the phase transition. Numerically, this is a rather demanding task since several length scales enter the dynamics. From smallest to largest, these are the thickness of the Higgs interface separating the different phases, the shell thickness of the sound waves, and the average bubble size. In this work, we present an approach to perform Higgsless simulations in three dimensions, producing fully nonlinear results, while at the same time removing the hierarchically smallest scale from the lattice. This significantly reduces the complexity of the problem and contributes to making our approach highly efficient. We provide spectra for the produced gravitational waves for various choices of wall velocity and strength of the phase transition, as well as introduce a fitting function for the spectral shape.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.04369
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21505200
title Galaxies in the central regions of simulated galaxy clusters
first_author Antonio Ragagnin
author Antonio Ragagnin, Massimo Meneghetti, Luigi Bassini, Cinthia Ragone-Figueroa, Gian Luigi Granato, Giulia Despali, Carlo Giocoli, Giovanni Granata, Lauro Moscardini, Pietro Bergamini, Elena Rasia, Milena Valentini, Stefano Borgani, Francesco Calura, Klaus Dolag, Claudio Grillo, Amata Mercurio, Giuseppe Murante, Priyamvada Natarajan, Piero Rosati, Giuliano Taffoni, Luca Tornatore, Luca Tortorelli
abstract Context. Recent observations found that observed cluster member galaxies are more compact than their counterparts in ΛCDM hydrodynamic simulations, as indicated by the difference in their strong gravitational lensing properties, and they reported that measured and simulated galaxy-galaxy strong lensing events on small scales are discrepant by one order of magnitude. Among the possible explanations for this discrepancy, some studies suggest that simulations with better resolution and implementing different schemes for galaxy formation could produce simulations that are in better agreement with the observations. <BR /> Aims: In this work, we aim to assess the impact of numerical resolution and of the implementation of energy input from AGN feedback models on the inner structure of cluster sub-haloes in hydrodynamic simulations. <BR /> Methods: We compared several zoom-in re-simulations of a sub-sample of cluster-sized haloes obtained by varying mass resolution and softening the length and AGN energy feedback scheme. We studied the impact of these different setups on the sub-halo (SH) abundances, their radial distribution, their density and mass profiles, and the relation between the maximum circular velocity, which is a proxy for SH compactness <BR /> Results: Regardless of the adopted numerical resolution and feedback model, SHs with masses of M<SUB>SH</SUB> ≲ 10<SUP>11</SUP> h<SUP>−1</SUP> M<SUB>⊙</SUB>, the most relevant mass range for galaxy-galaxy strong lensing, have maximum circular velocities ∼30% smaller than those measured from strong lensing observations. We also find that simulations with less effective AGN energy feedback produce massive SHs (M<SUB>SH</SUB> ≳ 10<SUP>11</SUP> h<SUP>−1</SUP> M<SUB>⊙</SUB>) with higher maximum circular velocity and that their V<SUB>max</SUB> − M<SUB>SH</SUB> relation approaches the observed one. However, the stellar-mass number count of these objects exceeds the one found in observations, and we find that the compactness of these simulated SHs is the result of an extremely over-efficient star formation in their cores, also leading to larger than observed SH stellar mass. <BR /> Conclusions: Regardless of the resolution and galaxy formation model adopted, simulations are unable to simultaneously reproduce the observed stellar masses and compactness (or maximum circular velocities) of cluster galaxies. Thus, the discrepancy between theory and observations that emerged previous works. It remains an open question as to whether such a discrepancy reflects limitations of the current implementation of galaxy formation models or the ΛCDM paradigm.
journal Astronomy and Astrophysics
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume 665
publication_type article
eprint
pages 11
issue
doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202243651

source harvard
id 21536761
title New constraints on the up-quark valence distribution in the proton
first_author Ritu Aggarwal
author Ritu Aggarwal, Michiel Botje, Allen Caldwell, Francesca Capel, Oliver Schulz
abstract The high-$x$ data from the ZEUS Collaboration are used to extract parton density distributions of the proton deep in the perturbative regime of QCD. The data primarily constrain the up-quark valence distribution and new results are presented on its $x$-dependence as well as on the momentum carried by the up-quark. The results were obtained using Bayesian analysis methods which can serve as a model for future parton density extractions.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.06571
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21532367
title LYRA III: The smallest Reionization survivors
first_author Thales A. Gutcke
author Thales A. Gutcke, Christoph Pfrommer, Greg L. Bryan, Rüdiger Pakmor, Volker Springel, Thorsten Naab
abstract The dividing line between galaxies that are quenched by reionization ("relics") and galaxies that survive reionization (i.e. continue forming stars) is commonly discussed in terms of a halo mass threshold. We probe this threshold in a physically more complete and accurate way than has been possible to date, using five extremely high resolution ($M_\mathrm{target}=4M_\odot$) cosmological zoom-in simulations of dwarf galaxies within the halo mass range $1-4\times10^9M_\odot$. The employed LYRA simulation model features resolved interstellar medium physics and individual, resolved supernova explosions. In our results, we discover an interesting intermediate population of dwarf galaxies close to the threshold mass but which are neither full reionization relics nor full reionization survivors. These galaxies initially quench at the time of reionization but merely remain quiescent for ~500Myr. At $z\approx5$ they recommence star formation in a synchronous way, and remain star-forming until the present day. These results demonstrate that the halo mass at $z=0$ is not a good indicator of survival close to the threshold. While the star formation histories we find are diverse, we show that they are directly related to the ability of a given halo to retain and cool gas. Whereas the latter is most strongly dependent on the mass (or virial temperature) of the host halo at the time of reionization, it also depends on its growth history, the UV background (and its decrease at late times) and the amount of metals retained within the halo.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.03366
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21543444
title Assembly bias in the local PNG halo bias and its implication for $f_{\rm NL}$ constraints
first_author Titouan Lazeyras
author Titouan Lazeyras, Alexandre Barreira, Fabian Schmidt, Vincent Desjacques
abstract We use $N$-body simulations to study halo assembly bias (i.e., the dependence of halo clustering on properties beyond total mass) in the density and primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) linear bias parameters $b_1$ and $b_\phi$, respectively. We consider concentration, spin and sphericity as secondary halo properties, for which we find a clear detection of assembly bias for $b_1$ and $b_\phi$. At fixed total mass, halo spin and sphericity impact $b_1$ and $b_\phi$ in a similar manner, roughly preserving the shape of the linear $b_\phi(b_1)$ relation satisfied by the global halo population. Halo concentration, however, drives $b_1$ and $b_\phi$ in opposite directions. This induces significant changes to the $b_\phi(b_1)$ relation, with higher concentration halos having higher amplitude of $b_\phi(b_1)$. For $z=0.5$ and $b_1 \approx 2$ in particular, the population comprising either all halos, those with the $33\%$ lowest or those with the $33\%$ highest concentrations have a PNG bias of $b_\phi \approx 3$, $b_\phi \approx -1$ and $b_\phi \approx 9$, respectively. Varying the halo concentration can make $b_\phi$ very small and even change its sign. These results have important ramifications for galaxy clustering constraints of the local PNG parameter $f_{\rm NL}$ that assume fixed forms for the $b_\phi(b_1)$ relation. We illustrate the significant impact of halo assembly bias in actual data using the BOSS DR12 galaxy power spectrum: assuming that BOSS galaxies are representative of all halos, the $33\%$ lowest or the $33\%$ highest concentration halos yields $\sigma_{f_{\rm NL}} = 44, 165, 19$, respectively. Our results suggest taking host halo concentration into account in galaxy selection strategies to maximize the signal-to-noise on $f_{\rm NL}$. They also motivate more simulation-based efforts to study the $b_\phi(b_1)$ relation of halos and galaxies.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.07251
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21539773
title Operation of an Archaeological Lead PbWO<SUB>4</SUB> Crystal to Search for Neutrinos from Astrophysical Sources with a Transition Edge Sensor
first_author N. Ferreiro Iachellini
author N. Ferreiro Iachellini, L. Pattavina, A. H. Abdelhameed, A. Bento, L. Canonica, F. Danevich, O. M. Dubovik, D. Fuchs, A. Garai, M. Mancuso, F. Petricca, I. A. Tupitsyna
abstract The experimental detection of the CEν NS allows the investigation of neutrinos and neutrino sources with all-flavor sensitivity. Given its large content in neutrons and stability, Pb is a very appealing choice as target element. The presence of the radioisotope 21<SUP>0</SUP>Pb (T1<SUB>/2</SUB>∼ 22 yrs) makes natural Pb unsuitable for low-background, low-energy event searches. This limitation can be overcome employing Pb of archaeological origin, where several half-lives of 21<SUP>0</SUP>Pb have gone by. We present results of a cryogenic measurement of a 15 g PbWO<SUB>4</SUB> crystal, grown with archaeological Pb (older than ∼2000 yrs) that achieved a sub-keV nuclear recoil detection threshold. A ton-scale experiment employing such material, with a detection threshold for nuclear recoils of just 1 keV would probe the entire Milky Way for SuperNovae, with equal sensitivity for all neutrino flavors, allowing the study of the core of such exceptional events.
journal Journal of Low Temperature Physics
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1007/s10909-022-02823-8

source harvard
id 21556536
title The Hateful Eight: Connecting Massive Substructures in Galaxy Clusters like Abell 2744 to their Dynamical Assembly State using the Magneticum Simulations
first_author Lucas C. Kimmig
author Lucas C. Kimmig, Rhea-Silvia Remus, Klaus Dolag, Veronica Biffi
abstract Substructures are known to be good tracers for the dynamical states and recent accretion histories of the most massive collapsed structures in the Universe, galaxy clusters. Observations find extremely massive substructures in some clusters, especially Abell 2744, which are potentially in tension with the $\Lambda$CDM paradigm since they are not found in simulations directly. However, the methods to measure substructure masses strongly differ between observations and simulations. Using the fully hydrodynamical cosmological simulation suite Magneticum Pathfinder we develop a method to measure substructure masses in projection from simulations, similar to the observational approach. We identify a simulated Abell 2744 counterpart that not only has eight substructures of similar mass fractions but also exhibits similar features in the hot gas component. This cluster formed only recently through a major merger together with at least 6 massive minor merger events since z=1, where prior the most massive component had a mass of less than $1\times10^{14}M_\odot$. We show that the mass fraction of all substructures and of the eighth substructure separately are excellent tracers for the dynamical state and assembly history for all galaxy cluster mass ranges, with high fractions indicating merger events within the last 2Gyr. Finally, we demonstrate that the differences between subhalo masses measured directly from simulations as bound and those measured in projection are due to methodology, with the latter generally 2-3 times larger than the former. We provide a predictor function to estimate projected substructure masses from SubFind masses for future comparison studies between simulations and observations.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.09916
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21533569
title Clash of Titans: a MUSE dynamical study of the extreme cluster merger SPT-CL J0307-6225
first_author D. Hernández-Lang
author D. Hernández-Lang, A. Zenteno, A. Diaz-Ocampo, H. Cuevas, J. Clancy, P. H. Prado, F. Aldás, D. Pallero, R. Monteiro-Oliveira, F. A. Gómez, Amelia Ramirez, J. Wynter, E. R. Carrasco, G. K. T. Hau, B. Stalder, M. McDonald, M. Bayliss, B. Floyd, G. Garmire, A. Katzenberger, K. J. Kim, M. Klein, G. Mahler, J. L. Nilo Castellon, A. Saro, T. Somboonpanyakul
abstract We present MUSE spectroscopy, Megacam imaging, and Chandra X-ray emission for SPT-CL J0307-6225, a z=0.58 major merging galaxy cluster with a large BCG-SZ centroid separation and a highly disturbed X-ray morphology. The galaxy density distribution shows two main overdensities with separations of 0.144 and 0.017 arcmin to their respective BCGs. We characterize the central regions of the two colliding structures, namely 0307-6225N and 0307-6225S, finding velocity derived masses of M<SUB>200, N</SUB> = 2.44 ± 1.41 × 10<SUP>14</SUP> M<SUB>⊙</SUB> and M<SUB>200, S</SUB> = 3.16 ± 1.88 × 10<SUP>14</SUP> M<SUB>⊙</SUB>, with a line-of-sight velocity difference of |Δv| = 342 km s<SUP>-1</SUP>. The total dynamically derived mass is consistent with the SZ derived mass of 7.63 h$_{70}^{-1}$ ± 1.36 × 10<SUP>14</SUP> M<SUB>⊙</SUB>. We model the merger using the Monte Carlo Merger Analysis Code, estimating a merging angle of 36$^{+14}_{-12}$ degrees with respect to the plane of the sky. Comparing with simulations of a merging system with a mass ratio of 1:3, we find that the best scenario is that of an ongoing merger that began 0.96$^{+0.31}_{-0.18}$ Gyr ago. We also characterize the galaxy population using Hδ and [OII] λ3727 Å lines. We find that most of the emission-line galaxies belong to 0307-6225S, close to the X-ray peak position, with a third of them corresponding to red-cluster sequence galaxies, and the rest to blue galaxies with velocities consistent with recent periods of accretion. Moreover, we suggest that 0307-6225S suffered a previous merger, evidenced through the two equally bright BCGs at the center with a velocity difference of ~674 km s<SUP>-1</SUP>.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2480

source harvard
id 21543041
title The SATIN project I: Turbulent multi-phase ISM in Milky Way simulations with SNe feedback from stellar clusters
first_author Rebekka Bieri
author Rebekka Bieri, Thorsten Naab, Sam Geen, Jonathan P. Coles, Rüdiger Pakmor, Stefanie Walch
abstract We introduce the star formation and Supernova (SN) feedback model of the SATIN (Simulating AGNs Through ISM with Non-Equilibrium Effects) project to simulate the evolution of the star forming multi-phase interstellar medium (ISM) of entire disk galaxies. This galaxy-wide implementation of a successful ISM feedback model naturally covers an order of magnitude in gas surface density, shear and radial motions. It is implemented in the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES at a peak resolution of 9 pc. New stars are represented by star cluster (sink) particles with individual SN delay times for massive stars. With SN feedback, cooling and gravity, the galactic ISM develops a realistic three-phase structure. The star formation rates naturally follow observed scaling relations for the local Milky Way gas surface density. SNe drive additional turbulence in the warm (300 K &lt; $T$ &lt; 10$^4$ K) gas and increase the kinetic energy of the cold gas, cooling out of the warm phase. The majority of the gas leaving the galactic ISM is warm and hot with mass loading factors of $3 \le \eta \le 10$. While the hot gas is leaving the system, the warm and cold gas falls back onto the disc in a galactic fountain flow.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.06842
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21560032
title On the Sensitivity of Halo Shape Measurements
first_author Moritz S. Fischer
author Moritz S. Fischer, Lucas M. Valenzuela
abstract Shape measurements of galaxies and galaxy clusters are widespread in the analysis of cosmological simulations. But the limitations of those measurements have been poorly investigated. In this paper, we explain why the quality of the shape measurement does not only depend on the numerical resolution, but also on the density gradient. In particular, this can limit the quality of measurements in the central regions of haloes. We propose a criterion to estimate the sensitivity of the measured shapes based on the density gradient of the halo and apply it to cosmological simulations of collisionless and self-interacting dark matter. By this, we demonstrate where reliable measurements of the halo shape are possible and how cored density profiles limit their applicability.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.11244
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21559786
title Parameterisations of thermal bomb explosions for core-collapse supernovae and 56Ni production
first_author Liliya Imasheva
author Liliya Imasheva, H. -Thomas Janka, Achim Weiss
abstract Thermal bombs are a widely used method to artificially trigger explosions of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) to determine their nucleosynthesis or ejecta and remnant properties. Recently, their use in spherically symmetric (1D) hydrodynamic simulations led to the result that {56,57}Ni and 44Ti are massively underproduced compared to observational estimates for Supernova 1987A, if the explosions are slow, i.e., if the explosion mechanism of CCSNe releases the explosion energy on long timescales. It was concluded that rapid explosions are required to match observed abundances, i.e., the explosion mechanism must provide the CCSN energy nearly instantaneously on timescales of some ten to order 100 ms. This result, if valid, would disfavor the neutrino-heating mechanism, which releases the CCSN energy on timescales of seconds. Here, we demonstrate by 1D hydrodynamic simulations and nucleosynthetic post-processing that these conclusions are a consequence of disregarding the initial collapse of the stellar core in the thermal-bomb modelling before the bomb releases the explosion energy. We demonstrate that the anti-correlation of 56Ni yield and energy-injection timescale vanishes when the initial collapse is included and that it can even be reversed, i.e., more 56Ni is made by slower explosions, when the collapse proceeds to small radii similar to those where neutrino heating takes place in CCSNe. We also show that the 56Ni production in thermal-bomb explosions is sensitive to the chosen mass cut and that a fixed mass layer or fixed volume for the energy deposition cause only secondary differences. Moreover, we propose a most appropriate setup for thermal bombs.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.10989
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21560468
title StaNdaRT: A repository of standardized test models and outputs for supernova radiative transfer
first_author Stéphane Blondin
author Stéphane Blondin, Sergei Blinnikov, Fionntan P. Callan, Christine E. Collins, Luc Dessart, Wesley Even, Andreas Flörs, Andrew G. Fullard, D. John Hillier, Anders Jerkstrand, Daniel Kasen, Boaz Katz, Wolfgang Kerzendorf, Alexandra Kozyreva, Jack O'Brien, Ezequiel A. Pássaro, Nathaniel Roth, Ken J. Shen, Luke Shingles, Stuart A. Sim, Jaladh Singhal, Isaac G. Smith, Elena Sorokina, Victor P. Utrobin, Christian Vogl, Marc Williamson, Ryan Wollaeger, Stan E. Woosley, Nahliel Wygoda
abstract We present the first results of a comprehensive supernova (SN) radiative-transfer (RT) code-comparison initiative (StaNdaRT), where the emission from the same set of standardized test models is simulated by currently-used RT codes. A total of ten codes have been run on a set of four benchmark ejecta models of Type Ia supernovae. We consider two sub-Chandrasekhar-mass ($M_\mathrm{tot} = 1.0$ M$_\odot$) toy models with analytic density and composition profiles and two Chandrasekhar-mass delayed-detonation models that are outcomes of hydrodynamical simulations. We adopt spherical symmetry for all four models. The results of the different codes, including the light curves, spectra, and the evolution of several physical properties as a function of radius and time, are provided in electronic form in a standard format via a public repository. We also include the detailed test model profiles and several python scripts for accessing and presenting the input and output files. We also provide the code used to generate the toy models studied here. In this paper, we describe in detail the test models, radiative-transfer codes and output formats and provide access to the repository. We present example results of several key diagnostic features.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.11671
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21548225
title Development of the Low Frequency Telescope Focal Plane Detector Modules for LiteBIRD
first_author Benjamin Westbrook
author Benjamin Westbrook, Christopher Raum, Shawn Beckman, Adrian T. Lee, Nicole Farias, Andrew Bogdan, Amber Hornsby, Aritoki Suzuki, Kaja Rotermund, Tucker Elleflot, Jason E. Austermann, James A. Beall, Shannon M. Duff, Johannes Hubmayr, Michael R. Vissers, Michael J. Link, Greg Jaehnig, Nils Halverson, Tomasso Ghigna, Masashi Hazumi, Samantha Stever, Yuto Minami, Keith L. Thompson, Megan Russell, Kam Arnold, Maximiliano Silva-Feaver
abstract LiteBIRD is a JAXA-led strategic large-class satellite mission designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic foregrounds from 34 to 448 GHz across the entire sky from L2 in the late 2020s. The scientific payload includes three telescopes which are called the low-, mid-, and high-frequency telescopes each with their own receiver that covers a portion of the mission's frequency range. The low frequency telescope will map synchrotron radiation from the Galactic foreground and the cosmic microwave background. We discuss the design, fabrication, and characterization of the low-frequency focal plane modules for low-frequency telescope, which has a total bandwidth ranging from 34 to 161 GHz. There will be a total of 4 different pixel types with 8 overlapping bands to cover the full frequency range. These modules are housed in a single low-frequency focal plane unit which provides thermal isolation, mechanical support, and radiative baffling for the detectors. The module design implements multi-chroic lenslet-coupled sinuous antenna arrays coupled to transition edge sensor bolometers read out with frequency-domain mulitplexing. While this technology has strong heritage in ground-based cosmic microwave background experiments, the broad frequency coverage, low optical loading conditions, and the high cosmic ray background of the space environment require further development of this technology to be suitable for LiteBIRD. In these proceedings, we discuss the optical and bolometeric characterization of a triplexing prototype pixel with bands centered on 78, 100, and 140 GHz.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.09864
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21546000
title The impact of dynamic pressure bumps on the observational properties of protoplanetary disks
first_author Jochen Stadler
author Jochen Stadler, Matías Gárate, Paola Pinilla, Christian Lenz, Cornelis P. Dullemond, Til Birnstiel, Sebastian M. Stammler
abstract Over the last years, large (sub-)millimetre surveys of protoplanetary disks have well constrained the demographics of disks, such as their millimetre luminosities, spectral indices, and disk radii. Additionally, several high-resolution observations have revealed an abundance of substructures in the disks dust continuum. The most prominent are ring like structures, likely due to pressure bumps trapping dust particles. The origins and characteristics of these bumps, nevertheless, need to be further investigated. The purpose of this work is to study how dynamic pressure bumps affect observational properties of protoplanetary disks. We further aim to differentiate between the planetary- versus zonal flow-origin of pressure bumps. We perform one-dimensional gas and dust evolution simulations, setting up models with varying pressure bump features. We subsequently run radiative transfer calculations to obtain synthetic images and the different quantities of observations. We find that the outermost pressure bump determines the disks dust size across different millimetre wavelengths. Our modelled dust traps need to form early (&lt; 0.1 Myr), fast (on viscous timescales), and must be long lived (&gt; Myr) to obtain the observed high millimetre luminosities and low spectral indices of disks. While the planetary bump models can reproduce these observables irrespectively of the opacity prescription, the highest opacities are needed for the zonal flow bump model to be in line with observations. Our findings favour the planetary- over the zonal flow-origin of pressure bumps and support the idea that planet formation already occurs in early class 0-1 stages of circumstellar disks. The determination of the disks effective size through its outermost pressure bump also delivers a possible answer to why disks in recent low-resolution surveys appear to have the same sizes across different millimetre wavelengths.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.07931
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21559462
title Selection of prebiotic oligonucleotides by cyclic phase separation
first_author Giacomo Bartolucci
author Giacomo Bartolucci, Adriana Calaça Serrão, Philipp Schwintek, Alexandra Kühnlein, Yash Rana, Philipp Janto, Dorothea Hofer, Christof B. Mast, Dieter Braun, Christoph A. Weber
abstract The emergence of functional oligonucleotides on early Earth required a molecular selection mechanism to screen for specific sequences with prebiotic functions. Cyclic processes such as daily temperature oscillations were ubiquitous in this environment and could trigger oligonucleotide phase separation. Here, we propose sequence selection based on phase separation cycles realized through sedimentation in a system subjected to the feeding of oligonucleotides. Using theory and experiments with DNA, we show sequence-specific enrichment in the sedimented dense phase, in particular of short 22-mer DNA sequences. The underlying mechanism selects for complementarity, as it enriches sequences that tightly interact in the condensed phase through base-pairing. Our mechanism also enables initially weakly biased pools to enhance their sequence bias or to replace the most abundant sequences as the cycles progress. Our findings provide an example of a selection mechanism that may have eased screening for the first auto-catalytic self-replicating oligonucleotides.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.10672
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21504082
title Instability of bubble expansion at zero temperature
first_author Wen-Yuan Ai
author Wen-Yuan Ai, Juan S. Cruz, Bjorn Garbrecht, Carlos Tamarit
abstract In the context of false vacuum decay at zero temperature, it is well known that bubbles expand with uniform acceleration in the rest frame of nucleation. We show that this uniformly accelerating expansion suffers from an instability. This can be observed as a tachyonic mode in the spectrum of fluctuations for the energy functional in the reference frame in which the uniformly accelerating bubble wall appears static. In such a frame, arbitrary small perturbations cause an amplifying departure from the static wall solution. This implies that the nucleated bubble is not a critical point of the energy functional in the rest frame of nucleation but becomes one in the accelerating frame. The aforementioned instability for vacuum bubbles can be related to the well-known instability for the nucleated critical static bubbles during finite-temperature phase transitions in the rest frame of the plasma. It is proposed that zero-temperature vacuum decays as seen from accelerating frames have a dual description in terms of finite-temperature phase transitions.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2209.00639
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21533106
title A giant planet shaping the disk around the very low-mass star CIDA 1
first_author P. Curone
author P. Curone, A. F. Izquierdo, L. Testi, G. Lodato, S. Facchini, A. Natta, P. Pinilla, N. T. Kurtovic, C. Toci, M. Benisty, M. Tazzari, F. Borsa, M. Lombardi, C. F. Manara, E. Sanchis, L. Ricci
abstract Context. Exoplanetary research has provided us with exciting discoveries of planets around very low-mass (VLM) stars (0.08 M<SUB>⊙</SUB> ≲ M<SUB>*</SUB> ≲ 0.3 M<SUB>⊙</SUB>; e.g., TRAPPIST-1 and Proxima Centauri). However, current theoretical models still strive to explain planet formation in these conditions and do not predict the development of giant planets. Recent high-resolution observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of the disk around CIDA 1, a VLM star in Taurus, show substructures that hint at the presence of a massive planet. <BR /> Aims: We aim to reproduce the dust ring of CIDA 1, observed in the dust continuum emission in ALMA Band 7 (0.9 mm) and Band 4 (2.1 mm), along with its <SUP>12</SUP>CO (J = 3−2) and <SUP>13</SUP>CO (J = 3−2) channel maps, assuming the structures are shaped by the interaction of the disk with a massive planet. We seek to retrieve the mass and position of the putative planet, through a global simulation that assesses planet-disk interactions to quantitatively reproduce protoplanetary disk observations of both dust and gas emission in a self-consistent way. <BR /> Methods: Using a set of hydrodynamical simulations, we model a protoplanetary disk that hosts an embedded planet with a starting mass of between 0.1 and 4.0 M<SUB>Jup</SUB> and initially located at a distance of between 9 and 11 au from the central star. We compute the dust and gas emission using radiative transfer simulations, and, finally, we obtain the synthetic observations, treating the images as the actual ALMA observations. <BR /> Results: Our models indicate that a planet with a minimum mass of ~1.4 M<SUB>Jup</SUB> orbiting at a distance of ~9−10 au can explain the morphology and location of the observed dust ring in Band 7 and Band 4. We match the flux of the dust emission observation with a dust-to-gas mass ratio in the disk of ~10<SUP>−2</SUP>. We are able to reproduce the low spectral index (~2) observed where the dust ring is detected, with a ~40−50% fraction of optically thick emission. Assuming a <SUP>12</SUP>CO abundance of 5 × 10<SUP>−5</SUP> and a <SUP>13</SUP>CO abundance 70 times lower, our synthetic images reproduce the morphology of the <SUP>12</SUP>CO (J = 3−2) and <SUP>13</SUP>CO (J = 3−2) observed channel maps where the cloud absorption allowed a detection. From our simulations, we estimate that a stellar mass M<SUB>*</SUB> = 0.2 M<SUB>⊙</SUB> and a systemic velocity v<SUB>sys</SUB> = 6.25 km s<SUP>−1</SUP> are needed to reproduce the gas rotation as retrieved from molecular line observations. Applying an empirical relation between planet mass and gap width in the dust, we predict a maximum planet mass of ~4−8 M<SUB>Jup</SUB>. <BR /> Conclusions: Our results suggest the presence of a massive planet orbiting CIDA 1, thus challenging our understanding of planet formation around VLM stars.
journal Astronomy and Astrophysics
publisher
year 2022
month 09
volume 665
publication_type article
eprint
pages 22
issue
doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202142748

source harvard
id 21003291
title The static force from generalized Wilson loops using gradient flow
first_author Viljami Leino
author Viljami Leino, Nora Brambilla, Julian Mayer-Steudte, Antonio Vairo
abstract We explore a novel approach to compute the force between a static quark-antiquark pair with the gradient flow algorithm on the lattice. The approach is based on inserting a chromoelectric field in a Wilson loop. The renormalization issues, associated with the finite size of the chromoelectric field on the lattice, can be solved with the use of gradient flow. We compare numerical results for the flowed static potential to our previous measurement of the same observable without a gradient flow.
journal European Physical Journal Web of Conferences
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 258
publication_type inproceedings
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1051/epjconf/202225804009

source harvard
id 21208731
title TimeEvolver: A program for time evolution with improved error bound
first_author Marco Michel
author Marco Michel, Sebastian Zell
abstract We present TimeEvolver, a program for computing time evolution in a generic quantum system. It relies on well-known Krylov subspace techniques to tackle the problem of multiplying the exponential of a large sparse matrix iH, where H is the Hamiltonian, with an initial vector v. The fact that H is Hermitian makes it possible to provide an easily computable bound on the accuracy of the Krylov approximation. Apart from effects of numerical roundoff, the resulting a posteriori error bound is rigorous, which represents a crucial novelty as compared to existing software packages such as Expokit[1]. On a standard notebook, TimeEvolver allows to compute time evolution with adjustable precision in Hilbert spaces of dimension greater than 10<SUP>6</SUP>. Additionally, we provide routines for deriving the matrix H from a more abstract representation of the Hamiltonian operator.
journal Computer Physics Communications
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 277
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1016/j.cpc.2022.108374

source harvard
id 21340212
title A panchromatic view of star cluster formation in a simulated dwarf galaxy starburst
first_author Natalia Lahén
author Natalia Lahén, Thorsten Naab, Guinevere Kauffmann
abstract We present a photometric analysis of star and star cluster (SC) formation in a high-resolution simulation of a dwarf galaxy starburst that allows the formation of individual stars to be followed. Previous work demonstrated that the properties of the SCs formed in the simulation are in good agreement with observations. In this paper, we create mock spectral energy distributions and broad-band photometric images using the radiative transfer code SKIRT 9. We test several observational star formation rate (SFR) tracers and find that 24 $\mu$m, total infrared and Hα trace the underlying SFR during the (post)starburst phase, while UV tracers yield a more accurate picture of star formation during quiescent phases prior to and after the merger. We then place the simulated galaxy at distances of 10 and 50 Mpc and use aperture photometry at Hubble Space Telescope resolution to analyse the simulated SC population. During the starburst phase, a hierarchically forming set of SCs leads inaccurate source separation because of crowding. This results in estimated SC mass function slopes that are up to ~0.3 shallower than the true slope of ~-1.9 to -2 found for the bound clusters identified from the particle data in the simulation. The masses of the largest clusters are overestimated by a factor of up to 2.9 due to unresolved clusters within the apertures. The aperture-based analysis also produces a relation between cluster formation efficiency and SFR surface density that is slightly flatter than that recovered from bound clusters. The differences are strongest in quiescent SF environments.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 514
publication_type article
eprint
pages 21
issue 3
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1594

source harvard
id 21340169
title Low-luminosity type IIP supermnovae: SN 2005cs and SN 2020cxd as very low-energy iron core-collapse explosions
first_author Alexandra Kozyreva
author Alexandra Kozyreva, Hans-Thomas Janka, Daniel Kresse, Stefan Taubenberger, Petr Baklanov
abstract SN 2020cxd is a representative of the family of low-energy, underluminous Type IIP supernovae (SNe), whose observations and analysis were recently reported by Yang et al. (2021). Here, we re-evaluate the observational data for the diagnostic SN properties by employing the hydrodynamic explosion model of a 9 M<SUB>⊙</SUB> red supergiant progenitor with an iron core and a pre-collapse mass of 8.75 M<SUB>⊙</SUB>. The explosion of the star was obtained by the neutrino-driven mechanism in a fully self-consistent simulation in three dimensions (3D). Multiband light curves and photospheric velocities for the plateau phase are computed with the one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code STELLA, applied to the spherically averaged 3D explosion model as well as sphericized radial profiles in different directions of the 3D model. We find that the overall evolution of the bolometric light curve, duration of the plateau phase, and basic properties of the multiband emission can be well reproduced by our SN model with its explosion energy of only 0.7 × 10<SUP>50</SUP> erg and an ejecta mass of 7.4 M<SUB>⊙</SUB>. These values are considerably lower than the previously reported numbers, but they are compatible with those needed to explain the fundamental observational properties of the prototype low-luminosity SN 2005cs. Because of the good compatibility of our photospheric velocities with line velocities determined for SN 2005cs, we conclude that the line velocities of SN 2020cxd are probably overestimated by up to a factor of about 3. The evolution of the line velocities of SN 2005cs compared to photospheric velocities in different explosion directions might point to intrinsic asymmetries in the SN ejecta.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 514
publication_type article
eprint
pages 17
issue 3
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1518

source harvard
id 21617027
title Development of the low frequency telescope focal plane detector modules for LiteBIRD
first_author B. Westbrook
author B. Westbrook, C. Raum, S. Beckman, A. T. Lee, N. Farias, A. Bogdan, A. Hornsby, A. Suzuki, K. Rotermund, T. Elleflot, J. E. Austerman, J. A. Beall, S. M. Duff, J. Hubmayr, M. R. Vissers, M. J. Link, G. Jaehnig, N. Halverson, T. Ghigna, M. Hazumi, S. Stever, Y. Minami, K. L. Thompson, M. Russell, K. Arnold, M. Silva-Feaver
abstract LiteBIRD is a JAXA-led strategic large-class satellite mission designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic foregrounds from 34 to 448 GHz across the entire sky from L2 in the late 2020s. The scientific payload includes three telescopes which are called the low-, mid-, and high-frequency telescopes each with their own receiver that covers a portion of the mission's frequency range. The low frequency telescope will map synchrotron radiation from the Galactic foreground and the cosmic microwave background. We discuss the design, fabrication, and characterization of the low-frequency focal plane modules for low-frequency telescope, which has a total bandwidth ranging from 34 to 161 GHz. There will be a total of 4 different pixel types with 8 overlapping bands to cover the full frequency range. These modules are housed in a single low-frequency focal plane unit which provides thermal isolation, mechanical support, and radiative baffling for the detectors. The module design implements multi-chroic lenslet-coupled sinuous antenna arrays coupled to transition edge sensor bolometers read out with frequency-domain mulitplexing. While this technology has strong heritage in ground-based cosmic microwave background experiments, the broad frequency coverage, low optical loading conditions, and the high cosmic ray background of the space environment require further development of this technology to be suitable for LiteBIRD. In these proceedings, we discuss the optical and bolometeric characterization of a triplexing prototype pixel with bands centered on 78, 100, and 140 GHz.
journal Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far-Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy XI
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 12190
publication_type inproceedings
eprint
pages 17
issue
doi 10.1117/12.2630574

source harvard
id 21490540
title Primordial Dusty Rings and Episodic Outbursts in Protoplanetary Discs
first_author Kundan Kadam
author Kundan Kadam, Eduard Vorobyov, Shantanu Basu
abstract We investigate the formation and evolution of "primordial" dusty rings occurring in the inner regions of protoplanetary discs, with the help of long-term, coupled dust-gas, magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The simulations are global and start from the collapse phase of the parent cloud core, while the dead zone is calculated via an adaptive $\alpha$ formulation by taking into account the local ionization balance. The evolution of the dusty component includes its growth and back reaction on to the gas. Previously, using simulations with only a gas component, we showed that dynamical rings form at the inner edge of the dead zone. We find that when dust evolution as well as magnetic field evolution in the flux-freezing limit are included, the dusty rings formed are more numerous and span a larger radial extent in the inner disc, while the dead zone is more robust and persists for a much longer time. We show that these dynamical rings concentrate enough dust mass to become streaming unstable, which should result in rapid planetesimal formation even in the embedded phases of the system. The episodic outbursts caused by the magnetorotational instability have significant impact on the evolution of the rings. The outbursts drain the inner disc of grown dust, however, the period between bursts is sufficiently long for the planetesimal growth via streaming instability.The dust mass contained within the rings is large enough to ultimately produce planetary systems with the core accretion scenario. The low mass systems rarely undergo outbursts and thus, the conditions around such stars can be especially conducive for planet formation.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.12105
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21423709
title Lyα Halos around [O III]-selected Galaxies in HETDEX
first_author Maja Lujan Niemeyer
author Maja Lujan Niemeyer, William P. Bowman, Robin Ciardullo, Max Gronke, Eiichiro Komatsu, Maximilian Fabricius, Daniel J. Farrow, Steven L. Finkelstein, Karl Gebhardt, Caryl Gronwall, Gary J. Hill, Chenxu Liu, Erin Mentuch Cooper, Donald P. Schneider, Sarah Tuttle, Gregory R. Zeimann
abstract We present extended Lyα emission out to 800 kpc of 1034 [O III]-selected galaxies at redshifts 1.9 &lt; z &lt; 2.35 using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment. The locations and redshifts of the galaxies are taken from the 3D-HST survey. The median-stacked surface brightness profile of the Lyα emission of the [O III]-selected galaxies agrees well with that of 968 bright Lyα-emitting galaxies (LAEs) at r &gt; 40 kpc from the galaxy centers. The surface brightness in the inner parts (r &lt; 10 kpc) around the [O III]-selected galaxies, however, is 10 times fainter than that of the LAEs. Our results are consistent with the notion that photons dominating the outer regions of the Lyα halos are not produced in the central galaxies but originate outside of them.
journal The Astrophysical Journal
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 934
publication_type article
eprint
pages 6
issue 2
doi 10.3847/2041-8213/ac82e5

source harvard
id 21423699
title The Origin of the [C II] Deficit in a Simulated Dwarf Galaxy Merger-driven Starburst
first_author Thomas G. Bisbas
author Thomas G. Bisbas, Stefanie Walch, Thorsten Naab, Natalia Lahén, Rodrigo Herrera-Camus, Ulrich P. Steinwandel, Constantina M. Fotopoulou, Chia-Yu Hu, Peter H. Johansson
abstract We present [C II] synthetic observations of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of a dwarf galaxy merger. The merging process varies the star formation rate (SFR) by more than three orders of magnitude. Several star clusters are formed, the feedback of which disperses and unbinds the dense gas through expanding H II regions and supernova (SN) explosions. For galaxies with properties similar to the modeled ones, we find that the [C II] emission remains optically thin throughout the merging process. We identify the warm neutral medium ( $3\lt \mathrm{log}{T}_{\mathrm{gas}}\lt 4$ with χ <SUB>HI</SUB> &gt; 2χ <SUB>H2</SUB>) to be the primary source of [C II] emission (~58% contribution), although at stages when the H II regions are young and dense (during star cluster formation or SNe in the form of ionized bubbles), they can contribute ≳50% to the total [C II] emission. We find that the [C II]/far-IR (FIR) ratio decreases owing to thermal saturation of the [C II] emission caused by strong far-UV radiation fields emitted by the massive star clusters, leading to a [C II] deficit medium. We investigate the [C II]-SFR relation and find an approximately linear correlation that agrees well with observations, particularly those from the Dwarf Galaxy Survey. Our simulation reproduces the observed trends of [C II]/FIR versus Σ<SUB>SFR</SUB> and Σ<SUB>FIR</SUB>, and it agrees well with the Kennicutt relation of SFR-FIR luminosity. We propose that local peaks of [C II] in resolved observations may provide evidence for ongoing massive cluster formation.
journal The Astrophysical Journal
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 934
publication_type article
eprint
pages 18
issue 2
doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac7960

source harvard
id 21436783
title Virgo: Scalable Unsupervised Classification of Cosmological Shock Waves
first_author Max Lamparth
author Max Lamparth, Ludwig Böss, Ulrich Steinwandel, Klaus Dolag
abstract Cosmological shock waves are essential to understanding the formation of cosmological structures. To study them, scientists run computationally expensive high-resolution 3D hydrodynamic simulations. Interpreting the simulation results is challenging because the resulting data sets are enormous, and the shock wave surfaces are hard to separate and classify due to their complex morphologies and multiple shock fronts intersecting. We introduce a novel pipeline, Virgo, combining physical motivation, scalability, and probabilistic robustness to tackle this unsolved unsupervised classification problem. To this end, we employ kernel principal component analysis with low-rank matrix approximations to denoise data sets of shocked particles and create labeled subsets. We perform supervised classification to recover full data resolution with stochastic variational deep kernel learning. We evaluate on three state-of-the-art data sets with varying complexity and achieve good results. The proposed pipeline runs automatically, has only a few hyperparameters, and performs well on all tested data sets. Our results are promising for large-scale applications, and we highlight now enabled future scientific work.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.06859
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21454077
title Radiopurity of a kg-scale PbWO<SUB>4</SUB> cryogenic detector produced from archaeological Pb for the RES-NOVA experiment
first_author RES-NOVA Group of Interest
author RES-NOVA Group of Interest, J. W. Beeman, G. Benato, C. Bucci, L. Canonica, P. Carniti, E. Celi, M. Clemenza, A. D'Addabbo, F. A. Danevich, S. Di Domizio, S. DiLorenzo, O. M. Dubovik, N. Ferreiro Iachellini, F. Ferroni, E. Fiorini, S. Fu, A. Garai, S. Ghislandi, L. Gironi, P. Gorla, C. Gotti, P. V. Guillaumon, D. L. Helis, G. P. Kovtun, M. Mancuso, L. Marini, M. Olmi, L. Pagnanini, L. Pattavina, G. Pessina, F. Petricca, S. Pirro, S. Pozzi, A. Puiu, S. Quitadamo, J. Rothe, A. P. Scherban, S. Schönert, D. A. Solopikhin, R. Strauss, E. Tarabini, V. I. Tretyak, I. A. Tupitsyna, V. Wagner
abstract RES-NOVA is a newly proposed experiment for detecting neutrinos from astrophysical sources, mainly Supernovae, using an array of cryogenic detectors made of PbWO<SUB>4</SUB> crystals produced from archaeological Pb. This unconventional material, characterized by intrinsic high radiopurity, enables low-background levels in the region of interest for the neutrino detection via Coherent Elastic neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CEν NS). This signal lies at the detector energy threshold, O(1 keV), and it is expected to be hidden by naturally occurring radioactive contaminants of the crystal absorber. Here, we present the results of a radiopurity assay on a 0.84 kg PbWO<SUB>4</SUB> crystal produced from archaeological Pb operated as a cryogenic detector. The crystal internal radioactive contaminations are: 23<SUP>2</SUP>Th &lt;40 μ Bq/kg, 23<SUP>8</SUP>U &lt;30 μ Bq/kg, 22<SUP>6</SUP>Ra 1.3 mBq/kg and 21<SUP>0</SUP>Pb 22.5 mBq/kg. We also present a background projection for the final experiment and possible mitigation strategies for further background suppression. The achieved results demonstrate the feasibility of realizing this new class of detectors.
journal European Physical Journal C
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 82
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 8
doi 10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-10656-8

source harvard
id 21425671
title Monitoring accretion rate variability in the Orion Nebula Cluster with the Wendelstein Wide Field Imager
first_author S. Flaischlen
author S. Flaischlen, T. Preibisch, M. Kluge, C. F. Manara, B. Ercolano
abstract The understanding of the accretion process has a central role in the understanding of star and planet formation. We aim to test how accretion variability influences previous correlation analyses of the relation between X-ray activity and accretion rates, which is important for understanding the evolution of circumstellar disks and disk photoevaporation. We monitored accreting stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster from November 24, 2014, until February 17, 2019, for 42 epochs with the Wendelstein Wide Field Imager in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey u'g'r' filters on the 2 m Fraunhofer Telescope on Mount Wendelstein. Mass accretion rates were determined from the measured ultraviolet excess. The influence of the mass accretion rate variability on the relation between X-ray luminosities and mass accretion rates was analyzed statistically. We find a typical interquartile range of ~ 0.3 dex for the mass accretion rate variability on timescales from weeks to ~ 2 years. The variability has likely no significant influence on a correlation analysis of the X-ray luminosity and the mass accretion rate observed at different times when the sample size is large enough. The observed anticorrelation between the X-ray luminosity and the mass accretion rate predicted by models of photoevaporation-starved accretion is likely not due to a bias introduced by different observing times.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.04823
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21463699
title Elliptic modular graph forms II: Iterated integrals
first_author Martijn Hidding
author Martijn Hidding, Oliver Schlotterer, Bram Verbeek
abstract Elliptic modular graph forms (eMGFs) are non-holomorphic modular forms depending on a modular parameter $\tau$ of a torus and marked points $z$ thereon. Traditionally, eMGFs are constructed from nested lattice sums over the discrete momenta on the worldsheet torus in closed-string genus-one amplitudes. In this work, we develop methods to translate the lattice-sum realization of eMGFs into iterated integrals over modular parameters $\tau$ of the torus with particular focus on cases with one marked point. Such iterated-integral representations manifest algebraic and differential relations among eMGFs and their degeneration limit $\tau \rightarrow i\infty$. From a mathematical point of view, our results yield concrete realizations of single-valued elliptic polylogarithms at arbitrary depth in terms of meromorphic iterated integrals over modular forms and their complex conjugates. The basis dimensions of eMGFs at fixed modular and transcendental weights are derived from a simple counting of iterated integrals and a generalization of Tsunogai's derivation algebra.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.11116
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21455321
title Analytical evaluation of AdS<SUB>4</SUB> Witten diagrams as flat space multi-loop Feynman integrals
first_author Till Heckelbacher
author Till Heckelbacher, Ivo Sachs, Evgeny Skvortsov, Pierre Vanhove
abstract We describe a systematic approach for the evaluation of Witten diagrams for multi-loop scattering amplitudes of a conformally coupled scalar ϕ<SUP>4</SUP>-theory in Euclidean AdS<SUB>4</SUB>, by recasting the Witten diagrams as flat space Feynman integrals. We derive closed form expressions for the anomalous dimensions for all double-trace operators up to the second order in the coupling constant. We explain the relation between the flat space unitarity methods and the discontinuities of the short distance expansion on the boundary of Witten diagrams.
journal Journal of High Energy Physics
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 2022
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 8
doi 10.1007/JHEP08(2022)052

source harvard
id 21422323
title Scattering Amplitudes and N-Body Post-Minkowskian Hamiltonians in General Relativity and Beyond
first_author Callum R. T. Jones
author Callum R. T. Jones, Mikhail Solon
abstract We present a general framework for calculating post-Minskowskian, classical, conservative Hamiltonians for $N$ non-spinning bodies in general relativity from relativistic scattering amplitudes. Novel features for $N&gt;2$ are described including the subtraction of tree-like iteration contributions and the calculation of non-trivial many-body Fourier transform integrals needed to construct position space potentials. A new approach to calculating these integrals as an expansion in the hierarchical limit is described based on the method of regions. As an explicit example, we present the $\mathcal{O}\left(G^2\right)$ 3-body momentum space potential in general relativity as well as for charged bodies in Einstein-Maxwell. The result is shown to be in perfect agreement with previous post-Newtonian calculations in general relativity up to $\mathcal{O}\left(G^2 v^4\right)$. Furthermore, in appropriate limits the result is shown to agree perfectly with relativistic probe scattering in multi-center extremal black hole backgrounds and with the scattering of slowly-moving extremal black holes in the moduli space approximation.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.02281
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21434121
title A new approach to color-coherent parton evolution
first_author Florian Herren
author Florian Herren, Stefan Höche, Frank Krauss, Daniel Reichelt, Marek Schoenherr
abstract We present a simple parton-shower model that replaces the explicit angular ordering of the coherent branching formalism with a differentially accurate simulation of soft-gluon radiation by means of a non-trivial dependence on azimuthal angles. We introduce a global kinematics mapping and provide an analytic proof that it satisfies the criteria for next-to leading logarithmic accuracy. In the new algorithm, initial and final state evolution are treated on the same footing. We provide an implementation for final-state evolution in the numerical code Alaric and present a first comparison to experimental data.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.06057
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21432047
title NLO QCD renormalization group evolution for nonleptonic Δ F =2 transitions in the SMEFT
first_author Jason Aebischer
author Jason Aebischer, Andrzej J. Buras, Jacky Kumar
abstract We present for the first time Next-to-Leading (NLO) QCD renormalization group (RG) evolution matrices for nonleptonic Δ F =2 transitions in the Standard Model effective field theory (SMEFT). To this end we transform first the known two-loop QCD anomalous dimension matrices (ADMs) of the BSM (Beyond the SM) operators in the so-called Buras Misiak Urban basis into the ones in the common weak effective theory (WET) basis (the so-called Jenkins Manohar Stoffer basis) for which tree-level and one-loop matching to the SMEFT are already known. This subsequently allows us to find the two-loop QCD ADMs for the SMEFT nonleptonic Δ F =2 operators in the Warsaw basis. Having all these ingredients we investigate the impact of these NLO QCD effects on the QCD RG evolution of SMEFT Wilson coefficients for nonleptonic Δ F =2 transitions from the new physics scale Λ down to the electroweak scale μ<SUB>ew</SUB>. The main benefit of these new contributions is that they allow one to remove renormalization scheme dependences present in the one-loop matchings both between the WET and SMEFT and also between SMEFT and a chosen UV completion. But the Next-to-Leading (NLO) QCD effects, calculated here in the Naive dimensional regularisation minimal subtraction scheme, turn out to be small, in the ballpark of a few percent but larger than one-loop Yukawa top effects when only the Δ F =2 operators are considered. The more complicated class of nonleptonic Δ F =1 decays will be presented soon in another publication.
journal Physical Review D
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 106
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 3
doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.106.035003

source harvard
id 21433488
title Planes of Satellite Galaxies in the Magneticum Pathfinder Simulations
first_author Pascal U. Förster
author Pascal U. Förster, Rhea-Silvia Remus, Klaus Dolag, Lucas C. Kimmig, Adelheid Teklu, Lucas M. Valenzuela
abstract Planes of satellites are observed around many galaxies. However, these observations are still considered a point of tension for the $\Lambda$CDM paradigm. We use the fully hydrodynamical cosmological $\Lambda$CDM state-of-the-art simulation Magneticum Pathfinder to investigate the existence of such planes over a large range of haloes, from Milky Way to galaxy cluster masses. To this end, we develop the Momentum in Thinnest Plane (MTP) method to identify planes and quantify the properties of their constituent satellites, considering both position and momentum. We find that thin planes ($20\%\cdot R_\mathrm{halo}$) containing at least $50\%$ of the total number of satellites can be found in almost all systems. In Milky Way mass-like systems, around 86\% of such planes are even aligned in momentum ($90\%$ of the total satellite momentum), where the fraction is smaller if more satellites are required to be inside the plane. We further find a mass dependency, with more massive systems exhibiting systematically thicker planes. This may point towards the change from continuous accretion of small objects along filaments and sheets for less massive haloes to the accretion of large objects (e.g., major mergers) dominating the growth of more massive haloes. There is no correlation between the existence of a plane and the main galaxy's morphology. Finally, we find a clear preference for the minor axes of the satellite planes and the host galaxy to be aligned, in agreement with recent observations.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.05496
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21462699
title A flexible event reconstruction based on machine learning and likelihood principles
first_author Philipp Eller
author Philipp Eller, Aaron Fienberg, Jan Weldert, Garrett Wendel, Sebastian Böser, D. F. Cowen
abstract Event reconstruction is a central step in many particle physics experiments, turning detector observables into parameter estimates; for example estimating the energy of an interaction given the sensor readout of a detector. A corresponding likelihood function is often intractable, and approximations need to be constructed. In our work, we first show how the full likelihood for a many-sensor detector can be broken apart into smaller terms, and secondly how we can train neural networks to approximate all terms solely based on forward simulation. Our technique results in a fast, flexible, and close-to-optimal surrogate model proportional to the likelihood and can be used in conjunction with standard inference techniques. We illustrate our technique for parameter inference in neutrino telescopes based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian posterior sampling. Given its great flexibility, we also showcase our method for detector optimization, and apply it to simulation of a ton-scale water-based liquid scintillator detector.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.10166
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21422686
title Disintegration of beauty: a precision study
first_author Alexander Lenz
author Alexander Lenz, Maria Laura Piscopo, Aleksey V. Rusov
abstract We update the Standard Model (SM) predictions for $B$-meson lifetimes within the heavy quark expansion (HQE). Including for the first time the contribution of the Darwin operator, SU(3)$_F$ breaking corrections to the matrix element of dimension-six four-quark operators and the so-called eye-contractions, we obtain for the total widths $\Gamma (B^+) = (0.58^{+0.11}_{-0.07}) \, \mbox{ps}^{-1}$, $\Gamma (B_d) = (0.63^{+0.11}_{-0.07}) \, \mbox{ps}^{-1}$, $\Gamma (B_s) = (0.63^{+0.11}_{-0.07}) \, \mbox{ps}^{-1}$, and for the lifetime ratios $\tau (B^+) / \tau (B_d) = 1.086 \pm 0.022$, $\tau (B_s) / \tau (B_d) = 1.003 \pm 0.006 \, (1.028 \pm 0.011)$. The two values for the last observable arise from using two different sets of input for the non-perturbative parameters $\mu_\pi^2(B_d)$, $\mu_G^2(B_d)$, and $\rho_D^3(B_d)$ as well as from different estimates of the SU(3)$_F$ breaking in these parameters. Our results are overall in very good agreement with the corresponding experimental data, however, there seems to emerge a tension in $\tau (B_s)/\tau (B_d)$ when considering the second set of input parameters. Specifically, this observable is extremely sensitive to the size of the parameter $\rho_D^3 (B_d)$ and of the SU(3)$_F$ breaking effects in $\mu_\pi^2$, $\mu_G^2$ and $\rho_D^3$; hence, it is of utmost importance to be able to better constrain all these parameters. In this respect, an extraction of $\mu_\pi^2 (B_s), \mu_G^2 (B_s), \rho_D^3 (B_s)$ from future experimental data on inclusive semileptonic $B_s$-meson decays or from direct non-perturbative calculations, as well as more insights about the value of $\rho_D^3 (B)$ extracted from fit, would be very helpful in reducing the corresponding theory uncertainties.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.02643
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21416001
title Unusual Gas Structure in an Otherwise Normal Spiral Galaxy Hosting GRB 171205A/SN 2017iuk
first_author M. Arabsalmani
author M. Arabsalmani, S. Roychowdhury, F. Renaud, A. Burkert, E. Emsellem, E. Le Floc'h, E. Pian
abstract We study the structure of atomic hydrogen (H I) in the host galaxy of GRB 171205A/SN 2017iuk at z = 0.037 through H I 21 cm emission line observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. These observations reveal unusual morphology and kinematics of the H I in this otherwise apparently normal galaxy. High column density, cold H I is absent from an extended North-South region passing by the optical center of the galaxy, but instead is extended toward the South, on both sides of the galaxy. Moreover, the H I kinematics do not show a continuous change along the major axis of the galaxy as expected in a classical rotating disk. We explore several scenarios to explain the H I structure and kinematics in the galaxy: feedback from a central starburst and/or an active galactic nucleus, ram-pressure stripping, accretion, and tidal interaction from a companion galaxy. All of these options are ruled out. The most viable remaining explanation is the penetrating passage of a satellite through the disk only a few Myr ago, redistributing the H I in the GRB host without yet affecting its stellar distribution. It can also lead to the rapid formation of peculiar stars due to a violent induced shock. The location of GRB 171205A in the vicinity of the distorted area suggests that its progenitor star(s) originated in extreme conditions that share the same origin as the peculiarities in H I. This could explain the atypical location of GRB 171205A in its host galaxy.
journal The Astronomical Journal
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 164
publication_type article
eprint
pages 6
issue 2
doi 10.3847/1538-3881/ac77f5

source harvard
id 21491310
title The GIGANTES Data Set: Precision Cosmology from Voids in the Machine-learning Era
first_author Christina D. Kreisch
author Christina D. Kreisch, Alice Pisani, Francisco Villaescusa-Navarro, David N. Spergel, Benjamin D. Wandelt, Nico Hamaus, Adrian E. Bayer
abstract We present GIGANTES, the most extensive and realistic void catalog suite ever released-containing over 1 billion cosmic voids covering a volume larger than the observable universe, more than 20 TB of data, and created by running the void finder VIDE on QUIJOTE's halo simulations. The GIGANTES suite, spanning thousands of cosmological models, opens up the study of voids, answering compelling questions: Do voids carry unique cosmological information? How is this information correlated with galaxy information? Leveraging the large number of voids in the GIGANTES suite, our Fisher constraints demonstrate voids contain additional information, critically tightening constraints on cosmological parameters. We use traditional void summary statistics (void size function, void density profile) and the void autocorrelation function, which independently yields an error of 0.13 eV on ∑ m <SUB> ν </SUB> for a 1 h <SUP>-3</SUP> Gpc<SUP>3</SUP> simulation, without cosmic microwave background priors. Combining halos and voids we forecast an error of 0.09 eV from the same volume, representing a gain of 60% compared to halos alone. Extrapolating to next generation multi-Gpc<SUP>3</SUP> surveys such as the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, Euclid, the Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe and Ices Explorer, and the Roman Space Telescope, we expect voids should yield an independent determination of neutrino mass. Crucially, GIGANTES is the first void catalog suite expressly built for intensive machine-learning exploration. We illustrate this by training a neural network to perform likelihood-free inference on the void size function, giving a ~20% constraint on Ω<SUB>m</SUB>. Cosmology problems provide an impetus to develop novel deep-learning techniques. With GIGANTES, machine learning gains an impressive data set, offering unique problems that will stimulate new techniques.
journal The Astrophysical Journal
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 935
publication_type article
eprint
pages 19
issue 2
doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac7d4b

source harvard
id 21418835
title The Young and the Wild: What happens to Protoclusters forming at z = 4?
first_author Rhea-Silvia Remus
author Rhea-Silvia Remus, Klaus Dolag, Helmut Dannerbauer
abstract Using one of the largest volumes of the hydrodynamical cosmological simulation suit Magneticum, we study the evolution of protoclusters identified at redshift = 4, with properties similar to SPT2349-56. We identify 42 protoclusters in the simulation, as massive and equally rich in substructures as observed, confirming that these structures are already virialized. The dynamics of the internally fast rotating member galaxies within these protoclusters resembles observations, merging rapidly to form the cores of the BCGs of the assembling clusters. Half of the gas reservoir of these structures is in a hot phase, with the metal-enrichment at a very early stage. These systems show a good agreement with the observed amount of cold star-forming gas, largely enriched to solar values. We predict that some of the member galaxies are already quenched at z = 4, rendering them undetectable through measurements of their gas reservoir. Tracing the evolution of protoclusters reveals that none of the typical mass indicators at high redshift are good tracers to predict the present-day mass of the system. We find that none of the simulated protoclusters with properties as SPT2349-56 at z = 4.3, are among the top ten most massive clusters at redshift z = 0, with some barely reaching masses of M = 2 x 10^14Msun. Although the average star-formation and mass-growth rates in the simulated galaxies match observations at high redshift reasonably well, the simulation fails to reproduce the extremely high total star-formation rates within observed protoclusters, indicating that the sub-grid models are lacking the ability to reproduce higher star-formation efficiency (or lower depletion timescales).
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.01053
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21425859
title Decomposition of galactic X-ray emission with Phox: Contributions from hot gas and XRBs
first_author Stephan Vladutescu-Zopp
author Stephan Vladutescu-Zopp, Veronica Biffi, Klaus Dolag
abstract We provide a numerical framework with which spatially and spectrally accurate representations of X-ray binary populations can be studied from hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. We construct average spectra accounting for a hot gas component and verify the emergence of observed scaling relations between galaxy wide X-ray luminosity ($L_{X}$) and stellar mass ($M_{\star}$) as well as star-formation rate (SFR). Using simulated galaxy halos extracted from the $(48\,h^{-1} \mathrm{cMpc})^3$ volume of the Magneticum Pathfinder cosmological simulations at $z = 0.07$ we generate mock spectra with the X-ray photon-simulator Phox. We extend the Phox code to account for the stellar component in the simulation and study the resulting contribution in composite galactic spectra. Average X-ray luminosity functions are perfectly reproduced up to the one-photon luminosity limit. Comparing our resulting $L_{X}-\mathrm{SFR}-M_{\star}$ relation for X-ray binaries with recent observations of field galaxies in the Virgo galaxy cluster we find significant overlap. Invoking a metallicity dependent model for high-mass X-ray binaries yields an anti-correlation between mass-weighted stellar metallicity and SFR normalized luminosity. The spatial distribution of high-mass X-ray binaries coincides with star-formation regions of simulated galaxies while low-mass X-ray binaries follow the stellar mass surface density. X-ray binary emission is the dominant contribution in the 2-10 keV band in the absence of an actively accreting central super-massive black hole with 50% contribution in the 0.5-2 keV band rivaling the hot gas component. Our modelling remains consistent with observations despite uncertainties connected to our approach. The predictive power and easily extendable framework hold great value for future investigations of galactic X-ray spectra.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.04975
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21461287
title Fragmentation with discontinuous Galerkin schemes: Non-linear fragmentation
first_author Maxime Lombart
author Maxime Lombart, Mark Hutchison, Yueh-Ning Lee
abstract Small grains play an essential role in astrophysical processes such as chemistry, radiative transfer, gas/dust dynamics. The population of small grains is mainly maintained by the fragmentation process due to colliding grains. An accurate treatment of dust fragmentation is required in numerical modelling. However, current algorithms for solving fragmentation equation suffer from an over-diffusion in the conditions of 3D simulations. To tackle this challenge, we developed a Discontinuous Galerkin scheme to solve efficiently the non-linear fragmentation equation with a limited number of dust bins.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2232

source harvard
id 21418853
title COMET: Clustering Observables Modelled by Emulated perturbation Theory
first_author Alexander Eggemeier
author Alexander Eggemeier, Benjamin Camacho-Quevedo, Andrea Pezzotta, Martin Crocce, Román Scoccimarro, Ariel G. Sánchez
abstract In this paper we present COMET, a Gaussian process emulator of the galaxy power spectrum multipoles in redshift-space. The model predictions are based on one-loop perturbation theory and we consider two alternative descriptions of redshift-space distortions: one that performs a full expansion of the real- to redshift-space mapping, as in recent effective field theory models, and another that preserves the non-perturbative impact of small-scale velocities by means of an effective damping function. The outputs of COMET can be obtained at arbitrary redshifts (up to $z \sim 3$), for arbitrary fiducial background cosmologies, and for a large parameter space that covers the shape parameters $\omega_c$, $\omega_b$, and $n_s$, as well as the evolution parameters $h$, $A_s$, $\Omega_K$, $w_0$, and $w_a$. This flexibility does not impair COMET's accuracy, since we exploit an exact degeneracy between the evolution parameters that allows us to train the emulator on a significantly reduced parameter space. While the predictions are sped up by at least two orders of magnitude, validation tests reveal an accuracy of $0.1\,\%$ for the monopole and quadrupole ($0.3\,\%$ for the hexadecapole), or alternatively, better than $0.25\,\sigma$ for all three multipoles in comparison to statistical uncertainties expected for the Euclid survey with a tenfold increase in volume. We show that these differences translate into shifts in mean posterior values that are at most of the same size, meaning that COMET can be used with the same confidence as the exact underlying models. COMET is a publicly available Python package that also provides the tree-level bispectrum multipoles in redshift-space and Gaussian covariance matrices.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.01070
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21492273
title Origin of nontopological soliton dark matter: solitosynthesis or phase transition
first_author Yang Bai
author Yang Bai, Sida Lu, Nicholas Orlofsky
abstract This work demonstrates that nontopological solitons with large global charges and masses, even above the Planck scale, can form in the early universe and dominate the dark matter abundance. In solitosynthesis, solitons prefer to grow as large as possible under equilibrium dynamics when an initial global charge asymmetry is present. Their abundance is set by when soliton formation via particle fusion freezes out, and their charges are set by the time it takes to accumulate free particles. This work improves the estimation of both quantities, and in particular shows that much larger-charged solitons form than previously thought. The results are estimated analytically and validated numerically by solving the coupled Boltzmann equations. Without solitosynthesis, phase transitions can still form solitons from particles left inside false-vacuum pockets and determine their present-day abundance and properties. Even with zero charge asymmetry, solitons formed in this way can have very large charges on account of statistical fluctuations in the numbers of (anti)particles inside each pocket.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.12290
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21419988
title KiDS-1000 Cosmology: Constraints from density split statistics
first_author Pierre A. Burger
author Pierre A. Burger, Oliver Friedrich, Joachim Harnois-Déraps, Peter Schneider, Marika Asgari, Maciej Bilicki, Hendrik Hildebrandt, Angus H. Wright, Tiago Castro, Klaus Dolag, Catherine Heymans, Benjamin Joachimi, Nicolas Martinet, HuanYuan Shan, Tilman Tröster
abstract Context. Weak lensing and clustering statistics beyond two-point functions can capture non-Gaussian information about the matter density field, thereby improving the constraints on cosmological parameters relative to the mainstream methods based on correlation functions and power spectra. Aims. This paper presents a cosmological analysis of the fourth data release of the Kilo Degree Survey based on the density split statistics, which measures the mean shear profiles around regions classified according to foreground densities. The latter is constructed from a bright galaxy sample, which we further split into red and blue samples, allowing us to probe their respective connection to the underlying dark matter density. Methods. We use the state-of-the-art model of the density splitting statistics and validate its robustness against mock data infused with known systematic effects such as intrinsic galaxy alignment and baryonic feedback. Results. After marginalising over the photometric redshift uncertainty and the residual shear calibration bias, we measure for the full KiDS-bright sample a structure growth parameter of $S_8 = \sigma_8 \sqrt{\Omega_\mathrm{m}/0.3} = 0.74^{+0.03}_{-0.02}$ that is competitive to and consistent with two-point cosmic shear results, a matter density of $\Omega_\mathrm{m} = 0.28 \pm 0.02$, and a constant galaxy bias of $b = 1.32^{+0.12}_{-0.10}$.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.02171
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21416093
title SN 2016dsg: A Thermonuclear Explosion Involving a Thick Helium Shell
first_author Yize Dong
author Yize Dong, Stefano Valenti, Abigail Polin, Aoife Boyle, Andreas Flörs, Christian Vogl, Wolfgang E. Kerzendorf, David J. Sand, Saurabh W. Jha, Łukasz Wyrzykowski, K. Azalee Bostroem, Jeniveve Pearson, Curtis McCully, Jennifer E. Andrews, Stefano Benetti, Stéphane Blondin, L. Galbany, Mariusz Gromadzki, Griffin Hosseinzadeh, D. Andrew Howell, Cosimo Inserra, Jacob E. Jencson, Michael Lundquist, J. D. Lyman, Mark Magee, Kate Maguire, Nicolas Meza, Shubham Srivastav, Stefan Taubenberger, J. H. Terwel, Samuel Wyatt, D. R. Young
abstract A thermonuclear explosion triggered by a He-shell detonation on a carbon-oxygen white-dwarf core has been predicted to have strong UV line blanketing at early times due to the iron-group elements produced during He-shell burning. We present the photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2016dsg, a subluminous peculiar Type I supernova consistent with a thermonuclear explosion involving a thick He shell. With a redshift of 0.04, the i-band peak absolute magnitude is derived to be around -17.5. The object is located far away from its host, an early-type galaxy, suggesting it originated from an old stellar population. The spectra collected after the peak are unusually red, show strong UV line blanketing and weak O I λ7773 absorption lines, and do not evolve significantly over 30 days. An absorption line around 9700-10500 Å is detected in the near-infrared spectrum and is likely from the unburnt He in the ejecta. The spectroscopic evolution is consistent with the thermonuclear explosion models for a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf with a thick He shell, while the photometric evolution is not well described by existing models.
journal The Astrophysical Journal
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 934
publication_type article
eprint
pages 13
issue 2
doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac75eb

source harvard
id 21495134
title Insights on the origin of ORCs from cosmological simulations
first_author Klaus Dolag
author Klaus Dolag, Ludwig M. Böss, Bärbel S. Koribalski, Ulrich P. Steinwandel, Milena Valentini
abstract We investigate shock structures driven by merger events in high-resolution simulations that result in a galaxy with a virial mass M ~ 1e12 Msol. We find that the sizes and morphologies of the internal shocks resemble remarkably well those of the newly-detected class of odd radio circles (ORCs). This would highlight a so-far overlooked mechanism to form radio rings, shells and even more complex structures around elliptical galaxies. Mach numbers of M = 2-3 for such internal shocks are in agreement with the spectral indices of the observed ORCs. We estimate that ~5 percent of galaxies could undergo merger events which occasionally lead to such prominent structures within the galactic halo during their lifetime, explaining the low number of observed ORCs. At the time when the shock structures are matching the physical sizes of the observed ORCs, the central galaxies are typically classified as early-type galaxies, with no ongoing star formation, in agreement with observational findings. Although the energy released by such mergers could potentially power the observed radio luminosity already in Milky-Way-like halos, our predicted luminosity from a simple, direct shock acceleration model is much smaller than the observed one. Considering the estimated number of candidates from our cosmological simulations and the higher observed energies, we suggest that the proposed scenario is more likely for halo masses around 1e13 Msol in agreement with the observed stellar masses of the galaxies at the center of ORCs.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.15003
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21494288
title Production of loosely-bound hadron molecules from bottomonium decays
first_author Davide Marietti
author Davide Marietti, Alessandro Pilloni, Umberto Tamponi
abstract We present multiple results on the production of loosely-bound molecules in bottomonium annihilations and $e^+e^-$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 10.58$ GeV. We perform the first comprehensive test of several models for deuteron production against all the existing data in this energy region. We fit the free parameters of the models to reproduce the observed cross sections, and we predict the deuteron spectrum and production and the cross section for the $e^+e^- \to d\bar{d} + X$ process both at the $\Upsilon(1,2,3S)$ resonances and at $\sqrt{s}=10.58$ GeV. The predicted spectra show differences but are all compatible with the uncertainties of the existing data. These differences could be addressed if larger datasets are collected by the Belle~II experiment. Fixing the source size parameter to reproduce the deuteron data, we then predict the production rates for $H$ dibaryon and hypertriton in this energy region using a simple coalescence model. Our prediction on $H$ dibaryon production rate is below the limits set by the direct search at the Belle experiment, but in the range accessible to the Belle~II experiment. The systematic effect due to the MC modelling of quarks and gluon fragmentation into baryons is reduced deriving a new tuning of the \pythia MonteCarlo generator using the available measurement of single- and double-particle spectra in $\Upsilon$ decays.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.14185
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21419996
title Euclid preparation. XXIV. Calibration of the halo mass function in $\Lambda(\nu)$CDM cosmologies
first_author Euclid Collaboration
author Euclid Collaboration, T. Castro, A. Fumagalli, R. E. Angulo, S. Bocquet, S. Borgani, C. Carbone, J. Dakin, K. Dolag, C. Giocoli, P. Monaco, A. Ragagnin, A. Saro, E. Sefusatti, M. Costanzi, A. Amara, L. Amendola, M. Baldi, R. Bender, C. Bodendorf, E. Branchini, M. Brescia, S. Camera, V. Capobianco, J. Carretero, M. Castellano, S. Cavuoti, A. Cimatti, R. Cledassou, G. Congedo, L. Conversi, Y. Copin, L. Corcione, F. Courbin, A. Da Silva, H. Degaudenzi, M. Douspis, F. Dubath, C. A. J. Duncan, X. Dupac, S. Farrens, S. Ferriol, P. Fosalba, M. Frailis, E. Franceschi, S. Galeotta, B. Garilli, B. Gillis, A. Grazian, F. Gruppi, S. V. H. Haugan, F. Hormuth, A. Hornstrup, P. Hudelot, K. Jahnke, S. Kermiche, T. Kitching, M. Kunz, H. Kurki-Suonio, P. B. Lilje, I. Lloro, O. Mansutti, O. Marggraf, M. Meneghetti, E. Merlin, G. Meylan, M. Moresco, L. Moscardini, E. Munari, S. M. Niemi, C. Padilla, S. Paltani, F. Pasian, K. Pedersen, V. Pettorino, S. Pires, G. Polenta, M. Poncet, L. Popa, L. Pozzetti, F. Raison, R. Rebolo, A. Renzi, J. Rhodes, G. Riccio, E. Romelli, R. Saglia, D. Sapone, B. Sartoris, P. Schneider, G. Seidel, G. Sirri, L. Stanco, P. Tallada Crespí, A. N. Taylor, R. Toledo-Moreo, F. Torradeflot, I. Tutusaus, E. A. Valentijn, L. Valenziano, T. Vassallo, Y. Wang, J. Weller, A. Zacchei, G. Zamorani, S. Andreon, S. Bardelli, E. Bozzo, C. Colodro-Conde, D. Di Ferdinando, M. Farina, J. Graciá-Carpio, V. Lindholm, C. Neissner, V. Scottez, M. Tenti, E. Zucca, C. Baccigalupi, A. Balaguera-Antolínez, M. Ballardini, F. Bernardeau, A. Biviano, A. Blanchard, A. S. Borlaff, C. Burigana, R. Cabanac, A. Cappi, C. S. Carvalho, S. Casas, G. Castignani, A. Cooray, J. Coupon, H. M. Courtois, S. Davini, G. De Lucia, G. Desprez, H. Dole, J. A. Escartin, S. Escoffier, F. Finelli, K. Ganga, J. Garcia-Bellido, K. George, G. Gozaliasl, H. Hildebrandt, I. Hook, S. Ilić, V. Kansal, E. Keihanen, C. C. Kirkpatrick, A. Loureiro, J. Macias-Perez, M. Magliocchetti, R. Maoli, S. Marcin, M. Martinelli, N. Martinet, S. Matthew, M. Maturi, R. B. Metcalf, G. Morgante, S. Nadathur, A. A. Nucita, L. Patrizii, A. Peel, V. Popa, C. Porciani, D. Potter, A. Pourtsidou, M. Pöntinen, A. G. Sánchez, Z. Sakr, M. Schirmer, M. Sereno, A. Spurio Mancini, R. Teyssier, J. Valiviita, A. Veropalumbo, M. Viel
abstract Euclid's photometric galaxy cluster survey has the potential to be a very competitive cosmological probe. The main cosmological probe with observations of clusters is their number count, within which the halo mass function (HMF) is a key theoretical quantity. We present a new calibration of the analytic HMF, at the level of accuracy and precision required for the uncertainty in this quantity to be subdominant with respect to other sources of uncertainty in recovering cosmological parameters from Euclid cluster counts. Our model is calibrated against a suite of N-body simulations using a Bayesian approach taking into account systematic errors arising from numerical effects in the simulation. First, we test the convergence of HMF predictions from different N-body codes, by using initial conditions generated with different orders of Lagrangian Perturbation theory, and adopting different simulation box sizes and mass resolution. Then, we quantify the effect of using different halo-finder algorithms, and how the resulting differences propagate to the cosmological constraints. In order to trace the violation of universality in the HMF, we also analyse simulations based on initial conditions characterised by scale-free power spectra with different spectral indexes, assuming both Einstein--de Sitter and standard $\Lambda$CDM expansion histories. Based on these results, we construct a fitting function for the HMF that we demonstrate to be sub-percent accurate in reproducing results from 9 different variants of the $\Lambda$CDM model including massive neutrinos cosmologies. The calibration systematic uncertainty is largely sub-dominant with respect to the expected precision of future mass-observation relations; with the only notable exception of the effect due to the halo finder, that could lead to biased cosmological inference.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.02174
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21423845
title Cosmological simulations with rare and frequent dark matter self-interactions
first_author Moritz S. Fischer
author Moritz S. Fischer, Marcus Brüggen, Kai Schmidt-Hoberg, Klaus Dolag, Felix Kahlhoefer, Antonio Ragagnin, Andrew Robertson
abstract Dark matter (DM) with self-interactions is a promising solution for the small-scale problems of the standard cosmological model. Here we perform the first cosmological simulation of frequent DM self-interactions, corresponding to small-angle DM scatterings. The focus of our analysis lies in finding and understanding differences to the traditionally assumed rare DM (large-angle) self scatterings. For this purpose, we compute the distribution of DM densities, the matter power spectrum, the two-point correlation function and the halo and subhalo mass functions. Furthermore, we investigate the density profiles of the DM haloes and their shapes. We find that overall large-angle and small-angle scatterings behave fairly similarly with a few exceptions. In particular, the number of satellites is considerably suppressed for frequent compared to rare self-interactions with the same cross-section. Overall we observe that while differences between the two cases may be difficult to establish using a single measure, the degeneracy may be broken through a combination of multiple ones. For instance, the combination of satellite counts with halo density or shape profiles could allow discriminating between rare and frequent self-interactions. As a by-product of our analysis, we provide - for the first time - upper limits on the cross-section for frequent self-interactions.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2207

source harvard
id 21435566
title DustPy: A Python Package for Dust Evolution in Protoplanetary Disks
first_author Sebastian M. Stammler
author Sebastian M. Stammler, Tilman Birnstiel
abstract Many processes during the evolution of protoplanetary disks and during planet formation are highly sensitive to the sizes of dust particles that are present in the disk: the efficiency of dust accretion in the disk and volatile transport on dust particles, gravoturbulent instabilities leading to the formation of planetesimals, or the accretion of pebbles onto large planetary embryos to form giant planets are typical examples of processes that depend on the sizes of the dust particles involved. Furthermore, radiative properties like absorption or scattering opacities depend on the particle sizes. To interpret observations of dust in protoplanetary disks, a proper estimate of the dust particle sizes is needed. We present DustPy: a Python package to simulate dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. DustPy solves gas and dust transport including viscous advection and diffusion as well as collisional growth of dust particles. DustPy is written with a modular concept, such that every aspect of the model can be easily modified or extended to allow for a multitude of research opportunities.
journal The Astrophysical Journal
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 935
publication_type article
eprint
pages 16
issue 1
doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac7d58

source harvard
id 21462892
title TOI-1468: A system of two transiting planets, a super-Earth and a mini-Neptune, on opposite sides of the radius valley
first_author P. Chaturvedi
author P. Chaturvedi, P. Bluhm, E. Nagel, A. P. Hatzes, G. Morello, M. Brady, J. Korth, K. Molaverdikhani, D. Kossakowski, J. A. Caballero, E. W. Guenther, E. Pallé, N. Espinoza, A. Seifahrt, N. Lodieu, C. Cifuentes, E. Furlan, P. J. Amado, T. Barclay, J. Bean, V. J. S. Béjar, G. Bergond, A. W. Boyle, D. Ciardi, K. A. Collins, K. I. Collins, E. Esparza-Borges, A. Fukui, C. L. Gnilka, R. Goeke, P. Guerra, Th. Henning, E. Herrero, S. B. Howell, S. V. Jeffers, J. M. Jenkins, E. L. N. Jensen, D. Kasper, T. Kodama, D. W. Latham, M. J. López-González, R. Luque, D. Montes, J. C. Morales, M. Mori, F. Murgas, N. Narita, G. Nowak, H. Parviainen, V. M. Passegger, A. Quirrenbach, S. Reffert, A. Reiners, I. Ribas, G. R. Ricker, E. Rodríguez, C. Rodríguez-López, M. Schlecker, R. P. Schwarz, A. Schweitzer, S. Seager, G. Stefánsson, C. Stockdale, L. Tal-Or, J. D. Twicken, S. Vanaverbeke, G. Wang, D. Watanabe, J. N. Winn, M. Zechmeister
abstract We report the discovery and characterization of two small transiting planets orbiting the bright M3.0V star TOI-1468 (LSPM J0106+1913), whose transit signals were detected in the photometric time series in three sectors of the TESS mission. We confirm the e planetary nature of both of them using precise radial velocity measurements from the CARMENES and MAROON-X spectrographs, and supplement them with ground-based transit photometry. A joint analysis of all these data reveals that the shorter-period planet, TOI-1468 b ($P_{\rm b}$ = 1.88 d), has a planetary mass of $M_{\rm b} = 3.21\pm0.24$ $M_{\oplus}$ and a radius of $R_{\rm b} =1.280^{+0.038}_{-0.039} R_{\oplus}$, resulting in a density of $\rho_{\rm b} = 8.39^{+ 1.05}_{- 0.92}$ g cm$^{-3}$, which is consistent with a mostly rocky composition. For the outer planet, TOI-1468 c ($P_{\rm c} = 15.53$ d), we derive a mass of $M_{\rm c} = 6.64^{+ 0.67}_{- 0.68}$ $M_{\oplus}$, a radius of $R_{\rm c} = 2.06\pm0.04\,R_{\oplus}$, and a bulk density of $\rho_{c} = 2.00^{+ 0.21}_{- 0.19}$ g cm$^{-3}$, which corresponds to a rocky core composition with a H/He gas envelope. These planets are located on opposite sides of the radius valley, making our system an interesting discovery as there are only a handful of other systems with the same properties. This discovery can further help determine a more precise location of the radius valley for small planets around M dwarfs and, therefore, shed more light on planet formation and evolution scenarios.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.10351
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21459531
title A Stream Come True -- Connecting tidal tails, shells, streams, and planes with galaxy kinematics and formation history
first_author Lucas M. Valenzuela
author Lucas M. Valenzuela, Rhea-Silvia Remus
abstract Context. The rapidly improving quality and resolution of both low surface brightness observations and cosmological simulations of galaxies enables an increasingly thorough investigation of the imprints of the formation history in the outer, unrelaxed regions of galaxies, and a direct comparison to another tracer of galaxy formation, the internal kinematics. Aims. Using the state-of-the-art hydrodynamical cosmological simulation Magneticum Pathfinder, we identify tidal tails, shells, streams, and satellite planes, and connect their existence to the amount of rotational support and the formation histories of the host galaxies. Methods. Tidal features are visually classified from a three-dimensional rendering of the simulated galaxies by several scientists independently. Only features that were identified by at least half of the participating individuals are considered as existing features. The results are compared to observations of the MATLAS survey. Results. Shells are preferentially found around kinematically slowly rotating galaxies in both simulations and observations, while streams can be found around all kind of galaxies with a slightly higher probability to be present around less rotationally supported galaxies. Tails and satellite planes, however, appear independently of the internal kinematics of the central galaxy, indicating that they are formed through processes that have not (yet) affected the internal kinematics. Conclusions. As shells are formed through radial merger events while streams are remnants of circular merger infall, this suggests that the orbital angular momentum of the merger event could play a more crucial role in transforming the host galaxy than previously anticipated. The existence of a shell around a given slow rotator can further be used to distinguish the radial merger formation scenario from other formation pathways of slow rotators.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.08443
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21828791
title Recent advances in charm mixing and CP violation at LHCb
first_author Tommaso Pajero
author Tommaso Pajero
abstract After playing a pivotal role in the birth of the Standard Model in the 70s, the study of charm physics has undergone a revival during the last decade, triggered by a wealth of precision measurements from the charm and B factories, and from the CDF and especially the LHCb experiments. In this paper, we sum up how the unique phenomenology of charmed hadrons can be used to test the Standard Model and we review the latest measurements performed in this field by the LHCb experiment. These include the historic first observations of CP violation and of a nonzero mass difference between the charmed neutral-meson mass eigenstates, the most precise determination of their decay-width difference to date, and a search for time-dependent CP violation reaching the unprecedented precision of 10−4. These results challenge our comprehension of nonperturbative strong interactions, and their interpretation calls for further studies on both the theoretical and experimental sides. The upcoming upgrades of the LHCb experiment will play a leading role in this quest.
journal Modern Physics Letters A
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 37
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 24
doi 10.1142/S0217732322300129

source harvard
id 21329909
title Cosmological simulations predict that AGN preferentially live in gas-rich, star-forming galaxies despite effective feedback
first_author S. R. Ward
author S. R. Ward, C. M. Harrison, T. Costa, V. Mainieri
abstract Negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is the leading mechanism for the quenching of massive galaxies in the vast majority of modern galaxy evolution models. However, direct observational evidence that AGN feedback causes quenching on a population scale is lacking. Studies have shown that luminous AGN are preferentially located in gas-rich and star-forming galaxies, an observation that has sometimes been suggested to be in tension with a negative AGN feedback picture. We investigate three of the current cosmological simulations (IllustrisTNG, EAGLE, and SIMBA) along with post-processed models for molecular hydrogen gas masses and perform similar tests to those used by observers. We find that the simulations predict: (i) no strong negative trends between L<SUB>bol</SUB> and $f_{\mathrm{ H}_2}$ or specific star formation rate (sSFR); (ii) both high-luminosity ($L_{\rm {bol}} \ge 10^{44}\rm {\, erg\, s^{-1}}$) and high Eddington ratio (λ<SUB>Edd</SUB> $\ge 1{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$) AGN are preferentially located in galaxies with high molecular gas fractions and sSFR; and (iii) that the gas-depleted and quenched fractions of AGN host galaxies are lower than a control sample of non-active galaxies. These three findings are in qualitative agreement with observational samples at z = 0 and z = 2 and show that such results are not in tension with the presence of strong AGN feedback, which all simulations we employ require to produce realistic massive galaxies. However, we also find quantifiable differences between predictions from the simulations, which could allow us to observationally test the different subgrid feedback models.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 514
publication_type article
eprint
pages 22
issue 2
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1219

source harvard
id 21384735
title Superresolution trends in the ALMA Taurus survey: structured inner discs and compact discs
first_author Jeff Jennings
author Jeff Jennings, Marco Tazzari, Cathie J. Clarke, Richard A. Booth, Giovanni P. Rosotti
abstract The 1.33-mm survey of protoplanetary discs in the Taurus molecular cloud found annular gaps and rings to be common in extended sources (≳ 55AU), when their 1D visibility distributions were fit parametrically. We first demonstrate the advantages and limitations of non-parametric visibility fits for data at the survey's 0.12-arcsec resolution. Then we use the non-parametric model in Frankenstein (frank) to identify new substructure in three compact and seven extended sources. Among the new features, we identify three trends: a higher occurrence rate of substructure in the survey's compact discs than previously seen, underresolved (potentially azimuthally asymmetric) substructure in the innermost disc of extended sources, and a 'shoulder' on the trailing edge of a ring in discs with strong depletion at small radii. Noting the shoulder morphology is present in multiple discs observed at higher resolution, we postulate it is tracing a common physical mechanism. We further demonstrate how a superresolution frank brightness profile is useful in motivating an accurate parametric model, using the highly structured source DL Tau in which frank finds two new rings. Finally, we show that sparse (u, v) plane sampling may be masking the presence of substructure in several additional compact survey sources.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 514
publication_type article
eprint
pages 21
issue 4
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1770

source harvard
id 21423338
title Primordial Lepton Asymmetries in the Precision Cosmology Era: Current Status and Future Sensitivities from BBN and the CMB
first_author Miguel Escudero
author Miguel Escudero, Alejandro Ibarra, Victor Maura
abstract Using a new sample of extremely metal poor systems, the EMPRESS survey has recently reported a primordial helium abundance that is $3\sigma$ smaller than the prediction from the Standard BBN scenario. This measurement could be interpreted as a hint for a primordial lepton asymmetry in the electron neutrino flavor. Motivated by the EMPRESS results, we present a comprehensive analysis of the lepton asymmetry using measurements of the abundances of primordial elements, along with CMB data from Planck. Assuming that there is no dark radiation in our Universe, we find an electron neutrino chemical potential $\xi_{\nu_e} = 0.037 \pm 0.013$, which deviates from zero by $2.8\sigma$. If no assumption is made on the abundance of dark radiation in the Universe, the chemical potential is $\xi_{\nu_e} = 0.037 \pm 0.020$, which deviates from zero by $1.9\sigma$. We also find that this result is rather insensitive to the choice of nuclear reaction rates. If the true helium abundance corresponds to the EMPRESS central value, future CMB observations from the Simons Observatory and CMB-S4 will increase the significance for a non-zero lepton asymmetry to $4\sigma$ and $5\sigma$ respectively, assuming no dark radiation, or to $3\sigma$ when no assumption is made on the abundance of dark radiation.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.03201
pages
issue
doi

source inspirehep
id 2144398
title Insights on the origin of ORCs from cosmological simulations
first_author Dolag, Klaus
author Klaus Dolag, Ludwig M. Böss, Bärbel S. Koribalski, Ulrich P. Steinwandel, Milena Valentini
abstract We investigate shock structures driven by merger events in high-resolution simulations that result in a galaxy with a virial mass M ~ 1e12 Msol. We find that the sizes and morphologies of the internal shocks resemble remarkably well those of the newly-detected class of odd radio circles (ORCs). This would highlight a so-far overlooked mechanism to form radio rings, shells and even more complex structures around elliptical galaxies. Mach numbers of M = 2-3 for such internal shocks are in agreement with the spectral indices of the observed ORCs. We estimate that ~5 percent of galaxies could undergo merger events which occasionally lead to such prominent structures within the galactic halo during their lifetime, explaining the low number of observed ORCs. At the time when the shock structures are matching the physical sizes of the observed ORCs, the central galaxies are typically classified as early-type galaxies, with no ongoing star formation, in agreement with observational findings. Although the energy released by such mergers could potentially power the observed radio luminosity already in Milky-Way-like halos, our predicted luminosity from a simple, direct shock acceleration model is much smaller than the observed one. Considering the estimated number of candidates from our cosmological simulations and the higher observed energies, we suggest that the proposed scenario is more likely for halo masses around 1e13 Msol in agreement with the observed stellar masses of the galaxies at the center of ORCs.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type
eprint 2208.15003
pages
issue
doi

source inspirehep
id 2140023
title Extending empirical constraints on the SZ-mass scaling relation to higher redshifts via HST weak lensing measurements of nine clusters from the SPT-SZ survey at $z\gtrsim1$
first_author Zohren, Hannah
author Hannah Zohren, Tim Schrabback, Sebastian Bocquet, Martin Sommer, Fatimah Raihan, Beatriz Hernández-Martín, Ole Marggraf, Behzad Ansarinejad, Matthew B. Bayliss, Lindsey E. Bleem, Thomas Erben, Henk Hoekstra, Benjamin Floyd, Michael D. Gladders, Florian Kleinebreil, Michael A. McDonald, Mischa Schirmer, Diana Scognamiglio, Keren Sharon, Angus H. Wright
abstract We present a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) weak gravitational lensing study of nine distant and massive galaxy clusters with redshifts $1.0 \lesssim z \lesssim 1.7$ ($z_\mathrm{median} = 1.4$) and Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SZ) detection significance $\xi > 6.0$ from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey. We measured weak lensing galaxy shapes in HST/ACS F606W and F814W images and used additional observations from HST/WFC3 in F110W and VLT/FORS2 in $U_\mathrm{HIGH}$ to preferentially select background galaxies at $z\gtrsim 1.8$, achieving a high purity. We combined recent redshift estimates from the CANDELS/3D-HST and HUDF fields to infer an improved estimate of the source redshift distribution. We measured weak lensing masses by fitting the tangential reduced shear profiles with spherical Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) models. We obtained the largest lensing mass in our sample for the cluster SPT-CLJ2040$-$4451, thereby confirming earlier results that suggest a high lensing mass of this cluster compared to X-ray and SZ mass measurements. Combining our weak lensing mass constraints with results obtained by previous studies for lower redshift clusters, we extended the calibration of the scaling relation between the unbiased SZ detection significance $\zeta$ and the cluster mass for the SPT-SZ survey out to higher redshifts. We found that the mass scale inferred from our highest redshift bin ($1.2 < z < 1.7$) is consistent with an extrapolation of constraints derived from lower redshifts, albeit with large statistical uncertainties. Thus, our results show a similar tendency as found in previous studies, where the cluster mass scale derived from the weak lensing data is lower than the mass scale expected in a Planck $\nu\Lambda$CDM (i.e. $\nu$$\Lambda$ Cold Dark Matter) cosmology given the SPT-SZ cluster number counts.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type
eprint 2208.10232
pages
issue
doi

source inspirehep
id 2138934
title The DESI Survey Validation: Results from Visual Inspection of the Quasar Survey Spectra
first_author Alexander, David M.
author David M. Alexander, Tamara M. Davis, E. Chaussidon, V.A. Fawcett, Alma X. Gonzalez-Morales, Ting-Wen Lan, Christophe Yeche, S. Ahlen, J.N. Aguilar, E. Armengaud, S. Bailey, D. Brooks, Z. Cai, R. Canning, A. Carr, S. Chabanier, Marie-Claude Cousinou, K. Dawson, A. de la Macorra, A. Dey, Biprateep Dey, G. Dhungana, A.C. Edge, S. Eftekharzadeh, K. Fanning, James Farr, A. Font-Ribera, J. Garcia-Bellido, Lehman Garrison, E. Gaztanaga, Satya Gontcho A. Gontcho, C. Gordon, Stefany Guadalupe Medellin Gonzalez, J. Guy, Hiram K. Herrera-Alcantar, L. Jiang, S. Juneau, Naim Karacayli, R. Kehoe, T. Kisner, A. Kovacs, M. Landriau, Michael E. Levi, C. Magneville, P. Martini, Aaron M. Meisner, M. Mezcua, R. Miquel, P. Montero Camacho, J. Moustakas, Andrea Munoz-Gutierrez, Adam D. Myers, S. Nadathur, L. Napolitano, J.D. Nie, N. Palanque-Delabrouille, Z. Pan, W.J. Percival, I. Perez-Rafols, C. Poppett, F. Prada, Cesar Ramirez-Perez, C. Ravoux, D.J. Rosario, M. Schubnell, Gregory Tarle, M. Walther, B. Weiner, S. Youles, Zhimin Zhou, H. Zou, Siwei Zou
abstract A key component of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey validation (SV) is a detailed visual inspection (VI) of the optical spectroscopic data to quantify key survey metrics. In this paper we present results from VI of the quasar survey using deep coadded SV spectra. We show that the majority (~70%) of the main-survey targets are spectroscopically confirmed as quasars, with ~16% galaxies, ~6% stars, and ~8% low-quality spectra lacking reliable features. A non-negligible fraction of the quasars are misidentified by the standard DESI spectroscopic pipeline but we show that the majority can be recovered using post-pipeline "afterburner" quasar-identification approaches. We combine these "afterburners" with our standard pipeline to create a modified pipeline to improve the overall quasar completeness. At the depth of the main DESI survey both pipelines achieve a good-redshift purity (reliable redshifts measured within 3000 km/s) of ~99%; however, the modified pipeline recovers ~94% of the visually inspected quasars, as compared to just ~86% from the standard pipeline. We demonstrate that both pipelines achieve an overall redshift precision and accuracy of ~100 km/s and ~70 km/s, respectively. We constructed composite spectra to investigate why some quasars are missed by the standard spectroscopic pipeline and find that they are more host-galaxy dominated and/or dust reddened than the standard-pipeline quasars. We also show example spectra to demonstrate the overall diversity of the DESI quasar sample and provide strong-lensing candidates where two targets contribute to a single DESI spectrum.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type
eprint 2208.08517
pages
issue
doi

source inspirehep
id 2136130
title Virgo: Scalable Unsupervised Classification of Cosmological Shock Waves
first_author Lamparth, Max
author Max Lamparth, Ludwig Böss, Ulrich Steinwandel, Klaus Dolag
abstract Cosmological shock waves are essential to understanding the formation of cosmological structures. To study them, scientists run computationally expensive high-resolution 3D hydrodynamic simulations. Interpreting the simulation results is challenging because the resulting data sets are enormous, and the shock wave surfaces are hard to separate and classify due to their complex morphologies and multiple shock fronts intersecting. We introduce a novel pipeline, Virgo, combining physical motivation, scalability, and probabilistic robustness to tackle this unsolved unsupervised classification problem. To this end, we employ kernel principal component analysis with low-rank matrix approximations to denoise data sets of shocked particles and create labeled subsets. We perform supervised classification to recover full data resolution with stochastic variational deep kernel learning. We evaluate on three state-of-the-art data sets with varying complexity and achieve good results. The proposed pipeline runs automatically, has only a few hyperparameters, and performs well on all tested data sets. Our results are promising for large-scale applications, and we highlight now enabled future scientific work.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type
eprint 2208.06859
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21499684
title Analytical evaluation of cosmological correlation functions
first_author Till Heckelbacher
author Till Heckelbacher, Ivo Sachs, Evgeny Skvortsov, Pierre Vanhove
abstract Using the Schwinger-Keldysh-formalism, reformulated in [1] as an effective field theory in Euclidean anti-de Sitter, we evaluate the one-loop cosmological four-point function of a conformally coupled interacting scalar field in de Sitter. Recasting the Witten cosmological correlator as flat space Feynman integrals, we evaluate the one-loop cosmological four-point functions in de Sitter space in terms of single-valued multiple polylogarithms. From it we derive anomalous dimensions and OPE coefficients of the dual conformal field theory at space-like, future infinity. In particular, we find an interesting degeneracy in the anomalous dimensions relating operators of neighboring spins.
journal Journal of High Energy Physics
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 2022
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 8
doi 10.1007/JHEP08(2022)139

source harvard
id 21505184
title The HD 260655 system: Two rocky worlds transiting a bright M dwarf at 10 pc
first_author R. Luque
author R. Luque, B. J. Fulton, M. Kunimoto, P. J. Amado, P. Gorrini, S. Dreizler, C. Hellier, G. W. Henry, K. Molaverdikhani, G. Morello, L. Peña-Moñino, M. Pérez-Torres, F. J. Pozuelos, Y. Shan, G. Anglada-Escudé, V. J. S. Béjar, G. Bergond, A. W. Boyle, J. A. Caballero, D. Charbonneau, D. R. Ciardi, S. Dufoer, N. Espinoza, M. Everett, D. Fischer, A. P. Hatzes, Th. Henning, K. Hesse, A. W. Howard, S. B. Howell, H. Isaacson, S. V. Jeffers, J. M. Jenkins, S. R. Kane, J. Kemmer, S. Khalafinejad, R. C. Kidwell, D. Kossakowski, D. W. Latham, J. Lillo-Box, J. J. Lissauer, D. Montes, J. Orell-Miquel, E. Pallé, D. Pollacco, A. Quirrenbach, S. Reffert, A. Reiners, I. Ribas, G. R. Ricker, L. A. Rogers, J. Sanz-Forcada, M. Schlecker, A. Schweitzer, S. Seager, A. Shporer, K. G. Stassun, S. Stock, L. Tal-Or, E. B. Ting, T. Trifonov, S. Vanaverbeke, R. Vanderspek, J. Villaseñor, J. N. Winn, J. G. Winters, M. R. Zapatero Osorio
abstract We report the discovery of a multiplanetary system transiting the M0 V dwarf HD 260655 (GJ 239, TOI-4599). The system consists of at least two transiting planets, namely HD 260655 b, with a period of 2.77 d, a radius of R<SUB>b</SUB> = 1.240 ± 0.023 R<SUB>⊕</SUB>, a mass of M<SUB>b</SUB> = 2.14 ± 0.34 M<SUB>⊕</SUB>, and a bulk density of ρ<SUB>b</SUB> = 6.2 ± 1.0 g cm<SUP>−3</SUP>, and HD 260655 c, with a period of 5.71 d, a radius of {R_c} = 1.533<SUB> - 0.046</SUB><SUP> + 0.051</SUP>{R_ \oplus }, a mass of M<SUB>c</SUB> = 3.09 ± 0.48 M<SUB>⊕</SUB>, and a bulk density of {ρ _c} = 4.7<SUB> - 0.8</SUB><SUP> + 0.9</SUP>{{g}} g cm<SUP>−3</SUP>. The planets have been detected in transit by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission and confirmed independently with archival and new precise radial velocities obtained with the HIRES and CARMENES instruments since 1998 and 2016, respectively. At a distance of 10 pc, HD 260655 has become the fourth closest known multitransiting planet system after HD 219134, LTT 1445 A, and AU Mic. Due to the apparent brightness of the host star (J = 6.7 mag), both planets are among the most suitable rocky worlds known today for atmospheric studies with the James Webb Space Telescope, both in transmission and emission.
journal Astronomy and Astrophysics
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 664
publication_type article
eprint
pages 23
issue
doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202243834

source harvard
id 21530563
title Asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star properties in relativistic ab initio theory in the full Dirac space
first_author Sibo Wang
author Sibo Wang, Hui Tong, Qiang Zhao, Chencan Wang, Peter Ring, Jie Meng
abstract The long-standing controversy about the isospin dependence of the effective Dirac mass in ab initio calculations of asymmetric nuclear matter is clarified by solving the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock equations in the full Dirac space. The symmetry energy and its slope parameter at the saturation density are E<SUB>sym</SUB>(ρ<SUB>0</SUB>) =33.1 MeV and L =65.2 MeV, in agreement with empirical and experimental values. Further applications predict the neutron star radius R<SUB>1.4 <SUB>M ⊙</SUB></SUB>≈12 km and the maximum mass of a neutron star M<SUB>max</SUB>≤2.4 M<SUB>⊙</SUB> .
journal Physical Review C
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 106
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 2
doi 10.1103/PhysRevC.106.L021305

source harvard
id 21530140
title Bridging scales in a multiscale pattern-forming system
first_author Laeschkir Würthner
author Laeschkir Würthner, Fridtjof Brauns, Grzegorz Pawlik, Jacob Halatek, Jacob Kerssemakers, Cees Dekker, Erwin Frey
abstract Biological processes operate in a spatially and temporally ordered manner to reliably fulfill their function. This is achieved by pattern formation, which generally involves many different spatial and temporal scales. The resulting multiscale patterns exhibit complex dynamics for which it is difficult to find a simplified description at large scales while preserving information about the patterns at small scales. Here, we introduce an approach for mass-conserving reaction-diffusion systems that is based on a linear theory and therefore conceptually simple to apply. We investigate multiscale patterns of the Min protein system and show that our approach enables us to explain and predict the intricate dynamics from the large-scale mass redistribution of the total protein densities.
journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Science
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 119
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 33
doi 10.1073/pnas.2206888119

source harvard
id 21539657
title Heavy quarkonium dynamics at next-to-leading order in the binding energy over temperature
first_author Nora Brambilla
author Nora Brambilla, Miguel Ángel Escobedo, Ajaharul Islam, Michael Strickland, Anurag Tiwari, Antonio Vairo, Peter Vander Griend
abstract Using the potential non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics (pNRQCD) effective field theory, we derive a Lindblad equation for the evolution of the heavy-quarkonium reduced density matrix that is accurate to next-to-leading order (NLO) in the ratio of the binding energy of the state to the temperature of the medium. The resulting NLO Lindblad equation can be used to more reliably describe heavy-quarkonium evolution in the quark-gluon plasma at low temperatures compared to the leading-order truncation. For phenomenological application, we numerically solve the resulting NLO Lindblad equation using the quantum trajectories algorithm. To achieve this, we map the solution of the three-dimensional Lindblad equation to the solution of an ensemble of one-dimensional Schrödinger evolutions with Monte-Carlo sampled quantum jumps. Averaging over the Monte-Carlo sampled quantum jumps, we obtain the solution to the NLO Lindblad equation without truncation in the angular momentum quantum number of the states considered. We also consider the evolution of the system using only the complex effective Hamiltonian without stochastic jumps and find that this provides a reliable approximation for the ground state survival probability at LO and NLO. Finally, we make comparisons with our prior leading-order pNRQCD results and experimental data available from the ATLAS, ALICE, and CMS collaborations.
journal Journal of High Energy Physics
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 2022
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 8
doi 10.1007/JHEP08(2022)303

source harvard
id 21384725
title On the time evolution of the M<SUB>d</SUB>-M<SUB>⋆</SUB> and Ṁ-M<SUB>⋆</SUB> correlations for protoplanetary discs: the viscous time-scale increases with stellar mass
first_author Alice Somigliana
author Alice Somigliana, Claudia Toci, Giovanni Rosotti, Giuseppe Lodato, Marco Tazzari, Carlo F. Manara, Leonardo Testi, Federico Lepri
abstract Large surveys of star-forming regions have unveiled power-law correlations between the stellar mass and the disc parameters, such as the disc mass $M_{\mathrm{d}} \!-\! {M_{\star }}$ and the accretion rate $\dot{M} \!-\! {M_{\star }}$. The observed slopes appear to be increasing with time, but the reason behind the establishment of these correlations and their subsequent evolution is still uncertain. We conduct a theoretical analysis of the impact of viscous evolution on power-law initial conditions for a population of protoplanetary discs. We find that, for evolved populations, viscous evolution enforces the two correlations to have the same slope, λ<SUB>m</SUB> = λ<SUB>acc</SUB>, and that this limit is uniquely determined by the initial slopes λ<SUB>m, 0</SUB> and λ<SUB>acc, 0</SUB>. We recover the increasing trend claimed from the observations when the difference in the initial values, δ<SUB>0</SUB> = λ<SUB>m, 0</SUB>-λ<SUB>acc, 0</SUB>, is larger than 1/2; moreover, we find that this increasing trend is a consequence of a positive correlation between the viscous time-scale and the stellar mass. We also present the results of disc population synthesis numerical simulations, that allow us to introduce a spread and analyse the effect of sampling, which show a good agreement with our analytical predictions. Finally, we perform a preliminary comparison of our numerical results with observational data, which allows us to constrain the parameter space of the initial conditions to λ<SUB>m, 0</SUB> ∈ [1.2, 2.1], λ<SUB>acc, 0</SUB> ∈ [0.7, 1.5].
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 514
publication_type article
eprint
pages 14
issue 4
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1587

source harvard
id 21435568
title Accreted or Not Accreted? The Fraction of Accreted Mass in Galaxies from the Magneticum Simulations and Observations
first_author Rhea-Silvia Remus
author Rhea-Silvia Remus, Duncan A. Forbes
abstract In the two-phase scenario of galaxy formation, a galaxy's stellar mass growth is first dominated by in-situ star formation, and subsequently by accretion. We analyze the radial distribution of the accreted stellar mass in ~500 galaxies from the (48 Mpc/h)<SUP>3</SUP> box volume of the hydrodynamical cosmological simulation Magneticum, in a stellar-mass range of 10<SUP>10</SUP> to 10<SUP>12</SUP> M <SUB>⊙</SUB>. We find that higher-mass galaxies have larger accreted fractions, as found in previous works, but predict generally higher accretion fractions for low-mass galaxies. Based on the 3D radial distribution of the accreted and in-situ components, we define six galaxy classes, from completely accretion to completely in-situ dominated, and measure the transition radii between in-situ and accretion-dominated regions for galaxies that reveal a transition. About 70% of our galaxies have one transition radius. However, about 10% of the galaxies are accretion dominated everywhere, and about 13% have two transition radii, with the center and the outskirts both being accretion dominated. We show that these classes are strongly correlated with the galaxy merger histories, especially with the cold gas fraction at the time of merging. We find high total in-situ (low accretion) fractions to be associated with smaller, lower-mass galaxies, lower central dark-matter fractions, and larger transition radii. Finally, we show that the dips in observed surface brightness profiles seen in many early-type galaxies do not correspond to the transition from in-situ to accretion-dominated regions, and that any inferred mass fractions are not indicative of the true accreted mass but contain information about the galaxies' dry-merger history.
journal The Astrophysical Journal
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume 935
publication_type article
eprint
pages 23
issue 1
doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac7b30

source harvard
id 21494329
title Importance of electron-positron pairs on the maximum possible luminosity of the accretion columns in ULXs
first_author V. Suleimanov
author V. Suleimanov, A. Mushtukov, I. Ognev, V. Doroshenko, K. Werner
abstract One of the models explaining the high luminosity of pulsing ultra-luminous X-ray sources (pULXs) was suggested by Mushtukov et al. (2015). They showed that the accretion columns on the surfaces of highly magnetized neutron stars can be very luminous due to opacity reduction in the high magnetic field. However, a strong magnetic field leads also to amplification of the electron-positron pairs creation. Therefore, increasing of the electron and positron number densities compensates the cross-section reduction, and the electron scattering opacity does not decrease with the magnetic field magnification. As a result, the maximum possible luminosity of the accretion column does not increase with the magnetic field. It ranges between 10$^{40} - 10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$ depending only slightly on the magnetic field strength.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 08
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.14237
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21255393
title Spectroscopic analysis of VVV CL001 cluster with MUSE
first_author J. Olivares Carvajal
author J. Olivares Carvajal, M. Zoccali, A. Rojas-Arriagada, R. Contreras Ramos, F. Gran, E. Valenti, J. H. Minniti
abstract Like most spiral galaxies, the Milky Way contains a population of blue, metal-poor globular clusters and another of red, metal-rich ones. Most of the latter belong to the bulge, and therefore they are poorly studied compared to the blue (halo) ones because they suffer higher extinction and larger contamination from field stars. These intrinsic difficulties, together with a lack of low-mass bulge globular clusters, are reasons to believe that their census is not complete yet. Indeed, a few new clusters have been confirmed in the last few years. One of them is VVV CL001, the subject of the present study. We present a new spectroscopic analysis of the recently confirmed globular cluster VVV CL001, made by means of MUSE@VLT integral field data. Individual spectra were extracted for stars in the VVV CL001 field. Radial velocities were derived by cross-correlation with synthetic templates. Coupled with proper motions from the VVV (VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea) survey, these data allow us to select 55 potential cluster members, for which we derive metallicities using the public code THE CANNON. The mean radial velocity of the cluster is V<SUB>helio</SUB> = -324.9 ± 0.8 km s<SUP>-1</SUP>, as estimated from 55 cluster members. This high velocity, together with a low metallicity [Fe/H] = -2.04 ± 0.02 dex, suggests that VVV CL001 could be a very old cluster. The estimated distance is d = 8.23 ± 0.46 kpc, placing the cluster in the Galactic bulge. Furthermore, both its current position and the orbital parameters suggest that VVV CL001 is most probably a bulge globular cluster.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 513
publication_type article
eprint
pages 11
issue 3
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac934

source harvard
id 21374176
title Simulating radio synchrotron emission in star-forming galaxies: small-scale magnetic dynamo and the origin of the far-infrared-radio correlation
first_author Christoph Pfrommer
author Christoph Pfrommer, Maria Werhahn, Rüdiger Pakmor, Philipp Girichidis, Christine M. Simpson
abstract In star-forming galaxies, the far-infrared (FIR) and radio-continuum luminosities obey a tight empirical relation over a large range of star-formation rates (SFR). To understand the physics, we examine magneto-hydrodynamic galaxy simulations, which follow the genesis of cosmic ray (CR) protons at supernovae and their advective and anisotropic diffusive transport. We show that gravitational collapse of the proto-galaxy generates a corrugated accretion shock, which injects turbulence and drives a small-scale magnetic dynamo. As the shock propagates outwards and the associated turbulence decays, the large velocity shear between the supersonically rotating cool disc with respect to the (partially) pressure-supported hot circumgalactic medium excites Kelvin-Helmholtz surface and body modes. Those interact non-linearly, inject additional turbulence and continuously drive multiple small-scale dynamos, which exponentially amplify weak seed magnetic fields. After saturation at small scales, they grow in scale to reach equipartition with thermal and CR energies in Milky Way-mass galaxies. In small galaxies, the magnetic energy saturates at the turbulent energy while it fails to reach equipartition with thermal and CR energies. We solve for steady-state spectra of CR protons, secondary electrons/positrons from hadronic CR-proton interactions with the interstellar medium, and primary shock-accelerated electrons at supernovae. The radio-synchrotron emission is dominated by primary electrons, irradiates the magnetised disc and bulge of our simulated Milky Way-mass galaxy and weakly traces bubble-shaped magnetically-loaded outflows. Our star-forming and star-bursting galaxies with saturated magnetic fields match the global FIR-radio correlation (FRC) across four orders of magnitude. Its intrinsic scatter arises due to (i) different magnetic saturation levels that result from different seed magnetic fields, (ii) different radio synchrotron luminosities for different specific SFRs at fixed SFR and (iii) a varying radio intensity with galactic inclination. In agreement with observations, several 100-pc-sized regions within star-forming galaxies also obey the FRC, while the centres of starbursts substantially exceed the FRC.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1808

source harvard
id 21385445
title Extensive study of nuclear uncertainties and their impact on the r-process nucleosynthesis in neutron star mergers
first_author I. Kullmann
author I. Kullmann, S. Goriely, O. Just, A. Bauswein, H. -T. Janka
abstract Theoretically predicted yields of elements created by the rapid neutron capture (r-) process carry potentially large uncertainties associated with incomplete knowledge of nuclear properties as well as approximative hydrodynamical modelling of the matter ejection processes. We present an in-depth study of the nuclear uncertainties by systematically varying theoretical nuclear input models that describe the experimentally unknown neutron-rich nuclei. This includes two frameworks for calculating the radiative neutron capture rates and six, four and four models for the nuclear masses, $\beta$-decay rates and fission properties, respectively. Our r-process nuclear network calculations are based on detailed hydrodynamical simulations of dynamically ejected material from NS-NS or NS-BH binary mergers plus the secular ejecta from BH-torus systems. The impact of nuclear uncertainties on the r-process abundance distribution and early radioactive heating rate is found to be modest (within a factor $\sim 20$ for individual $A&gt;90$ nuclei and a factor 2 for the heating rate), however the impact on the late-time heating rate is more significant and depends strongly on the contribution from fission. We witness significantly larger sensitivity to the nuclear physics input if only a single trajectory is used compared to considering ensembles of $\sim$200-300 trajectories, and the quantitative effects of the nuclear uncertainties strongly depend on the adopted conditions for the individual trajectory. We use the predicted Th/U ratio to estimate the cosmochronometric age of six metal-poor stars to set a lower limit of the age of the Galaxy and find the impact of the nuclear uncertainties to be up to 2 Gyr.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.07421
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21382979
title Condensed dark matter with a Yukawa interaction
first_author Raghuveer Garani
author Raghuveer Garani, Michel H. G. Tytgat, Jérôme Vandecasteele
abstract We explore the possible phases of a condensed dark matter (DM) candidate taken to be in the form of a fermion with a Yukawa coupling to a scalar particle, at zero temperature but at finite density. This theory essentially depends on only four parameters, the Yukawa coupling, the fermion mass, the scalar mediator mass, and the DM density. At low fermion densities we delimit the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS), Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) and crossover phases as a function of model parameters using the notion of scattering length. We further study the BCS phase by consistently including emergent effects such as the scalar density condensate and superfluid gaps. Within the mean field approximation, we derive the consistent set of gap equations, retaining their momentum dependence, and valid in both the non-relativistic and relativistic regimes. We present numerical solutions to the set of gap equations, in particular when the mediator mass is smaller and larger than the DM mass. Finally, we discuss the equation of state (EoS) and possible astrophysical implications for asymmetric DM.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.06928
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21371910
title Three-loop helicity amplitudes for quark-gluon scattering in QCD
first_author Fabrizio Caola
author Fabrizio Caola, Amlan Chakraborty, Giulio Gambuti, Andreas von Manteuffel, Lorenzo Tancredi
abstract We compute the three-loop helicity amplitudes for $q\bar{q} \to gg$ and its crossed partonic channels, in massless QCD. Our analytical results provide a non-trivial check of the color quadrupole contribution to the infrared poles for external states in different color representations. At high energies, the $qg \to qg$ amplitude shows the predicted factorized form from Regge theory and confirms previous results for the gluon Regge trajectory extracted from $qq' \to qq'$ and $gg \to gg$ scattering.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.03503
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21375418
title A multi-simulation study of relativistic SZ temperature scalings in galaxy clusters and groups
first_author Elizabeth Lee
author Elizabeth Lee, Dhayaa Anbajagane, Priyanka Singh, Jens Chluba, Daisuke Nagai, Scott T. Kay, Weiguang Cui, Klaus Dolag, Gustavo Yepes
abstract The Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect is a powerful tool in modern cosmology. With future observations promising ever improving SZ measurements, the relativistic corrections to the SZ signals from galaxy groups and clusters are increasingly relevant. As such, it is important to understand the differences between three temperature measures: (a) the average relativistic SZ (rSZ) temperature, (b) the mass-weighted temperature relevant for the thermal SZ (tSZ) effect, and (c) the X-ray spectroscopic temperature. In this work, we compare these cluster temperatures, as predicted by the {\sc Bahamas} \&amp; {\sc Macsis}, {\sc Illustris-TNG}, {\sc Magneticum}, and {\sc The Three Hundred Project} simulations. Despite the wide range of simulation parameters, we find the SZ temperatures are consistent across the simulations. We estimate a $\simeq 10\%$ level correction from rSZ to clusters with $Y\simeq10^{-4}$~Mpc$^{-2}$. Our analysis confirms a systematic offset between the three temperature measures; with the rSZ temperature $\simeq 20\%$ larger than the other measures, and diverging further at higher redshifts. We demonstrate that these measures depart from simple self-similar evolution and explore how they vary with the defined radius of haloes. We investigate how different feedback prescriptions and resolution affect the observed temperatures, and discover the SZ temperatures are rather insensitive to these details. The agreement between simulations indicates an exciting avenue for observational and theoretical exploration, determining the extent of relativistic SZ corrections. We provide multiple simulation-based fits to the scaling relations for use in future SZ modelling.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.05834
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21385675
title Testing spin-dependent dark matter interactions with lithium aluminate targets in CRESST-III
first_author G. Angloher
author G. Angloher, S. Banik, G. Benato, A. Bento, A. Bertolini, R. Breier, C. Bucci, J. Burkhart, L. Canonica, A. D'Addabbo, S. Di Lorenzo, L. Einfalt, A. Erb, F. v. Feilitzsch, N. Ferreiro Iachellini, S. Fichtinger, D. Fuchs, A. Fuss, A. Garai, V. M. Ghete, S. Gerster, P. Gorla, P. V. Guillaumon, S. Gupta, D. Hauff, M. Ješkovský, J. Jochum, M. Kaznacheeva, A. Kinast, H. Kluck, H. Kraus, A. Langenkämper, M. Mancuso, L. Marini, L. Meyer, V. Mokina, A. Nilima, M. Olmi, T. Ortmann, C. Pagliarone, L. Pattavina, F. Petricca, W. Potzel, P. Povinec, F. Pröbst, F. Pucci, F. Reindl, J. Rothe, K. Schäffner, J. Schieck, D. Schmiedmayer, S. Schönert, C. Schwertner, M. Stahlberg, L. Stodolsky, C. Strandhagen, R. Strauss, I. Usherov, F. Wagner, M. Willers, V. Zema
abstract In the past decades, numerous experiments have emerged to unveil the nature of dark matter, one of the most discussed open questions in modern particle physics. Among them, the CRESST experiment, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, operates scintillating crystals as cryogenic phonon detectors. In this work, we present first results from the operation of two detector modules which both have 10.46 g LiAlO$_2$ targets in CRESST-III. The lithium contents in the crystal are $^6$Li, with an odd number of protons and neutrons, and $^7$Li, with an odd number of protons. By considering both isotopes of lithium and $^{27}$Al, we set the currently strongest cross section upper limits on spin-dependent interaction of dark matter with protons and neutrons for the mass region between 0.25 and 1.5 GeV/c$^2$.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.07640
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21374644
title CRESCENDO: An on-the-fly Fokker-Planck Solver for Spectral Cosmic Rays in Cosmological Simulations
first_author Ludwig M. Böss
author Ludwig M. Böss, Ulrich P. Steinwandel, Klaus Dolag, Harald Lesch
abstract Non-thermal emission from relativistic Cosmic Ray (CR) electrons gives insight into the strength and morphology of intra-cluster magnetic fields, as well as providing powerful tracers of structure formation shocks. Emission caused by CR protons on the other hand still challenges current observations and is therefore testing models of proton acceleration at intra-cluster shocks. Large-scale simulations including the effects of CRs have been difficult to achieve and have been mainly reduced to simulating an overall energy budget, or tracing CR populations in post-processing of simulation output and has often been done for either protons or electrons. We introduce CRESCENDO: Cosmic Ray Evolution with SpeCtral Electrons aND prOtons, an efficient on-the-fly Fokker-Planck solver to evolve distributions of CR protons and electrons within every resolution element of our simulation. The solver accounts for CR (re-)acceleration at intra-cluster shocks, based on results of recent PIC simulations, adiabatic changes and radiative losses of electrons. We show its performance in test cases as well as idealized galaxy cluster (GC) simulations. We apply the model to an idealized GC merger following best-fit parameters for CIZA J2242.4+5301-1 and study CR injection, radio relic morphology, spectral steepening and synchrotron emission.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.05087
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21341670
title Anapole Moment of Majorana Fermions and Implications for Direct Detection of Neutralino Dark Matter
first_author Alejandro Ibarra
author Alejandro Ibarra, Merlin Reichard, Ryo Nagai
abstract For Majorana fermions the anapole moment is the only allowed electromagnetic multipole moment. In this work we calculate the anapole moment induced at one-loop by the Yukawa and gauge interactions of a Majorana fermion, using the pinch technique to ensure the finiteness and gauge-invariance of the result. As archetypical example of a Majorana fermion, we calculate the anapole moment for the lightest neutralino in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, and specifically in the bino, wino and higgsino limits. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications of the anapole moment for the direct detection of dark matter in the form of Majorana fermions.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.01014
pages
issue
doi

source inspirehep
id 2111327
title Dark Energy Survey Year 3 Results: Constraints on extensions to $\Lambda$CDM with weak lensing and galaxy clustering
first_author Abbott, T.M.C.
author T.M.C. Abbott, M. Aguena, A. Alarcon, O. Alves, A. Amon, J. Annis, S. Avila, D. Bacon, E. Baxter, K. Bechtol, M.R. Becker, G.M. Bernstein, S. Birrer, J. Blazek, S. Bocquet, A. Brandao-Souza, S.L. Bridle, D. Brooks, D.L. Burke, H. Camacho, A. Campos, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, F.J. Castander, R. Cawthon, C. Chang, A. Chen, R. Chen, A. Choi, C. Conselice, J. Cordero, M. Costanzi, M. Crocce, L.N. da Costa, M.E.S. Pereira, C. Davis, T.M. Davis, J. DeRose, S. Desai, E. Di Valentino, H.T. Diehl, S. Dodelson, P. Doel, C. Doux, A. Drlica-Wagner, K. Eckert, T.F. Eifler, F. Elsner, J. Elvin-Poole, S. Everett, X. Fang, A. Farahi, I. Ferrero, A. Ferté, B. Flaugher, P. Fosalba, D. Friedel, O. Friedrich, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, M. Gatti, L. Giani, T. Giannantonio, G. Giannini, D. Gruen, R.A. Gruendl, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, N. Hamaus, I. Harrison, W.G. Hartley, K. Herner, S.R. Hinton, D.L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, H. Huang, E.M. Huff, D. Huterer, B. Jain, D.J. James, M. Jarvis, N. Jeffrey, T. Jeltema, A. Kovacs, E. Krause, K. Kuehn, N. Kuropatkin, O. Lahav, S. Lee, P.-F. Leget, P. Lemos, C.D. Leonard, A.R. Liddle, M. Lima, H. Lin, N. MacCrann, J.L. Marshall, J. McCullough, J. Mena-Fernández, F. Menanteau, R. Miquel, V. Miranda, J.J. Mohr, J. Muir, J. Myles, S. Nadathur, A. Navarro-Alsina, R.C. Nichol, R.L.C. Ogando, Y. Omori, A. Palmese, S. Pandey, Y. Park, M. Paterno, F. Paz-Chinchón, W.J. Percival, A. Pieres, A.A. Plazas Malagón, A. Porredon, J. Prat, M. Raveri, M. Rodriguez-Monroy, P. Rogozenski, R.P. Rollins, A.K. Romer, A. Roodman, R. Rosenfeld, A.J. Ross, E.S. Rykoff, S. Samuroff, C. Sánchez, E. Sanchez, J. Sanchez, D. Sanchez Cid, V. Scarpine, D. Scolnic, L.F. Secco, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, E. Sheldon, T. Shin, M. Smith, M. Soares-Santos, E. Suchyta, M. Tabbutt, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, C. To, A. Troja, M.A. Troxel, I. Tutusaus, T.N. Varga, M. Vincenzi, A.R. Walker, N. Weaverdyck, R.H. Wechsler, J. Weller, B. Yanny, B. Yin, Y. Zhang, J. Zuntz
abstract We constrain extensions to the $\Lambda$CDM model using measurements from the Dark Energy Survey's first three years of observations and external data. The DES data are the two-point correlation functions of weak gravitational lensing, galaxy clustering, and their cross-correlation. We use simulated data and blind analyses of real data to validate the robustness of our results. In many cases, constraining power is limited by the absence of nonlinear predictions that are reliable at our required precision. The models are: dark energy with a time-dependent equation of state, non-zero spatial curvature, sterile neutrinos, modifications of gravitational physics, and a binned $\sigma_8(z)$ model which serves as a probe of structure growth. For the time-varying dark energy equation of state evaluated at the pivot redshift we find $(w_{\rm p}, w_a)= (-0.99^{+0.28}_{-0.17},-0.9\pm 1.2)$ at 68% confidence with $z_{\rm p}=0.24$ from the DES measurements alone, and $(w_{\rm p}, w_a)= (-1.03^{+0.04}_{-0.03},-0.4^{+0.4}_{-0.3})$ with $z_{\rm p}=0.21$ for the combination of all data considered. Curvature constraints of $\Omega_k=0.0009\pm 0.0017$ and effective relativistic species $N_{\rm eff}=3.10^{+0.15}_{-0.16}$ are dominated by external data. For massive sterile neutrinos, we improve the upper bound on the mass $m_{\rm eff}$ by a factor of three compared to previous analyses, giving 95% limits of $(\Delta N_{\rm eff},m_{\rm eff})\leq (0.28, 0.20\, {\rm eV})$. We also constrain changes to the lensing and Poisson equations controlled by functions $\Sigma(k,z) = \Sigma_0 \Omega_{\Lambda}(z)/\Omega_{\Lambda,0}$ and $\mu(k,z)=\mu_0 \Omega_{\Lambda}(z)/\Omega_{\Lambda,0}$ respectively to $\Sigma_0=0.6^{+0.4}_{-0.5}$ from DES alone and $(\Sigma_0,\mu_0)=(0.04\pm 0.05,0.08^{+0.21}_{-0.19})$ for the combination of all data. Overall, we find no significant evidence for physics beyond $\Lambda$CDM.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type
eprint 2207.05766
pages
issue
doi

source inspirehep
id 2106148
title Updated neutrino mass constraints from galaxy clustering and CMB lensing-galaxy cross-correlation measurements
first_author Tanseri, Isabelle
author Isabelle Tanseri, Steffen Hagstotz, Sunny Vagnozzi, Elena Giusarma, Katherine Freese
abstract We revisit cosmological constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses $\Sigma m_\nu$ from a combination of full-shape BOSS galaxy clustering [$P(k)$] data and measurements of the cross-correlation between Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) lensing convergence and BOSS galaxy overdensity maps [$C^{\kappa \text{g}}_{\ell}$], using a simple but theoretically motivated model for the scale-dependent galaxy bias in auto- and cross-correlation measurements. We improve upon earlier related work in several respects, particularly through a more accurate treatment of the correlation and covariance between $P(k)$ and $C^{\kappa \text{g}}_{\ell}$ measurements. When combining these measurements with Planck CMB data, we find a 95% confidence level upper limit of $\Sigma m_\nu<0.14\,{\rm eV}$, while slightly weaker limits are obtained when including small-scale ACTPol CMB data, in agreement with our expectations. We confirm earlier findings that (once combined with CMB data) the full-shape information content is comparable to the geometrical information content in the reconstructed BAO peaks given the precision of current galaxy clustering data, discuss the physical significance of our inferred bias and shot noise parameters, and perform a number of robustness tests on our underlying model. While the inclusion of $C^{\kappa \text{g}}_{\ell}$ measurements does not currently appear to lead to substantial improvements in the resulting $\Sigma m_{\nu}$ constraints, we expect the converse to be true for near-future galaxy clustering measurements, whose shape information content will eventually supersede the geometrical one.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type
eprint 2207.01913
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21285556
title Towards an accurate model of small-scale redshift-space distortions in modified gravity
first_author Cheng-Zong Ruan
author Cheng-Zong Ruan, Carolina Cuesta-Lazaro, Alexander Eggemeier, César Hernández-Aguayo, Carlton M. Baugh, Baojiu Li, Francisco Prada
abstract The coming generation of galaxy surveys will provide measurements of galaxy clustering with unprecedented accuracy and data size, which will allow us to test cosmological models at much higher precision than achievable previously. This means that we must have more accurate theoretical predictions to compare with future observational data. As a first step towards more accurate modelling of the redshift space distortions (RSD) of small-scale galaxy clustering in modified gravity (MG) cosmologies, we investigate the validity of the so-called Skew-T (ST) probability distribution function (PDF) of halo pairwise peculiar velocities in these models. We show that, combined with the streaming model of RSD, the ST PDF substantially improves the small-scale predictions by incorporating skewness and kurtosis, for both Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and two leading MG models: f(R) gravity and the DGP braneworld model. The ST model reproduces the velocity PDF and redshift-space halo clustering measured from MG N-body simulations very well down to $\sim 5 \, h^{-1}\, \mathrm{Mpc}$. In particular, we investigate the enhancements of halo pairwise velocity moments with respect to ΛCDM for a larger range of MG variants than previous works, and present simple explanations to the behaviours observed. By performing a simple Fisher analysis, we find a significant increase in constraining power to detect modifications of General Relativity by introducing small-scale information in the RSD analyses.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 514
publication_type article
eprint
pages 20
issue 1
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1345

source harvard
id 21285562
title The importance of X-ray frequency in driving photoevaporative winds
first_author Andrew D. Sellek
author Andrew D. Sellek, Cathie J. Clarke, Barbara Ercolano
abstract Photoevaporative winds are a promising mechanism for dispersing protoplanetary discs, but so far theoretical models have been unable to agree on the relative roles that the X-ray, extreme ultraviolet or far-ultraviolet play in driving the winds. This has been attributed to a variety of methodological differences between studies, including their approach to radiative transfer and thermal balance, the choice of irradiating spectrum employed, and the processes available to cool the gas. We use the MOCASSIN radiative transfer code to simulate wind heating for a variety of spectra on a static density grid taken from simulations of an EUV-driven wind. We explore the impact of choosing a single representative X-ray frequency on their ability to drive a wind by measuring the maximum heated column as a function of photon energy. We demonstrate that for reasonable luminosities and spectra, the most effective energies are at a few 100 eV, firmly in the softer regions of the X-ray spectrum, while X-rays with energies ~1000 eV interact too weakly with disc gas to provide sufficient heating to drive a wind. We develop a simple model to explain these findings. We argue that further increases in the cooling above our models - for example due to molecular rovibrational lines - may further restrict the heating to the softer energies but are unlikely to prevent X-ray heated winds from launching entirely; increasing the X-ray luminosity has the opposite effect. The various results of photoevaporative wind models should therefore be understood in terms of the choice of irradiating spectrum.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 514
publication_type article
eprint
pages 20
issue 1
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1148

source harvard
id 21285589
title THE THREE HUNDRED project: The GIZMO-SIMBA run
first_author Weiguang Cui
author Weiguang Cui, Romeel Dave, Alexander Knebe, Elena Rasia, Meghan Gray, Frazer Pearce, Chris Power, Gustavo Yepes, Dhayaa Anbajagane, Daniel Ceverino, Ana Contreras-Santos, Daniel de Andres, Marco De Petris, Stefano Ettori, Roan Haggar, Qingyang Li, Yang Wang, Xiaohu Yang, Stefano Borgani, Klaus Dolag, Ying Zu, Ulrike Kuchner, Rodrigo Cañas, Antonio Ferragamo, Giulia Gianfagna
abstract We introduce GIZMO-SIMBA, a new suite of galaxy cluster simulations within THE THREE HUNDRED project. THE THREE HUNDRED consists of zoom re-simulations of 324 clusters with $M_{200}\gtrsim 10^{14.8}\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ drawn from the MultiDark-Planck N-body simulation, run using several hydrodynamic and semi-analytical codes. The GIZMO-SIMBA suite adds a state-of-the-art galaxy formation model based on the highly successful SIMBA simulation, mildly re-calibrated to match $z$ = 0 cluster stellar properties. Comparing to THE THREE HUNDRED zooms run with GADGET-X, we find intrinsic differences in the evolution of the stellar and gas mass fractions, BCG ages, and galaxy colour-magnitude diagrams, with GIZMO-SIMBA generally providing a good match to available data at $z$ ≍ 0. GIZMO-SIMBA's unique black hole growth and feedback model yields agreement with the observed BH scaling relations at the intermediate-mass range and predicts a slightly different slope at high masses where few observations currently lie. GIZMO-SIMBA provides a new and novel platform to elucidate the co-evolution of galaxies, gas, and black holes within the densest cosmic environments.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 514
publication_type article
eprint
pages 20
issue 1
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1402

source harvard
id 21238291
title Transport model comparison studies of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions
first_author Hermann Wolter
author Hermann Wolter, Maria Colonna, Dan Cozma, Pawel Danielewicz, Che Ming Ko, Rohit Kumar, Akira Ono, ManYee Betty Tsang, Jun Xu, Ying-Xun Zhang, Elena Bratkovskaya, Zhao-Qing Feng, Theodoros Gaitanos, Arnaud Le Fèvre, Natsumi Ikeno, Youngman Kim, Swagata Mallik, Paolo Napolitani, Dmytro Oliinychenko, Tatsuhiko Ogawa, Massimo Papa, Jun Su, Rui Wang, Yong-Jia Wang, Janus Weil, Feng-Shou Zhang, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Joerg Aichelin, Wolfgang Cassing, Lie-Wen Chen, Hui-Gan Cheng, Hannah Elfner, K. Gallmeister, Christoph Hartnack, Shintaro Hashimoto, Sangyong Jeon, Kyungil Kim, Myungkuk Kim, Bao-An Li, Chang-Hwan Lee, Qing-Feng Li, Zhu-Xia Li, Ulrich Mosel, Yasushi Nara, Koji Niita, Akira Ohnishi, Tatsuhiko Sato, Taesoo Song, Agnieszka Sorensen, Ning Wang, Wen-Jie Xie, (TMEP collaboration)
abstract Transport models are the main method to obtain physics information on the nuclear equation of state and in-medium properties of particles from low to relativistic-energy heavy-ion collisions. The Transport Model Evaluation Project (TMEP) has been pursued to test the robustness of transport model predictions in reaching consistent conclusions from the same type of physical model. To this end, calculations under controlled conditions of physical input and set-up were performed with various participating codes. These included both calculations of nuclear matter in a box with periodic boundary conditions, which test separately selected ingredients of a transport code, and more realistic calculations of heavy-ion collisions. Over the years, six studies have been performed within this project. In this intermediate review, we summarize and discuss the present status of the project. We also provide condensed descriptions of the 26 participating codes, which contributed to some part of the project. These include the major codes in use today. After a compact description of the underlying transport approaches, we review the main results of the studies completed so far. They show, that in box calculations the differences between the codes can be well understood and a convergence of the results can be reached. These studies also highlight the systematic differences between the two families of transport codes, known under the names of Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) and Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) type codes. However, when the codes were compared in full heavy-ion collisions using different physical models, as recently for pion production, they still yielded substantially different results. This calls for further comparisons of heavy-ion collisions with controlled models and of box comparisons of important ingredients, like momentum-dependent fields, which are currently underway. Our evaluation studies often indicate improved strategies in performing transport simulations and thus can provide guidance to code developers. Results of transport simulations of heavy-ion collisions from a given code will have more significance if the code can be validated against benchmark calculations such as the ones summarized in this review.
journal Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 125
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1016/j.ppnp.2022.103962

source harvard
id 21392308
title On the superiority of the | V<SUB>cb</SUB>|-γ plots over the unitarity triangle plots in the 2020s
first_author Andrzej J. Buras
author Andrzej J. Buras
abstract The unitarity triangle (UT) plots played already for three decades an important role in the tests of the Standard Model (SM) and the determination of the CKM parameters. As of 2022, among the four CKM parameters, | V<SUB>us</SUB>| and β are already measured with respectable precision, while this is not the case of | V<SUB>cb</SUB>| and γ . In the case of | V<SUB>cb</SUB>| the main obstacle are the significant tensions between its inclusive and exclusive determinations from tree-level decays and it could still take some years before a unique value of this parameter will be known. The present uncertainty in γ of 4<SUP>∘</SUP> from tree-level decays will be reduced to 1<SUP>∘</SUP> by the LHCb and Belle II collaborations in the coming years. Unfortunately in the common UT plots | V<SUB>cb</SUB>| is not seen and the experimental improvements in the determination of γ from tree-level decays at the level of a few degrees are difficult to appreciate. In view of these deficiencies of the UT plots with respect to | V<SUB>cb</SUB>| and γ and the central role these two CKM parameters will play in this decade, the recently proposed plots of | V<SUB>cb</SUB>| versus γ extracted from various processes appear to be superior to the UT plots in the flavour phenomenology of the 2020s. We illustrate this idea with Δ F =2 observables Δ M<SUB>s</SUB> , Δ M<SUB>d</SUB> , ε<SUB>K</SUB> and with rare decays B<SUB>s</SUB>→μ<SUP>+</SUP>μ<SUP>-</SUP> , B<SUB>d</SUB>→μ<SUP>+</SUP>μ<SUP>-</SUP> , K<SUP>+</SUP>→π<SUP>+</SUP>ν ν ¯ and K<SUB>L</SUB>→π<SUP>0</SUP>ν ν ¯ . In particular the power of ε<SUB>K</SUB>, B (K<SUP>+</SUP>→π<SUP>+</SUP>ν ν ¯ ) and B (K<SUB>L</SUB>→π<SUP>0</SUP>ν ν ¯ ) in the determination of | V<SUB>cb</SUB>| , due to their strong dependence on | V<SUB>cb</SUB>| , is transparently exhibited in this manner. Combined with future reduced errors on γ and | V<SUB>cb</SUB>| from tree-level decays such plots can better exhibit possible inconsistencies between various determinations of these two parameters, caused by new physics, than it is possible with the UT plots. This can already be illustrated on the example of the recently found 2.7 σ anomaly in B<SUB>s</SUB>→μ<SUP>+</SUP>μ<SUP>-</SUP>.
journal European Physical Journal C
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 82
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 7
doi 10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-10566-9

source harvard
id 21398514
title Mapping `out-of-the-box' the properties of the baryons in massive halos
first_author M. Angelinelli
author M. Angelinelli, S. Ettori, K. Dolag, F. Vazza, A. Ragagnin
abstract We study the distributions of the baryons in massive halos (M<SUB>vir</SUB> &gt; 10<SUP>13</SUP> h<SUP>−1</SUP> M<SUB>⊙</SUB>) in the Magneticum suite of smoothed particle hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, out to the unprecedented radial extent of 10R<SUB>500, c</SUB>. We confirm that, under the action of non-gravitational physical phenomena, the baryon mass fraction is lower in the inner regions (&lt; R<SUB>500, c</SUB>) of increasingly less massive halos, and rises moving outwards, with values that span from 51% (87%) of the cosmological value in the regions around R<SUB>500, c</SUB> to 95% (100%) at 10R<SUB>500, c</SUB> in the systems with the lowest (highest; M<SUB>vir</SUB> ∼ 5 × 10<SUP>14</SUP> h<SUP>−1</SUP> M<SUB>⊙</SUB>) masses. The galaxy groups almost match the gas (and baryon) fraction measured in the most massive halos only at very large radii (r &gt; 6R<SUB>500, c</SUB>), where the baryon depletion factor Y<SUB>bar</SUB> = f<SUB>bar</SUB>/(Ω<SUB>b</SUB>/Ω<SUB>m</SUB>) approaches the value of unity, expected for `closed-box' systems. We find that both the radial and mass dependence of the baryon, gas, and hot depletion factors are predictable and follow a simple functional form. The star mass fraction is higher in less massive systems, decreases systematically with increasing radii, and reaches a constant value of Y<SUB>star</SUB> ≈ 0.09, where the gas metallicity is also constant, regardless of the host halo mass, as a result of the early (z &gt; 2) enrichment process.
journal Astronomy and Astrophysics
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 663
publication_type article
eprint
pages 8
issue
doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202244068

source harvard
id 21393920
title Lifetimes of singly charmed hadrons
first_author James Gratrex
author James Gratrex, Blaženka Melić, Ivan Nišandžić
abstract We provide an extensive study of the lifetimes of singly charmed baryons and mesons, within the heavy quark expansion with all known corrections included. A special attention is devoted to the choice of the charm mass and wavefunctions of heavy baryons. We give our predictions for lifetimes, lifetime ratios, and semileptonic branching ratios of singly charmed baryons. Our results accommodate the experimentally-favoured hierarchy of singly charmed baryon lifetimes τ (Ξ<SUB>c</SUB><SUP>0</SUP>)&lt;τ (Λ<SUB>c</SUB><SUP>+</SUP>)&lt;τ (Ω<SUB>c</SUB><SUP>0</SUP>)&lt;τ (Ξ<SUB>c</SUB><SUP>+</SUP>), in contrast to earlier theoretical findings. Predictions for charmed meson lifetimes and semileptonic decay rates are in agreement with a recent comprehensive study and experimental results within uncertainties.
journal Journal of High Energy Physics
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 2022
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 7
doi 10.1007/JHEP07(2022)058

source harvard
id 21387546
title Latest observations on the low energy excess in CRESST-III
first_author G. Angloher
author G. Angloher, S. Banik, G. Benato, A. Bento, A. Bertolini, R. Breier, C. Bucci, L. Canonica, A. D'Addabbo, S. Di Lorenzo, L. Einfalt, A. Erb, F. v. Feilitzsch, N. Ferreiro Iachellini, S. Fichtinger, D. Fuchs, A. Fuss, A. Garai, V. M. Ghete, S. Gerster, P. Gorla, P. V. Guillaumon, S. Gupta, D. Hauff, M. Ješkovský, J. Jochum, M. Kaznacheeva, A. Kinast, H. Kluck, H. Kraus, A. Langenkämper, M. Mancuso, L. Marini, L. Meyer, V. Mokina, A. Nilima, M. Olmi, T. Ortmann, C. Pagliarone, L. Pattavina, F. Petricca, W. Potzel, P. Povinec, F. Pröbst, F. Pucci, F. Reindl, J. Rothe, K. Schäffner, J. Schieck, D. Schmiedmayer, S. Schönert, C. Schwertner, M. Stahlberg, L. Stodolsky, C. Strandhagen, R. Strauss, I. Usherov, F. Wagner, M. Willers, V. Zema
abstract The CRESST experiment observes an unexplained excess of events at low energies. In the current CRESST-III data-taking campaign we are operating detector modules with different designs to narrow down the possible explanations. In this work, we show first observations of the ongoing measurement, focusing on the comparison of time, energy and temperature dependence of the excess in several detectors. These exclude dark matter, radioactive backgrounds and intrinsic sources related to the crystal bulk as a major contribution.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.09375
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21387688
title Revisiting constraints on WIMPs around primordial black holes
first_author Estanis Utrilla Ginés
author Estanis Utrilla Ginés, Samuel J. Witte, Olga Mena
abstract While Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) with masses $M_{\rm PBH} \gtrsim 10^{-11} \, M_\odot$ cannot comprise the entirety of dark matter, the existence of even a small population of these objects can have profound astrophysical consequences. A sub-dominant population of PBHs will efficiently accrete dark matter particles before matter-radiation equality, giving rise to high-density dark matter spikes. We consider here the scenario in which dark matter is comprised primarily of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with a small sub-dominant contribution coming from PBHs, and revisit the constraints on the annihilation of WIMPs in these spikes using observations of the isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) and the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), for a range of WIMP masses, annihilation channels, cross sections, and PBH mass functions. We find that the constraints derived using the IGRB have been significantly overestimated (in some cases by many orders of magnitude), and that limits obtained using observations of the CMB are typically stronger than, or comparable to, those coming from the IGRB. Importantly, we show that $\sim \mathcal{O}(M_\odot)$ PBHs can still contribute significantly to the dark matter density for sufficiently low WIMP masses and p-wave annihilation cross sections.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.09481
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21386993
title Two-Loop Infrared Renormalization with On-shell Methods
first_author Pietro Baratella
author Pietro Baratella
abstract Within the framework proposed by Caron-Huot and Wilhelm, we give a recipe for computing infrared anomalous dimensions purely on-shell, efficiently up to two loops in any massless theory. After introducing the general formalism and reviewing the one-loop recipe, we extract a practical formula that relates two-loop infrared anomalous dimensions to certain two- and three-particle phase space integrals with tree-level form factors of conserved operators. We finally provide several examples of the use of the two-loop formula and comment on some of its formal aspects, especially the cancellation of `one-loop squared' spurious terms.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.08831
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21384477
title On the Small-scale Turbulent Dynamo in the Intracluster Medium: A Comparison to Dynamo Theory
first_author Ulrich P. Steinwandel
author Ulrich P. Steinwandel, Ludwig M. Böss, Klaus Dolag, Harald Lesch
abstract We present non-radiative, cosmological zoom-in simulations of galaxy-cluster formation with magnetic fields and (anisotropic) thermal conduction of one massive galaxy cluster with M <SUB>vir</SUB> ~ 2 × 10<SUP>15</SUP> M <SUB>⊙</SUB> at z ~ 0. We run the cluster on three resolution levels (1×, 10×, 25×), starting with an effective mass resolution of 2 × 10<SUP>8</SUP> M <SUB>⊙</SUB>, subsequently increasing the particle number to reach 4 × 10<SUP>6</SUP> M <SUB>⊙</SUB>. The maximum spatial resolution obtained in the simulations is limited by the gravitational softening reaching ϵ = 1.0 kpc at the highest resolution level, allowing one to resolve the hierarchical assembly of the structures in fine detail. All simulations presented are carried out with the SPMHD code GADGET3 with an updated SPMHD prescription. The primary focus of this paper is to investigate magnetic field amplification in the intracluster medium. We show that the main amplification mechanism is the small-scale turbulent dynamo in the limit of reconnection diffusion. In our two highest resolution models we start to resolve the magnetic field amplification driven by the dynamo and we explicitly quantify this with the magnetic power spectra and the curvature of the magnetic field lines, consistent with dynamo theory. Furthermore, we investigate the ∇ · B = 0 constraint within our simulations and show that we achieve comparable results to state-of-the-art AMR or moving-mesh techniques, used in codes such as ENZO and AREPO. Our results show for the first time in a cosmological simulation of a galaxy cluster that dynamo action can be resolved with modern numerical Lagrangian magnetohydrodynamic methods, a study that is currently missing in the literature. <SUP>*</SUP> Released on August, 19th, 2021.
journal The Astrophysical Journal
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 933
publication_type article
eprint
pages 25
issue 2
doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac715c

source harvard
id 21400827
title Anomalous Ward identities for on-shell amplitudes at the conformal fixed point
first_author Dmitry Chicherin
author Dmitry Chicherin, Johannes Henn, Simone Zoia
abstract Conformal symmetry underlies many massless quantum field theories, but little is known about the consequences of this powerful symmetry for on-shell scattering amplitudes. We study this problem in a dimensionally-regularized $\phi^3$ model at the conformal fixed point. We show that the on-shell renormalised amplitudes satisfy anomalous conformal Ward identities. Each external on-shell state contributes two terms to the anomaly, both proportional to the corresponding momentum. The first term is proportional to the elementary field anomalous dimension, and thus involves only lower-loop information. We argue that the second term is governed by collinear regions of loop momentum, and that it can be represented as the convolution of a universal function and lower-order amplitudes. The computation of the conformal anomaly is then simpler than that of the amplitude at the same perturbative order, giving our anomalous conformal Ward identities a strong predictive power in perturbation theory. This result is also of practical importance for dimensionally-regularised amplitudes away from the conformal fixed point. Indeed the knowledge of the on-shell amplitude at the conformal fixed point, together with lower loop information, fixes entirely the amplitude away from the fixed point. While our analysis is done in a cubic scalar toy model, we expect analogous results to hold for amplitudes in other quantum field theories with classical conformal symmetry, such as Yang-Mills and Yukawa theories.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.12249
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21384420
title Mineral snowflakes on exoplanets and brown dwarfs. Coagulation and fragmentation of cloud particles with HYLANDS
first_author D. Samra
author D. Samra, Ch. Helling, T. Birnstiel
abstract Context. Brown dwarfs and exoplanets provide unique atmospheric regimes that hold information about their formation routes and evolutionary states. Cloud particles form through nucleation, condensation, evaporation, and collisions, which affect the distribution of cloud particles in size and throughout these atmospheres. Cloud modelling plays a decisive role in understanding these regimes. <BR /> Aims: Modelling mineral cloud particle formation in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and exoplanets is a key element in preparing for missions and instruments like CRIRES+, JWST, and ARIEL, as well as possible polarimetry missions like POLSTAR. The aim is to support the increasingly detailed observations that demand greater understanding of the microphysical cloud processes. <BR /> Methods: We extend our kinetic cloud formation model that treats nucleation, condensation, evaporation, and settling of mixed material cloud particles to consistently model cloud particle-particle collisions. The new hybrid code Hybrid moments (Ls) and Size (HYLANDS) is then applied to a grid of DRIFT-PHOENIX (T<SUB>gas</SUB>, p<SUB>gas</SUB>) profiles. Effective medium theory and Mie theory are used to investigate the optical properties. <BR /> Results: Turbulence proves to be the main driving process of particle-particle collisions, with collisions becoming the dominant process in the lower atmosphere (p &gt; 10<SUP>−4</SUP> bar) at the cloud base. Particle-particle collisions produce one of three outcomes for brown dwarf and gas-giant atmospheres: fragmenting atmospheres (log<SUB>10</SUB>(g[cms<SUP>−2</SUP>])=3.0) coagulating atmospheres (log<SUB>10</SUB>(g)=5.0), T<SUB>eff</SUB> ≤1800K) or condensational growth dominated atmospheres (log<SUB>10</SUB>(g) = 5.0, T<SUB>eff</SUB> &gt; 1800 K). Cloud particle opacity slope at optical wavelengths (Hubble) is increased with fragmentation, as are the silicate features at JWST NIRSpec, JWST MIRI, and ARIEL AIRS wavelengths. <BR /> Conclusions: The hybrid moment-bin method HYLANDS demonstrates the feasibility of combining a moment and a bin method for cloud modelling, whilst assuring element conservation. It provides a powerful and fast tool for capturing general trends of particle collisions, consistently with other microphysical growth processes. Collisions are an important process in exoplanet and brown dwarf atmospheres, but cannot be assumed to be hit-and-stick only. The spectral effects of cloud particle collisions in both optical and mid-infrared wavelengths complicate inferences of cloud particle size and material composition from observational data.
journal Astronomy and Astrophysics
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 663
publication_type article
eprint
pages 32
issue
doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202142651

source harvard
id 21421297
title Next-to-leading power endpoint factorization and resummation for off-diagonal "gluon" thrust
first_author M. Beneke
author M. Beneke, M. Garny, S. Jaskiewicz, J. Strohm, R. Szafron, L. Vernazza, J. Wang
abstract The lack of convergence of the convolution integrals appearing in next-to-leading-power (NLP) factorization theorems prevents the applications of existing methods to resum power-suppressed large logarithmic corrections in collider physics. We consider thrust distribution in the two-jet region for the flavour-nonsinglet off-diagonal contribution, where a gluon-initiated jet recoils against a quark-antiquark pair, which is power-suppressed. With the help of operatorial endpoint factorization conditions, we obtain a factorization formula, where the individual terms are free from endpoint divergences in convolutions and can be expressed in terms of renormalized hard, soft and collinear functions in four dimensions. This allows us to perform the first resummation of the endpoint-divergent SCET<SUB>I</SUB> observables at the leading logarithmic accuracy using exclusively renormalization-group methods. The presented approach relies on universal properties of the soft and collinear limits and may serve as a paradigm for the systematic NLP resummation for other 1 → 2 and 2 → 1 collider physics processes.
journal Journal of High Energy Physics
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 2022
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 7
doi 10.1007/JHEP07(2022)144

source harvard
id 21404436
title The exclusive vision of rare K and B decays and of the quark mixing in the standard model
first_author Andrzej J. Buras
author Andrzej J. Buras, Elena Venturini
abstract The most common predictions for rare K and B decay branching ratios in the Standard Model in the literature are based on the CKM elements | V<SUB>cb</SUB>| and | V<SUB>ub</SUB>| resulting from global fits, that are in the ballpark of their inclusive and exclusive determinations, respectively. In the present paper we follow another route, which to our knowledge has not been explored for Δ M<SUB>s ,d</SUB> and rare K and B decays by anybody to date. We assume, in contrast to the prevailing inclusive expectations for | V<SUB>cb</SUB>| , that the future true values of | V<SUB>cb</SUB>| and | V<SUB>ub</SUB>| will be both from exclusive determinations; in practice we use the most recent averages from FLAG. With the precisely known | V<SUB>us</SUB>| the resulting rare decay branching ratios, ε<SUB>K</SUB>, Δ M<SUB>d</SUB> , Δ M<SUB>s</SUB> and S<SUB>ψ K<SUB>S</SUB></SUB> depend then only on the angles β and γ in the unitarity triangle that moreover are correlated through the CKM unitarity. An unusual pattern of SM predictions results from this study with some existing tensions being dwarfed and new tensions being born. In particular using HPQCD B<SUB>s</SUB><SUP>,d 0</SUP>-B<SUB>¯</SUB><SUP>s ,d 0</SUP> hadronic matrix elements a 3.1 σ tension in Δ M<SUB>s</SUB> independently of γ is found. For 60<SUP>∘</SUP>≤γ ≤75<SUP>∘</SUP> the tension in Δ M<SUB>d</SUB> between 4.0 σ and 1.1 σ is found and in the case of ε<SUB>K</SUB> between 5.2 σ and 2.1 σ . Moreover, the room for new physics in K<SUP>+</SUP>→π<SUP>+</SUP>ν ν ¯ , K<SUB>L</SUB>→π<SUP>0</SUP>ν ν ¯ and B →K (K<SUP>∗</SUP>)ν ν ¯ decays is significantly increased. We compare the results in this EXCLUSIVE scenario with the HYBRID one in which | V<SUB>cb</SUB>| in the former scenario is replaced by the most recent inclusive | V<SUB>cb</SUB>| and present the dependence of all observables considered by us in both scenarios as functions of γ . As a byproduct we compare the determination of | V<SUB>cb</SUB>| from Δ M<SUB>s</SUB> , Δ M<SUB>d</SUB> , ε<SUB>K</SUB> and S<SUB>ψ K<SUB>S</SUB></SUB> using B<SUB>s</SUB><SUP>,d 0</SUP>-B<SUB>¯</SUB><SUP>s ,d 0</SUP> hadronic matrix elements from LQCD with 2 +1 +1 flavours, 2 +1 flavours and their average. Only for the 2 +1 +1 case values for β and γ exist for which the same value of | V<SUB>cb</SUB>| is found: | V<SUB>cb</SUB>|=42.6 (4 ) × 10<SUP>-3</SUP> , γ =64.6 (16<SUP>) ∘</SUP> and β =22.2 (7<SUP>) ∘</SUP> . This in turn implies a 2.7 σ anomaly in B<SUB>s</SUB>→μ<SUP>+</SUP>μ<SUP>-</SUP>.
journal European Physical Journal C
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 82
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 7
doi 10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-10583-8

source harvard
id 21255484
title Intermediate- and high-velocity clouds in the Milky Way - I. Covering factors and vertical heights
first_author Nicolas Lehner
author Nicolas Lehner, J. Christopher Howk, Antonino Marasco, Filippo Fraternali
abstract Intermediate- and high-velocity clouds (IVCs, HVCs) are a potential source of fuel for star formation in the Milky Way (MW), but their origins and fates depend sensitively on their distances. We search for IVCs and HVCs in HST high-resolution ultraviolet spectra of 55 halo stars at vertical heights $|z|\gtrsim \,1$ kpc. We show that IVCs (40 ≤ |$v$<SUB>LSR</SUB>| &lt; 90 ${\rm km\, s}^{-1}$) have a high detection rate - the covering factor, f<SUB>c</SUB> - that is about constant (f<SUB>c</SUB> = 0.90 ± 0.04) from $z$ = 1.5 to 14 kpc, implying IVCs are essentially confined to |$z$| ≲ 1.5 kpc. For the HVCs (90 ≤ |$v$<SUB>LSR</SUB>| ≲ 170 ${\rm km\, s}^{-1}$), we find f<SUB>c</SUB> increases from f<SUB>c</SUB> ≃ 0.14 ± 0.10 at |$z$| ≲ 2-3 kpc to f<SUB>c</SUB> = 0.60 ± 0.15 at 6 ≲ |$z$| ≲ 14 kpc, the latter being similar to that found towards QSOs. In contrast, the covering factor of very high-velocity clouds (VHVCs; |$v$<SUB>LSR</SUB>| ≳ 170 ${\rm km\, s}^{-1}$) is $f_c \lt 0.04$ in the stellar sample compared to 20 per cent towards QSOs, implying these clouds must be at d ≳ 10-15 kpc (|$z$| ≳ 10 kpc). Gas clouds with |$v$<SUB>LSR</SUB>| &gt; 40 ${\rm km\, s}^{-1}$ at |b| ≳ 15° have therefore |$v$<SUB>LSR</SUB>| decreasing with decreasing |$z$|. Our findings are consistent with a Galactic rain and/or fountain origin for these clouds. In the latter scenario, VHVCs may mostly serve as fuel for the MW halo. In view of their high covering factors and since all the IVCs and some HVCs are found in the thick disc, they appear good candidates as gas reservoirs to help sustain star formation in the MW.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 513
publication_type article
eprint
pages 13
issue 3
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac987

source harvard
id 21380691
title Same-hemisphere three-gluon-emission contribution to the zero-jettiness soft function at N3LO QCD
first_author Daniel Baranowski
author Daniel Baranowski, Maximilian Delto, Kirill Melnikov, Chen-Yu Wang
abstract We complete the calculation of the three-gluon-emission contribution to the same-hemisphere part of the zero-jettiness soft function at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD.
journal Physical Review D
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 106
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 1
doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.106.014004

source harvard
id 21397706
title HOLISMOKES -- X. Comparison between neural network and semi-automated traditional modeling of strong lenses
first_author S. Schuldt
author S. Schuldt, S. H. Suyu, R. Canameras, Y. Shu, S. Taubenberger, S. Ertl, A. Halkola
abstract Modeling of strongly gravitationally lensed galaxies is often required in order to use them as astrophysical or cosmological probes. With current and upcoming wide-field imaging surveys, the number of detected lenses is increasing significantly such that automated and fast modeling procedures for ground-based data are urgently needed. This is especially pertinent to short-lived lensed transients in order to plan follow-up observations. Therefore, we present in a companion paper (submitted) a neural network predicting the parameter values with corresponding uncertainties of a Singular Isothermal Ellipsoid (SIE) mass profile with external shear. In this work, we present a newly-developed pipeline glee_auto.py to model consistently any galaxy-scale lensing system. In contrast to previous automated modeling pipelines that require high-resolution images, glee_auto.py is optimized for ground-based images such as those from the Hyper-Suprime-Cam (HSC) or the upcoming Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time. We further present glee_tools.py, a flexible automation code for individual modeling that has no direct decisions and assumptions implemented. Both pipelines, in addition to our modeling network, minimize the user input time drastically and thus are important for future modeling efforts. We apply the network to 31 real galaxy-scale lenses of HSC and compare the results to the traditional models. In the direct comparison, we find a very good match for the Einstein radius especially for systems with $\theta_E \gtrsim 2$". The lens mass center and ellipticity show reasonable agreement. The main discrepancies are on the external shear as expected from our tests on mock systems. In general, our study demonstrates that neural networks are a viable and ultra fast approach for measuring the lens-galaxy masses from ground-based data in the upcoming era with $\sim10^5$ lenses expected.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.10124
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21402904
title Endpoint factorization and next-to-leading power resummation of gluon thrust
first_author Martin Beneke
author Martin Beneke, Mathias Garny, Sebastian Jaskiewicz, Julian Strohm, Robert Szafron, Leonardo Vernazza, Jian Wang
abstract Endpoint divergences in the convolution integrals appearing in next-to-leading-power factorization theorems prevent a straightforward application of standard methods to resum large logarithmic power-suppressed corrections in collider physics. We study the power-suppressed configuration of the thrust distribution in the two-jet region, where a gluon-initiated jet recoils against a quark-antiquark pair. With the aid of operatorial endpoint factorization conditions, we derive a factorization formula where the individual terms are free from endpoint divergences and can be written in terms of renormalized hard, (anti) collinear, and soft functions in four dimensions. This framework enables us to perform the first resummation of the endpoint-divergent SCET$_{\rm I}$ observables at the leading logarithmic accuracy using exclusively renormalization-group methods.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.14199
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21398657
title Large-scale Hydrodynamical Shocks as the Smoking-gun Evidence for a Bar in M31
first_author Zi-Xuan Feng
author Zi-Xuan Feng, Zhi Li, Juntai Shen, Ortwin Gerhard, R. P. Saglia, Matias Blaña
abstract The formation and evolutionary history of M31 are closely related to its dynamical structures, which remain unclear due to its high inclination. Gas kinematics could provide crucial evidence for the existence of a rotating bar in M31. Using the position-velocity diagram of [O III] and H I, we are able to identify clear sharp velocity jump (shock) features with a typical amplitude over 100 km s<SUP>-1</SUP> in the central region of M31 (4.6 kpc × 2.3 kpc, or $20^{\prime} \times 10^{\prime} $ ). We also simulate gas morphology and kinematics in barred M31 potentials and find that the bar-induced shocks can produce velocity jumps similar to those in [O III]. The identified shock features in both [O III] and H I are broadly consistent, and they are found mainly on the leading sides of the bar/bulge, following a hallmark pattern expected from the bar-driven gas inflow. Shock features on the far side of the disk are clearer than those on the near side, possibly due to limited data coverage on the near side, as well as to obscuration by the warped gas and dust layers. Further hydrodynamical simulations with more sophisticated physics are desired to fully understand the observed gas features and to better constrain the parameters of the bar in M31.
journal The Astrophysical Journal
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 933
publication_type article
eprint
pages 14
issue 2
doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac7964

source harvard
id 21384446
title The velocity structure of the intracluster medium during a major merger: Simulated microcalorimeter observations
first_author Veronica Biffi
author Veronica Biffi, John A. ZuHone, Tony Mroczkowski, Esra Bulbul, William Forman
abstract Major mergers between galaxy clusters can produce large turbulent and bulk flow velocities in the intracluster medium (ICM) and thus imprint useful diagnostic features in X-ray spectral emission lines from heavy ions. As successfully achieved by Hitomi in observations of the Perseus cluster, measurements of gas velocities in clusters from high-resolution X-ray spectra will be achievable with upcoming X-ray calorimeters such as those on board XRISM, Athena, or a Lynx like mission. An interesting application to clusters involves detecting multiple velocity components or velocity gradients from diagnostic observations of specific interesting locations across the cluster. To explore this possibility in the case of a major head-on cluster merger, we performed velocity analyzes of a cluster-cluster merger from a hydrodynamical simulation by means of X-ray synthetic spectra with a spectral resolution on the order of a few eV. We observed the system along two extreme line-of-sight directions: (1) perpendicular to the plane of the merger and (2) along the merger axis. In these geometrical configurations, we found that clear non-Gaussian shapes of the iron He-like Kα line at 6.7 keV are expected. While the velocity dispersion predicted from the simulations can be retrieved for the brightest 100 ks pointings with XRISM Resolve, some discrepancy with respect to the expected value is noted and can be attributed to the complex non-Gaussian line shapes. Measurements in low surface brightness regions, especially when multiple velocity components are present along the line of sight, require high signal-to-noise ratio and the larger collecting area of the Athena X-IFU calorimeter is therefore required. With the latter, we also investigated the ICM temperature and velocity gradient across the merger bow shock edge, from 20″-wide annuli extracted from a single 1 Ms X-IFU observation. For both temperature and velocity dispersion, we found best-fit values that are consistent with predictions from the simulations within 1-σ. The uncertainties on the inferred velocity dispersion are, however, too large to place any stringent constraints on the shallow gradient downstream of the shock. Additionally, we present simulated images of the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effects from this merging system, using the above viewing configurations and compare the results at angular resolutions appropriate for future observatories such as CMB-S4 and the Atacama Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (AtLAST).
journal Astronomy and Astrophysics
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 663
publication_type article
eprint
pages 22
issue
doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202142764

source harvard
id 21382401
title Chromo-electric screening length in 2+1 flavor QCD
first_author P. Petreczky
author P. Petreczky, J. H. W. Sebastian Steinbeisser
abstract We study Polyakov loop as well as correlators of real and imaginary parts of the Polyakov loop in 2+1 flavor QCD at finite temperature. We use hypercubic (HYP) smearing to improve the signal in the lattice calculations and to obtain reliable results for the correlators at large distances. From the large distance behavior of the correlators we estimate the chromo-electric screening length to be (0.38-44)/T. Furthermore, we show that the short distance distortions due to HYP smearing do not affect the physics of interest
journal The 38th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type inproceedings
eprint
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21340850
title DustPy -- A Python Package for Dust Evolution in Protoplanetary Disks
first_author Sebastian Markus Stammler
author Sebastian Markus Stammler, Tilman Birnstiel
abstract Many processes during the evolution of protoplanetary disks and during planet formation are highly sensitive to the sizes of dust particles that are present in the disk: The efficiency of dust accretion in the disk and volatile transport on dust particles, gravoturbulent instabilities leading to the formation of planetesimals, or the accretion of pebbles onto large planetary embryos to form giant planets are typical examples of processes that depend on the sizes of the dust particles involved. Furthermore, radiative properties like absorption or scattering opacities depend on the particle sizes. To interpret observations of dust in protoplanetary disks, a proper estimate of the dust particle sizes is needed. We present DustPy - A Python package to simulate dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. DustPy solves gas and dust transport including viscous advection and diffusion as well as collisional growth of dust particles. DustPy is written with a modular concept, such that every aspect of the model can be easily modified or extended to allow for a multitude of research opportunities.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.00322
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21417015
title Core-collapse Supernova Constraint on the Origin of Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter via Neutrino Self-interactions
first_author Yu-Ming Chen
author Yu-Ming Chen, Manibrata Sen, Walter Tangarife, Douglas Tuckler, Yue Zhang
abstract Novel neutrino self-interaction can open up viable parameter space for the relic abundance of sterile-neutrino dark matter (S$\nu$DM). In this work, we constrain the relic target using core-collapse supernova which features the same fundamental process and a similar environment to the early universe era when S$\nu$DM is dominantly produced. We present a detailed calculation of the effects of a massive scalar mediated neutrino self-interaction on the supernova cooling rate, including the derivation of the thermal potential in the presence of non-zero chemical potentials from plasma species. Our results demonstrate that the supernova cooling argument can cover the neutrino self-interaction parameter space that complements terrestrial and cosmological probes.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.14300
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21382093
title The static energy in 2+1+1-flavor QCD
first_author S. Steinbeisser
author S. Steinbeisser, N. Brambilla, R. L. Delgado, A. Kronfeld, V. Leino, P. Petreczky, A. Vairo, J. H. Weber
abstract We report on the status of the analysis of the static energy in $2+1+1$-flavor QCD. The static energy is obtained by measuring Wilson line correlators in Coulomb gauge using the HISQ action, yielding the scales $r_{0}/a$, $r_{1}/a$, $r_{2}/a$, their ratios, and the string tension $\sigma r_{i}^{2}$. We put emphasis on the possible effects due to the dynamical charm-quark by comparing the lattice results to continuum results of the static energy with and without a massive flavor at two-loop accuracy. We employ gauge-field ensembles from the HotQCD and MILC Collaborations.
journal The 38th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type inproceedings
eprint
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21382259
title Chromoelectric and chromomagnetic correlators at high temperature from gradient flow
first_author J. Mayer-Steudte
author J. Mayer-Steudte, N. Brambilla, V. Leino, P. Petreczky
abstract The heavy quark diffusion coefficient is encoded in the spectral functions of the chromoelectric and the chromomagnetic correlators that are calculable on the lattice. We study the chromoelectric and the chromomagnetic correlator in the deconfined phase of SU(3) gauge theory using Symanzik flow at two temperatures $1.5T_c$ and $10000 T_c$, with $T_c$ being the phase transition temperature. To control the lattice discretization errors and perform the continuum limit we use several temporal lattice extents $N_t=16,20,24$ and 28. We observe that the flow time dependence of the chromomagnetic correlator is quite different from chromoelectric correlator most likely due to the anomalous dimension of the former as has been pointed out recently in the literature.
journal The 38th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type inproceedings
eprint
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21416394
title Impact of H<SUB>2</SUB>-driven star formation and stellar feedback from low-enrichment environments on the formation of spiral galaxies
first_author Milena Valentini
author Milena Valentini, Klaus Dolag, Stefano Borgani, Giuseppe Murante, Umberto Maio, Luca Tornatore, Gian Luigi Granato, Cinthia Ragone-Figueroa, Andreas Burkert, Antonio Ragagnin, Elena Rasia
abstract The reservoir of molecular gas (H<SUB>2</SUB>) represents the fuel for the star formation (SF) of a galaxy. Connecting the star formation rate (SFR) to the available H<SUB>2</SUB> is key to accurately model SF in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation. We investigate how modifying the underlying modelling of H<SUB>2</SUB> and the description of stellar feedback in low-metallicity environments (LMF, i.e. low-metallicity stellar feedback) in cosmological, zoomed-in simulations of a Milky Way-size halo influences the formation history of the forming, spiral galaxy and its final properties. We exploit two different models to compute the molecular fraction of cold gas (f$_{\rm H_{\rm 2}}$): i) the theoretical model by Krumholz et al. (2009b) and ii) the phenomenological prescription by Blitz &amp; Rosolowsky (2006). We find that the model adopted to estimate f$_{\rm H_{\rm 2}}$ plays a key role in determining final properties and in shaping the morphology of the galaxy. The clumpier interstellar medium (ISM) and the more complex H<SUB>2</SUB> distribution that the Krumholz et al. (2009b) model predicts result in better agreement with observations of nearby disc galaxies. This shows how crucial it is to link the SFR to the physical properties of the star-forming, molecular ISM. The additional source of energy that LMF supplies in a metal-poor ISM is key in controlling SF at high redshift and in regulating the reservoir of SF across cosmic time. Not only is LMF able to regulate cooling properties of the ISM, but it also reduces the stellar mass of the galaxy bulge. These findings can foster the improvement of the numerical modelling of SF in cosmological simulations.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2110

source harvard
id 21386730
title Toward a Population Synthesis of Disks and Planets I. Evolution of Dust with Entrainment in Winds and Radiation Pressure
first_author Remo Burn
author Remo Burn, Alexandre Emsenhuber, Jesse Weder, Oliver Völkel, Hubert Klahr, Til Birnstiel, Barbara Ercolano, Christoph Mordasini
abstract Millimeter astronomy provides valuable information on the birthplaces of planetary systems. In order to compare theoretical models with observations, the dust component has to be carefully calculated. Here, we aim to study the effects of dust entrainment in photoevaporative winds and the ejection and drag of dust due to effects caused by radiation from the central star. We improved and extended the existing implementation of a two-population dust and pebble description in the global Bern/Heidelberg planet formation and evolution model. Modern prescriptions for photoevaporative winds were used and we account for settling and advection of dust when calculating entrainment rates. In order to prepare for future population studies with varying conditions, we explore a wide range of disk-, photoevaporation-, and dust-parameters. We find that if dust can grow to pebble sizes, that is, if they are resistant to fragmentation or turbulence is weak, drift dominates and the entrained mass is small but larger than under the assumption of no vertical advection of grains with the gas flow. For the case of fragile dust shattering at velocities of 1 m/s - as indicated in laboratory experiments -, an order of magnitude more dust is entrained which becomes the main dust removal process. Radiation pressure effects disperse massive, dusty disks on timescales of a few 100 Myr. These results highlight the importance of dust entrainment in winds as a solid mass removal process. Furthermore, this model extension lies the basis for future statistical studies of planet formation in their birth environment.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.08600
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21402426
title Asymptotic symmetries and memories of gauge theories in FLRW spacetimes
first_author Martin Enriquez-Rojo
author Martin Enriquez-Rojo, Tobias Schroeder
abstract In this paper, we investigate the asymptotic structure of gauge theories in decelerating and spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universes. Firstly, we thoroughly explore the asymptotic symmetries of electrodynamics in this background, which reveals a major inconsistency already present in the flat case. Taking advantage of this treatment, we derive the associated memory effects, discussing their regime of validity and differences with respect to their flat counterparts. Next, we extend our analysis to non-Abelian Yang-Mills, coupling it dynamically and simultaneously to a Dirac spinor and a complex scalar field. Within this novel setting, we examine the (in-)compatibility of the covariant phase space formalism and the use of Poisson superbrackets.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.13726
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21418291
title The Uchuu-SDSS galaxy lightcones: a clustering, RSD and BAO study
first_author C. A. Dong-Páez
author C. A. Dong-Páez, A. Smith, A. O. Szewciw, J. Ereza, M. H. Abdullah, C. Hernández-Aguayo, S. Trusov, F. Prada, A. Klypin, T. Ishiyama, A. Berlind, P. Zarrouk, J. López Cacheiro, J. Ruedas
abstract We present the data release of the Uchuu-SDSS galaxies: a set of 32 high-fidelity galaxy lightcones constructed from the large Uchuu 2.1 trillion particle $N$-body simulation using Planck cosmology. We adopt subhalo abundance matching to populate the Uchuu-box halo catalogues with SDSS galaxy luminosities. These cubic box galaxy catalogues generated at several redshifts are combined to create the set of lightcones with redshift-evolving galaxy properties. The Uchuu-SDSS galaxy lightcones are built to reproduce the footprint and statistical properties of the SDSS main galaxy survey, along with stellar masses and star formation rates. This facilitates direct comparison of the observed SDSS and simulated Uchuu-SDSS data. Our lightcones reproduce a large number of observational results, such as the distribution of galaxy properties, the galaxy clustering, the stellar mass functions, and the halo occupation distributions. Using the simulated and real data we select samples of bright red galaxies at $z_\mathrm{eff}=0.15$ to explore Redshift Space Distortions and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) utilizing a full-shape analytical model of the two-point correlation function. We create a set of 5100 galaxy lightcones using GLAM N-body simulations to compute covariance errors. We report a $\sim 30\%$ precision increase on $f\sigma_8$, due to our better estimate of the covariance matrix. From our BAO-inferred $\alpha_{\parallel}$ and $\alpha_{\perp}$ parameters, we obtain the first SDSS measurements of the Hubble and angular diameter distances $D_\mathrm{H}(z=0.15) / r_d = 27.9^{+3.1}_{-2.7}$, $D_\mathrm{M}(z=0.15) / r_d = 5.1^{+0.4}_{-0.4}$. Overall, we conclude that the Planck LCDM cosmology nicely explains the observed large-scale structure statistics of SDSS. All data sets are made publicly available.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2208.00540
pages
issue
doi

source inspirehep
id 2129648
title The Uchuu-SDSS galaxy lightcones: a clustering, RSD and BAO study
first_author Dong-Páez, C.A.
author C.A. Dong-Páez, A. Smith, A.O. Szewciw, J. Ereza, M.H. Abdullah, C. Hernández-Aguayo, S. Trusov, F. Prada, A. Klypin, T. Ishiyama, A. Berlind, P. Zarrouk, J. López Cacheiro, J. Ruedas
abstract We present the data release of the Uchuu-SDSS galaxies: a set of 32 high-fidelity galaxy lightcones constructed from the large Uchuu 2.1 trillion particle $N$-body simulation using Planck cosmology. We adopt subhalo abundance matching to populate the Uchuu-box halo catalogues with SDSS galaxy luminosities. These cubic box galaxy catalogues generated at several redshifts are combined to create the set of lightcones with redshift-evolving galaxy properties. The Uchuu-SDSS galaxy lightcones are built to reproduce the footprint and statistical properties of the SDSS main galaxy survey, along with stellar masses and star formation rates. This facilitates direct comparison of the observed SDSS and simulated Uchuu-SDSS data. Our lightcones reproduce a large number of observational results, such as the distribution of galaxy properties, the galaxy clustering, the stellar mass functions, and the halo occupation distributions. Using the simulated and real data we select samples of bright red galaxies at $z_\mathrm{eff}=0.15$ to explore Redshift Space Distortions and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) utilizing a full-shape analytical model of the two-point correlation function. We create a set of 5100 galaxy lightcones using GLAM N-body simulations to compute covariance errors. We report a $\sim 30\%$ precision increase on $f\sigma_8$, due to our better estimate of the covariance matrix. From our BAO-inferred $\alpha_{\parallel}$ and $\alpha_{\perp}$ parameters, we obtain the first SDSS measurements of the Hubble and angular diameter distances $D_\mathrm{H}(z=0.15) / r_d = 27.9^{+3.1}_{-2.7}$, $D_\mathrm{M}(z=0.15) / r_d = 5.1^{+0.4}_{-0.4}$. Overall, we conclude that the Planck LCDM cosmology nicely explains the observed large-scale structure statistics of SDSS. All data sets are made publicly available.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type
eprint 2208.00540
pages
issue
doi

source inspirehep
id 2127468
title Impact of H$_{\rm 2}$-driven star formation and stellar feedback from low-enrichment environments on the formation of spiral galaxies
first_author Valentini, Milena
author Milena Valentini, Klaus Dolag, Stefano Borgani, Giuseppe Murante, Umberto Maio, Luca Tornatore, Gian Luigi Granato, Cinthia Ragone-Figueroa, Andreas Burkert, Antonio Ragagnin, Elena Rasia
abstract The reservoir of molecular gas (H$_{\rm 2}$) represents the fuel for the star formation (SF) of a galaxy. Connecting the star formation rate (SFR) to the available H$_{\rm 2}$ is key to accurately model SF in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation. We investigate how modifying the underlying modelling of H$_{\rm 2}$ and the description of stellar feedback in low-metallicity environments (LMF, i.e. low-metallicity stellar feedback) in cosmological, zoomed-in simulations of a Milky Way-size halo influences the formation history of the forming, spiral galaxy and its final properties. We exploit two different models to compute the molecular fraction of cold gas (f$_{\rm H_{\rm 2}}$): $i)$ the theoretical model by Krumholz et al. (2009b) and $ii)$ the phenomenological prescription by Blitz & Rosolowsky (2006). We find that the model adopted to estimate f$_{\rm H_{\rm 2}}$ plays a key role in determining final properties and in shaping the morphology of the galaxy. The clumpier interstellar medium (ISM) and the more complex H$_{\rm 2}$ distribution that the Krumholz et al. (2009b) model predicts result in better agreement with observations of nearby disc galaxies. This shows how crucial it is to link the SFR to the physical properties of the star-forming, molecular ISM. The additional source of energy that LMF supplies in a metal-poor ISM is key in controlling SF at high redshift and in regulating the reservoir of SF across cosmic time. Not only is LMF able to regulate cooling properties of the ISM, but it also reduces the stellar mass of the galaxy bulge. These findings can foster the improvement of the numerical modelling of SF in cosmological simulations.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type
eprint 2207.13710
pages
issue
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac2110

source inspirehep
id 2122660
title A measurement of the mean central optical depth of galaxy clusters via the pairwise kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with SPT-3G and DES
first_author Schiappucci, E.
author E. Schiappucci, F. Bianchini, M. Aguena, M. Archipley, L. Balkenhol, L.E. Bleem, P. Chaubal, T.M. Crawford, S. Grandis, Y. Omori, C.L. Reichardt, E. Rozo, E.S. Rykoff, C. To, T.M.C. Abbott, P.A.R. Ade, O. Alves, A.J. Anderson, F. Andrade-Oliveira, J. Annis, J.S. Avva, D. Bacon, K. Benabed, A.N. Bender, B.A. Benson, G.M. Bernstein, E. Bertin, S. Bocquet, F.R. Bouchet, D. Brooks, D.L. Burke, J.E. Carlstrom, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, T.W. Cecil, C.L. Chang, P.M. Chichura, T.-L. Chou, M. Costanzi, A. Cukierman, L.N. da Costa, C. Daley, T. de Haan, S. Desai, K.R. Dibert, H.T. Diehl, M.A. Dobbs, P. Doel, C. Doux, D. Dutcher, S. Everett, W. Everett, C. Feng, K.R. Ferguson, I. Ferrero, A. Ferté, B. Flaugher, A. Foster, J. Frieman, S. Galli, A.E. Gambrel, J. García-Bellido, R.W. Gardner, M. Gatti, T. Giannantonio, N. Goeckner-Wald, D. Gruen, R. Gualtieri, S. Guns, G. Gutierrez, N.W. Halverson, S.R. Hinton, E. Hivon, G.P. Holder, D.L. Hollowood, W.L. Holzapfel, K. Honscheid, J.C. Hood, N. Huang, D.J. James, L. Knox, M. Korman, K. Kuehn, C.-L. Kuo, O. Lahav, A.T. Lee, C. Lidman, M. Lima, A.E. Lowitz, C. Lu, M. March, J. Mena-Fernández, F. Menanteau, M. Millea, R. Miquel, J.J. Mohr, J. Montgomery, J. Muir, T. Natoli, G.I. Noble, V. Novosad, R.L.C. Ogando, S. Padin, Z. Pan, F. Paz-Chinchón, M.E.S. Pereira, A. Pieres, A.A. Plazas Malagón, K. Prabhu, J. Prat, W. Quan, A. Rahlin, M. Raveri, M. Rodriguez-Monroy, A.K. Romer, M. Rouble, J.E. Ruhl, E. Sanchez, V. Scarpine, M. Schubnell, G. Smecher, M. Smith, M. Soares-Santos, J.A. Sobrin, E. Suchyta, A. Suzuki, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, K.L. Thompson, B. Thorne, C. Tucker, C. Umilta, J.D. Vieira, M. Vincenzi, G. Wang, N. Weaverdyck, J. Weller, N. Whitehorn, W.L.K. Wu, V. Yefremenko, M.R. Young
abstract We infer the mean optical depth of a sample of optically-selected galaxy clusters from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) via the pairwise kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect. The pairwise kSZ signal between pairs of clusters drawn from the DES Year-3 cluster catalog is detected at $4.1 \sigma$ in cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps from two years of observations with the SPT-3G camera on the South Pole Telescope. After cuts, there are 24,580 clusters in the $\sim 1,400$ deg$^2$ of the southern sky observed by both experiments. We infer the mean optical depth of the cluster sample with two techniques. The optical depth inferred from the pairwise kSZ signal is $\bar{\tau}_e = (2.97 \pm 0.73) \times 10^{-3}$, while that inferred from the thermal SZ signal is $\bar{\tau}_e = (2.51 \pm 0.55) \times 10^{-3}$. The two measures agree at $0.6 \sigma$. We perform a suite of systematic checks to test the robustness of the analysis.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type
eprint 2207.11937
pages
issue
doi

source inspirehep
id 2119989
title Revisiting constraints on WIMPs around primordial black holes
first_author Ginés, Estanis Utrilla
author Estanis Utrilla Ginés, Samuel J. Witte, Olga Mena
abstract While Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) with masses $M_{\rm PBH} \gtrsim 10^{-11} \, M_\odot$ cannot comprise the entirety of dark matter, the existence of even a small population of these objects can have profound astrophysical consequences. A sub-dominant population of PBHs will efficiently accrete dark matter particles before matter-radiation equality, giving rise to high-density dark matter spikes. We consider here the scenario in which dark matter is comprised primarily of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with a small sub-dominant contribution coming from PBHs, and revisit the constraints on the annihilation of WIMPs in these spikes using observations of the isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) and the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), for a range of WIMP masses, annihilation channels, cross sections, and PBH mass functions. We find that the constraints derived using the IGRB have been significantly overestimated (in some cases by many orders of magnitude), and that limits obtained using observations of the CMB are typically stronger than, or comparable to, those coming from the IGRB. Importantly, we show that $\sim \mathcal{O}(M_\odot)$ PBHs can still contribute significantly to the dark matter density for sufficiently low WIMP masses and p-wave annihilation cross sections.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type
eprint 2207.09481
pages
issue
doi

source inspirehep
id 2116335
title Core-collapse Supernovae in the Dark Energy Survey: Luminosity Functions and Host Galaxy Demographics
first_author Grayling, M.
author M. Grayling, C.P. Gutiérrez, M. Sullivan, P. Wiseman, M. Vincenzi, L. Galbany, A. Möller, D. Brout, T.M. Davis, C. Frohmaier, O. Graur, L. Kelsey, C. Lidman, B. Popovic, M. Smith, M. Toy, B.E. Tucker, Z. Zontou, T.M.C. Abbott, M. Aguena, S. Allam, F. Andrade-Oliveira, J. Annis, J. Asorey, D. Bacon, E. Bertin, S. Bocquet, D. Brooks, A. Carnero Rosell, D. Carollo, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, M. Costanzi, L.N. da Costa, M.E.S. Pereira, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, H.T. Diehl, P. Doel, S. Everett, I. Ferrero, D. Friedel, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, M. Gatti, D. Gruen, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, S.R. Hinton, D.L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, D.J. James, K. Kuehn, N. Kuropatkin, G.F. Lewis, U. Malik, M. March, F. Menanteau, R. Miquel, R. Morgan, R.L.C. Ogando, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A.A. Plazas Malagón, M. Rodriguez-Monroy, A.K. Romer, A. Roodman, E. Sanchez, V. Scarpine, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, C. To, D.L. Tucker, T.N. Varga
abstract We present the luminosity functions and host galaxy properties of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) core-collapse supernova (CCSN) sample, consisting of 69 Type II and 50 Type Ibc spectroscopically and photometrically-confirmed supernovae over a redshift range $0.045<z<0.25$. We fit the observed DES $griz$ CCSN light-curves and K-correct to produce rest-frame $R$-band light curves. We compare the sample with lower-redshift CCSN samples from Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) and Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS). Comparing luminosity functions, the DES and ZTF samples of SNe II are brighter than that of LOSS with significances of 3.0$\sigma$ and 2.5$\sigma$ respectively. While this difference could be caused by redshift evolution in the luminosity function, simpler explanations such as differing levels of host extinction remain a possibility. We find that the host galaxies of SNe II in DES are on average bluer than in ZTF, despite having consistent stellar mass distributions. We consider a number of possibilities to explain this -- including galaxy evolution with redshift, selection biases in either the DES or ZTF samples, and systematic differences due to the different photometric bands available -- but find that none can easily reconcile the differences in host colour between the two samples and thus its cause remains uncertain.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type
eprint 2207.08520
pages
issue
doi

source inspirehep
id 2111043
title A galaxy-driven model of type Ia supernova luminosity variations
first_author Wiseman, P.
author P. Wiseman, M. Vincenzi, M. Sullivan, L. Kelsey, B. Popovic, B. Rose, D. Brout, T.M. Davis, C. Frohmaier, L. Galbany, C. Lidman, A. Möller, D. Scolnic, M. Smith, M. Aguena, S. Allam, F. Andrade-Oliveira, J. Annis, E. Bertin, S. Bocquet, D. Brooks, D.L. Burke, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, F.J. Castander, M. Costanzi, M.E.S. Pereira, S. Desai, H.T. Diehl, P. Doel, S. Everett, I. Ferrero, D. Friedel, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, M. Gatti, E. Gaztanaga, D. Gruen, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, S.R. Hinton, D.L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, D.J. James, M. March, F. Menanteau, R. Miquel, R. Morgan, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A.A. Plazas Malagón, A.K. Romer, E. Sanchez, V. Scarpine, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, M. Soares-Santos, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, C. To, T.N. Varga
abstract Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are used as standardizable candles to measure cosmological distances, but differences remain in their corrected luminosities which display a magnitude step as a function of host galaxy properties such as stellar mass and rest-frame U−R colour. Identifying the cause of these steps is key to cosmological analyses and provides insight into SN physics. Here we investigate the effects of SN progenitor ages on their light-curve properties using a galaxy-based forward model that we compare to the Dark Energy Survey 5-yr SN Ia sample. We trace SN Ia progenitors through time and draw their light-curve width parameters from a bimodal distribution according to their age. We find that an intrinsic luminosity difference between SNe of different ages cannot explain the observed trend between step size and SN colour. The data split by stellar mass are better reproduced by following recent work implementing a step in total-to-selective dust extinction ratio () between low- and high-mass hosts, although an additional intrinsic luminosity step is still required to explain the data split by host galaxy U−R. Modelling the R_V step as a function of galaxy age provides a better match overall. Additional age versus luminosity steps marginally improve the match to the data, although most of the step is absorbed by the width versus luminosity coefficient α. Furthermore, we find no evidence that α varies with SN age.
journal Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc.
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 515
publication_type
eprint 2207.05583
pages 4587
issue 3
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1984

source harvard
id 21285549
title Updated bounds on axion-like particles from X-ray observations
first_author Simon Schallmoser
author Simon Schallmoser, Sven Krippendorf, Francesca Chadha-Day, Jochen Weller
abstract In this work, we revisit five different point sources within or behind galaxy clusters to constrain the coupling constant between axion-like particles (ALPs) and photons. We use three distinct machine learning (ML) techniques and compare our results with a standard χ<SUP>2</SUP> analysis. For the first time, we apply approximate Bayesian computation to search for ALPs and find consistently good performance across ML classifiers. Further, we apply more realistic 3D magnetic field simulations of galaxy clusters and compare our results with previously used 1D simulations. We find constraints on the ALP-photon coupling at the level of state-of-the-art bounds with $g_{a\gamma \gamma } \lesssim 0.6 \times 10^{-12} \, \rm{GeV}^{-1}$, hence improving on previous constraints obtained from the same observations.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 514
publication_type article
eprint
pages 13
issue 1
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1224

source harvard
id 21398568
title The protoplanetary disk population in the ρ-Ophiuchi region L1688 and the time evolution of Class II YSOs
first_author L. Testi
author L. Testi, A. Natta, C. F. Manara, I. de Gregorio Monsalvo, G. Lodato, C. Lopez, K. Muzic, I. Pascucci, E. Sanchis, A. Santamaria Miranda, A. Scholz, M. De Simone, J. P. Williams
abstract Context. Planets form during the first few Myr of the evolution of the star-disk system, possibly before the end of the embedded phase. The properties of very young disks and their subsequent evolution reflect the presence and properties of their planetary content. <BR /> Aims: We present a study of the Class II/F disk population in L1688, the densest and youngest region of star formation in Ophiuchus. We also compare it to other well-known nearby regions of different ages, namely Lupus, Chamaeleon I, Corona Australis, Taurus and Upper Scorpius. <BR /> Methods: We selected our L1688 sample using a combination of criteria (available ALMA data, Gaia membership, and optical and near-IR spectroscopy) to determine the stellar and disk properties, specifically stellar mass (M<SUB>⋆</SUB>), average population age, mass accretion rate (Ṁ<SUB>acc</SUB>) and disk dust mass (Ṁ<SUB>dust</SUB>). We applied the same procedure in a consistent manner to the other regions. <BR /> Results: In L1688 the relations between Ṁ<SUB>acc</SUB> and M<SUB>⋆</SUB>, M<SUB>dust</SUB> and M<SUB>⋆</SUB>, and Ṁ<SUB>acc</SUB> and M<SUB>dust</SUB> have a roughly linear trend with slopes 1.8-1.9 for the first two relations and ~1 for the third, which is similar to what found in the other regions. When ordered according to the characteristic age of each region, which ranging from ~ 0.5 to ~5 Myr, Ṁ<SUB>acc</SUB> decreases as t<SUP>−1</SUP>, when corrected for the different stellar mass content; M<SUB>dust</SUB> follows roughly the same trend, ranging between 0.5 and 5 Myr, but has an increase of a factor of ~3 at ages of 2-3 Myr. We suggest that this could result from an earlier planet formation, followed by collisional fragmentation that temporarily replenishes the millimeter-size grain population. The dispersion of Ṁ<SUB>acc</SUB> and M<SUB>dust</SUB> around the best-fitting relation with M<SUB>⋆</SUB>, as well as that of Ṁ<SUB>acc</SUB> versus M<SUB>dust</SUB> are equally large. When adding all the regions together to increase the statistical significance, we find that the dispersions have continuous distributions with a log-normal shape and similar widths (~0.8 dex). <BR /> Conclusions: This detailed study of L1688 confirms the general picture of Class II/F disk properties and extends it to a younger age. The amount of dust observed at ~1 Myr is not sufficient to assemble the majority of planetary systems, which suggests an earlier formation process for planetary cores. The dust mass traces to a large extent the disk gas mass evolution, even if the ratio M<SUB>dust</SUB>/M<SUB>disk</SUB> at the earliest age (0.5-1 Myr) is not known. Two properties are still not understood: the steep dependence of Ṁ<SUB>acc</SUB> and M<SUB>dust</SUB> on M<SUB>⋆</SUB> and the cause of the large dispersion in the three relations analyzed in this paper, in particular that of the Ṁ<SUB>acc</SUB> versus M<SUB>dust</SUB> relation. <P />Full Tables A.1-G.1 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/663/A98">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/663/A98</A>
journal Astronomy and Astrophysics
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 663
publication_type article
eprint
pages 22
issue
doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202141380

source harvard
id 21273242
title A survey of high-z galaxies: SERRA simulations
first_author A. Pallottini
author A. Pallottini, A. Ferrara, S. Gallerani, C. Behrens, M. Kohandel, S. Carniani, L. Vallini, S. Salvadori, V. Gelli, L. Sommovigo, V. D'Odorico, F. Di Mascia, E. Pizzati
abstract We introduce SERRA, a suite of zoom-in high-resolution ($1.2\times 10^4 \, {\rm M}_{\odot }$, $\simeq 25\, {\rm {pc}}$ at z = 7.7) cosmological simulations including non-equilibrium chemistry and on-the-fly radiative transfer. The outputs are post-processed to derive galaxy ultraviolet (UV) + far-infrared (FIR) continuum and emission line properties. Results are compared with available multiwavelength data to constrain the physical properties [e.g. star formation rates (SFRs), stellar/gas/dust mass, metallicity] of high-redshift 6 ≲ z ≲ 15 galaxies. This flagship paper focuses on the z = 7.7 sub-sample, including 202 galaxies with stellar mass $10^7 \, {\rm M}_{\odot }\lesssim M_\star \lesssim 5\times 10^{10}\, {\rm M}_{\odot }$, and specific star formation rate ranging from ${\rm sSFR} \sim 100\, {\rm Gyr}^{-1}$ in young, low-mass galaxies to $\sim 10\, {\rm Gyr}^{-1}$ for older, massive ones. At this redshift, SERRA galaxies are typically bursty, i.e. they are located above the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation by a factor $\kappa _s = 3.03^{+4.9}_{-1.8}$, consistent with recent findings for [O III] and [C II] emitters at high z. They also show relatively large InfraRed eXcess (IRX = L<SUB>FIR</SUB>/L<SUB>UV</SUB>) values as a result of their compact/clumpy morphology effectively blocking the stellar UV luminosity. Note that this conclusion might be affected by insufficient spatial resolution at the molecular cloud level. We confirm that early galaxies lie on the standard [C II]$\!-\!\rm SFR$ relation; their observed L<SUB>[OIII]</SUB>/L<SUB>[CII]</SUB> ≃ 1-10 ratios can be reproduced by a part of the SERRA galaxies without the need of a top-heavy initial mass function and/or anomalous C/O abundances. [O I] line intensities are similar to local ones, making ALMA high-z detections challenging but feasible ($\sim 6\, \rm h$ for an SFR of $50\, \, {\rm M}_{\odot }\, {\rm yr}^{-1}$).
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 513
publication_type article
eprint
pages 21
issue 4
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1281

source harvard
id 21398639
title Intrinsic Shapes of Brightest Cluster Galaxies
first_author Stefano de Nicola
author Stefano de Nicola, Roberto P. Saglia, Jens Thomas, Claudia Pulsoni, Matthias Kluge, Ralf Bender, Lucas M. Valenzuela, Rhea-Silvia Remus
abstract We discuss the statistical distribution of galaxy shapes and viewing angles under the assumption of triaxiality by deprojecting observed surface brightness profiles of 56 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) coming from a recently published large deep-photometry sample. For the first time, we address this issue by directly measuring axis ratio profiles without limiting ourselves to a statistical analysis of average ellipticities. We show that these objects are strongly triaxial, with triaxiality parameters 0.39 ≤ T ≤ 0.72, they have average axis ratios &lt;p(r)&gt; = 0.84 and &lt;q(r)&gt; = 0.68, and they are more spherical in the central regions but flatten out at large radii. Measured shapes in the outskirts agree well with the shapes found for simulated massive galaxies and their dark matter halos from both the IllustrisTNG and the Magneticum simulations, possibly probing the nature of dark matter. In contrast, both simulations fail to reproduce the observed inner regions of BCGs, producing objects that are too flattened.
journal The Astrophysical Journal
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume 933
publication_type article
eprint
pages 22
issue 2
doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac7463

source harvard
id 21401055
title Cosmological Constraints from Galaxy Clusters and Groups in the $eROSITA$ Final Equatorial Depth Survey
first_author I-Non Chiu
author I-Non Chiu, Matthias Klein, Joseph Mohr, Sebastian Bocquet
abstract We present the first cosmological study of a sample of $eROSITA$ clusters, which were identified in the $eROSITA$ Final Equatorial Depth Survey (eFEDS). In a joint selection on X-ray and optical observables, the sample contains $455$ clusters within a redshift range of $0.1&lt;z&lt;1.2$, of which $177$ systems are covered by the public data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey that enables uniform weak-lensing cluster mass constraints. With minimal assumptions, at each cluster redshift $z$ we empirically model (1) the scaling relations between the cluster halo mass $M$ and the observables, which include the X-ray count rate $\eta$, the optical richness $\lambda$, and the weak-lensing mass $M_{\mathrm{WL}}$, and (2) the X-ray selection in terms of the completeness function $\mathcal{C}$. Using the richness distribution of the clusters, we directly measure the X-ray completeness and adopt those measurements as informative priors for the parameters of $\mathcal{C}$. We validate our cosmology analysis framework using mock data, and then in a blinded analysis of the real data we further validate the joint modeling of the cluster abundance and the weak-lensing mass calibration with a set of consistency tests. After unblinding, we obtain the cosmological constraints $\Omega_{\mathrm{m}} = 0.245^{+0.048}_{-0.058}$, $\sigma_{8} = 0.833^{+0.075}_{-0.063}$ and $S_{8} \equiv \sigma_{8}\left(\Omega_{\mathrm{m}}/0.3\right)^{0.3}= 0.791^{+0.028}_{-0.031}$ in a flat $\Lambda$CDM cosmology. Extending to a flat $w$CDM cosmology leads to the constraint on the equation of state parameter of the dark energy of $w = -1.25\pm 0.47$. The eFEDS constraints are in good agreement with the results from the $Planck$ mission, the galaxy-galaxy lensing and clustering analysis of the Dark Energy Survey, and the cluster abundance analysis of the SPT-SZ survey at a level of $\lesssim1\sigma$. (abridged)
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2207.12429
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21382338
title The static force from generalized Wilson loops
first_author V. Leino
author V. Leino, N. Brambilla, O. Philipsen, C. Reisinger, A. Vairo, M. Wagner
abstract Recently a method to compute the static force with lattice gauge theory using an insertion of a chromoelectric field into a Wilson loop was proposed. We explore this method using the multilevel algorithm and discuss the renormalization of the chromoelectric field on the lattice.
journal The 38th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory
publisher
year 2022
month 07
volume
publication_type inproceedings
eprint
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21165076
title Cosmological implications of the full shape of anisotropic clustering measurements in BOSS and eBOSS
first_author Agne Semenaite
author Agne Semenaite, Ariel G. Sánchez, Andrea Pezzotta, Jiamin Hou, Roman Scoccimarro, Alexander Eggemeier, Martin Crocce, Chia-Hsun Chuang, Alexander Smith, Cheng Zhao, Joel R. Brownstein, Graziano Rossi, Donald P. Schneider
abstract We present the analysis of the full shape of anisotropic clustering measurement from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) quasar sample together with the combined galaxy sample from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), re-analysed using an updated recipe for the non-linear matter power spectrum and the non-local bias parameters. We obtain constraints for flat Lambda cold dark matter cosmologies, focusing on the cosmological parameters that are independent of the Hubble parameter h. Our recovered value for the Root Mean Square (RMS) linear perturbation theory variance as measured on the scale of $12\, {\rm Mpc}$ is σ<SUB>12</SUB> = 0.805 ± 0.049, while using the traditional reference scale of $8\, h^{-1}\, {\rm Mpc}$ gives σ<SUB>8</SUB> = 0.815 ± 0.044. We quantify the agreement between our measurements and the latest cosmic microwave background data from Planck using the suspiciousness metric, and find them to be consistent within 0.64 ± 0.03σ. Combining our clustering constraints with the 3 × 2pt data sample from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 release slightly degrades this agreement to the level of 1.54 ± 0.08σ, while still showing an overall consistency with Planck. We furthermore study the effect of imposing a Planck - like prior on the parameters that define the shape of the linear matter power spectrum, and find significantly tighter constraints on the parameters that control the evolution of density fluctuations. In particular, the combination of low-redshift data sets prefers a value of the physical dark energy density ω<SUB>DE</SUB> = 0.335 ± 0.011, which is 1.7σ higher than the one preferred by Planck.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume 512
publication_type article
eprint
pages 14
issue 4
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac829

source harvard
id 21282792
title Low-Energy Supernovae Severely Constrain Radiative Particle Decays
first_author Andrea Caputo
author Andrea Caputo, Hans-Thomas Janka, Georg Raffelt, Edoardo Vitagliano
abstract The hot and dense core formed in the collapse of a massive star is a powerful source of hypothetical feebly interacting particles such as sterile neutrinos, dark photons, axionlike particles (ALPs), and others. Radiative decays such as a →2 γ deposit this energy in the surrounding material if the mean free path is less than the radius of the progenitor star. For the first time, we use a supernova (SN) population with particularly low explosion energies as the most sensitive calorimeters to constrain this possibility. These SNe are observationally identified as low-luminosity events with low ejecta velocities and low masses of ejected <SUP>56</SUP>Ni. Their low energies limit the energy deposition from particle decays to less than about 0.1 B, where 1 B (bethe)=10<SUP>51</SUP> erg . For 1-500 MeV-mass ALPs, this generic argument excludes ALP-photon couplings G<SUB>a γ γ</SUB> in the 10<SUP>-10</SUP>−10<SUP>-8</SUP> GeV<SUP>-1</SUP> range.
journal Physical Review Letters
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume 128
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 22
doi 10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.221103

source harvard
id 21178068
title Presolar grain dynamics: Creating nucleosynthetic variations through a combination of drag and viscous evolution
first_author Mark A. Hutchison
author Mark A. Hutchison, Jean-David Bodénan, Lucio Mayer, Maria Schönbächler
abstract Meteoritic studies of Solar system objects show evidence of nucleosynthetic heterogeneities that are inherited from small presolar grains ($\lt 10\,\, \mu {\mathrm{m}}$) formed in stellar environments external to our own. The initial distribution and subsequent evolution of these grains are currently unconstrained. Using 3D, gas-dust simulations, we find that isotopic variations on the order of those observed in the Solar system can be generated and maintained by drag and viscosity. Small grains are dragged radially outwards without size/density sorting by viscous expansion and backreaction, enriching the outer disc with presolar grains. Meanwhile large aggregates composed primarily of silicates drift radially inwards due to drag, further enriching the relative portion of presolar grains in the outer disc and diluting the inner disc. The late accumulation of enriched aggregates outside Jupiter could explain some of the isotopic variations observed in Solar system bodies, such as the enrichment of supernovae derived material in carbonaceous chondrites. We also see evidence for isotopic variations in the inner disc that may hold implications for enstatite and ordinary chondrites that formed closer to the Sun. Initial heterogeneities in the presolar grain distribution that are not continuously reinforced are dispersed by diffusion, radial surface flows, and/or planetary interactions over the entire lifetime of the disc. For younger, more massive discs we expect turbulent diffusion to be even more homogenizing, suggesting that dust evolution played a more central role in forming the isotopic anomalies in the Solar system than originally thought.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume 512
publication_type article
eprint
pages 21
issue 4
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac765

source harvard
id 21282712
title Rare radiative decays of charm baryons
first_author Nico Adolph
author Nico Adolph, Gudrun Hiller
abstract We study weak radiative |Δ c |=|Δ u |=1 decays of the charmed antitriplet (Λ<SUB>c</SUB>, Ξ<SUB>c</SUB><SUP>+</SUP>, Ξ<SUB>c</SUB><SUP>0</SUP>) and sextet (Σ<SUB>c</SUB><SUP>++</SUP>, Σ<SUB>c</SUB><SUP>+</SUP>, Σ<SUB>c</SUB><SUP>0</SUP>, Ξ<SUB>c</SUB><SUP>'+</SUP>, Ξ<SUB>c</SUB><SUP>'0</SUP>, Ω<SUB>c</SUB>) baryons in the standard model (SM) and beyond. We work out S U (2 )- and S U (3 )<SUB>F</SUB>-symmetry relations. We propose to study self-analyzing decay chains such as Ξ<SUB>c</SUB><SUP>+</SUP>→Σ<SUP>+</SUP>(→p π<SUP>0</SUP>)γ and Ξ<SUB>c</SUB><SUP>0</SUP>→Λ (→p π<SUP>-</SUP>)γ , which enable new physics sensitive polarization studies. SM contributions can be controlled by a corresponding analysis of the Cabibbo-favored decays Λ<SUB>c</SUB><SUP>+</SUP>→Σ<SUP>+</SUP>(→p π<SUP>0</SUP>)γ and Ξ<SUB>c</SUB><SUP>0</SUP>→Ξ<SUP>0</SUP>(→Λ π<SUP>0</SUP>)γ . Further tests of the SM are available with initially polarized baryons including Λ<SUB>c</SUB>→p γ together with Λ<SUB>c</SUB>→Σ<SUP>+</SUP>γ decays, or Ω<SUB>c</SUB>→Ξ<SUP>0</SUP>γ together with Ω<SUB>c</SUB>→(Λ ,Σ<SUP>0</SUP>)γ . In addition, C P -violating new physics contributions to dipole operators can enhance C P asymmetries up to a few percent.
journal Physical Review D
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume 105
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 11
doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.105.116001

source harvard
id 21275838
title Static Energy in ($2+1+1$)-Flavor Lattice QCD: Scale Setting and Charm Effects
first_author TUMQCD Collaboration
author TUMQCD Collaboration, Nora Brambilla, Rafael L. Delgado, Andreas S. Kronfeld, Viljami Leino, Peter Petreczky, Sebastian Steinbeißer, Antonio Vairo, Johannes H. Weber
abstract We present results for the static energy in ($2+1+1$)-flavor QCD over a wide range of lattice spacings and several quark masses, including the physical quark mass, with ensembles of lattice-gauge-field configurations made available by the MILC Collaboration. We obtain results for the static energy out to distances of nearly $1$~fm, allowing us to perform a simultaneous determination of the scales $r_{1}$ and $r_{0}$ as well as the string tension, $\sigma$. For the smallest three lattice spacings we also determine the scale $r_{2}$. Our results for $r_{0}/r_{1}$ and $r_{0}\sqrt{\sigma}$ agree with published ($2+1$)-flavor results. However, our result for $r_{1}/r_{2}$ differs significantly from the value obtained in the ($2+1$)-flavor case, which is most likely due to the effect of the charm quark. We also report results for $r_{0}$, $r_{1}$, and $r_{2}$ in~fm, with the former two being slightly lower than published ($2+1$)-flavor results. We study in detail the effect of the charm quark on the static energy by comparing our results on the finest two lattices with the previously published ($2+1$)-flavor QCD results at similar lattice spacing. We find that for $r &gt; 0.2$~fm our results on the static energy agree with the ($2+1$)-flavor result, implying the decoupling of the charm quark for these distances. For smaller distances, on the other hand, we find that the effect of the dynamical charm quark is noticeable. The lattice results agree well with the two-loop perturbative expression of the static energy incorporating finite charm mass effects. This is the first time that the decoupling of the charm quark is observed and quantitatively analyzed on lattice data of the static energy.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.03156
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21255314
title Effects of boosting on extragalactic components: methods and statistical studies
first_author William Coulton
author William Coulton, Sydney Feldman, Karime Maamari, Elena Pierpaoli, Siavash Yasini, Klaus Dolag
abstract In this work, we examine the impact of our motion with respect to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) rest frame on statistics of CMB maps by examining the one-, two-, three-, and four- point statistics of simulated maps of the CMB and Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effects. We validate boosting codes by comparing their outcomes for temperature and polarization power spectra up to ℓ ≃ 6000. We derive and validate a new analytical formula for the computation of the boosted power spectrum of a signal with a generic frequency dependence. As an example we show how this increases the boosting correction to the power spectrum of CMB intensity measurements by ${\sim}30{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ at 150 GHz. We examine the effect of boosting on thermal and kinetic SZ power spectra from semianalytical and hydrodynamical simulations; the boosting correction is generally small for both simulations, except when considering frequencies near the tSZ null. For the non-Gaussian statistics, in general we find that boosting has no impact with two exceptions. We find that, whilst the statistics of the CMB convergence field are unaffected, quadratic estimators that are used to measure this field can become biased at the $O(1){{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ level by boosting effects. We present a simple modification to the standard estimators that removes this bias. Second, bispectrum estimators can receive a systematic bias from the Doppler induced quadrupole when there is anisotropy in the sky - in practice this anisotropy comes from masking and inhomogeneous noise. This effect is unobservable and already removed by existing analysis methods.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume 513
publication_type article
eprint
pages 19
issue 2
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1017

source harvard
id 21254683
title HOLISMOKES. VIII. High-redshift, strong-lens search in the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program
first_author Yiping Shu
author Yiping Shu, Raoul Cañameras, Stefan Schuldt, Sherry H. Suyu, Stefan Taubenberger, Kaiki Taro Inoue, Anton T. Jaelani
abstract We carry out a search for strong-lens systems containing high-redshift lens galaxies with the goal of extending strong-lensing-assisted galaxy evolutionary studies to earlier cosmic time. Two strong-lens classifiers are constructed from a deep residual network and trained with datasets of different lens-redshift and brightness distributions. We classify a sample of 5 356 628 pre-selected objects from the Wide-layer fields in the second public data release of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) by applying the two classifiers to their HSC gri-filter cutouts. Cutting off at thresholds that correspond to a false positive rate of 10<SUP>−3</SUP> on our test set, the two classifiers identify 5468 and 6119 strong-lens candidates. Visually inspecting the cutouts of those candidates results in 735 grade-A or B strong-lens candidates in total, of which 277 candidates are discovered for the first time. This is the single largest set of galaxy-scale strong-lens candidates discovered with HSC data to date, and nearly half of it (331/735) contains lens galaxies with photometric redshifts above 0.6. Our discoveries will serve as a valuable target list for ongoing and scheduled spectroscopic surveys such as the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph project, and the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer. <P />Full Tables B.1 and B.2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/662/A4">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/662/A4</A>
journal Astronomy and Astrophysics
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume 662
publication_type article
eprint
pages 22
issue
doi 10.1051/0004-6361/202243203

source harvard
id 21255328
title SHARP - VIII. J0924+0219 lens mass distribution and time-delay prediction through adaptive-optics imaging
first_author Geoff C. -F. Chen
author Geoff C. -F. Chen, Christopher D. Fassnacht, Sherry H. Suyu, Léon V. E. Koopmans, David J. Lagattuta, John P. McKean, Matt W. Auger, Simona Vegetti, Tommaso Treu
abstract Strongly lensed quasars can provide measurements of the Hubble constant (H<SUB>0</SUB>) independent of any other methods. One of the key ingredients is exquisite high-resolution imaging data, such as Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging and adaptive-optics (AO) imaging from ground-based telescopes, which provide strong constraints on the mass distribution of the lensing galaxy. In this work, we expand on the previous analysis of three time-delay lenses with AO imaging (RX J1131-1231, HE 0435-1223, and PG 1115+080), and perform a joint analysis of J0924+0219 by using AO imaging from the Keck telescope, obtained as part of the Strong lensing at High Angular Resolution Program (SHARP) AO effort, with HST imaging to constrain the mass distribution of the lensing galaxy. Under the assumption of a flat Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model with fixed Ω<SUB>m</SUB> = 0.3, we show that by marginalizing over two different kinds of mass models (power-law and composite models) and their transformed mass profiles via a mass-sheet transformation, we obtain $\Delta t_{\rm BA}=6.89\substack{+0.8\-0.7}\, h^{-1}\hat{\sigma }_{v}^{2}$ d, $\Delta t_{\rm CA}=10.7\substack{+1.6\-1.2}\, h^{-1}\hat{\sigma }_{v}^{2}$ d, and $\Delta t_{\rm DA}=7.70\substack{+1.0\-0.9}\, h^{-1}\hat{\sigma }_{v}^{2}$ d, where $h=H_{0}/100\,\rm km\, s^{-1}\, Mpc^{-1}$ is the dimensionless Hubble constant and $\hat{\sigma }_{v}=\sigma ^{\rm ob}_{v}/(280\,\rm km\, s^{-1})$ is the scaled dimensionless velocity dispersion. Future measurements of time delays with 10 per cent uncertainty and velocity dispersion with 5 per cent uncertainty would yield a H<SUB>0</SUB> constraint of ~15 per cent precision.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume 513
publication_type article
eprint
pages 11
issue 2
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1081

source harvard
id 21275541
title Heavy quark diffusion coefficient with gradient flow
first_author Nora Brambilla
author Nora Brambilla, Viljami Leino, Julian Mayer-Steudte, Peter Petreczky
abstract We calculate chromo-electric and chromo-magnetic correlators in quenched QCD at $1.5T_c$ and $10^4 T_c$ with the aim to estimate the heavy quark diffusion coefficient at leading order in the inverse heavy quark mass expansion, $\kappa_E$, as well as the coefficient of first mass suppressed correction, $\kappa_B$. We use gradient flow for noise reduction. At $1.5T_c$ we obtain: $1.70 \le \kappa_E/T^3 \le 3.12$ and $1.23&lt; \kappa_B/T^3 &lt; 2.74$. The latter implies that the mass suppressed effects in the heavy quark diffusion coefficient are 20% for bottom quarks and 34% for charm quark at this temperature.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.02861
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21273178
title Low-luminosity type IIP supernovae: SN 2005cs and SN 2020cxd as very low-energy iron core-collapse explosions
first_author Alexandra Kozyreva
author Alexandra Kozyreva, Hans-Thomas Janka, Daniel Kresse, Stefan Taubenberger, Petr Baklanov
abstract SN 2020cxd is a representative of the family of low-energy, underluminous Type IIP supernovae (SNe), whose observations and analysis were recently reported by Yang et al. (2021). Here we re-evaluate the observational data for the diagnostic SN properties by employing the hydrodynamic explosion model of a 9 M<SUB>⊙</SUB> red supergiant progenitor with an iron core and a pre-collapse mass of 8.75 M<SUB>⊙</SUB>. The explosion of the star was obtained by the neutrino-driven mechanism in a fully self-consistent simulation in three dimensions (3D). Multi-band light curves and photospheric velocities for the plateau phase are computed with the one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code STELLA, applied to the spherically averaged 3D explosion model as well as sphericized radial profiles in different directions of the 3D model. We find that the overall evolution of the bolometric light curve, duration of the plateau phase, and basic properties of the multi-band emission can be well reproduced by our SN model with its explosion energy of only 0.7 × 10<SUP>50</SUP> erg and an ejecta mass of 7.4 M<SUB>⊙</SUB>. These values are considerably lower than the previously reported numbers, but they are compatible with those needed to explain the fundamental observational properties of the prototype low-luminosity SN 2005cs. Because of the good compatibility of our photospheric velocities with line velocities determined for SN 2005cs, we conclude that the line velocities of SN 2020cxd are probably overestimated by up to a factor of about 3. The evolution of the line velocities of SN 2005cs compared to photospheric velocities in different explosion directions might point to intrinsic asymmetries in the SN ejecta.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac1518

source harvard
id 21275925
title Spin fields for the spinning particle
first_author E. Boffo
author E. Boffo, I. Sachs
abstract We propose an analogue of spin fields for the relativistic RNS-particle in 4 dimensions, in order to describe Ramond-Ramond states as "two-particle" excitations on the world line. On a natural representation space we identify a differential whose cohomology agrees with RR-fields equations. We then discuss the non-linear theory encoded in deformations of the latter by background fields. We also formulate a sigma model for this spin field from which we recover the RNS-formulation by imposing suitable constraints.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.03243
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21284437
title {\Lambda}CDM with baryons vs. MOND: the time evolution of the universal acceleration scale in the Magneticum simulations
first_author Alexander C. Mayer
author Alexander C. Mayer, Adelheid F. Teklu, Klaus Dolag, Rhea-Silvia Remus
abstract MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) is an alternative to the standard Cold Dark Matter (CDM) paradigm which proposes an alteration of Newton's laws of motion at low accelerations, characterized by a universal acceleration scale a_0. It attempts to explain observations of galactic rotation curves and predicts a specific scaling relation of the baryonic and total acceleration in galaxies, referred to as the Rotational Acceleration Relation (RAR), which can be equivalently formulated as a Mass Discrepancy Acceleration Relation (MDAR). The appearance of these relations in observational data such as SPARC has lead to investigations into the existence of similar relations in cosmological simulations using the standard {\Lambda}CDM model. Here, we report the existence of an RAR and MDAR similar to that predicted by MOND in {\Lambda}CDM using a large sample of galaxies extracted from a cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation (Magneticum). Furthermore, by using galaxies in Magneticum at different redshifts, a prediction for the evolution of the inferred acceleration parameter a_0 with cosmic time is derived by fitting a MOND force law to these galaxies. In Magneticum, the best fit for a_0 is found to increase by a factor of approximately 3 from redshift z = 0 to z = 2. This offers a powerful test from cosmological simulations to distinguish between MOND and {\Lambda}CDM observationally.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.04333
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21276501
title Improved Theory Predictions and Global Analysis of Exclusive $\boldsymbol{b\to s\mu^+\mu^-}$ Processes
first_author Nico Gubernari
author Nico Gubernari, Méril Reboud, Danny van Dyk, Javier Virto
abstract We provide improved Standard Model theory predictions for the exclusive rare semimuonic processes $B\to K^{(*)}\mu^+\mu^-$ and $B_s\to\phi\mu^+\mu^-$. Our results are based on a novel parametrization of the non-local form factors, which manifestly respects a recently developed dispersive bound. We critically compare our predictions to those obtained in the framework of QCD factorization. Our predictions provide, for the first time, parametric estimates of the systematic uncertainties due to non-local contributions. Comparing our predictions within the Standard Model to available experimental data, we find a large tension for $B\to K\mu^+\mu^-$. A simple model-independent analysis of potential effects beyond the Standard Model yields results compatible with other approaches, albeit with larger uncertainties for the $B\to K^*\mu^+\mu^-$ and $B_s\to \phi\mu^+\mu^-$ decays. Our approach yields systematically improvable predictions, and we look forward to its application in further analyses beyond the Standard Model.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.03797
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21272395
title AAfrag 2.01: Interpolation routines for Monte Carlo results on secondary production including light antinuclei in hadronic interactions
first_author M. Kachelriess
author M. Kachelriess, S. Ostapchenko, J. Tjemsland
abstract Light antinuclei, like antideuteron and antihelium-3, are ideal probes for new, exotic physics because their astrophysical backgrounds are suppressed at low energies. In order to exploit fully the inherent discovery potential of light antinuclei, a reliable description of their production cross sections in cosmic ray interactions is crucial. We provide therefore the cross sections of antideuteron and antihelium-3 production in $pp$, $p$He, He$p$, HeHe, $\bar pp$ and $\bar p$He collisions at energies relevant for secondary production in the Milky Way, in a tabulated form which is convinient to use. These predictions are based on QGSJET-II-04m and the state of the art coalescence model WiFunC, which evaluates the coalesence probability on an event-by-event basis, including both momentum correlations and the dependence on the emission volume. In addition, we comment on the importance of a Monte Carlo description of the antideuteron production and on the use of event generators in general. In particular, we discuss the effect of two-particle momentum correlations provided by Monte Carlo event generators on antinuclei production.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.00998
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21275875
title Radioactive Decay
first_author Roland Diehl
author Roland Diehl
abstract Radioactive decay of unstable atomic nuclei leads to liberation of nuclear binding energy in the forms of gamma-ray photons and secondary particles (electrons, positrons); their energy then energises surrounding matter. Unstable nuclei are formed in nuclear reactions, which can occur either in hot and dense extremes of stellar interiors or explosions, or from cosmic-ray collisions. In high-energy astronomy, direct observations of characteristic gamma-ray lines from the decay of radioactive isotopes are important tools to study the process of cosmic nucleosynthesis and its sources, as well as tracing the flows of ejecta from such sources of nucleosynthesis. These observations provide a valuable complement to indirect observations of radioactive energy deposits, such as the measurement of supernova light in the optical. Here we present basics of radioactive decay in astrophysical context, and how gamma-ray lines reveal details about stellar interiors, about explosions on stellar surfaces or of entire stars, and about the interstellar-medium processes that direct the flow and cooling of nucleosynthesis ashes once having left their sources. We address radioisotopes such as $^{56}$Ni, $^{44}$Ti, $^{26}$Al, $^{60}$Fe, $^{22}$Na, $^{7}$Be, and also how characteristic gamma-ray emission from the annihilation of positrons is connected to these.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.03193
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21285901
title STRIDES: Automated uniform models for 30 quadruply imaged quasars
first_author T. Schmidt
author T. Schmidt, T. Treu, S. Birrer, A. J. Shajib, C. Lemon, M. Millon, D. Sluse, A. Agnello, T. Anguita, M. W. Auger-Williams, R. G. McMahon, V. Motta, P. Schechter, C. Spiniello, I. Kayo, F. Courbin, S. Ertl, C. D. Fassnacht, J. A. Frieman, A. More, S. Schuldt, S. H. Suyu, M. Aguena, F. Andrade-Oliveira, J. Annis, D. Bacon, E. Bertin, D. Brooks, D. L. Burke, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, C. Conselice, M. Costanzi, L. N. da Costa, M. E. S. Pereira, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, P. Doel, S. Everett, I. Ferrero, D. Friedel, J. García-Bellido, E. Gaztanaga, D. Gruen, R. A. Gruendl, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, S. R. Hinton, D. L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, D. J. James, K. Kuehn, O. Lahav, F. Menanteau, R. Miquel, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A. A. Plazas Malagón, J. Prat, M. Rodriguez-Monroy, A. K. Romer, E. Sanchez, V. Scarpine, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, M. Smith, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, C. To, T. N. Varga
abstract Gravitational time delays provide a powerful one step measurement of $H_0$, independent of all other probes. One key ingredient in time delay cosmography are high accuracy lens models. Those are currently expensive to obtain, both, in terms of computing and investigator time (10$^{5-6}$ CPU hours and $\sim$ 0.5-1 year, respectively). Major improvements in modeling speed are therefore necessary to exploit the large number of lenses that are forecast to be discovered over the current decade. In order to bypass this roadblock, building on the work by Shajib et al. (2019), we develop an automated modeling pipeline and apply it to a sample of 30 quadruply imaged quasars and one lensed compact galaxy, observed by the Hubble Space Telescope in multiple bands. Our automated pipeline can derive models for 30/31 lenses with few hours of human time and &lt;100 CPU hours of computing time for a typical system. For each lens, we provide measurements of key parameters and predictions of magnification as well as time delays for the multiple images. We characterize the cosmography-readiness of our models using the stability of differences in Fermat potential (proportional to time delay) w.r.t. modeling choices. We find that for 10/30 lenses our models are cosmography or nearly cosmography grade (&lt;3% and 3-5% variations). For 6/30 lenses the models are close to cosmography grade (5-10%). These results are based on informative priors and will need to be confirmed by further analysis. However, they are also likely to improve by extending the pipeline modeling sequence and options. In conclusion, we show that uniform cosmography grade modeling of large strong lens samples is within reach.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.04696
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21273682
title A new scenario for magnetar formation: Tayler-Spruit dynamo in a proto-neutron star spun up by fallback
first_author P. Barrère
author P. Barrère, J. Guilet, A. Reboul-Salze, R. Raynaud, H. -T. Janka
abstract Magnetars are isolated young neutron stars characterized by the most intense magnetic fields known in the universe. The origin of their magnetic field is still a challenging question. In situ magnetic field amplification by dynamo action is a promising process to generate ultra-strong magnetic fields in fast-rotating progenitors. However, it is unclear whether the fraction of progenitors harboring fast core rotation is sufficient to explain the entire magnetar population. To address this point, we propose a new scenario for magnetar formation, in which a slow-rotating proto-neutron star is spun up by the supernova fallback. We argue that this can trigger the development of the Tayler-Spruit dynamo while other dynamo processes are disfavored. Using previous works done on this dynamo and simulations to characterize the fallback, we derive equations modelling the coupled evolution of the proto-neutron star rotation and magnetic field. Their time integration for different fallback masses is successfully compared with analytical estimates of the amplification timescales and saturation value of the magnetic field. We find that the magnetic field is amplified within $20$ to $40$s after the core bounce, and that the radial magnetic field saturates at intensities $10^{14}-10^{15}$G, therefore spanning the full range of magnetar's dipolar magnetic fields. We also compare predictions of two proposed saturation mechanisms showing that magnetar-like magnetic fields can be generated for neutron star spun up to rotation periods $\lesssim8$ms and $\lesssim28$ms, corresponding to fallback masses $\gtrsim4\times10^{-2}{\rm M}_{\odot}$ and $\gtrsim10^{-2}{\rm M}_{\odot}$. Thus, our results suggest that magnetars can be formed from slow-rotating progenitors for fallback masses compatible with recent supernova simulations and leading to plausible initial rotation periods of the proto-neutron star.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.01269
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21287748
title CO and [CII] line emission of molecular clouds -- the impact of stellar feedback and non-equilibrium chemistry
first_author S. Ebagezio
author S. Ebagezio, D. Seifried, S. Walch, P. C. Nürnberger, T. E. Rathjen, T. Naab
abstract We analyse synthetic $^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, and [CII] emission maps of simulated molecular clouds of the SILCC-Zoom project, which include an on-the-fly evolution of H$_2$, CO, and C$^+$. We use simulations of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical clouds, both with and without stellar feedback. We introduce a novel post-processing of the C$^+$ abundance using CLOUDY, to account for further ionization states of carbon due to stellar radiation. We report the first self-consistent synthetic emission maps of [CII] in feedback bubbles, largely devoid of emission inside them, as recently found in observations. The C$^+$ mass is only poorly affected by stellar feedback but the [CII] luminosity increases by $50 - 85$ per cent compared to runs without feedback. Furthermore, we investigate the capability of the CO/[CII] line ratio as a tracer of the amount of H$_2$ in the clouds and their evolutionary stage. We obtain, for both $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO, no clear trend of the luminosity ratio, $L_\mathrm{CO}/L_\mathrm{[CII]}$. It can therefore \textit{not} be used as a reliable measure of the H$_2$ mass fraction. We note a monotonic relation between $L_\mathrm{CO}/L_\mathrm{[CII]}$ and the H$_2$ fraction when considering the ratio for individual pixels of our synthetic maps, but with large scatter. Moreover, we show that assuming chemical equilibrium results in an overestimation of H$_2$ and CO masses of up to 110 and 30 per cent, respectively, and in an underestimation of H and C$^+$ masses of 65 and 7 per cent, respectively. In consequence, $L_\mathrm{CO}$ would be overestimated by up to 50 per cent, and $L_\mathrm{C[II]}$ be underestimated by up to 35 per cent. Hence, the assumption of chemical equilibrium in molecular cloud simulations introduces intrinsic errors of a factor of up to $\sim2$ in chemical abundances, luminosities and luminosity ratios.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.06393
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21216454
title The PEPSI exoplanet transit survey (PETS) I: investigating the presence of a silicate atmosphere on the super-earth 55 Cnc e
first_author Engin Keles
author Engin Keles, Matthias Mallonn, Daniel Kitzmann, Katja Poppenhaeger, H. Jens Hoeijmakers, Ilya Ilyin, Xanthippi Alexoudi, Thorsten A. Carroll, Julian Alvarado-Gomez, Laura Ketzer, Aldo S. Bonomo, Francesco Borsa, B. Scott Gaudi, Thomas Henning, Luca Malavolta, Karan Molaverdikhani, Valerio Nascimbeni, Jennifer Patience, Lorenzo Pino, Gaetano Scandariato, Everett Schlawin, Evgenya Shkolnik, Daniela Sicilia, Alessandro Sozzetti, Mary G. Foster, Christian Veillet, Ji Wang, Fei Yan, Klaus G. Strassmeier
abstract The study of exoplanets and especially their atmospheres can reveal key insights on their evolution by identifying specific atmospheric species. For such atmospheric investigations, high-resolution transmission spectroscopy has shown great success, especially for Jupiter-type planets. Towards the atmospheric characterization of smaller planets, the super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cnc e is one of the most promising terrestrial exoplanets studied to date. Here, we present a high-resolution spectroscopic transit observation of this planet, acquired with the PEPSI instrument at the Large Binocular Telescope. Assuming the presence of Earth-like crust species on the surface of 55 Cnc e, from which a possible silicate-vapor atmosphere could have originated, we search in its transmission spectrum for absorption of various atomic and ionized species such as Fe , Fe <SUP>+</SUP>, Ca , Ca <SUP>+</SUP>, Mg, and K , among others. Not finding absorption for any of the investigated species, we are able to set absorption limits with a median value of 1.9 × R<SUB>P</SUB>. In conclusion, we do not find evidence of a widely extended silicate envelope on this super-Earth reaching several planetary radii.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume 513
publication_type article
eprint
pages 13
issue 1
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac810

source harvard
id 21216433
title LYRA - II. Cosmological dwarf galaxy formation with inhomogeneous Population III enrichment
first_author Thales A. Gutcke
author Thales A. Gutcke, Rüdiger Pakmor, Thorsten Naab, Volker Springel
abstract We present the simulation of a $2\times 10^{9}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$ halo mass cosmological dwarf galaxy run to z = 0 at 4 solar mass gas resolution with resolved supernova feedback. We compare three simple subgrid implementations for the inhomogeneous chemical enrichment from Population III stars and compare them to constraints from Local Group dwarf galaxies. The employed model, LYRA, is a novel high-resolution galaxy formation model built for the moving mesh code AREPO, which is marked by a resolved multiphase interstellar medium, single stars, and individual supernova events. The resulting reionization relic is characterized by a short (&lt;1.5 Gyr) star formation history that is repeatedly brought to a standstill by violent bursts of feedback. Star formation is reignited for a short duration due to a merger at z ≍ 4 and then again at z ≍ 0.2-0 after sustained gas accretion. Our model z = 0 galaxy matches the stellar mass, size, stellar kinematics, and metallicity relations of Local Group dwarf galaxies well. The dark matter profile does not exhibit a core in any version of the model. We show that the host halo masses of Population III stars affect the assembly history of dwarf galaxies. This manifests itself through the initial gaseous collapse in the progenitor haloes, affecting the central density of the stellar component and through the accretion of luminous substructure.
journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume 513
publication_type article
eprint
pages 14
issue 1
doi 10.1093/mnras/stac867

source harvard
id 21288454
title SN 2016dsg: A Thermonuclear Explosion Involving A Thick Helium Shell
first_author Yize Dong
author Yize Dong, Stefano Valenti, Abigail Polin, Aoife Boyle, andreas flörs, Christian Vogl, Wolfgang Kerzendorf, David Sand, Saurabh Jha, Lukasz Wyrzykowski, K. Bostroem, Jeniveve Pearson, Curtis McCully, Jennifer Andrew, Stefano Benettii, Stephane Blondin, Lluís Galbany, Mariusz Gromadzki, Griffin Hosseinzadeh, D. Andrew Howell, Cosimo Inserra, Jacob Jencson, M. Lundquist, Joseph Lyman, Mark Magee, Kate Maguire, Nicolas Meza, Shubham Srivastav, Stefan Taubenberger, J Terwel, Samuel Wyatt, David Young
abstract A thermonuclear explosion triggered by a helium-shell detonation on a carbon-oxygen white dwarf core has been predicted to have strong UV line blanketing at early times due to the iron-group elements produced during helium-shell burning. We present the photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2016dsg, a sub-luminous peculiar Type I SN consistent with a thermonuclear explosion involving a thick He shell. With a redshift of 0.04, the $i$-band peak absolute magnitude is derived to be around -17.5. The object is located far away from its host, an early-type galaxy, suggesting it originated from an old stellar population. The spectra collected after the peak are unusually red, show strong UV line blanketing and weak O I $\lambda$7773 absorption lines, and do not evolve significantly over 30 days. An absorption line around 9700-10500 Åis detected in the near-infrared spectrum and is likely from the unburnt helium in the ejecta. The spectroscopic evolution is consistent with the thermonuclear explosion models for a sub-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf with a thick helium shell, while the photometric evolution is not well described by existing models.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.07065
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21367263
title Production and polarization of S -wave quarkonia in potential nonrelativistic QCD
first_author Nora Brambilla
author Nora Brambilla, Hee Sok Chung, Antonio Vairo, Xiang-Peng Wang
abstract Based on the potential nonrelativistic QCD formalism, we compute the nonrelativistic QCD long-distance matrix elements (LDMEs) for inclusive production of S -wave heavy quarkonia. This greatly reduces the number of nonperturbative unknowns and brings in a substantial enhancement in the predictive power of the nonrelativistic QCD factorization formalism. We obtain improved determinations of the LDMEs and find cross sections and polarizations of J /ψ , ψ (2 S ), and excited ϒ states that agree well with LHC data. Our results may have important implications in pinning down the heavy quarkonium production mechanism.
journal Physical Review D
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume 105
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 11
doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.105.L111503

source harvard
id 21288441
title Unusual gas structure in an otherwise normal spiral galaxy hosting GRB 171205A / SN 2017iuk
first_author M. Arabsalmani
author M. Arabsalmani, S. Roychowdhury, F. Renaud, A. Burkert, E. Emsellem, E. Le Floc'h, E. Pian
abstract We study the structure of atomic hydrogen (HI) in the host galaxy of GRB 171205A / SN 2017iuk at z=0.037 through HI 21cm emission line observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. These observations reveal unusual morphology and kinematics of the HI in this otherwise apparently normal galaxy. High column density, cold HI is absent from an extended North-South region passing by the optical centre of the galaxy, but instead is extended towards the South, on both sides of the galaxy. Moreover, the HI kinematics do not show a continuous change along the major axis of the galaxy as expected in a classical rotating disk. We explore several scenarios to explain the HI structure and kinematics in the galaxy: feedback from a central starburst and/or an active galactic nucleus, ram pressure stripping, accretion, and tidal interaction from a companion galaxy. All of these options are ruled out. The most viable remaining explanation is the penetrating passage of a satellite through the disk only a few Myr ago, redistributing the HI in the GRB host without yet affecting its stellar distribution. It can also lead to the rapid formation of peculiar stars due to a violent induced shock. The location of GRB 171205A in the vicinity of the distorted area suggests that its progenitor star(s) originated in extreme conditions that share the same origin as the peculiarities in HI. This could explain the atypical location of GRB 171205A in its host galaxy.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.07060
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21366928
title Lattice simulations of Abelian gauge fields coupled to axions during inflation
first_author Angelo Caravano
author Angelo Caravano, Eiichiro Komatsu, Kaloian D. Lozanov, Jochen Weller
abstract We use a lattice simulation to study a model of axion inflation where the inflaton is coupled to a U(1) gauge field through Chern-Simons interaction. These kinds of models have already been studied with a lattice simulation in the context of reheating. In this work, we focus on the deep inflationary phase and discuss the new aspects that need to be considered in order to simulate gauge fields in this regime. Our main result is reproducing with precision the growth of the gauge field on the lattice induced by the rolling of the axion on its potential, thus recovering the results of linear perturbation theory for this model. In order to do so, we study in detail how the spatial discretization, through the choice of the spatial derivatives on the lattice, influences the dynamics of the gauge field. We find that the evolution of the gauge field is highly sensitive to the choice of the spatial discretization scheme. Nevertheless, we are able to identify a discretization scheme for which the growth of the gauge field on the lattice reproduces the one of continuous space with good precision.
journal Physical Review D
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume 105
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 12
doi 10.1103/PhysRevD.105.123530

source harvard
id 21360019
title EOS: a software for flavor physics phenomenology
first_author D. van Dyk
author D. van Dyk, F. Beaujean, T. Blake, C. Bobeth, M. Bordone, K. Dugic, E. Eberhard, N. Gubernari, E. Graverini, M. Jung, A. Kokulu, S. Kürten, D. Leljak, P. Lüghausen, S. Meiser, M. Rahimi, M. Reboud, R. Silva Coutinho, J. Virto, K. K. Vos, EOS Authors
abstract EOS is an open-source software for a variety of computational tasks in flavor physics. Its use cases include theory predictions within and beyond the Standard Model of particle physics, Bayesian inference of theory parameters from experimental and theoretical likelihoods, and simulation of pseudo events for a number of signal processes. EOS ensures high-performance computations through a C++ back-end and ease of usability through a Python front-end. To achieve this flexibility, EOS enables the user to select from a variety of implementations of the relevant decay processes and hadronic matrix elements at run time. In this article, we describe the general structure of the software framework and provide basic examples. Further details and in-depth interactive examples are provided as part of the EOS online documentation.
journal European Physical Journal C
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume 82
publication_type article
eprint
pages
issue 6
doi 10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-10177-4

source inspirehep
id 2094450
title STRIDES: Automated uniform models for 30 quadruply imaged quasars
first_author Schmidt, T.
author T. Schmidt, T. Treu, S. Birrer, A.J. Shajib, C. Lemon, M. Millon, D. Sluse, A. Agnello, T. Anguita, M.W. Auger-Williams, R.G. McMahon, V. Motta, P. Schechter, C. Spiniello, I. Kayo, F. Courbin, S. Ertl, C.D. Fassnacht, J.A. Frieman, A. More, S. Schuldt, S.H. Suyu, M. Aguena, F. Andrade-Oliveira, J. Annis, D. Bacon, E. Bertin, D. Brooks, D.L. Burke, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, C. Conselice, M. Costanzi, L.N. da Costa, M.E.S. Pereira, J. De Vicente, S. Desai, P. Doel, S. Everett, I. Ferrero, D. Friedel, J. García-Bellido, E. Gaztanaga, D. Gruen, R.A. Gruendl, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, S.R. Hinton, D.L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, D.J. James, K. Kuehn, O. Lahav, F. Menanteau, R. Miquel, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchón, A. Pieres, A.A. Plazas Malagón, J. Prat, M. Rodriguez-Monroy, A.K. Romer, E. Sanchez, V. Scarpine, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, M. Smith, E. Suchyta, G. Tarle, C. To, T.N. Varga
abstract Gravitational time delays provide a powerful one step measurement of $H_0$, independent of all other probes. One key ingredient in time delay cosmography are high accuracy lens models. Those are currently expensive to obtain, both, in terms of computing and investigator time (10$^{5-6}$ CPU hours and $\sim$ 0.5-1 year, respectively). Major improvements in modeling speed are therefore necessary to exploit the large number of lenses that are forecast to be discovered over the current decade. In order to bypass this roadblock, building on the work by Shajib et al. (2019), we develop an automated modeling pipeline and apply it to a sample of 30 quadruply imaged quasars and one lensed compact galaxy, observed by the Hubble Space Telescope in multiple bands. Our automated pipeline can derive models for 30/31 lenses with few hours of human time and <100 CPU hours of computing time for a typical system. For each lens, we provide measurements of key parameters and predictions of magnification as well as time delays for the multiple images. We characterize the cosmography-readiness of our models using the stability of differences in Fermat potential (proportional to time delay) w.r.t. modeling choices. We find that for 10/30 lenses our models are cosmography or nearly cosmography grade (<3% and 3-5% variations). For 6/30 lenses the models are close to cosmography grade (5-10%). These results are based on informative priors and will need to be confirmed by further analysis. However, they are also likely to improve by extending the pipeline modeling sequence and options. In conclusion, we show that uniform cosmography grade modeling of large strong lens samples is within reach.
journal
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type
eprint 2206.04696
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21285223
title Toward RNA Life on Early Earth: From Atmospheric HCN to Biomolecule Production in Warm Little Ponds
first_author Ben K. D. Pearce
author Ben K. D. Pearce, Karan Molaverdikhani, Ralph E. Pudritz, Thomas Henning, Kaitlin E. Cerrillo
abstract The origin of life on Earth involves the early appearance of an information-containing molecule such as RNA. The basic building blocks of RNA could have been delivered by carbon-rich meteorites or produced in situ by processes beginning with the synthesis of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the early Earth's atmosphere. Here, we construct a robust physical and nonequilibrium chemical model of the early Earth's atmosphere. The atmosphere is supplied with hydrogen from impact degassing of meteorites, water evaporated from the oceans, carbon dioxide from volcanoes, and methane from undersea hydrothermal vents, and in it lightning and external UV-driven chemistry produce HCN. This allows us to calculate the rain-out of HCN into warm little ponds (WLPs). We then use a comprehensive numerical model of sources and sinks to compute the resulting abundances of nucleobases, ribose, and nucleotide precursors such as 2-aminooxazole resulting from aqueous and UV-driven chemistry within them. We find that 4.4 billion years ago the limit of adenine concentrations in ponds for habitable surfaces is 0.05 μM in the absence of seepage. Meteorite delivery of adenine to WLPs can provide boosts in concentration by 2-3 orders of magnitude, but these boosts deplete within months by UV photodissociation, seepage, and hydrolysis. The early evolution of the atmosphere is dominated by the decrease in hydrogen due to falling impact rates and atmospheric escape, and the rise of oxygenated species such as OH from H<SUB>2</SUB>O photolysis. The source of HCN is predominantly from UV radiation rather than lightning. Our work points to an early origin of RNA on Earth within ~200 Myr of the Moon-forming impact.
journal The Astrophysical Journal
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume 932
publication_type article
eprint
pages 21
issue 1
doi 10.3847/1538-4357/ac47a1

source harvard
id 21317924
title Mapping "out-of-the-box" the properties of the baryons in massive halos
first_author M. Angelinelli
author M. Angelinelli, S. Ettori, K. Dolag, F. Vazza, A. Ragagnin
abstract We study the distributions of the baryons in massive halos ($M_{vir} &gt; 10^{13} \ h^{-1}M_{\odot}$) in the $Magneticum$ suite of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, out to the unprecedented radial extent of $10 R_{500,\mathrm c}$. We confirm that, under the action of non-gravitational physical phenomena, the baryon mass fraction is lower in the inner regions ($&lt;R_{500,\mathrm c}$) of increasingly less massive halos, and rises moving outwards, with values that spans from 51% (87%) in the regions around $R_{500,\mathrm c}$ to 95% (100%) at $10R_{500,\mathrm c}$ of the cosmological value in the systems with the lowest (highest; $M_{vir} \sim 5 \times 10^{14} \ h^{-1}M_{\odot}$) masses. The galaxy groups almost match the gas (and baryon) fraction measured in the most massive halos only at very large radii ($r&gt;6 R_{500,\mathrm c}$), where the baryon depletion factor $Y_{\rm bar} = f_{\rm bar} / (\Omega_{\rm b}/\Omega_{\rm m})$ approaches the value of unity, expected for "closed-box" systems. We find that both the radial and mass dependency of the baryon, gas, and hot depletion factors are predictable and follow a simple functional form. The star mass fraction is higher in less massive systems, decreases systematically with increasing radii, and reaches a constant value of $Y_{\rm star} \approx 0.09$, where also the gas metallicity is constant, regardless of the host halo mass, as a result of the early ($z&gt;2$) enrichment process.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.08382
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21319662
title A detailed analysis of the Gl 486 planetary system
first_author J. A. Caballero
author J. A. Caballero, E. Gonzalez-Alvarez, M. Brady, T. Trifonov, T. G. Ellis, C. Dorn, C. Cifuentes, K. Molaverdikhani, J. L. Bean, T. Boyajian, E. Rodriguez, J. Sanz-Forcada, M. R. Zapatero Osorio, C. Abia, P. J. Amado, N. Anugu, V. J. S. Bejar, C. L. Davies, S. Dreizler, F. Dubois, J. Ennis, N. Espinoza, C. D. Farrington, A. Garcia Lopez, T. Gardner, A. P. Hatzes, Th. Henning, E. Herrero, E. Herrero-Cisneros, A. Kaminski, D. Kasper, R. Klement, S. Kraus, A. Labdon, C. Lanthermann, J. -B. Le Bouquin, M. J. Lopez Gonzalez, R. Luque, A. W. Mann, E. Marfil, J. D. Monnier, D. Montes, J. C. Morales, E. Palle, S. Pedraz, A. Quirrenbach, S. Reffert, A. Reiners, I. Ribas, C. Rodriguez-Lopez, G. Schaefer, A. Schweitzer, A. Seifahrt, B. R. Setterholm, Y. Shan, D. Shulyak, E. Solano, K. R. Sreenivas, G. Stefansson, J. Stuermer, H. M. Tabernero, L. Tal-Or, T. ten Brummelaar, S. Vanaverbeke, K. von Braun, A. Youngblood, M. Zechmeister
abstract The Gl 486 system consists of a very nearby, relatively bright, weakly active M3.5 V star at just 8 pc with a warm transiting rocky planet of about 1.3 R_Terra and 3.0 M_Terra that is ideal for both transmission and emission spectroscopy and for testing interior models of telluric planets. To prepare for future studies, we collected light curves of seven new transits observed with the CHEOPS space mission and new radial velocities obtained with MAROON-X/Gemini North and CARMENES/Calar Alto telescopes, together with previously published spectroscopic and photometric data from the two spectrographs and TESS. We also performed interferometric observations with the CHARA Array and new photometric monitoring with a suite of smaller telescopes. From interferometry, we measure a limb-darkened disc angular size of the star Gl 486. Together with a corrected Gaia EDR3 parallax, we obtain a stellar radius. We also measure a stellar rotation period at P_rot ~ 49.9 d, an upper limit to its XUV (5-920 AA) flux with new Hubble/STIS data, and, for the first time, a variety of element abundances (Fe, Mg, Si, V, Sr, Zr, Rb) and C/O ratio. Besides, we impose restrictive constraints on the presence of additional components, either stellar or substellar, in the system. With the input stellar parameters and the radial-velocity and transit data, we determine the radius and mass of the planet Gl 486 b at R_p = 1.343+/0.063 R_Terra and M_p = 3.00+/-0.13 M_Terra. From the planet parameters and the stellar element abundances, we infer the most probable models of planet internal structure and composition, which are consistent with a relatively small metallic core with respect to the Earth, a deep silicate mantle, and a thin volatile upper layer. With all these ingredients, we outline prospects for Gl 486 b atmospheric studies, especially with forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope observations (abridged).
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.09990
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21319705
title Large-scale Hydrodynamical Shocks as the Smoking Gun Evidence for a Bar in M31
first_author Zi-Xuan Feng
author Zi-Xuan Feng, Zhi Li, Juntai Shen, Ortwin Gerhard, Roberto Saglia, Matias Blana
abstract The formation and evolutionary history of M31 are closely related to its dynamical structures, which remain unclear due to its high inclination. Gas kinematics could provide crucial evidence for the existence of a rotating bar in M31. Using the position-velocity diagram of [OIII] and HI, we are able to identify clear sharp velocity jump (shock) features with a typical amplitude over 100 km/s in the central region of M31 (4.6 kpc X 2.3 kpc, or 20 arcmin X 10 arcmin). We also simulate gas morphology and kinematics in barred M31 potentials and find that the bar-induced shocks can produce velocity jumps similar to those in [OIII]. The identified shock features in both [OIII] and HI are broadly consistent, and they are found mainly on the leading sides of the bar/bulge, following a hallmark pattern expected from the bar-driven gas inflow. Shock features on the far side of the disk are clearer than those on the near side, possibly due to limited data coverage on the near side, as well as obscuration by the warped gas and dust layers. Further hydrodynamical simulations with more sophisticated physics are desired to fully understand the observed gas features and to better constrain the parameters of the bar in M31.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.10026
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21328428
title Super-resolution trends in the ALMA Taurus survey: Structured inner discs and compact discs
first_author Jeff Jennings
author Jeff Jennings, Marco Tazzari, Cathie J. Clarke, Richard A. Booth, Giovanni P. Rosotti
abstract The 1.33 mm survey of protoplanetary discs in the Taurus molecular cloud found annular gaps and rings to be common in extended sources (&gt;~55 au), when their 1D visibility distributions were fit parametrically. We first demonstrate the advantages and limitations of nonparametric visibility fits for data at the survey's 0.12" resolution. Then we use the nonparametric model in Frankenstein ('frank') to identify new substructure in three compact and seven extended sources. Among the new features we identify three trends: a higher occurrence rate of substructure in the survey's compact discs than previously seen, underresolved (potentially azimuthally asymmetric) substructure in the innermost disc of extended sources, and a 'shoulder' on the trailing edge of a ring in discs with strong depletion at small radii. Noting the shoulder morphology is present in multiple discs observed at higher resolution, we postulate it is tracing a common physical mechanism. We further demonstrate how a super-resolution frank brightness profile is useful in motivating an accurate parametric model, using the highly structured source DL Tau in which frank finds two new rings. Finally we show that sparse (u, v) plane sampling may be masking the presence of substructure in several additional compact survey sources.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.11308
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21328408
title Dark Matter Dilution Mechanism through the Lens of Large Scale Structure
first_author Miha Nemevšek
author Miha Nemevšek, Yue Zhang
abstract Entropy production is a necessary ingredient for addressing the over-population of thermal relics. It is widely employed in particle physics models for explaining the origin of dark matter. A long-lived particle that decays to the known particles, while dominating the universe, plays the role of the dilutor. We point out the impact of its partial decay to dark matter on the primordial matter power spectrum. For the first time, we derive a stringent limit on the branching ratio of the dilutor to dark matter from large scale structure observation using the SDSS data. This offers a novel tool for testing models with a dark matter dilution mechanism. We apply it to the left-right symmetric model and show that it firmly excludes a large portion of parameter space for right-handed neutrino warm dark matter.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.11293
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21328391
title Implications for the $\Delta A_{FB}$ anomaly in ${\bar B}^0\to D^{*+}\ell^- {\bar\nu}$ using a new Monte Carlo Event Generator
first_author Bhubanjyoti Bhattacharya
author Bhubanjyoti Bhattacharya, Thomas E. Browder, Quinn Campagna, Alakabha Datta, Shawn Dubey, Lopamudra Mukherjee, Alexei Sibidanov
abstract Recent experimental results in $B$ physics from Belle, BaBar and LHCb suggest new physics (NP) in the weak $b\to c$ charged-current and the $b\to s$ neutral-current processes. Here we focus on the charged-current case and specifically on the decay modes $\overline{B}^0\to D^{*+}\ell^- \bar{\nu}$ with $\ell = e$ and $\mu$. The world averages of the ratios $R_D$ and $R_D^{*}$ currently differ from the Standard Model (SM) predictions by $3.4\sigma$ while recently a new anomaly has been observed in the forward-backward asymmetry measurement, $A_{FB}$, in $ \overline{B}^0\to D^{*+}\mu^- \bar{\nu}$ decay. It is found that $\Delta A_{FB} = A_{FB}(B\to D^{*} \mu\nu) - A_{FB} (B\to D^{*} e \nu)$ is around $4.1\sigma$ away from the SM prediction in an analysis of 2019 Belle data. In this work we explore possible solutions to the $\Delta A_{FB}$ anomaly and point out correlated NP signals in other angular observables. These correlations between angular observables must be present in the case of beyond the Standard Model physics. We stress the importance of $\Delta$ type observables that are obtained by taking the difference of the observable for the muon and the electron mode. These quantities cancel form factor uncertainties in the SM and allow for clean tests of NP. These intriguing results also suggest an urgent need for improved simulation and analysis techniques in $\overline{B}^0\to D^{*+}\ell^- \bar{\nu}$ decays. Here we also describe a new Monte Carlo Event-generator tool based on EVTGEN that we developed to allow simulation of the NP signatures in $\overline{B}^0\to D^{*+}\ell^- \nu$, which arise due to the interference between the SM and NP amplitudes. We then discuss prospects for improved observables sensitive to NP couplings with 1, 5, 50, and 250 ab$^{-1}$ of Belle II data, which seem to be ideally suited for this class of measurements.
journal arXiv e-prints
publisher
year 2022
month 06
volume
publication_type eprint
eprint 2206.11283
pages
issue
doi

source harvard
id 21326907
title Is cosmic birefringence due to dark energy or dark matter? A tomographic approach
first_author Hiromasa Nakatsuka
author Hiromasa Nakatsuka, Toshiya Namikawa, Eiichiro Komatsu
abstract A pseudoscalar "axionlike" field, ϕ , may explain the 3 σ hint of cosmic birefringence observed in the E B power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background polarization data. Is ϕ dark energy or dark matter? A tomographic approach can answer this question. The effective mass of dark energy field responsible for the accelerated expansion of the Universe today must be smaller than m<SUB>ϕ</SUB>≃10<SUP>-33</SUP> eV . If m<SUB>ϕ</SUB>≳10<SUP>-32</SUP> eV , ϕ starts evolving before the epoch of reionization and