page 17 of 17
RU-A
(71)Quark-lepton connections in Z' mediated FCNC processes: gauge anomaly cancellations at work
  • Jason Aebischer,
  • Andrzej J. Buras,
  • Maria Cerdà-Sevilla,
  • Fulvia De Fazio
Journal of High Energy Physics (02/2020) doi:10.1007/JHEP02(2020)183
abstract + abstract -

We consider scenarios with a heavy Z' gauge boson with flavour non-universal quark and lepton couplings with the goal to illustrate how the cancellation of gauge anomalies generated by the presence of an additional U(1)' gauge symmetry would imply correlations between FCNC processes within the quark sector, within the lepton sector and most interestingly between quark flavour and lepton flavour violating processes. To this end we present simple scenarios with only left-handed flavour-violating Z' couplings and those in which also right-handed flavour-violating couplings are present. The considered scenarios are characterized by a small number of free parameters but in contrast to gauge anomaly cancellation in the Standard Model, in which it takes place separately within each generation, in our scenarios anomaly cancellation involves simultaneously quarks and leptons of all three generations. Our models involve, beyond the ordinary quarks and leptons, three heavy right-handed neutrinos. The models with only left-handed FCNCs of Z' involve beyond gZ' and MZ' two real parameters characterizing the charges of all fermions under the U(1)' gauge symmetry and the CKM and PMNS ones in the quark and lepton sectors, respectively. The models with the right-handed FCNCs of Z' involve few additional parameters. Imposing constraints from well measured ΔF = 2 observables we identify a number of interesting correlations that involve e.g. ɛ'/ɛ, Bs,d→ μ+μ-, B → K(K*)ℓ+-, K+→π+ν ν ¯,KL→π0ν ν ¯ and purely lepton flavour violating decays like μ → eγ, μ → 3e, τ → 3μ and μ - e conversion among others. Also (g - 2)μ,e are considered. The impact of the experimental μ → eγ, μ → 3e and in particular μ - e conversion bounds on rare K and B decays is emphasized.


RU-C
(70)Validation of Selection Function, Sample Contamination and Mass Calibration in Galaxy Cluster Samples
  • S. Grandis,
  • M. Klein,
  • J.J. Mohr,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • M. Paulus
  • +67
  • T.M.C. Abbott,
  • M. Aguena,
  • S. Allam,
  • J. Annis.,
  • B.A. Benson,
  • E. Bertin,
  • S. Bhargava,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • R. Capasso,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • J.P. Dietrich,
  • P. Doel,
  • T.F. Eifler,
  • A.E. Evrard,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • D.W. Gerdes,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • W.G. Hartley,
  • S.R. Hinton,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D.J. James,
  • T. Jeltema,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • M. Lima,
  • M.A.G. Maia,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • P. Melchior,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • R.L.C. Ogando,
  • A. Palmese,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A.A. Plazas,
  • A.K. Romer,
  • A. Roodman,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • A. Saro,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • M. Schubnell,
  • S. Serrano,
  • E. Sheldon,
  • M. Smith,
  • A.A. Stark,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M.E.C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • D.L. Tucker,
  • T.N. Varga,
  • J. Weller,
  • R. Wilkinson
  • (less)
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (02/2020) e-Print:2002.10834 doi:10.1093/mnras/staa2333
abstract + abstract -

We construct and validate the selection function of the MARD-Y3 galaxy cluster sample. This sample was selected through optical follow-up of the 2nd ROSAT faint source catalogue with Dark Energy Survey year 3 data. The selection function is modelled by combining an empirically constructed X-ray selection function with an incompleteness model for the optical follow-up. We validate the joint selection function by testing the consistency of the constraints on the X-ray flux–mass and richness–mass scaling relation parameters derived from different sources of mass information: (1) cross-calibration using South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) clusters, (2) calibration using number counts in X-ray, in optical and in both X-ray and optical while marginalizing over cosmological parameters, and (3) other published analyses. We find that the constraints on the scaling relation from the number counts and SPT-SZ cross-calibration agree, indicating that our modelling of the selection function is adequate. Furthermore, we apply a largely cosmology independent method to validate selection functions via the computation of the probability of finding each cluster in the SPT-SZ sample in the MARD-Y3 sample and vice versa. This test reveals no clear evidence for MARD-Y3 contamination, SPT-SZ incompleteness or outlier fraction. Finally, we discuss the prospects of the techniques presented here to limit systematic selection effects in future cluster cosmological studies.


(69)Decay and electromagnetic production of strongly coupled quarkonia in pNRQCD
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Hee Sok Chung,
  • Daniel Müller,
  • Antonio Vairo
abstract + abstract -

We improve the pNRQCD approach to annihilation processes of heavy quarkonium and make first pNRQCD predictions for exclusive electromagnetic production of heavy quarkonium. We consider strongly coupled quarkonia, i.e., quarkonia that are not Coulombic bound states. Possible strongly coupled quarkonia include excited charmonium and bottomonium states. For these, pNRQCD provides expressions for the decay and exclusive electromagnetic production NRQCD matrix elements that depend on the wavefunctions at the origin and few universal gluon field correlators. We compute electromagnetic decay widths and exclusive production cross sections, and inclusive decay widths into light hadrons for P -wave quarkonia at relative order v$^{2}$ and leading order, respectively. We also compute the decay widths of 2S and 3S bottomonium states into lepton pairs and their ratios with the inclusive widths into light hadrons at relative order v$^{2}$.


RU-D
(68)The Explosion of Helium Stars Evolved with Mass Loss
  • T. Ertl,
  • S. E. Woosley,
  • Tuguldur Sukhbold,
  • H. -T. Janka
The Astrophysical Journal (02/2020) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab6458
abstract + abstract -

Light curves, explosion energies, and remnant masses are calculated for a grid of supernovae resulting from massive helium stars that have been evolved including mass loss. These presupernova stars should approximate the results of binary evolution for stars in interacting systems that lose their envelopes close to the time of helium core ignition. Initial helium star masses are in the range 2.5-40 M, which corresponds to main-sequence masses of about 13-90 M. Common SNe Ib and Ic result from stars whose final masses are approximately 2.5-5.6 M. For heavier stars, a large fraction of collapses lead to black holes, though there is an island of explodability for presupernova masses near 10 M. The median neutron star mass in binaries is 1.35-1.38 M, and the median black hole mass is between 9 and 11 M. Even though black holes less massive than 5 M are rare, they are predicted down to the maximum neutron star mass. There is no empty "gap," only a less populated mass range. For standard assumptions regarding the explosions and nucleosynthesis, the models predict light curves that are fainter than the brighter common SNe Ib and Ic. Even with a very liberal but physically plausible increase in 56Ni production, the highest-energy models are fainter than 1042.6 erg s-1 at peak, and very few approach that limit. The median peak luminosity ranges from 1042.0 to 1042.3 erg s-1. Possible alternatives to the standard neutrino-powered and radioactive-illuminated models are explored. Magnetars are a promising alternative. Several other unusual varieties of SNe I at both high and low mass are explored.


(67)Dalitz-plot decomposition for three-body decays
  • M. Mikhasenko,
  • M. Albaladejo,
  • Ł. Bibrzycki,
  • C. Fernández-Ramírez,
  • V. Mathieu
  • +6
  • S. Mitchell,
  • M. Pappagallo,
  • A. Pilloni,
  • D. Winney,
  • T. Skwarnicki,
  • A. P. Szczepaniak
  • (less)
Physical Review D (02/2020) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.101.034033
abstract + abstract -

We present a general formalism to write the decay amplitude for multibody reactions with explicit separation of the rotational degrees of freedom, which are well controlled by the spin of the decay particle, and dynamic functions on the subchannel invariant masses, which require modeling. Using the three-particle kinematics we demonstrate the proposed factorization, named the Dalitz-plot decomposition. The Wigner rotations, which are subtle factors needed by the isobar modeling in the helicity framework, are simplified with the proposed decomposition. Consequently, we are able to provide them in an explicit form suitable for the general case of arbitrary spins. The only unknown model-dependent factors are the isobar line shapes that describe the subchannel dynamics. The advantages of the new decomposition are shown through three examples relevant for the recent discovery of the exotic charmonium candidate Zc(4430 ), the pentaquarks Pc, and the intriguing Λc+→p K-π+ decay.


RU-A
(66)Bayesian analysis of b→sμ+μ− Wilson coefficients using the full angular distribution of Λb→Λ(→pπ−)μ+μ− decays
  • Thomas Blake,
  • Stefan Meinel,
  • Danny van Dyk
abstract + abstract -

Following updated and extended measurements of the full angular distribution of the decay Λb→Λ(→pπ−)μ+μ− by the LHCb collaborations, as well as a new measurement of the Λ→pπ− decay asymmetry parameter by the BESIII collaboration, we study the impact of these results on searches for non-standard effects in exclusive b→sμ+μ− decays. To this end, we constrain the Wilson coefficients 9 and 10 of the numerically leading dimension-six operators in the weak effective Hamiltonian, in addition to the relevant nuisance parameters. In stark contrast to previous analyses of this decay mode, the changes in the updated experimental results lead us to find very good compatibility with both the Standard Model and with the b→sμ+μ− anomalies observed in rare B-meson decays. We provide a detailed analysis of the impact of the partial angular distribution, the full angular distribution, and the Λb→Λμ+μ− branching fraction on the Wilson coefficients. In this process, we are also able to constrain the size of the production polarization of the Λb baryon at LHCb.


RU-D
(65)Long-lived Dust Rings around HD 169142
  • Claudia Toci,
  • Giuseppe Lodato,
  • Davide Fedele,
  • Leonardo Testi,
  • Christophe Pinte
The Astrophysical Journal (01/2020) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab5c87
abstract + abstract -

Recent Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the protoplanetary disk around HD 169142 reveal a peculiar structure made of concentric dusty rings: a main ring at ∼20 au, a triple system of rings at ∼55-75 au in millimetric continuum emission, and a perturbed gas surface density from the 12CO,13CO, and C18O (J = 2-1) surface brightness profile. In this Letter, we perform 3D numerical simulations and radiative transfer modeling exploring the possibility that two giant planets interacting with the disk and orbiting in resonant locking can be responsible for the origin of the observed dust inner rings structure. We find that in this configuration the dust structure is actually long lived while the gas mass of the disk is accreted onto the star and the giant planets, emptying the inner region. In addition, we also find that the innermost planet is located at the inner edge of the dust ring, and can accrete mass from the disk, generating a signature in the dust ring shape that can be observed in mm ALMA observations.


CN-2
RU-D
(64)Demographics of disks around young very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in Lupus
  • E. Sanchis,
  • L. Testi,
  • A. Natta,
  • C. F. Manara,
  • B. Ercolano
  • +13
  • T. Preibisch,
  • T. Henning,
  • S. Facchini,
  • A. Miotello,
  • I. de Gregorio-Monsalvo,
  • C. Lopez,
  • K. Mužić,
  • I. Pascucci,
  • A. Santamaría-Miranda,
  • A. Scholz,
  • M. Tazzari,
  • S. van Terwisga,
  • J. P. Williams
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (01/2020) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201936913
abstract + abstract -

We present new 890 μm continuum ALMA observations of five brown dwarfs (BDs) with infrared excess in Lupus I and III, which in combination with four previously observed BDs allowed us to study the millimeter properties of the full known BD disk population of one star-forming region. Emission is detected in five out of the nine BD disks. Dust disk mass, brightness profiles, and characteristic sizes of the BD population are inferred from continuum flux and modeling of the observations. Only one source is marginally resolved, allowing for the determination of its disk characteristic size. We conduct a demographic comparison between the properties of disks around BDs and stars in Lupus. Due to the small sample size, we cannot confirm or disprove a drop in the disk mass over stellar mass ratio for BDs, as suggested for Ophiuchus. Nevertheless, we find that all detected BD disks have an estimated dust mass between 0.2 and 3.2 M; these results suggest that the measured solid masses in BD disks cannot explain the observed exoplanet population, analogous to earlier findings on disks around more massive stars. Combined with the low estimated accretion rates, and assuming that the mm-continuum emission is a reliable proxy for the total disk mass, we derive ratios of Ṁacc/Mdisk that are significantly lower than in disks around more massive stars. If confirmed with more accurate measurements of disk gas masses, this result could imply a qualitatively different relationship between disk masses and inward gas transport in BD disks.


CN-7
RU-A
(63)Parametric correlations in energy density functionals
  • A. Taninah,
  • S.E. Agbemava,
  • A.V. Afanasjev,
  • P. Ring
abstract + abstract -

Parametric correlations are studied in several classes of covariant density functional theories (CDFTs) using a statistical analysis in a large parameter hyperspace. In the present manuscript, we investigate such correlations for two specific types of models, namely, for models with density dependent meson exchange and for point coupling models. Combined with the results obtained previously in Ref. [1] for a non-linear meson exchange model, these results indicate that parametric correlations exist in all major classes of CDFTs when the functionals are fitted to the ground state properties of finite nuclei and to nuclear matter properties. In particular, for the density dependence in the isoscalar channel only one parameter is really independent. Accounting for these facts potentially allows one to reduce the number of free parameters considerably.


CN-7
RU-A
(62)Green's function method for the single-particle resonances in a deformed Dirac equation,
  • T.-T. Sun,
  • L. Qian,
  • C. Chen,
  • P. Ring,
  • and Z. P. Li
abstract + abstract -

Single-particle resonances are crucial for exotic nuclei near and beyond the drip lines. Since the majority of nuclei are deformed, the interplay between deformation and orbital structure near threshold becomes very important and can lead to an improved description of exotic nuclei. In this work, the Green's function (GF) method is applied to solve the coupled-channel Dirac equation with quadrupole-deformed Woods-Saxon potentials. The detailed formalism for the partial-wave expansion of the Green's function is presented. A different approach getting exact values for energies and widths of resonant states by the GF method is proposed. Numerical checks are carried out by comparing with our previous implementation of the spherical GF method and the results from the deformed complex momentum representation, the analytical continuation of the coupling constant, and the scattering phase shift methods, and it is proved that the GF method is very effective and reliable for describing resonance states, no matter whether they are narrow or broad, spherical or deformed. Finally, Nilsson levels for bound and resonant orbitals in the halo candidate nucleus 37Mg are calculated from the deformed GF method over a wide range of deformations, and some decisive hints of p-wave halo formation are shown in this nucleus; namely, the crossing between the configurations 1/2[321] and 5/2[312] at deformation parameter β>0.5 may enhance the probability to occupy the 1/2[321] orbital that originates from the 2p3/2 shell.


(61)New constraints on the HR 8799 planetary system from mid-infrared direct imaging
  • D. J. M. Petit dit de la Roche,
  • M. E. van den Ancker,
  • M. Kissler-Patig,
  • V. D. Ivanov,
  • D. Fedele
abstract + abstract -

Direct imaging is a tried and tested method of detecting exoplanets in the near infrared, but has so far not been extended to longer wavelengths. New data at mid-IR wavelengths (8-20{\mu}m) canprovide additional constraints on planetary atmospheric models. We use the VISIR instrumenton the VLT to detect or set stringent limits on the 8.7{\mu}m flux of the four planets surrounding HR8799, and to search for additional companions. We use a novel circularised PSF subtractiontechnique to reduce the stellar signal and obtain instrument limited background levels andobtain optimal flux limits. The BT SETTL isochrones are then used to determine the resultingmass limits. We find flux limits between 0.7 and 3.3 mJy for the J8.9 flux of the differentplanets at better than5{\sigma}level and derive a new mass limit of 30 MJupfor any objects beyond40 AU. While this work has not detected planets in the HR 8799 system at 8.7{\mu}m, it has foundthat an instrument with the sensitivity of VISIR is sufficient to detect at least 4 known hotplanets around close stars, including\b{eta}Pictoris b (1700 K, 19 pc), with more than5{\sigma}certaintyin 10 hours of observing time in the mid-IR.

 


RU-A
(60)On the importance of NNLO QCD and isospin-breaking corrections in ε′/ ε
  • Jason Aebischer,
  • Christoph Bobeth,
  • Andrzej J. Buras
European Physical Journal C (01/2020) e-Print:1909.05610 doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-7549-y
abstract + abstract -

Following the 1999 analysis of Gambino, Haisch and one of us, we stress that all the recent NLO analyses of ε′/ ε in the Standard Model (SM) suffer from the renormalization scheme dependence present in the electroweak penguin contributions as well as from scale uncertainties in them related to the matching scale μW and in particular to μt in mt(μt). We also reemphasize the important role of isospin-breaking and QED effects in the evaluation of ε′/ ε. Omitting all these effects, as done in the 2015 analysis by RBC-UKQCD collaboration, and choosing as an example the QCD penguin (Q6) and electroweak penguin (Q8) parameters B6(1/2) and B8(3/2) to be B6(1/2)=0.80±0.08 and B8(3/2)=0.76±0.04 at μ=mc=1.3GeV, we find (ε′/ε)SM=(9.4±3.5)×10-4, whereas including them results in (ε′/ε)SM=(5.6±2.4)×10-4. This is an example of an anomaly at the 3.3σ level, which would be missed without these corrections. NNLO QCD contributions to QCD penguins are expected to further enhance this anomaly. We provide a table for ε′/ ε for different values of B6(1/2) and the isospin-breaking parameter Ω ^ eff, that should facilitate monitoring the values of ε′/ ε in the SM when the RBC-UKQCD calculations of hadronic matrix elements including isospin-breaking corrections and QED effects will improve with time.


MIAPbP
RU-A
(59)Theory determination of $B^- \rightarrow D^{(\star)} ℓ^- \bar{ν}$ form factors at $\mathcal{O}(1/m^2_c)$
  • Marzia Bordone,
  • Martin Jung,
  • Danny van Dyk
The European Physical Journal C (01/2020) e-Print:1908.09398 doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-020-7616-4
abstract + abstract -

We carry out an analysis of the full set of ten B¯→D(∗) form factors within the framework of the Heavy-Quark Expansion (HQE) to order (αs,1/mb,1/m2c), both with and without the use of experimental data. This becomes possible due to a recent calculation of these form factors at and beyond the maximal physical recoil using QCD light-cone sum rules, in combination with constraints from lattice QCD, QCD three-point sum rules and unitarity. We find good agreement amongst the various theoretical results, as well as between the theoretical results and the kinematical distributions in B¯→D(∗){e−,μ−}ν¯ measurements. The coefficients entering at the 1/m2c level are found to be of (1), indicating convergence of the HQE. The phenomenological implications of our study include an updated exclusive determination of |Vcb| in the HQE, which is compatible with both the exclusive determination using the BGL parametrization and with the inclusive determination. We also revisit predictions for the lepton-flavour universality ratios RD(∗), the τ polarization observables PD(∗)τ, and the longitudinal polarization fraction FL. Posterior samples for the HQE parameters are provided as ancillary files, allowing for their use in subsequent studies.


CN-5
RU-D
(58)Linking core-collapse supernova explosions to supernova remnants through 3D MHD modeling
  • S. Orlando,
  • A. Wongwathanarat,
  • H. -T. Janka,
  • M. Miceli,
  • M. Ono
  • +3
  • S. Nagataki,
  • F. Bocchino,
  • G. Peres
  • (less)
Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana (2020)
abstract + abstract -

The structure and morphology of supernova remnants (SNRs) reflect the properties of the parent supernovae (SNe) and the characteristics of the inhomogeneous environments through which the remnants expand. Linking the morphology of SNRs to anisotropies developed in their parent SNe can be essential to obtain key information on many aspects of the explosion processes associated with SNe. Nowadays, our capability to study the SN-SNR connection has been largely improved thanks to multi-dimensional models describing the long-term evolution from the SN to the SNR as well as to observational data of growing quality and quantity across the electromagnetic spectrum which allow to constrain the models. Here we used the numerical resources obtained in the framework of the ``Accordo Quadro INAF-CINECA (2017)'' together with a CINECA ISCRA Award N.HP10BARP6Y to describe the full evolution of a SNR from the core-collapse to the full-fledged SNR at the age of 2000 years. Our simulations were compared with observations of SNR Cassiopeia A (Cas A) at the age of ∼ 350 years. Thanks to these simulations we were able to link the physical, chemical and morphological properties of a SNR to the physical processes governing the complex phases of the SN explosion.


CN-7
RU-A
(57)Relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory: an Abintio Approach for Finite Nuclei
  • P. Ring,
  • Sibo Wang,
  • Hui Tong,
  • Qiang Zhao,
  • Chencan Wang
  • +1
Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. (2020) doi:10.1088/1742-6596/2453/1/012031
abstract + abstract -

Recent years have seen considerable progress with ab-initio calculations of the

nuclear structure by non-relativistic many-body methods. Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock

Theory provides a relativistic ab-intio approach, which is able to reproduce saturation properties

of symmetric nuclear matter without three-body forces. However, so far, the corresponding

equations have been solved only for positive energy states. Negative energy states have

been included for forty years in various approximations, leading to differences in the isospin

dependence. This problem has been solved only recently by a complete solution of the self-

consistent relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock equations in asymmetric nuclear matter. Due

to its numerical complexity, however, it is very difficult to extend the Relativistic Brueckner-

Hartree-Fock theory to the study of finite nuclear systems. Recent efforts will be discussed to

overcome this problem.


(56)Neutrino Target of Opportunity program of the Cherenkov Telescope Array
  • Konstancja Satalecka,
  • Anthony Brown,
  • Alberto Rosales de len,
  • Olga Sergijenko,
  • Chun Fai Tung
  • +3
  • Rene Reimann,
  • Theo Glauch,
  • Igancio Taboada
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The measurement of an astrophysical flux of high-energy neutrinos by IceCube is an important step towards finding the long-sought sources of cosmic rays. Nevertheless, the long exposure neutrino sky map shows no significant indication of point sources so far. This may point to a large population of faint, steady sources or flaring objects as origins of this flux. The most compelling evidence for a neutrino point source so far is the recent observation of the flaring gamma-ray blazar TXS 0506+056 in coincidence with a high-energy neutrino from IceCube. This is a result of a Neutrino Target of Opportunity (NToO) program in which all currently operating Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) take part. The case for TXS 0506+056 being a neutrino source was made stronger by evidence of a 5-month long neutrino flare in 2014-2015.Here we investigate the chances of a detection of a gamma-ray counterpart to a neutrino source with CTA, as a result of a follow-up observation of a neutrino alert. We use the FIRESONG software to simulate different neutrino sources populations, which could be responsible for the diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos as measured by IceCube. We scan over parameters that can be used to describe the populations such as density (density rate) for steady (flaring) objects. Several CTA array layouts and instrument response functions are tested in order to derive optimal follow-up strategies and the potential science reach of the NToO program for CTA. We find that following neutrino alerts by IceCube, CTA has a low per alert probability of detecting a matching steady source. However, using a model by Halzen et al. (2018), for neutrino flares similar to that of 2014-2015, we find that CTA will detect a counterpart in as many as one third of the alerts.


RU-A
(55)Selective background Monte Carlo simulation at Belle II
  • James Kahn,
  • Emilio Dorigatti,
  • Kilian Lieret,
  • Andreas Lindner,
  • Thomas Kuhr
EPJ Web Conf. (2020) doi:10.1051/epjconf/202024502028
abstract + abstract -

The large volume of data expected to be produced by the Belle II experiment presents the opportunity for studies of rare, previously inaccessible processes. Investigating such rare processes in a high data volume environment necessitates a correspondingly high volume of Monte Carlo simulations to prepare analyses and gain a deep understanding of the contributing physics processes to each individual study. This resulting challenge, in terms of computing resource requirements, calls for more intelligent methods of simulation, in particular for processes with very high background rejection rates. This work presents a method of predicting in the early stages of the simulation process the likelihood of relevancy of an individual event to the target study using graph neural networks. The results show a robust training that is integrated natively into the existing Belle II analysis software framework.


ODSL
RU-B
(54)Integration with an Adaptive Harmonic Mean Algorithm
  • Allen Caldwell,
  • Philipp Eller,
  • Vasyl Hafych,
  • Rafael C. Schick,
  • Oliver Schulz
  • +1
International Journal of Modern Physics A (2020) e-Print:1808.08051 doi:10.1142/S0217751X20501420
abstract + abstract -

Numerically estimating the integral of functions in high dimensional spaces is a non-trivial task. A oft-encountered example is the calculation of the marginal likelihood in Bayesian inference, in a context where a sampling algorithm such as a Markov Chain Monte Carlo provides samples of the function. We present an Adaptive Harmonic Mean Integration (AHMI) algorithm. Given samples drawn according to a probability distribution proportional to the function, the algorithm will estimate the integral of the function and the uncertainty of the estimate by applying a harmonic mean estimator to adaptively chosen regions of the parameter space. We describe the algorithm and its mathematical properties, and report the results using it on multiple test cases.


CN-7
RU-A
(53)Giant Resonances with Time Dependent Covariant Density Functional Theory
  • Lalazissis,
  • G.A.,
  • Ring,
  • P
The European Physical Journal A (December/2019) doi:10.1140/epja/i2019-12869-0
abstract + abstract -

The time dependent density functional theory is applied to study modes of vibrational excitations in atomic nuclei. The covariant density functional DD-ME2 is adopted. It turns out that DD-ME2 is able to provide simultaneously a satisfactory description of isocalar giant monopole (ISGM), isovector giant dipole (IVGD), and isoscalar giant quadrupole (ISGQ) resonances. The functional is also able to describe very well the soft dipole modes known as pygmy dipole resonances (PDR).


CN-7
(52)Fast neutrino flavor conversion: Collective motion vs. decoherence
  • Francesco Capozzi,
  • Georg Raffelt,
  • Tobias Stirner
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, (9/2019) e-Print:1906.08794 doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2019/09/002
abstract + abstract -

In an interacting neutrino gas, flavor coherence becomes dynamical and can propagate as a collective mode. In particular, tachyonic instabilities can appear, leading to "fast flavor conversion" that is independent of neutrino masses and mixing angles. On the other hand, without neutrino-neutrino interaction, a prepared wave packet of flavor coherence simply dissipates by kinematical decoherence of infinitely many non-collective modes. We reexamine the dispersion relation for fast flavor modes and show that for any wavenumber, there exists a continuum of non-collective modes besides a few discrete collective ones. So for any initial wave packet, both decoherence and collective motion occurs, although the latter typically dominates for a sufficiently dense gas. We derive explicit eigenfunctions for both collective and non-collective modes. If the angular mode distribution of electron-lepton number crosses between positive and negative values, two non-collective modes can merge to become a tachyonic collective mode. We explicitly calculate the interaction strength for this critical point. As a corollary we find that a single crossing always leads to a tachyonic instability. For an even number of crossings, no instability needs to occur.


PhD Thesis
RU-A
(51)The quantum substructure of gravity
  • Sebastian Zell - Advisor: Gia Dvali
abstract + abstract -

This thesis seeks to identify and investigate various universal quantum phenomena that are particularly, albeit by far not exclusively, relevant for gravity. In the first part, we study the question of how long a generic quantum system can be approximated as classical. Using a prototypical model of a self-interacting scalar field, we discuss possible scalings of the quantum break-time, after which the classical description breaks down. Subsequently, we apply this analysis to the hypothetical QCD axion. We conclude that the approximation as classically oscillating scalar field is extremely accurate. Next we turn to de Sitter. Our approach is to resolve the classical metric as a multi-graviton state defined on top of Minkowski vacuum. On the one hand, this composite picture of de Sitter is able to reproduce all known (semi)classical properties. On the other hand, it leads a breakdown of the description in terms of a classical metric after the timescale 1/(G H^3), where G and H correspond to Newton’s constant and the Hubble scale, respectively. This finding results in important restrictions on inflationary scenarios. [...]


CN-2
CN-8
PhD Thesis
RU-E
(50)Accumulation, gelation, and crystallization of prebiotic molecules in a thermal gradient and deep UV circular dichroism
  • Matthias Morasch - Advisor: Dieter Braun
abstract + abstract -

The location at which life emerged on Earth defined the physical boundary conditions under which the first replicating systems evolved. Nonequilibrium systems were necessary to provide the energy driving these processes. One such nonequilibrium system could have been temperature gradients, found for example across porous rock in hydrothermal vents. The work presented here focuses on the effects of temperature gradients on molecules in these water-filled micro-compartments and on methods how they could be analyzed. [...]

 


RU-D
(49)Low dust emissivities and radial variations in the envelopes of Class 0 protostars: possible signature of early grain growth
  • M. Galametz,
  • A. J. Maury,
  • V. Valdivia,
  • L. Testi,
  • A. Belloche
  • +1
Astronomy and Astrophysics (12/2019) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201936342
abstract + abstract -

Context. Analyzing the properties of dust and its evolution in the early phases of star formation is crucial to put constraints on the collapse and accretion processes as well as on the pristine properties of planet-forming seeds.
Aims: In this paper, we aim to investigate the variations of the dust grain size in the envelopes of the youngest protostars.
Methods: We analyzed Plateau de Bure interferometric observations at 1.3 and 3.2 mm for 12 Class 0 protostars obtained as part of the CALYPSO survey. We performed our analysis in the visibility domain and derived dust emissivity index (β1-3mm) profiles as a function of the envelope radius at 200-2000 au scales.
Results: Most of the protostellar envelopes show low dust emissivity indices decreasing toward the central regions. The decreasing trend remains after correction of the (potentially optically thick) central region emission, with surprisingly low β1-3mm < 1 values across most of the envelope radii of NGC 1333-IRAS 4A, NGC 1333-IRAS 4B, SVS13B, and Serpens-SMM4.
Conclusions: We discuss the various processes that could explain such low and varying dust emissivity indices at envelope radii 200-2000 au. Our observations of extremely low dust emissivity indices could trace the presence of large (millimeter-size) grains in Class 0 envelopes, in which case our results would point to a radial increase of the dust grain size toward the inner envelope regions. While it is expected that large grains in young protostellar envelopes could be built via grain growth and coagulation, we stress that the typical timescales required to build millimeter grains in current coagulation models are at odds with the youth of our Class 0 protostars. Additional variations in the dust composition could also partly contribute to the low β1-3mm we observe. We find that the steepness of the β1-3mm radial gradient depends strongly on the envelope mass, which might favor a scenario in which large grains are built in high-density protostellar disks and transported to the intermediate envelope radii, for example with the help of outflows and winds.


(48)Wave-Selection Techniques for Partial-Wave Analysis in Light-Meson Spectroscopy
  • Florian M. Kaspar,
  • Boris Grube,
  • Fabian Krinner,
  • Stephan Paul,
  • Stefan Wallner
arXiv e-prints (12/2019) e-Print:1912.09849
abstract + abstract -

The light-meson spectrum can be studied by analyzing data from diffractive dissociation of pion or kaon beams. The contributions of the various states that are produced in these reactions are disentangled by the means of partial-wave analysis. A challenge in these analyses is that the partial-wave expansion has to be truncated, i.e. that only a finite subset of the infinitely many partial-wave amplitudes can be inferred from the data. In recent years, different groups have applied regularization techniques in order to determine the contributing waves from the data. However, to obtain meaningful results the choice of the regularization term is crucial. We present our recent developments of wave-selection methods for partial-wave analyses based on simulated data for diffractively produced three-pion events.


(47)New method for fitting coefficients in standard model effective theory
  • Geoffrey T. Bodwin,
  • Hee Sok Chung
abstract + abstract -

We present an alternative method for carrying out a principal-component analysis of Wilson coefficients in standard model effective field theory (SMEFT). The method is based on singular-value decomposition (SVD). The SVD method provides information about the sensitivity of experimental observables to physics beyond the standard model that is not accessible in the Fisher-information method. In principle, the SVD method can also have computational advantages over diagonalization of the Fisher information matrix. We demonstrate the SVD method by applying it to the dimension-6 coefficients for the process of top-quark decay to a b quark and a W boson and use this example to illustrate some pitfalls in widely used fitting procedures. We also outline an iterative procedure for applying the SVD method to dimension-8 SMEFT coefficients.


RU-C
(46)CODEX clusters - Survey, catalog, and cosmology of the X-ray luminosity function
  • A. Finoguenov,
  • E. Rykoff,
  • N. Clerc,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • S. Hagstotz
  • +15
  • J. Ider Chitham,
  • K. Kiiveri,
  • C.C. Kirkpatrick,
  • R. Capasso,
  • J. Comparat,
  • S. Damsted,
  • R. Dupke,
  • G. Erfanianfar,
  • J. Patrick Henry,
  • F. Kaefer,
  • J-P. Kneib,
  • V. Lindholm,
  • E. Rozo,
  • L. van Waerbeke,
  • J. Weller
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Context. Large area catalogs of galaxy clusters constructed from ROSAT All-Sky Survey provide the basis for our knowledge of the population of clusters thanks to long-term multiwavelength efforts to follow up observations of these clusters.Aims. The advent of large area photometric surveys superseding previous, in-depth all-sky data allows us to revisit the construction of X-ray cluster catalogs, extending the study to lower cluster masses and higher redshifts and providing modeling of the selection function.Methods. We performed a wavelet detection of X-ray sources and made extensive simulations of the detection of clusters in the RASS data. We assigned an optical richness to each of the 24 788 detected X-ray sources in the 10 382 square degrees of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey area using red sequence cluster finder redMaPPer version 5.2 run on Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. We named this survey COnstrain Dark Energy with X-ray (CODEX) clusters.Results. We show that there is no obvious separation of sources on galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei (AGN) based on the distribution of systems on their richness. This is a combination of an increasing number of galaxy groups and their selection via the identification of X-ray sources either by chance or by groups hosting an AGN. To clean the sample, we use a cut on the optical richness at the level corresponding to the 10% completeness of the survey and include it in the modeling of the cluster selection function. We present the X-ray catalog extending to a redshift of 0.6.Conclusions. The CODEX suvey is the first large area X-ray selected catalog of northern clusters reaching fluxes of 10−13 ergs s−1 cm−2. We provide modeling of the sample selection and discuss the redshift evolution of the high end of the X-ray luminosity function (XLF). Our results on z <  0.3 XLF agree with previous studies, while we provide new constraints on the 0.3 <  z <  0.6 XLF. We find a lack of strong redshift evolution of the XLF, provide exact modeling of the effect of low number statistics and AGN contamination, and present the resulting constraints on the flat ΛCDM.Key words: surveys / catalogs / large-scale structure of Universe⋆ The catalog of clusters is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/638/A114


(45)Shape analysis in Higgs boson pair production
  • Matteo Capozi,
  • Gudrun Heinrich
arXiv e-prints (12/2019) e-Print:1912.07039
abstract + abstract -

We study the impact of anomalous couplings in the Higgs sector on the shape of the Higgs boson pair invariant mass distribution at NLO. Our analysis is based on a five-dimensional coupling parameter space relevant for Higgs boson pair production in gluon fusion, in the framework of a non-linear Effective Field Theory. In particular, we present a clustering procedure into certain shape types based on unsupervised machine learning, with the aim to infer information about the underlying parameter space from a given shape type.


(44)(Machine) Learning amplitudes for faster event generation
  • Fady Bishara,
  • Marc Montull
arXiv e-prints (12/2019) e-Print:1912.11055
abstract + abstract -

We propose to replace the exact amplitudes used in MC event generators for trained Machine Learning regressors, with the aim of speeding up the evaluation of {\it slow} amplitudes. As a proof of concept, we study the process $gg \to ZZ$ whose LO amplitude is loop induced. We show that gradient boosting machines like $\texttt{XGBoost}$ can predict the fully differential distributions with errors below $0.1 \%$, and with prediction times $\mathcal{O}(10^3)$ faster than the evaluation of the exact function. This is achieved with training times $\sim 7$ minutes and regressors of size $\lesssim 30$~Mb. These results suggest a possible new avenue to speed up MC event generators.


IDSL
RU-E
(43)Fission of Lipid-Vesicles by Membrane Phase Transitions in Thermal Convection
  • Patrick W. Kudella,
  • Katharina Preißinger,
  • Matthias Morasch,
  • Christina F. Dirscherl,
  • Dieter Braun
  • +1
  • Achim Wixforth & Christoph Westerhausen
  • (less)
Scientific Reports (12/2019) doi:10.1038/s41598-019-55110-0
abstract + abstract -

Unilamellar lipid vesicles can serve as model for protocells. We present a vesicle fission mechanism in a thermal gradient under flow in a convection chamber, where vesicles cycle cold and hot regions periodically. Crucial to obtain fission of the vesicles in this scenario is a temperature-induced membrane phase transition that vesicles experience multiple times. We model the temperature gradient of the chamber with a capillary to study single vesicles on their way through the temperature gradient in an external field of shear forces. Starting in the gel-like phase the spherical vesicles are heated above their main melting temperature resulting in a dumbbell-deformation. Further downstream a temperature drop below the transition temperature induces splitting of the vesicles without further physical or chemical intervention. This mechanism also holds for less cooperative systems, as shown here for a lipid alloy with a broad transition temperature width of 8 K. We find a critical tether length that can be understood from the transition width and the locally applied temperature gradient. This combination of a temperature-induced membrane phase transition and realistic flow scenarios as given e.g. in a white smoker enable a fission mechanism that can contribute to the understanding of more advanced protocell cycles.


RU-A
(42)Angular Analysis of Λb→Λc(→Λπ)ℓν¯
  • Philipp Böer,
  • Ahmet Kokulu,
  • Jan-Niklas Toelstede,
  • Danny van Dyk
Journal of High Energy Physics (12/2019) e-Print:1907.12554 doi:10.1007/JHEP12%282019%29082
abstract + abstract -

We revisit the decay Λ0b→Λ+cℓ−ν¯ (ℓ=e,μ,τ) with a subsequent two-body decay Λ+c→Λ0π+ in the Standard Model and in generic New Physics models. The decay's joint four-differential angular distribution can be expressed in terms of ten angular observables, assuming negligible polarization of the initial Λb state. We present compact analytical results for all angular observables, which enables us to discuss their possible New Physics reach. We find that the decay at hand probes more and complementary independent combinations of Wilson coefficients compared to its mesonic counter parts B¯→D(∗)ℓ−ν¯. Our result for the angular distribution is at variance with some of the results on scalar-vector interference terms in the literature. We provide numerical estimates for all angular observables based on lattice-QCD results for the Λb→Λc form factors and account for a recent measurement of the parity-violating parameter in Λ+c→Λ0π+ decays by BESIII. A numerical implementation of our results is made publicly available as part of the EOS software.


CN-7
RU-A
(41)Towards an ab initio covariant density functional for nuclear structure
  • Shihang Shen,
  • Haozhao Liang,
  • Wen Hui Long,
  • Jie Meng,
  • Peter Ring
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics (11/2019) e-Print:1910.13007 doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2019.135065
abstract + abstract -

Nuclear structure models built from phenomenological mean fields, the effective nucleon–nucleon interactions (or Lagrangians), and the realistic bare nucleon–nucleon interactions are reviewed. The success of covariant density functional theory (CDFT) to describe nuclear properties and its influence on Brueckner theory within the relativistic framework are focused upon. The challenges and ambiguities of predictions for unstable nuclei without data or for high-density nuclear matter, arising from relativistic density functionals, are discussed. The basic ideas in building an ab initio relativistic density functional for nuclear structure from ab initio calculations with realistic nucleon–nucleon interactions for both nuclear matter and finite nuclei are presented. The current status of fully self-consistent relativistic Brueckner–Hartree–Fock (RBHF) calculations for finite nuclei or neutron drops (ideal systems composed of a finite number of neutrons and confined within an external field) is reviewed. The guidance and perspectives towards an ab initio covariant density functional theory for nuclear structure derived from the RBHF results are provided.


RU-C
(40)Blinding multiprobe cosmological experiments
  • J. Muir,
  • G.M. Bernstein,
  • D. Huterer,
  • F. Elsner,
  • E. Krause
  • +59
  • A. Roodman,
  • S. Allam,
  • J. Annis,
  • S. Avila,
  • K. Bechtol,
  • E. Bertin,
  • D. Brooks,
  • E. Buckley-Geer,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • R. Cawthon,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • J.P. Dietrich,
  • P. Doel,
  • T.F. Eifler,
  • S. Everett,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • D.W. Gerdes,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • W.G. Hartley,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • D.J. James,
  • M. Jarvis,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • O. Lahav,
  • M. March,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • P. Melchior,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • R.L.C. Ogando,
  • A. Palmese,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A.A. Plazas,
  • A.K. Romer,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • M. Schubnell,
  • S. Serrano,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • M. Smith,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • M.A. Troxel,
  • A.R. Walker,
  • J. Weller,
  • W. Wester,
  • J. Zuntz
  • (less)
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (11/2019) e-Print:1911.05929 doi:10.1093/mnras/staa965
abstract + abstract -

The goal of blinding is to hide an experiment’s critical results – here the inferred cosmological parameters – until all decisions affecting its analysis have been finalized. This is especially important in the current era of precision cosmology, when the results of any new experiment are closely scrutinized for consistency or tension with previous results. In analyses that combine multiple observational probes, like the combination of galaxy clustering and weak lensing in the Dark Energy Survey (DES), it is challenging to blind the results while retaining the ability to check for (in)consistency between different parts of the data. We propose a simple new blinding transformation, which works by modifying the summary statistics that are input to parameter estimation, such as two-point correlation functions. The transformation shifts the measured statistics to new values that are consistent with (blindly) shifted cosmological parameters while preserving internal (in)consistency. We apply the blinding transformation to simulated data for the projected DES Year 3 galaxy clustering and weak lensing analysis, demonstrating that practical blinding is achieved without significant perturbation of internal-consistency checks, as measured here by degradation of the χ^2 between the data and best-fitting model. Our blinding method’s performance is expected to improve as experiments evolve to higher precision and accuracy.


CN-4
RU-C
(39)Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: the lensing imprint of cosmic voids on the Cosmic Microwave Background
  • P. Vielzeuf,
  • A. Kovács,
  • U. Demirbozan,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • E. Baxter
  • +60
  • N. Hamaus,
  • D. Huterer,
  • R. Miquel,
  • S. Nadathur,
  • G. Pollina,
  • C. Sánchez,
  • L. Whiteway,
  • T.M.C. Abbott,
  • S. Allam,
  • J. Annis,
  • S. Avila,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • R. Cawthon,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • P. Doel,
  • T.F. Eifler,
  • S. Everett,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • D.W. Gerdes,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • W.G. Hartley,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D.J. James,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • O. Lahav,
  • M. Lima,
  • M.A.G. Maia,
  • M. March,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • P. Melchior,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • A. Palmese,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A.A. Plazas,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • S. Serrano,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • M. Smith,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • J. Weller,
  • J. Zuntz
  • (less)
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (11/2019) e-Print:1911.02951 doi:10.1093/mnras/staa3231
abstract + abstract -

Cosmic voids gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, resulting in a distinct imprint on degree scales. We use the simulated CMB lensing convergence map from the Marenostrum Institut de Ciencias de l’Espai (MICE) N-body simulation to calibrate our detection strategy for a given void definition and galaxy tracer density. We then identify cosmic voids in Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 data and stack the Planck 2015 lensing convergence map on their locations, probing the consistency of simulated and observed void lensing signals. When fixing the shape of the stacked convergence profile to that calibrated from simulations, we find imprints at the 3σ significance level for various analysis choices. The best measurement strategies based on the MICE calibration process yield S/N ≈ 4 for DES Y1, and the best-fitting amplitude recovered from the data is consistent with expectations from MICE (A ≈ 1). Given these results as well as the agreement between them and N-body simulations, we conclude that the previously reported excess integrated Sachs–Wolfe (ISW) signal associated with cosmic voids in DES Y1 has no counterpart in the Planck CMB lensing map.


RU-D
(38)J0453+1559: A Neutron Star-White Dwarf Binary from a Thermonuclear Electron-capture Supernova?
  • Thomas M. Tauris,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka
The Astrophysical Journal (11/2019) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab5642
abstract + abstract -

The compact binary radio pulsar system J0453+1559 consists of a recycled pulsar as primary component of 1.559(5) M and an unseen companion star of 1.174(4) M . Because of the relatively large orbital eccentricity of e = 0.1125, it was argued that the companion is a neutron star (NS), making it the NS with the lowest accurately determined mass to date. However, a direct observational determination of the nature of the companion is currently not feasible. Moreover, state-of-the-art stellar evolution and supernova modeling are contradictory concerning the possibility of producing such a low-mass NS remnant. Here we challenge the NS interpretation by reasoning that the lower-mass component could instead be a white dwarf born in a thermonuclear electron-capture supernova (tECSN) event, in which oxygen-neon deflagration in the degenerate stellar core of an ultra-stripped progenitor ejects several 0.1 M of matter and leaves a bound ONeFe white dwarf as the second-formed compact remnant. We determine the ejecta mass and remnant kick needed in this scenario to explain the properties of PSR J0453+1559 by a NS-white dwarf system. More work on tECSNe is needed to assess the viability of this scenario.


MIAPbP
(37)Light hidden mesons through the Z portal
  • Hsin-Chia Cheng,
  • Lingfeng Li,
  • Ennio Salvioni,
  • Christopher B. Verhaaren
Journal of High Energy Physics (11/2019) doi:10.1007/JHEP11(2019)031
abstract + abstract -

Confining hidden sectors are an attractive possibility for physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). They are especially motivated by neutral naturalness theories, which reconcile the lightness of the Higgs with the strong constraints on colored top partners. We study hidden QCD with one light quark flavor, coupled to the SM via effective operators suppressed by the mass M of new electroweak-charged particles. This effective field theory is inspired by a new tripled top model of supersymmetric neutral naturalness. The hidden sector is accessed primarily via the Z and Higgs portals, which also mediate the decays of the hidden mesons back to SM particles. We find that exotic Z decays at the LHC and future Z factories provide the strongest sensitivity to this scenario, and we outline a wide array of searches. For a larger hidden confinement scale Λ ∼ O (10) GeV, the exotic Z decays dominantly produce final states with two hidden mesons. ATLAS and CMS can probe their prompt decays up to M ∼ 3 TeV at the high luminosity phase, while a TeraZ factory would extend the reach up to M ∼ 20 TeV through a combination of searches for prompt and displaced signals. For smaller Λ ∼ O (1) GeV, the Z decays to the hidden sector produce jets of hidden mesons, which are long-lived. LHCb will be a powerful probe of these emerging jets. Furthermore, the light hidden vector meson could be detected by proposed dark photon searches.


(36)High Angular Resolution ALMA Images of Dust and Molecules in the SN 1987A Ejecta
  • Phil Cigan,
  • Mikako Matsuura,
  • Haley L. Gomez,
  • Remy Indebetouw,
  • Fran Abellán
  • +21
  • Michael Gabler,
  • Anita Richards,
  • Dennis Alp,
  • Timothy A. Davis,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka,
  • Jason Spyromilio,
  • M. J. Barlow,
  • David Burrows,
  • Eli Dwek,
  • Claes Fransson,
  • Bryan Gaensler,
  • Josefin Larsson,
  • P. Bouchet,
  • Peter Lundqvist,
  • J. M. Marcaide,
  • C. -Y. Ng,
  • Sangwook Park,
  • Pat Roche,
  • Jacco Th. van Loon,
  • J. C. Wheeler,
  • Giovanna Zanardo
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (11/2019) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab4b46
abstract + abstract -

We present high angular resolution (∼80 mas) ALMA continuum images of the SN 1987A system, together with CO J = 2 \to 1, J = 6 \to 5, and SiO J = 5 \to 4 to J = 7 \to 6 images, which clearly resolve the ejecta (dust continuum and molecules) and ring (synchrotron continuum) components. Dust in the ejecta is asymmetric and clumpy, and overall the dust fills the spatial void seen in Hα images, filling that region with material from heavier elements. The dust clumps generally fill the space where CO J = 6 \to 5 is fainter, tentatively indicating that these dust clumps and CO are locationally and chemically linked. In these regions, carbonaceous dust grains might have formed after dissociation of CO. The dust grains would have cooled by radiation, and subsequent collisions of grains with gas would also cool the gas, suppressing the CO J = 6 \to 5 intensity. The data show a dust peak spatially coincident with the molecular hole seen in previous ALMA CO J = 2 \to 1 and SiO J = 5 \to 4 images. That dust peak, combined with CO and SiO line spectra, suggests that the dust and gas could be at higher temperatures than the surrounding material, though higher density cannot be totally excluded. One of the possibilities is that a compact source provides additional heat at that location. Fits to the far-infrared-millimeter spectral energy distribution give ejecta dust temperatures of 18-23 K. We revise the ejecta dust mass to M dust = 0.2-0.4 {M} for carbon or silicate grains, or a maximum of <0.7 {M} for a mixture of grain species, using the predicted nucleosynthesis yields as an upper limit.


(35)On non-perturbative unitarity in gravitational scattering
  • Ivo Sachs,
  • Tung Tran
European Physical Journal C (11/2019) doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-7403-2
abstract + abstract -

We argue that the tree-level graviton-scalar scattering in the Regge limit is unitarized by non-perturbative effects within General Relativity alone, that is without resorting to any extension thereof. At Planckian energy the back reaction of the incoming graviton on the background geometry produces a non-perturbative plane wave which softens the UV-behavior in turn. Our amplitude interpolates between the perturbative graviton-scalar scattering at low energy and scattering on a classical plane wave in the Regge limit that is bounded for all values of s.


(34)On finite-size d-branes in superstring theory
  • Luca Mattiello,
  • Ivo Sachs
Journal of High Energy Physics (11/2019) doi:10.1007/JHEP11(2019)118
abstract + abstract -

We test exact marginality of the deformation describing the blow-up of a zero- size D(-1) brane bound to a background of D3-branes by analyzing the equations of motion of superstring field theory to third order in the size. In the process we review the derivation of the instanton profile from string theory, extending it to include α'-corrections.


MIAPbP
(33)STRIDES: a 3.9 per cent measurement of the Hubble constant from the strong lens system DES J0408−5354
  • A.J. Shajib,
  • S. Birrer,
  • T. Treu,
  • A. Agnello,
  • E.J. Buckley-Geer
  • +86
  • J.H.H. Chan,
  • L. Christensen,
  • C. Lemon,
  • H. Lin,
  • M. Millon,
  • J. Poh,
  • C.E. Rusu,
  • D. Sluse,
  • C. Spiniello,
  • G.C.-F. Chen,
  • T. Collett,
  • F. Courbin,
  • C.D. Fassnacht,
  • J. Frieman,
  • A. Galan,
  • D. Gilman,
  • A. More,
  • T. Anguita,
  • M.W. Auger,
  • V. Bonvin,
  • R. McMahon,
  • G. Meylan,
  • K.C. Wong,
  • T.M.C. Abbott,
  • J. Annis,
  • S. Avila,
  • K. Bechtol,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D. Brout,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • F.J. Castander,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • J.P. Dietrich,
  • P. Doel,
  • A. Drlica-Wagner,
  • A.E. Evrard,
  • D.A. Finley,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • D.W. Gerdes,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D. Huterer,
  • D.J. James,
  • T. Jeltema,
  • E. Krause,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • T.S. Li,
  • M. Lima,
  • N. MacCrann,
  • M.A.G. Maia,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • P. Melchior,
  • R. Miquel,
  • R.L.C. Ogando,
  • A. Palmese,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A.A. Plazas,
  • A.K. Romer,
  • A. Roodman,
  • M. Sako,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • B. Santiago,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • M. Schubnell,
  • D. Scolnic,
  • S. Serrano,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • M. Smith,
  • M. Soares-Santos,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • A.R. Walker,
  • Y. Zhang
  • (less)
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (10/2019) e-Print:1910.06306 doi:10.1093/mnras/staa828
abstract + abstract -

We present a blind time-delay cosmographic analysis for the lens system DES J0408−5354. This system is extraordinary for the presence of two sets of multiple images at different redshifts, which provide the opportunity to obtain more information at the cost of increased modelling complexity with respect to previously analysed systems. We perform detailed modelling of the mass distribution for this lens system using three band Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We combine the measured time delays, line-of-sight central velocity dispersion of the deflector, and statistically constrained external convergence with our lens models to estimate two cosmological distances. We measure the ‘effective’ time-delay distance corresponding to the redshifts of the deflector and the lensed quasar |$D_{\Delta t}^{\rm eff}=$||$3382_{-115}^{+146}$| Mpc and the angular diameter distance to the deflector D_d = |$1711_{-280}^{+376}$| Mpc, with covariance between the two distances. From these constraints on the cosmological distances, we infer the Hubble constant H_0= |$74.2_{-3.0}^{+2.7}$| km s^−1 Mpc^−^1 assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology and a uniform prior for Ω_m as |$\Omega _{\rm m} \sim \mathcal {U}(0.05, 0.5)$|⁠. This measurement gives the most precise constraint on H_0 to date from a single lens. Our measurement is consistent with that obtained from the previous sample of six lenses analysed by the H_0 Lenses in COSMOGRAIL’s Wellspring (H0LiCOW) collaboration. It is also consistent with measurements of H_0 based on the local distance ladder, reinforcing the tension with the inference from early Universe probes, for example, with 2.2σ discrepancy from the cosmic microwave background measurement.


(32)Para-Hermitian geometries for Poisson-Lie symmetric σ-models
  • Falk Hassler,
  • Dieter Lüst,
  • Felix J. Rudolph
Journal of High Energy Physics (10/2019) doi:10.1007/JHEP10(2019)160
abstract + abstract -

The doubled target space of the fundamental closed string is identified with its phase space and described by an almost para-Hermitian geometry. We explore this setup in the context of group manifolds which admit a maximally isotropic subgroup. This leads to a formulation of the Poisson-Lie σ-model and Poisson-Lie T-duality in terms of para-Hermitian geometry. The emphasis is put on so called half-integrable setups where only one of the Lagrangian subspaces of the doubled space has to be integrable. Using the dressing coset construction in Poisson-Lie T-duality, we extend our construction to more general coset spaces. This allows to explicitly obtain a huge class of para-Hermitian geometries. Each of them is automatically equipped which a generalized frame field, required for consistent generalized Scherk-Schwarz reductions. As examples we present integrable λ- and η-deformations on the three- and two-sphere.


RU-D
(31)Gone after one orbit: How cluster environments quench galaxies
  • Marcel Lotz,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Andrea Biviano,
  • Andreas Burkert
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (10/2019) doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2070
abstract + abstract -

The effect of galactic orbits on a galaxy's internal evolution within a galaxy cluster environment has been the focus of heated debate in recent years. To understand this connection, we use both the (0.5 Gpc)3 and the Gpc3 boxes from the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation set Magneticum Pathfinder. We investigate the velocity anisotropy, phase space, and the orbital evolution of up to ∼5 × 105 resolved satellite galaxies within our sample of 6776 clusters with M_{vir} > 10^{14} M_{⊙ } at low redshift, which we also trace back in time. In agreement with observations, we find that star-forming satellite galaxies inside galaxy clusters are characterized by more radially dominated orbits, independent of cluster mass. Furthermore, the vast majority of star-forming satellite galaxies stop forming stars during their first passage. We find a strong dichotomy both in line-of-sight and radial phase space between star-forming and quiescent galaxies, in line with observations. The tracking of individual orbits shows that the star formation of almost all satellite galaxies drops to zero within 1 Gyr after infall. Satellite galaxies that are able to remain star forming longer are characterized by tangential orbits and high stellar mass. All this indicates that in galaxy clusters the dominant quenching mechanism is ram-pressure stripping.


CN-5
CN-6
CN-8
PhD Thesis
(30)Fully kinetic simulations of microscale turbulence in space and astrophysical plasmas.
  • Daniel Grošelj - Advisor: Frank Jenko
abstract + abstract -

Turbulence is the natural state of many weakly collisional space and astrophysical plasmas.

Prominent examples range from the near-Earth solar wind, to more distant astrophysical systems such as the warm interstellar medium, hot accretion flows, and galaxy clusters. In low-collisionality turbulent plasmas, it is anticipated theoretically and documented observationally that the electromagnetic energy cascade extends beyond the inertial, magnetohydrodynamic range into the plasma kinetic range of scales. Upon transition into the kinetic range, below the ion gyroradius and the ion inertial scale, the character of the turbulence changes significantly compared to the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The nature of this kinetic-scale turbulence is presently the subject of ongoing investigations, with important implications for the general thermodynamic properties of weakly collisional plasmas.


RU-A
(29)Higgs boson potential at colliders: Status and perspectives
  • Biagio Di Micco,
  • Maxime Gouzevitch,
  • Javier Mazzitelli,
  • Caterina Vernieri,
  • J. Alison
  • +102
  • K. Androsov,
  • J. Baglio,
  • E. Bagnaschi,
  • S. Banerjee,
  • P. Basler,
  • A. Bethani,
  • A. Betti,
  • M. Blanke,
  • A. Blondel,
  • L. Borgonovi,
  • E. Brost,
  • P. Bryant,
  • G. Buchalla,
  • T.J. Burch,
  • V.M.M. Cairo,
  • F. Campanario,
  • M. Carena,
  • A. Carvalho,
  • N. Chernyavskaya,
  • V. D'Amico,
  • S. Dawson,
  • N. De Filippis,
  • L. Di Luzio,
  • S. Di Vita,
  • B. Dillon,
  • C. Englert,
  • A. Ferrari,
  • E. Fontanesi,
  • H. Fox,
  • M. Gallinaro,
  • P.P. Giardino,
  • S. Glaus,
  • F. Goertz,
  • S. Gori,
  • R. Gröber,
  • C. Grojean,
  • D.F. Guerrero Ibarra,
  • R. Gupta,
  • U. Haisch,
  • G. Heinrich,
  • P. Huang,
  • P. Janot,
  • S.P. Jones,
  • M.A. Kagan,
  • S. Kast,
  • M. Kerner,
  • J.H. Kim,
  • K. Kong,
  • J. Kozaczuk,
  • F. Krauss,
  • S. Kuttimalai,
  • H.M. Lee,
  • K. Leney,
  • I.M. Lewis,
  • S. Liebler,
  • Z. Liu,
  • H.E. Logan,
  • A. Long,
  • F. Maltoni,
  • S. Manzoni,
  • L. Mastrolorenzo,
  • K. Matchev,
  • F. Micheli,
  • M. Mühlleitner,
  • M.S. Neubauer,
  • G. Ortona,
  • M. Osherson,
  • D. Pagani,
  • G. Panico,
  • A. Papaefstathiou,
  • M. Park,
  • M.E. Peskin,
  • J. Quevillon,
  • M. Riembau,
  • T. Robens,
  • P. Roloff,
  • H. Rzehak,
  • J. Schaarschmidt,
  • U. Schnoor,
  • L. Scyboz,
  • M. Selvaggi,
  • N.R. Shah,
  • A. Shivaji,
  • S. Shrestha,
  • K. Sinha,
  • M. Spannowsky,
  • M. Spira,
  • T. Stefaniak,
  • J. Streicher,
  • M. Sullivan,
  • M. Swiatlowski,
  • R. Teixeira de Lima,
  • J. Thomson,
  • J. Tian,
  • T. Vantalon,
  • C. Veelken,
  • T. Vickey,
  • E. Vryonidou,
  • J. Wells,
  • S. Westhoff,
  • X. Zhao,
  • J. Zurita
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

This document summarises the current theoretical and experimental status of the di-Higgs boson production searches, and of the direct and indirect constraints on the Higgs boson self-coupling, with the wish to serve as a useful guide for the next years. The document discusses the theoretical status, including state-of-the-art predictions for di-Higgs cross sections, developments on the effective field theory approach, and studies on specific new physics scenarios that can show up in the di-Higgs final state. The status of di-Higgs searches and the direct and indirect constraints on the Higgs self-coupling at the LHC are presented, with an overview of the relevant experimental techniques, and covering all the variety of relevant signatures. Finally, the capabilities of future colliders in determining the Higgs self-coupling are addressed, comparing the projected precision that can be obtained in such facilities. The work has started as the proceedings of the Di-Higgs workshop at Colliders, held at Fermilab from the 4th to the 9th of September 2018, but it went beyond the topics discussed at that workshop and included further developments. FERMILAB-CONF-19-468-E-T, LHCHXSWG-2019-005


(28)Searching for optical and VHE counterparts of fast radio bursts with MAGIC
  • J. Hoang,
  • M. Will,
  • S. Inoue,
  • J.A. Barrio,
  • J. Cortina
  • +3
  • M. López,
  • B. Marcote,
  • L.A. Tejedor
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are an enigmatic class of extragalactic transients emitting Jy-level radio bursts in the GHz band, lasting for only a few ms. So far, some objects are known to repeat while several others are not, likely indicating multiple origins. There are many theoretical models, some predict prompt VHE or optical emission correlated with FRBs while others imply VHE afterglows hours after the FRB. To test these predictions and unravel the nature of FRB progenitors, the stereoscopic Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) system MAGIC has been participating in FRB observation campaigns since 2016. As IACTs are sensitive to Cherenkov photons in the UV/blue region of the electromagnetic spectrum and use photo-detectors with time response faster than a ms, MAGIC is also able to perform simultaneous optical observations through a dedicated system installed in the central PMT of its camera. The main challenge faced by MAGIC in searching for optical counterpart of FRBs is the presence of irreducible background optical events due to terrestrial sources. We present new results from MAGIC observations of the first repeating FRB 121102 during several MWL observation campaigns. The recently improved instrument and refined strategy to search for counterparts of FRBs in the VHE and optical bands will also be presented


CN-4
RU-C
(27)Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: The Relationship between Mass and Light Around Cosmic Voids
  • Y. Fang,
  • N. Hamaus,
  • B. Jain,
  • S. Pandey,
  • G. Pollina
  • +72
  • C. Sánchez,
  • A. Kovács,
  • C. Chang,
  • J. Carretero,
  • F.J. Castander,
  • A. Choi,
  • M. Crocce,
  • J. DeRose,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • M. Gatti,
  • E. Gaztañaga,
  • D. Gruen,
  • W.G. Hartley,
  • B. Hoyle,
  • N. MacCrann,
  • J. Prat,
  • M.M. Rau,
  • E.S. Rykoff,
  • S. Samuroff,
  • E. Sheldon,
  • M.A. Troxel,
  • P. Vielzeuf,
  • J. Zuntz,
  • J. Annis,
  • S. Avila,
  • E. Bertin,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • R. Cawthon,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • J.P. Dietrich,
  • P. Doel,
  • S. Everett,
  • A.E. Evrard,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. GarcíaBellido,
  • D.W. Gerdes,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • D.J. James,
  • M. Jarvis,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • O. Lahav,
  • M.A.G. Maia,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • P. Melchior,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • A. Palmese,
  • A.A. Plazas,
  • A.K. Romer,
  • A. Roodman,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • S. Serrano,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • M. Smith,
  • M. Soares-Santos,
  • F. Sobreira,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M.E.C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • V. Vikram,
  • A.R. Walker,
  • J. Weller
  • (less)
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (09/2019) e-Print:1909.01386 doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2805
abstract + abstract -

What are the mass and galaxy profiles of cosmic voids? In this paper, we use two methods to extract voids in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 redMaGiC galaxy sample to address this question. We use either 2D slices in projection, or the 3D distribution of galaxies based on photometric redshifts to identify voids. For the mass profile, we measure the tangential shear profiles of background galaxies to infer the excess surface mass density. The signal-to-noise ratio for our lensing measurement ranges between 10.7 and 14.0 for the two void samples. We infer their 3D density profiles by fitting models based on N-body simulations and find good agreement for void radii in the range 15–85 Mpc. Comparison with their galaxy profiles then allows us to test the relation between mass and light at the 10 per cent level, the most stringent test to date. We find very similar shapes for the two profiles, consistent with a linear relationship between mass and light both within and outside the void radius. We validate our analysis with the help of simulated mock catalogues and estimate the impact of photometric redshift uncertainties on the measurement. Our methodology can be used for cosmological applications, including tests of gravity with voids. This is especially promising when the lensing profiles are combined with spectroscopic measurements of void dynamics via redshift-space distortions.


CN-3
MIAPbP
RU-B
RU-C
(26)The dark matter bispectrum from effective viscosity and one-particle irreducible vertices
  • Stefan Floerchinger,
  • Mathias Garny,
  • Aris Katsis,
  • Nikolaos Tetradis,
  • Urs Achim Wiedemann
abstract + abstract -

Dark matter evolution during the process of cosmological structure formation can be described in terms of a one-particle irreducible effective action at a characteristic scale km and a loop expansion below this scale, based on the effective propagators and vertices. We calculate the form of the effective vertices and compute the bispectrum of density perturbations within a one-loop approximation. We find that the effective vertices play a subdominant role as compared to the effective viscosity and sound velocity that modify the (inverse) propagators. For the bispectrum we reproduce the results of standard perturbation theory in the range where it is applicable, and find a slightly improved agreement with N-body simulations at larger wavenumbers.

 


(25)Search for Neutrino Emission in IceCube's Archival Data from the Direction of IceCube Alert Events
  • Martina Karl
abstract + abstract -

IceCube is a cubic-kilometer scale neutrino detector instrumenting a gigaton of ice at the geographic South Pole in Antarctica. On average, 8 track-like high-energy neutrino events with a high probability of being astrophysical are detected and published as alerts per year. The bright appearance of these events in the detector allow a precise pointing to their origins. This work presents a search for cosmic neutrino sources. The analysis uses high statistics archival IceCube neutrino-induced through-going muon samples to search for these sources in the vicinity of the incoming directions of the track-like high energy neutrino alert-events. The analysis searches for both steady sources emitting neutrinos over the entire uptime of IceCube, and transient sources that only temporarily produce neutrinos. This search will be applied to all historic alerts and will be automated for all future high energy track-like neutrino alerts.


(24)Safety versus triviality on the lattice
  • Viljami Leino,
  • Tobias Rindlisbacher,
  • Kari Rummukainen,
  • Francesco Sannino,
  • Kimmo Tuominen
abstract + abstract -

We present the first numerical study of the ultraviolet dynamics of nonasymptotically free gauge-fermion theories at large number of matter fields. As test bed theories, we consider non-Abelian SU(2) gauge theories with 24 and 48 Dirac fermions on the lattice. For these numbers of flavors, asymptotic freedom is lost, and the theories are governed by a Gaussian fixed point at low energies. In the ultraviolet, they can develop a physical cutoff and therefore be trivial, or achieve an interacting safe fixed point and therefore be fundamental at all energy scales. We demonstrate that the gradient flow method can be successfully implemented and applied to determine the renormalized running coupling when asymptotic freedom is lost. Additionally, we prove that our analysis is connected to the Gaussian fixed point as our results nicely match with the perturbative beta function. Intriguingly, we observe that it is hard to achieve large values of the renormalized coupling on the lattice. This might be an early sign of the existence of a physical cutoff and imply that a larger number of flavors is needed to achieve the safe fixed point. A more conservative interpretation of the results is that the current lattice action is unable to explore the deep ultraviolet region where safety might emerge. Our work constitutes an essential step toward determining the ultraviolet fate of nonasymptotically free gauge theories.


CN-2
RU-E
(23)Direct Prebiotic Pathway to DNA Nucleosides
  • J. S. Teichert,
  • F. M. Kruse,
  • O. Trapp
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (07/2019) doi:10.1002/anie.201903400
abstract + abstract -

It is assumed that RNA played a key role in the origin of life, and the transition to more complex but more stable DNA for continuous information storage and replication requires the development of a ribonucleotide reductase to obtain the deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides. This step, as well as an alternative path from abiotic molecules to DNA-based life is completely unknown. Shown here is the formation of deoxyribonucleosides under relevant prebiotic conditions in water in high regio- and stereoselectivity, from all canonical purine and pyrimidine bases, by condensation with acetaldehyde and sugar-forming precursors. Thus, a continuous path to deoxyribonucleosides, starting from simple, prebiotically available molecules has been discovered. Furthermore, the deoxyapionucleosides (DApiNA) were identified as a potential DNA progenitor. The results suggest that the DNA world evolved much earlier than previously assumed.


(22)Detection of Cross-Correlation between Gravitational Lensing and $\gamma$ Rays
  • S. Ammazzalorso,
  • D. Gruen,
  • M. Regis,
  • S. Camera,
  • S. Ando
  • +73
  • N. Fornengo,
  • K. Bechtol,
  • S.L. Bridle,
  • A. Choi,
  • T.F. Eifler,
  • M. Gatti,
  • N. MacCrann,
  • Y. Omori,
  • S. Samuroff,
  • E. Sheldon,
  • M.A. Troxel,
  • J. Zuntz,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Annis,
  • S. Avila,
  • E. Bertin,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • J. Carretero,
  • F.J. Castander,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • J.P. Dietrich,
  • P. Doel,
  • S. Everett,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • D.W. Gerdes,
  • T. Giannantonio,
  • D.A. Goldstein,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D.J. James,
  • M. Jarvis,
  • T. Jeltema,
  • S. Kent,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • O. Lahav,
  • T.S. Li,
  • M. Lima,
  • M.A.G. Maia,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • P. Melchior,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • R.L.C. Ogando,
  • A. Palmese,
  • A.A. Plazas,
  • A.K. Romer,
  • A. Roodman,
  • E.S. Rykoff,
  • C. Sánchez,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • S. Serrano,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • M. Smith,
  • M. Soares-Santos,
  • F. Sobreira,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M.E.C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • V. Vikram,
  • Y. Zhang
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

In recent years, many γ-ray sources have been identified, yet the unresolved component hosts valuable information on the faintest emission. In order to extract it, a cross-correlation with gravitational tracers of matter in the Universe has been shown to be a promising tool. We report here the first identification of a cross-correlation signal between γ rays and the distribution of mass in the Universe probed by weak gravitational lensing. We use data from the Dark Energy Survey Y1 weak lensing data and the Fermi Large Area Telescope 9-yr γ-ray data, obtaining a signal-to-noise ratio of 5.3. The signal is mostly localized at small angular scales and high γ-ray energies, with a hint of correlation at extended separation. Blazar emission is likely the origin of the small-scale effect. We investigate implications of the large-scale component in terms of astrophysical sources and particle dark matter emission.


MIAPbP
RU-A
(21)Determination of the QCD coupling from the static energy and the free energy
  • Alexei Bazavov,
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Xavier Garcia i Tormo,
  • Péter Petreczky,
  • Joan Soto
  • +2
  • Antonio Vairo,
  • Johannes Heinrich Weber
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present two determinations of the strong coupling αs. The first one is from the static energy at three-loop accuracy, and may be considered an update of earlier determinations by some of us. The new analysis includes new lattice data at smaller lattice spacings, and reaches distances as short as 0.0237 fm. We present a comprehensive and detailed estimate of the error sources that contribute to the uncertainty of the final result, αs(MZ)=0.11660-0.00056+0.00110. The second determination is based on lattice data for the singlet free energy at finite temperature up to distances as small as 0.0081 fm, from which we obtain αs(MZ)=0.11638-0.00087+0.00095.


(20)Detection of CMB-Cluster Lensing using Polarization Data from SPTpol
  • S. Raghunathan,
  • S. Patil,
  • E. Baxter,
  • B.A. Benson,
  • L.E. Bleem
  • +124
  • T.M. Crawford,
  • G.P. Holder,
  • T. McClintock,
  • C.L. Reichardt,
  • T.N. Varga,
  • N. Whitehorn,
  • P.A.R. Ade,
  • S. Allam,
  • A.J. Anderson,
  • J.E. Austermann,
  • S. Avila,
  • J.S. Avva,
  • D. Bacon,
  • J.A. Beall,
  • A.N. Bender,
  • F. Bianchini,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • J.E. Carlstrom,
  • J. Carretero,
  • F.J. Castander,
  • C.L. Chang,
  • H.C. Chiang,
  • R. Citron,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • A.T. Crites,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • S. Desai,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • J.P. Dietrich,
  • M.A. Dobbs,
  • P. Doel,
  • S. Everett,
  • A.E. Evrard,
  • C. Feng,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. Gallicchio,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • E.M. George,
  • T. Giannantonio,
  • A. Gilbert,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • N. Gupta,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • T. de Haan,
  • N.W. Halverson,
  • N. Harrington,
  • J.W. Henning,
  • G.C. Hilton,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • W.L. Holzapfel,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • J.D. Hrubes,
  • N. Huang,
  • J. Hubmayr,
  • K.D. Irwin,
  • T. Jeltema,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • L. Knox,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • O. Lahav,
  • A.T. Lee,
  • D. Li,
  • M. Lima,
  • A. Lowitz,
  • M.A.G. Maia,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • J.J. McMahon,
  • P. Melchior,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • S.S. Meyer,
  • R. Miquel,
  • L.M. Mocanu,
  • J.J. Mohr,
  • J. Montgomery,
  • C. Corbett Moran,
  • A. Nadolski,
  • T. Natoli,
  • J.P. Nibarger,
  • G. Noble,
  • V. Novosad,
  • R.L.C. Ogando,
  • S. Padin,
  • A.A. Plazas,
  • C. Pryke,
  • D. Rapetti,
  • A.K. Romer,
  • A. Roodman,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • E. Rozo,
  • J.E. Ruhl,
  • E.S. Rykoff,
  • B.R. Saliwanchik,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • J.T. Sayre,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • K.K. Schaffer,
  • M. Schubnell,
  • S. Serrano,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • C. Sievers,
  • G. Smecher,
  • M. Smith,
  • M. Soares-Santos,
  • A.A. Stark,
  • K.T. Story,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M.E.C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • C. Tucker,
  • K. Vanderlinde,
  • T. Veach,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • J.D. Vieira,
  • V. Vikram,
  • G. Wang,
  • W.L.K. Wu,
  • V. Yefremenko,
  • Y. Zhang
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We report the first detection of gravitational lensing due to galaxy clusters using only the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The lensing signal is obtained using a new estimator that extracts the lensing dipole signature from stacked images formed by rotating the cluster-centered Stokes QU map cutouts along the direction of the locally measured background CMB polarization gradient. Using data from the SPTpol 500  deg2 survey at the locations of roughly 18 000 clusters with richness λ≥10 from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year-3 full galaxy cluster catalog, we detect lensing at 4.8σ. The mean stacked mass of the selected sample is found to be (1.43±0.40)×1014M⊙ which is in good agreement with optical weak lensing based estimates using DES data and CMB-lensing based estimates using SPTpol temperature data. This measurement is a key first step for cluster cosmology with future low-noise CMB surveys, like CMB-S4, for which CMB polarization will be the primary channel for cluster lensing measurements.


(19)A DECam Search for Explosive Optical Transients Associated with IceCube Neutrinos
  • R. Morgan,
  • K. Bechtol,
  • R. Kessler,
  • M. Sako,
  • K. Herner
  • +63
  • Z. Doctor,
  • D. Scolnic,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • A. Franckowiak,
  • K.N. Neilson,
  • M. Kowalski,
  • A. Palmese,
  • E. Swann,
  • B.P. Thomas,
  • A.K. Vivas,
  • A. Drlica-Wagner,
  • A. Garcia,
  • D. Brout,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • E. Neilsen,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • M. Soares-Santos,
  • T.M.C. Abbott,
  • S. Avila,
  • E. Bertin,
  • D. Brooks,
  • E. Buckley-Geer,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • R. Cawthon,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • P. Doel,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • D.W. Gerdes,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D.J. James,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • M. Lima,
  • M.A.G. Maia,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • C.J. Miller,
  • R. Miquel,
  • A.A. Plazas,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • M. Schubnell,
  • S. Serrano,
  • M. Smith,
  • F. Sobreira,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M.E.C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • V. Vikram,
  • A.R. Walker,
  • J. Weller
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

To facilitate multimessenger studies with TeV and PeV astrophysical neutrinos, the IceCube Collaboration has developed a realtime alert system for the highest confidence and best localized neutrino events. In this work we investigate the likelihood of association between realtime high-energy neutrino alerts and explosive optical transients, with a focus on core-collapse supernovae (CC SNe) as candidate neutrino sources. We report results from triggered optical follow-up observations of two IceCube alerts, IC170922A and IC171106A, with Blanco/DECam ($gri$ to 24th magnitude in $\sim6$ epochs). Based on a suite of simulated supernova light curves, we develop and validate selection criteria for CC SNe exploding in coincidence with neutrino alerts. The DECam observations are sensitive to CC SNe at redshifts $z \lesssim 0.3$. At redshifts $z \lesssim 0.1$, our selection criteria reduce background SNe contamination to a level below the predicted signal. For the IC170922A (IC171106A) follow-up observations, we expect that 12.1% (9.5%) of coincident CC SNe at $z \lesssim 0.3$ are recovered, and that on average, 0.23 (0.07) unassociated SNe in the 90% containment regions also pass our selection criteria. We find two total candidate CC SNe that are temporally coincident with the neutrino alerts, but none in the 90% containment regions, which is statistically consistent with expected rates of background CC SNe for these observations. Given the signal efficiencies and background rates derived from this pilot study, we estimate that to determine whether CC SNe are the dominant contribution to the total TeV-PeV energy IceCube neutrino flux at the $3\sigma$ confidence level, DECam observations similar to those of this work would be needed for $\sim200$ neutrino alerts, though this number falls to $\sim60$ neutrino alerts if redshift information is available for all candidates.


(18)Fractional polarization of extragalactic sources in the 500 deg2 SPTpol survey
  • N. Gupta,
  • C.L. Reichardt,
  • P.A.R. Ade,
  • A.J. Anderson,
  • M. Archipley
  • +72
  • J.E. Austermann,
  • J.S. Avva,
  • J.A. Beall,
  • A.N. Bender,
  • B.A. Benson,
  • F. Bianchini,
  • L.E. Bleem,
  • J.E. Carlstrom,
  • C.L. Chang,
  • H.C. Chiang,
  • R. Citron,
  • C. Corbett Moran,
  • T.M. Crawford,
  • A.T. Crites,
  • T. de Haan,
  • M.A. Dobbs,
  • W. Everett,
  • C. Feng,
  • J. Gallicchio,
  • E.M. George,
  • A. Gilbert,
  • N.W. Halverson,
  • N. Harrington,
  • J.W. Henning,
  • G.C. Hilton,
  • G.P. Holder,
  • W.L. Holzapfel,
  • Z. Hou,
  • J.D. Hrubes,
  • N. Huang,
  • J. Hubmayr,
  • K.D. Irwin,
  • L. Knox,
  • A.T. Lee,
  • D. Li,
  • A. Lowitz,
  • D. Luong-Van,
  • D.P. Marrone,
  • J.J. McMahon,
  • S.S. Meyer,
  • L.M. Mocanu,
  • J.J. Mohr,
  • J. Montgomery,
  • A. Nadolski,
  • T. Natoli,
  • J.P. Nibarger,
  • G.I. Noble,
  • V. Novosad,
  • S. Padin,
  • S. Patil,
  • C. Pryke,
  • J.E. Ruhl,
  • B.R. Saliwanchik,
  • J.T. Sayre,
  • K.K. Schaffer,
  • E. Shirokoff,
  • C. Sievers,
  • G. Smecher,
  • Z. Staniszewski,
  • A.A. Stark,
  • K.T. Story,
  • E.R. Switzer,
  • C. Tucker,
  • K. Vanderlinde,
  • T. Veach,
  • J.D. Vieira,
  • G. Wang,
  • N. Whitehorn,
  • R. Williamson,
  • W.L.K. Wu,
  • V. Yefremenko,
  • L. Zhang
  • (less)
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (07/2019) e-Print:1907.02156 doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2905
abstract + abstract -

We study the polarization properties of extragalactic sources at 95 and 150 GHz in the SPTpol 500 deg^2 survey. We estimate the polarized power by stacking maps at known source positions, and correct for noise bias by subtracting the mean polarized power at random positions in the maps. We show that the method is unbiased using a set of simulated maps with similar noise properties to the real SPTpol maps. We find a flux-weighted mean-squared polarization fraction 〈p^2〉 = [8.9 ± 1.1] × 10^−4 at 95 GHz and [6.9 ± 1.1] × 10^−4 at 150 GHz for the full sample. This is consistent with the values obtained for a subsample of active galactic nuclei. For dusty sources, we find 95 per cent upper limits of 〈p^2〉_95 < 16.9 × 10^−3 and 〈p^2〉_150 < 2.6 × 10^−3. We find no evidence that the polarization fraction depends on the source flux or observing frequency. The 1σ upper limit on measured mean-squared polarization fraction at 150 GHz implies that extragalactic foregrounds will be subdominant to the CMB E and B mode polarization power spectra out to at least ℓ ≲ 5700 (ℓ ≲ 4700) and ℓ ≲ 5300 (ℓ ≲ 3600), respectively, at 95 (150) GHz.


IDSL
RU-E
(17)Heated gas bubbles enrich, crystallize, dry, phosphorylate and encapsulate prebiotic molecules
  • M. Morasch,
  • J. Liu,
  • C.F. Dirscherl,
  • A. Ianeselli,
  • A. Kühnlein
  • +10
  • K. Le Vay,
  • P. Schwintek,
  • S. Islam,
  • M.K. Corpinot,
  • B. Scheu,
  • D.B. Dingwell,
  • P. Schwille,
  • H. Mutschler,
  • M.W. Powner,
  • C.B. Mast & D. Braun
  • (less)
Nature Chemistry (07/2019) doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0299-5
abstract + abstract -

Non-equilibrium conditions must have been crucial for the assembly of the first informational polymers of early life, by supporting their formation and continuous enrichment in a long-lasting environment. Here, we explore how gas bubbles in water subjected to a thermal gradient, a likely scenario within crustal mafic rocks on the early Earth, drive a complex, continuous enrichment of prebiotic molecules. RNA precursors, monomers, active ribozymes, oligonucleotides and lipids are shown to (1) cycle between dry and wet states, enabling the central step of RNA phosphorylation, (2) accumulate at the gas–water interface to drastically increase ribozymatic activity, (3) condense into hydrogels, (4) form pure crystals and (5) encapsulate into protecting vesicle aggregates that subsequently undergo fission. These effects occur within less than 30 min. The findings unite, in one location, the physical conditions that were crucial for the chemical emergence of biopolymers. They suggest that heated microbubbles could have hosted the first cycles of molecular evolution.


IDSL
RU-E
(16)Periodic Melting of Oligonucleotides by Oscillating Salt Concentrations triggered by Microscale Water Cycles inside Heated Rock Pores
  • Alan Ianeselli,
  • Christof B. Mast and Dieter Braun
Angewandte Chemie (07/2019) doi:10.1002/ange.201907909
abstract + abstract -

To understand the emergence of life, a better understanding of the physical chemistry of primordial non-equilibrium conditions is essential. Significant salt concentrations are required for the catalytic function of RNA. The separation of oligonucleotides into single strands is a difficult problem as the hydrolysis of RNA becomes a limiting factor at high temperatures. Salt concentrations modulate the melting of DNA or RNA, and its periodic modulation would enable melting and annealing cycles at low temperatures. In our experiments, a moderate temperature difference created a miniaturized water cycle, resulting in fluctuations in salt concentration, leading to melting of oligonucleotides at temperatures 20 °C below the melting temperature. This would enable the reshuffling of duplex oligonucleotides, necessary for ligation chain replication. The findings suggest an autonomous route to overcome the strand-separation problem of non-enzymatic replication in early evolution.


(15)Constraining radio mode feedback in galaxy clusters with the cluster radio AGNs properties to z ∼ 1
  • N. Gupta,
  • M. Pannella,
  • J.J. Mohr,
  • M. Klein,
  • E.S. Rykoff
  • +57
  • J. Annis,
  • S. Avila,
  • F. Bianchini,
  • D. Brooks,
  • E. Buckley-Geer,
  • E. Bulbul,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • I. Chiu,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • J.P. Dietrich,
  • P. Doel,
  • S. Everett,
  • A.E. Evrard,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D.J. James,
  • T. Jeltema,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • C. Lidman,
  • M. Lima,
  • M.A.G. Maia,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • M. McDonald,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • R.L.C. Ogando,
  • A. Palmese,
  • F. Paz-Chinchon,
  • A.A. Plazas,
  • C.L. Reichardt,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • B. Santiago,
  • A. Saro,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • R. Schindler,
  • M. Schubnell,
  • S. Serrano,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • X. Shao,
  • M. Smith,
  • J.P. Stott,
  • V. Strazzullo,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M.E.C. Swanson,
  • V. Vikram,
  • A. Zenteno
  • (less)
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (06/2019) e-Print:1906.11388 doi:10.1093/mnras/staa832
abstract + abstract -

We study the properties of the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) 843 MHz radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) population in galaxy clusters from two large catalogues created using the Dark Energy Survey (DES): ∼11 800 optically selected RM-Y3 and ∼1000 X-ray selected MARD-Y3 clusters. We show that cluster radio loud AGNs are highly concentrated around cluster centres to |$z$| ∼ 1. We measure the halo occupation number for cluster radio AGNs above a threshold luminosity, finding that the number of radio AGNs per cluster increases with cluster halo mass as N ∝ M^1.2 ± 0.1 (N ∝ M^0.68 ± 0.34) for the RM-Y3 (MARD-Y3) sample. Together, these results indicate that radio mode feedback is favoured in more massive galaxy clusters. Using optical counterparts for these sources, we demonstrate weak redshift evolution in the host broad-band colours and the radio luminosity at fixed host galaxy stellar mass. We use the redshift evolution in radio luminosity to break the degeneracy between density and luminosity evolution scenarios in the redshift trend of the radio AGNs luminosity function (LF). The LF exhibits a redshift trend of the form (1 + |$z$|⁠)^γ in density and luminosity, respectively, of γ_D = 3.0 ± 0.4 and γ_P = 0.21 ± 0.15 in the RM-Y3 sample, and γ_D = 2.6 ± 0.7 and γ_P = 0.31 ± 0.15 in MARD-Y3. We discuss the physical drivers of radio mode feedback in cluster AGNs, and we use the cluster radio galaxy LF to estimate the average radio-mode feedback energy as a function of cluster mass and redshift and compare it to the core (<0.1R_500) X-ray radiative losses for clusters at |$z$| < 1.


(14)Modelling baryonic feedback for survey cosmology
  • Nora Elisa Chisari,
  • Alexander J. Mead,
  • Shahab Joudaki,
  • Pedro Ferreira,
  • Aurel Schneider
  • +8
  • Joseph Mohr,
  • Tilman Tröster,
  • David Alonso,
  • Ian G. McCarthy,
  • Sergio Martin-Alvarez,
  • Julien Devriendt,
  • Adrianne Slyz,
  • Marcel P. van Daalen
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Observational cosmology in the next decade will rely on probes of the distribution of matter in the redshift range between $0<z<3$ to elucidate the nature of dark matter and dark energy. In this redshift range, galaxy formation is known to have a significant impact on observables such as two-point correlations of galaxy shapes and positions, altering their amplitude and scale dependence beyond the expected statistical uncertainty of upcoming experiments at separations under 10 Mpc. Successful extraction of information in such a regime thus requires, at the very least, unbiased models for the impact of galaxy formation on the matter distribution, and can benefit from complementary observational priors. This work reviews the current state of the art in the modelling of baryons for cosmology, from numerical methods to approximate analytical prescriptions, and makes recommendations for studies in the next decade, including a discussion of potential probe combinations that can help constrain the role of baryons in cosmological studies. We focus, in particular, on the modelling of the matter power spectrum, $P(k,z)$, as a function of scale and redshift, and of the observables derived from this quantity. This work is the result of a workshop held at the University of Oxford in November of 2018.


(13)Monte Carlo control loops for cosmic shear cosmology with DES Year 1 data
  • T. Kacprzak,
  • J. Herbel,
  • A. Nicola,
  • R. Sgier,
  • F. Tarsitano
  • +50
  • C. Bruderer,
  • A. Amara,
  • A. Refregier,
  • S.L. Bridle,
  • A. Drlica-Wagner,
  • D. Gruen,
  • W.G. Hartley,
  • B. Hoyle,
  • L.F. Secco,
  • J. Zuntz,
  • J. Annis,
  • S. Avila,
  • E. Bertin,
  • D. Brooks,
  • E. Buckley-Geer,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • P. Doel,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D.J. James,
  • M. Jarvis,
  • M. Lima,
  • M.A.G. Maia,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • P. Melchior,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A.A. Plazas,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • S. Serrano,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • M. Smith,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M.E.C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • V. Vikram,
  • J. Weller
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Weak lensing by large-scale structure is a powerful probe of cosmology and of the dark universe. This cosmic shear technique relies on the accurate measurement of the shapes and redshifts of background galaxies and requires precise control of systematic errors. Monte Carlo control loops (MCCL) is a forward modeling method designed to tackle this problem. It relies on the ultra fast image generator (UFig) to produce simulated images tuned to match the target data statistically, followed by calibrations and tolerance loops. We present the first end-to-end application of this method, on the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 wide field imaging data. We simultaneously measure the shear power spectrum Cℓ and the redshift distribution n(z) of the background galaxy sample. The method includes maps of the systematic sources, point spread function (PSF), an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) inference of the simulation model parameters, a shear calibration scheme, and a fast method to estimate the covariance matrix. We find a close statistical agreement between the simulations and the DES Y1 data using an array of diagnostics. In a nontomographic setting, we derive a set of Cℓ and n(z) curves that encode the cosmic shear measurement, as well as the systematic uncertainty. Following a blinding scheme, we measure the combination of Ωm, σ8, and intrinsic alignment amplitude AIA, defined as S8DIA=σ8(Ωm/0.3)0.5DIA, where DIA=1-0.11(AIA-1). We find S8DIA=0.895-0.039+0.054, where systematics are at the level of roughly 60% of the statistical errors. We discuss these results in the context of earlier cosmic shear analyses of the DES Y1 data. Our findings indicate that this method and its fast runtime offer good prospects for cosmic shear measurements with future wide-field surveys.


(12)Producing a BOSS-CMASS sample with DES imaging
  • S. Lee,
  • E.M. Huff,
  • A.J. Ross,
  • A. Choi,
  • C. Hirata
  • +55
  • K. Honscheid,
  • N. MacCrann,
  • M.A. Troxel,
  • C. Davis,
  • T.F. Eifler,
  • R. Cawthon,
  • J. Elvin-Poole,
  • J. Annis,
  • S. Avila,
  • E. Bertin,
  • D. Brooks,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • D.W. Gerdes,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • D.J. James,
  • T. Jeltema,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • M. Lima,
  • M.A.G. Maia,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • P. Martini,
  • P. Melchior,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • C.J. Miller,
  • R. Miquel,
  • R.L.C. Ogando,
  • A. Palmese,
  • A.A. Plazas,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • M. Schubnell,
  • S. Serrano,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • M. Smith,
  • M. Soares-Santos,
  • F. Sobreira,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M.E.C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • J. Weller,
  • J. Zuntz
  • (less)
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (06/2019) e-Print:1906.01136 doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2288
abstract + abstract -

We present a sample of galaxies with the Dark Energy Survey (DES) photometry that replicates the properties of the BOSS CMASS sample. The CMASS galaxy sample has been well characterized by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) collaboration and was used to obtain the most powerful redshift-space galaxy clustering measurements to date. A joint analysis of redshift-space distortions (such as those probed by CMASS from SDSS) and a galaxy–galaxy lensing measurement for an equivalent sample from DES can provide powerful cosmological constraints. Unfortunately, the DES and SDSS-BOSS footprints have only minimal overlap, primarily on the celestial equator near the SDSS Stripe 82 region. Using this overlap, we build a robust Bayesian model to select CMASS-like galaxies in the remainder of the DES footprint. The newly defined DES-CMASS (DMASS) sample consists of 117 293 effective galaxies covering |$1244\,\deg ^2$|⁠. Through various validation tests, we show that the DMASS sample selected by this model matches well with the BOSS CMASS sample, specifically in the South Galactic cap (SGC) region that includes Stripe 82. Combining measurements of the angular correlation function and the clustering-z distribution of DMASS, we constrain the difference in mean galaxy bias and mean redshift between the BOSS CMASS and DMASS samples to be |$\Delta b = 0.010^{+0.045}_{-0.052}$| and |$\Delta z = \left(3.46^{+5.48}_{-5.55} \right) \times 10^{-3}$| for the SGC portion of CMASS, and |$\Delta b = 0.044^{+0.044}_{-0.043}$| and |$\Delta z= (3.51^{+4.93}_{-5.91}) \times 10^{-3}$| for the full CMASS sample. These values indicate that the mean bias of galaxies and mean redshift in the DMASS sample are consistent with both CMASS samples within 1σ.


(11)Stochastic Yield Catastrophes and Robustness in Self-Assembly
  • Florian M. Gartner,
  • Isabella R. Graf,
  • Patrick Wilke,
  • Philipp M. Geiger,
  • Erwin Frey
arXiv e-prints (05/2019) e-Print:1905.09912
abstract + abstract -

A guiding principle in self-assembly is that, for high production yield, nucleation of structures must be significantly slower than their growth. However, details of the mechanism that impedes nucleation are broadly considered irrelevant. Here, we analyze self-assembly into finite-sized target structures employing mathematical modeling. We investigate two key scenarios to delay nucleation: (i) by introducing a slow activation step for the assembling constituents and, (ii) by decreasing the dimerization rate. These scenarios have widely different characteristics. While the dimerization scenario exhibits robust behavior, the activation scenario is highly sensitive to demographic fluctuations. These demographic fluctuations ultimately disfavor growth compared to nucleation and can suppress yield completely. The occurrence of this stochastic yield catastrophe does not depend on model details but is generic as soon as number fluctuations between constituents are taken into account. On a broader perspective, our results reveal that stochasticity is an important limiting factor for self-assembly and that the specific implementation of the nucleation process plays a significant role in determining the yield.


CN-3
CN-4
RU-B
RU-C
(10)The bias of cosmic voids in the presence of massive neutrinos
  • Nico Schuster,
  • Nico Hamaus,
  • Alice Pisani,
  • Carmelita Carbone,
  • Christina D. Kreisch
  • +2
abstract + abstract -

Cosmic voids offer an extraordinary opportunity to study the effects of massive neutrinos on cosmological scales. Because they are freely streaming, neutrinos can penetrate the interior of voids more easily than cold dark matter or baryons, which makes their relative contribution to the mass budget in voids much higher than elsewhere in the Universe. In simulations it has recently been shown how various characteristics of voids in the matter distribution are affected by neutrinos, such as their abundance, density profiles, dynamics, and clustering properties. However, the tracers used to identify voids in observations (e.g., galaxies or halos) are affected by neutrinos as well, and isolating the unique neutrino signatures inherent to voids becomes more difficult. In this paper we make use of the DEMNUni suite of simulations to investigate the clustering bias of voids in Fourier space as a function of their core density and compensation. We find a clear dependence on the sum of neutrino masses that remains significant even for void statistics extracted from halos. In particular, we observe that the amplitude of the linear void bias increases with neutrino mass for voids defined in dark matter, whereas this trend gets reversed and slightly attenuated when measuring the relative void-halo bias using voids identified in the halo distribution. Finally, we argue how the original behaviour can be restored when considering observations of the total matter distribution (e.g. via weak lensing), and comment on scale-dependent effects in the void bias that may provide additional information on neutrinos in the future.


(9)Constraints on the redshift evolution of astrophysical feedback with Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect cross-correlations
  • S. Pandey,
  • E.J. Baxter,
  • Z. Xu,
  • J. Orlowski-Scherer,
  • N. Zhu
  • +54
  • A. Lidz,
  • J. Aguirre,
  • J. DeRose,
  • M. Devlin,
  • J.C. Hill,
  • B. Jain,
  • R.K. Sheth,
  • S. Avila,
  • E. Bertin,
  • D. Brooks,
  • E. Buckley-Geer,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • F.J. Castander,
  • R. Cawthon,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • J.P. Dietrich,
  • P. Doel,
  • A.E. Evrard,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • D.W. Gerdes,
  • T. Giannantonio,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • W.G. Hartley,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • D.J. James,
  • E. Krause,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • M.A.G. Maia,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • P. Melchior,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • A.A. Plazas,
  • A. Roodman,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • S. Serrano,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • M. Smith,
  • M. Soares-Santos,
  • F. Sobreira,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M.E.C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • R.H. Wechsler
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

An understanding of astrophysical feedback is important for constraining models of galaxy formation and for extracting cosmological information from current and future weak lensing surveys. The thermal Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect, quantified via the Compton-y parameter, is a powerful tool for studying feedback, because it directly probes the pressure of the hot, ionized gas residing in dark matter halos. Cross-correlations between galaxies and maps of Compton-y obtained from cosmic microwave background surveys are sensitive to the redshift evolution of the gas pressure, and its dependence on halo mass. In this work, we use galaxies identified in year one data from the Dark Energy Survey and Compton-y maps constructed from Planck observations. We find highly significant (roughly 12σ) detections of galaxy-y cross-correlation in multiple redshift bins. By jointly fitting these measurements as well as measurements of galaxy clustering, we constrain the halo bias-weighted, gas pressure of the Universe as a function of redshift between 0.15≲z≲0.75. We compare these measurements to predictions from hydrodynamical simulations, allowing us to constrain the amount of thermal energy in the halo gas relative to that resulting from gravitational collapse.


(8)Tunable axion plasma haloscopes
  • Matthew Lawson,
  • Alexander J. Millar,
  • Matteo Pancaldi,
  • Edoardo Vitagliano,
  • Frank Wilczek
abstract + abstract -

We propose a new strategy for searching for dark matter axions using tunable cryogenic plasmas. Unlike current experiments, which repair the mismatch between axion and photon masses by breaking translational invariance (cavity and dielectric haloscopes), a plasma haloscope enables resonant conversion by matching the axion mass to a plasma frequency. A key advantage is that the plasma frequency is unrelated to the physical size of the device, allowing large conversion volumes. We identify wire metamaterials as a promising candidate plasma, wherein the plasma frequency can be tuned by varying the interwire spacing. For realistic experimental sizes, we estimate competitive sensitivity for axion masses of 35–400  μeV, at least.


(7)Stellar Mass as a Galaxy Cluster Mass Proxy: Application to the Dark Energy Survey redMaPPer Clusters
  • A. Palmese,
  • J. Annis,
  • C. Burgad,
  • A. Farahi,
  • M. Soares-Santos
  • +80
  • B. Welch,
  • M. da Silva Pereira,
  • H. Lin,
  • S. Bhargava,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • R. Wilkinson,
  • P. Giles,
  • T. Jeltema,
  • A.K. Romer,
  • A.E. Evrard,
  • M. Hilton,
  • C. Vergara Cervantes,
  • A. Bermeo,
  • J. Mayers,
  • J. DeRose,
  • D. Gruen,
  • W.G. Hartley,
  • O. Lahav,
  • B. Leistedt,
  • T. McClintock,
  • E. Rozo,
  • E.S. Rykoff,
  • T.N. Varga,
  • R.H. Wechsler,
  • Y. Zhang,
  • S. Avila,
  • D. Brooks,
  • E. Buckley-Geer,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • F.J. Castander,
  • C. Collins,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • S. Desai,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • J.P. Dietrich,
  • P. Doel,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • D.W. Gerdes,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D.J. James,
  • E. Krause,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • A. Liddle,
  • M. Lima,
  • M.A.G. Maia,
  • R.G. Mann,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • R.L.C. Ogando,
  • A.A. Plazas,
  • A. Roodman,
  • P. Rooney,
  • M. Sahlen,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • M. Schubnell,
  • S. Serrano,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • F. Sobreira,
  • J. Stott,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M.E.C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • D.L. Tucker,
  • P.T.P. Viana,
  • V. Vikram,
  • A.R. Walker
  • (less)
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (03/2019) e-Print:1903.08813 doi:10.1093/mnras/staa526
abstract + abstract -

We introduce a galaxy cluster mass observable, μ_⋆, based on the stellar masses of cluster members, and we present results for the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 (Y1) observations. Stellar masses are computed using a Bayesian model averaging method, and are validated for DES data using simulations and COSMOS data. We show that μ_⋆ works as a promising mass proxy by comparing our predictions to X-ray measurements. We measure the X-ray temperature–μ_⋆ relation for a total of 129 clusters matched between the wide-field DES Y1 redMaPPer catalogue and Chandra and XMM archival observations, spanning the redshift range 0.1 < |$z$| < 0.7. For a scaling relation that is linear in logarithmic space, we find a slope of α = 0.488 ± 0.043 and a scatter in the X-ray temperature at fixed μ_⋆ of |$\sigma _{{\rm ln} T_\mathrm{ X}|\mu _\star }= 0.266^{+0.019}_{-0.020}$| for the joint sample. By using the halo mass scaling relations of the X-ray temperature from the Weighing the Giants program, we further derive the μ_⋆-conditioned scatter in mass, finding |$\sigma _{{\rm ln} M|\mu _\star }= 0.26^{+ 0.15}_{- 0.10}$|⁠. These results are competitive with well-established cluster mass proxies used for cosmological analyses, showing that μ_⋆ can be used as a reliable and physically motivated mass proxy to derive cosmological constraints.


(6)Mass Variance from Archival X-ray Properties of Dark Energy Survey Year-1 Galaxy Clusters
  • A. Farahi,
  • X. Chen,
  • A.E. Evrard,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • R. Wilkinson
  • +74
  • S. Bhargava,
  • P. Giles,
  • A.K. Romer,
  • T. Jeltema,
  • M. Hilton,
  • A. Bermeo,
  • J. Mayers,
  • C. Vergara Cervantes,
  • E. Rozo,
  • E.S. Rykoff,
  • C. Collins,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • S. Everett,
  • A.R. Liddle,
  • R.G. Mann,
  • A. Mantz,
  • P. Rooney,
  • M. Sahlen,
  • J. Stott,
  • P.T.P. Viana,
  • Y. Zhang,
  • J. Annis,
  • S. Avila,
  • D. Brooks,
  • E. Buckley-Geer,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • F.J. Castander,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • J.P. Dietrich,
  • P. Doel,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • D.W. Gerdes,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D.J. James,
  • E. Krause,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • M. Lima,
  • M.A.G. Maia,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • P. Melchior,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • R.L.C. Ogando,
  • A.A. Plazas,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • M. Schubnell,
  • S. Serrano,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • M. Smith,
  • F. Sobreira,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M.E.C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • D.L. Tucker,
  • V. Vikram,
  • A.R. Walker,
  • J. Weller
  • (less)
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (03/2019) e-Print:1903.08042 doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2689
abstract + abstract -

Using archival X-ray observations and a lognormal population model, we estimate constraints on the intrinsic scatter in halo mass at fixed optical richness for a galaxy cluster sample identified in Dark Energy Survey Year-One (DES-Y1) data with the redMaPPer algorithm. We examine the scaling behaviour of X-ray temperatures, T_X, with optical richness, λ_RM, for clusters in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 0.7. X-ray temperatures are obtained from Chandra and XMM observations for 58 and 110 redMaPPer systems, respectively. Despite non-uniform sky coverage, the measurements are |$\gt 50{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$| complete for clusters with λ_RM > 130. Regression analysis on the two samples produces consistent posterior scaling parameters, from which we derive a combined constraint on the residual scatter, |$\sigma _{\ln T \, |\, \lambda }= 0.275 \pm 0.019$|⁠. Joined with constraints for T_X scaling with halo mass from the Weighing the Giants program and richness–temperature covariance estimates from the LoCuSS sample, we derive the richness-conditioned scatter in mass, |$\sigma _{\ln M \, |\, \lambda }= 0.30 \pm 0.04\, _{({\rm stat})} \pm 0.09\, _{({\rm sys})}$|⁠, at an optical richness of approximately 100. Uncertainties in external parameters, particularly the slope and variance of the T_X–mass relation and the covariance of T_X and λ_RM at fixed mass, dominate the systematic error. The |$95{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$| confidence region from joint sample analysis is relatively broad, |$\sigma _{\ln M \, |\, \lambda }\in [0.14, \, 0.55]$|⁠, or a factor 10 in variance.


MIAPbP
(5)Open Questions in Cosmic-Ray Research at Ultrahigh Energies
  • Rafael Alves Batista,
  • Jonathan Biteau,
  • Mauricio Bustamante,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Ralph Engel
  • +11
  • Ke Fang,
  • Karl-Heinz Kampert,
  • Dmitriy Kostunin,
  • Miguel Mostafa,
  • Kohta Murase,
  • Guenter Sigl,
  • Foteini Oikonomou,
  • Angela V. Olinto,
  • Mikhail I. Panasyuk,
  • Andrew Taylor,
  • Michael Unger
  • (less)
Front.Astron.Space Sci. (03/2019) e-Print:1903.06714 doi:10.3389/fspas.2019.00023
abstract + abstract -

We review open questions and prospects for progress in ultrahigh-energy cosmicray (UHECR) research, based on a series of discussions that took place during the “The High-Energy Universe: Gamma-Ray, Neutrino, and Cosmic-ray Astronomy” MIAPP workshop in 2018.Specifically, we overview open questions on the origin of the bulk of UHECRs, the UHECR mass composition, the origin of the end of the cosmic-ray spectrum, the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic-rays, the effect of magnetic fields on thetrajectories of UHECRs, anisotropy expectations for specific astrophysical scenarios, hadronicinteractions, and prospects for discovering neutral particles as well as new physics at ultrahighenergies. We also briefly overview upcoming and proposed UHECR experiments and discusstheir projected science reach.


(4)On Model Selection in Cosmology
  • Martin Kerscher,
  • Jochen Weller
SciPost Phys.Lect.Notes (01/2019) e-Print:1901.07726 doi:10.21468/SciPostPhysLectNotes.9
abstract + abstract -

We review some of the common methods for model selection: the goodness of fit, the likelihood ratio test, Bayesian model selection using Bayes factors, and the classical as well as the Bayesian information theoretic approaches. We illustrate these different approaches by comparing models for the expansion history of the Universe. In the discussion we highlight the premises and objectives entering these different approaches to model selection and finally recommend the information theoretic approach.


MIAPbP
(3)Resolved Power Corrections to the Inclusive Decay $\bar B \to X_s \ell^+\ell^-$
  • Tobias Hurth,
  • Michael Fickinger,
  • Sascha Turczyk,
  • Michael Benzke
abstract + abstract -

We identify the correct power counting of all the variables in the low- q 2 window of the inclusive decay B‾→Xs within the effective theory SCET if a hadronic mass cut is imposed. Furthermore we analyse the resolved power corrections at the order 1/ m b in a systematic way. The resolved contributions – as a special feature – stay nonlocal when the hadronic mass cut is released. Thus, they represent an irreducible uncertainty independent of the hadronic mass cut.


MIAPbP
(2)Towards the Fradkin–Vasiliev formalism in three dimensions
  • Yu. M. Zinoviev
abstract + abstract -

In this paper we show that using frame-like gauge invariant formulation for the massive bosonic and fermionic fields in three dimensions the free Lagrangians for these fields can be rewritten in the explicitly gauge invariant form in terms of the appropriately chosen set of gauge invariant objects. This in turn opens the possibility to apply the Fradkin–Vasiliev formalism to the investigation of possible interactions of such fields.


C2PAP
RU-D
(1)C3NN: Cosmological Correlator Convolutional Neural Network -- an interpretable machine learning tool for cosmological analyses
  • Zhengyangguang Gong,
  • Anik Halder,
  • Annabelle Bohrdt,
  • Stella Seitz,
  • David Gebauer
arXiv e-prints () e-Print:2402.09526
abstract + abstract -

Modern cosmological research in large scale structure has witnessed an increasing number of applications of machine learning methods. Among them, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have received substantial attention due to their outstanding performance in image classification, cosmological parameter inference and various other tasks. However, many models which make use of CNNs are criticized as "black boxes" due to the difficulties in relating their outputs intuitively and quantitatively to the cosmological fields under investigation. To overcome this challenge, we present the Cosmological Correlator Convolutional Neural Network (C3NN) -- a fusion of CNN architecture with the framework of cosmological N-point correlation functions (NPCFs). We demonstrate that the output of this model can be expressed explicitly in terms of the analytically tractable NPCFs. Together with other auxiliary algorithms, we are able to open the "black box" by quantitatively ranking different orders of the interpretable convolution outputs based on their contribution to classification tasks. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate this by applying our framework to a series of binary classification tasks using Gaussian and Log-normal random fields and relating its outputs to the analytical NPCFs describing the two fields. Furthermore, we exhibit the model's ability to distinguish different dark energy scenarios (w0=−0.95 and −1.05) using N-body simulated weak lensing convergence maps and discuss the physical implications coming from their interpretability. With these tests, we show that C3NN combines advanced aspects of machine learning architectures with the framework of cosmological NPCFs, thereby making it an exciting tool with the potential to extract physical insights in a robust and explainable way from observational data.