Seite 1 von 14
(1379)Probing beyond the standard model physics with double-beta decays
  • Elisabetta Bossio,
  • Matteo Agostini
Journal of Physics G Nuclear Physics (02/2024) doi:10.1088/1361-6471/ad11f9
abstract + abstract -

Nuclear double-beta decays are a unique probe to search for new physics beyond the standard model. Hypothesized particles, non-standard interactions, or the violation of fundamental symmetries would affect the decay kinematics, creating detectable and characteristic experimental signatures. In particular, the energy distribution of the electrons emitted in the decay gives an insight into the decay mechanism and has been studied in several isotopes and experiments. No deviations from the prediction of the standard model have been reported yet. However, several new experiments are underway or in preparation and will soon increase the sensitivity of these beyond-the-standard-model physics searches, exploring uncharted parts of the parameter space. This review brings together phenomenological and experimental aspects related to new-physics searches in double-beta decay experiments, focusing on the testable models, the most-sensitive detection techniques, and the discovery opportunities of this field.


(1378)Probing the roles of orientation and multiscale gas distributions in shaping the obscuration of active galactic nuclei through cosmic time
  • Alba V. Alonso-Tetilla,
  • Francesco Shankar,
  • Fabio Fontanot,
  • Nicola Menci,
  • Milena Valentini
  • +12
  • Johannes Buchner,
  • Brivael Laloux,
  • Andrea Lapi,
  • Annagrazia Puglisi,
  • David M. Alexander,
  • Viola Allevato,
  • Carolina Andonie,
  • Silvia Bonoli,
  • Michaela Hirschmann,
  • Iván E. López,
  • Sandra I. Raimundo,
  • Cristina Ramos Almeida
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (02/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad3265
abstract + abstract -

The origin of obscuration in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is still an open debate. In particular, it is unclear what drives the relative contributions to the line-of-sight column densities from galaxy-scale and torus-linked obscuration. The latter source is expected to play a significant role in Unification Models, while the former is thought to be relevant in both Unification and Evolutionary models. In this work, we make use of a combination of cosmological semi-analytic models and semi-empirical prescriptions for the properties of galaxies and AGN, to study AGN obscuration. We consider a detailed object-by-object modelling of AGN evolution, including different AGN light curves (LCs), gas density profiles, and also AGN feedback-induced gas cavities. Irrespective of our assumptions on specific AGN LC or galaxy gas fractions, we find that, on the strict assumption of an exponential profile for the gas component, galaxy-scale obscuration alone can hardly reproduce the fraction of log (NH/cm-2) ≥ 24 sources at least at z ≲ 3. This requires an additional torus component with a thickness that decreases with luminosity to match the data. The torus should be present in all evolutionary stages of a visible AGN to be effective, although galaxy-scale gas obscuration may be sufficient to reproduce the obscured fraction with 22 < log (NH/cm-2) < 24 (Compton-thin, CTN) if we assume extremely compact gas disc components. The claimed drop of CTN fractions with increasing luminosity does not appear to be a consequence of AGN feedback, but rather of gas reservoirs becoming more compact with decreasing stellar mass.


(1377)Evolution of eccentric stellar discs around supermassive black holes: the complex disc disruption dynamics and the milliparsec stars
  • Antti Rantala,
  • Thorsten Naab
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (02/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad3977
abstract + abstract -

We study the 10 Myr evolution of parsec-scale stellar discs with initial masses of Mdisc = 1.0-$7.5 \times 10^4\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ and eccentricities einit = 0.1-0.9 around supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Our disc models are embedded in a spherical background potential and have top-heavy single and binary star initial mass functions (IMF) with slopes of 0.25-1.7. The systems are evolved with the N-body code BIFROST, including post-Newtonian (PN) equations of motion and simplified stellar evolution. All discs are unstable and evolve on Myr time-scales towards similar eccentricity distributions peaking at e ~ 0.3-0.4. Models with high einit also develop a very eccentric (e ≳ 0.9) stellar population. For higher disc masses Mdisc ≳ 3 × 104 M, the disc disruption dynamics is more complex than the standard secular eccentric disc instability with opposite precession directions at different disc radii - a precession direction instability. We present an analytical model describing this behaviour. A milliparsec population of N ~ 10-100 stars forms around the SMBH in all models. For low einit, stars migrate inward while for einit ≳ 0.6 stars are captured by the Hills mechanism. Without PN, after 6 Myr, the captured stars have a sub-thermal eccentricity distribution. We show that including PN effects prevents this thermalization by suppressing resonant relaxation effects and cannot be ignored. The number of tidally disrupted stars is similar or larger than the number of milliparsec stars. None of the simulated models can simultaneously reproduce the kinematic and stellar population properties of the Milky Way centre clockwise disc and the S-cluster.


(1376)Light curves and spectra for theoretical models of high-velocity red-giant star collisions
  • Luc Dessart,
  • Taeho Ryu,
  • Pau Amaro Seoane,
  • Andrew M. Taylor
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202348228
abstract + abstract -

High-velocity stellar collisions driven by a supermassive black hole (BH) or BH-driven disruptive collisions in dense, nuclear clusters can rival the energetics of supergiant star explosions following the gravitational collapse of their iron core. Starting from a sample of red-giant star collisions simulated with the hydrodynamics code AREPO, we generated photometric and spectroscopic observables using the nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium time-dependent radiative transfer code CMFGEN. Collisions from more extended giants or more violent collisions (with higher velocities or smaller impact parameters) yield bolometric luminosities on the order of 1043 erg s−1 at 1 d, evolving on a timescale of a week to a bright plateau at ∼1041 erg s−1 before plunging precipitously after 20-40 d at the end of the optically thick phase. This luminosity falls primarily in the UV in the first few days, thus when it is at its maximum, and shifts to the optical thereafter. Collisions at lower velocities or from less extended stars produce ejecta that are fainter but can remain optically thick for up to 40 d if they have a low expansion rate. This collision debris shows a similar spectral evolution as that observed or modeled for Type II supernovae from blue-supergiant star explosions, differing only in the more rapid transition to the nebular phase. Such BH-driven disruptive collisions should be detectable by high-cadence surveys in the UV such as ULTRASAT.


(1375)SRF Cavity as Galactic Dark Photon Telescope
  • Yifan Chen,
  • Chunlong Li,
  • Yuxiang Liu,
  • Yuxin Liu,
  • Jing Shu
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

Dark photons, aside from constituting non-relativistic dark matter, can also be generated relativistically through the decay or annihilation of other dark matter candidates, contributing to a galactic dark photon background. The production of dark photons tends to favor specific polarization modes, determined by the microscopic coupling between dark matter and dark photons. We leverage data obtained from previous searches for dark photon dark matter using a superconducting radio-frequency cavity to explore galactic dark photon fluxes. The interplay of anisotropic directions and Earth's rotation introduces a diurnal modulation of signals within the cavities, manifesting distinct variation patterns for longitudinal and transverse modes. Our findings highlight the efficacy of superconducting radio-frequency cavities, characterized by significantly high-quality factors, as powerful telescopes for detecting galactic dark photons, unveiling a novel avenue in the indirect search for dark matter through multi-messenger astronomy.


(1374)The role of mobility in epidemics near criticality
  • Beatrice Nettuno,
  • Davide Toffenetti,
  • Christoph Metzl,
  • Linus Weigand,
  • Florian Raßhofer
  • +2
abstract + abstract -

The general epidemic process (GEP), also known as susceptible-infected-recovered model (SIR), describes how an epidemic spreads within a population of susceptible individuals who acquire permanent immunization upon recovery. This model exhibits a second-order absorbing state phase transition, commonly studied assuming immobile healthy individuals. We investigate the impact of mobility on disease spreading near the extinction threshold by introducing two generalizations of GEP, where the mobility of susceptible and recovered individuals is examined independently. In both cases, including mobility violates GEP's rapidity reversal symmetry and alters the number of absorbing states. The critical dynamics of the models are analyzed through a perturbative renormalization group approach and large-scale stochastic simulations using a Gillespie algorithm. The renormalization group analysis predicts both models to belong to the same novel universality class describing the critical dynamics of epidemic spreading when the infected individuals interact with a diffusive species and gain immunization upon recovery. At the associated renormalization group fixed point, the immobile species decouples from the dynamics of the infected species, dominated by the coupling with the diffusive species. Numerical simulations in two dimensions affirm our renormalization group results by identifying the same set of critical exponents for both models. Violation of the rapidity reversal symmetry is confirmed by breaking the associated hyperscaling relation. Our study underscores the significance of mobility in shaping population spreading dynamics near the extinction threshold.


(1373)Evidence for saturated and disrupted magnetic braking from samples of detached close binaries with M and K dwarfs
  • Diogo Belloni,
  • Matthias R. Schreiber,
  • Maxwell Moe,
  • Kareem El-Badry,
  • Ken J. Shen
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347931
abstract + abstract -

Context. Recent observations of close detached eclipsing M and K dwarf binaries have provided substantial support for magnetic saturation when stars rotate sufficiently fast, leading to a magnetic braking (MB) torque proportional to the spin of the star.
Aims: We investigated here how strong MB torques need to be to reproduce the observationally inferred relative numbers of white dwarf plus M dwarf post-common-envelope binaries under the assumption of magnetic saturation.
Methods: We carried out binary population simulations with the BSE code adopting empirically derived inter-correlated main-sequence binary distributions as initial binary populations and compared the simulation outcomes with observations.
Results: We found that the dearth of extreme mass ratio binaries in the inter-correlated initial distributions is key to reproduce the large fraction of post-common-envelope binaries hosting low-mass M dwarfs (∼0.1 − 0.2 M). In addition, orbital angular momentum loss rates due to MB should be high for M dwarfs with radiative cores and orders of magnitude smaller for fully convective stars to explain the observed dramatic change of the fraction of short-period binaries at the fully convective boundary.
Conclusions: We conclude that saturated but disrupted, that is, dropping drastically at the fully convective boundary, MB can explain the observations of both close main-sequence binaries containing M and K dwarfs and post-common-envelope binaries. Whether a similar prescription can explain the spin down rates of single stars and of binaries containing more massive stars needs to be tested.


(1372)Upper Limits on the Cosmic Neutrino Background from Cosmic Rays
  • Mar Císcar-Monsalvatje,
  • Gonzalo Herrera,
  • Ian M. Shoemaker
abstract + abstract -

Extragalactic and galactic cosmic rays scatter with the cosmic neutrino background during propagation to Earth, yielding a flux of relic neutrinos boosted to larger energies. If an overdensity of relic neutrinos is present in galaxies, and neutrinos are massive enough, this flux might be detectable by high-energy neutrino experiments. For a lightest neutrino of mass $m_{\nu} \sim 0.1$ eV, we find an upper limit on the local relic neutrino overdensity of $\sim 10^{13}$ and an upper limit on the relic neutrino overdensity at TXS 0506+056 of $\sim 10^{10}$. Future experiments like GRAND or IceCube-Gen2 could improve these bounds by orders of magnitude.


(1371)The SRG/eROSITA all-sky survey. First X-ray catalogues and data release of the western Galactic hemisphere
  • A. Merloni,
  • G. Lamer,
  • T. Liu,
  • M. E. Ramos-Ceja,
  • H. Brunner
  • +140
  • E. Bulbul,
  • K. Dennerl,
  • V. Doroshenko,
  • M. J. Freyberg,
  • S. Friedrich,
  • E. Gatuzz,
  • A. Georgakakis,
  • F. Haberl,
  • Z. Igo,
  • I. Kreykenbohm,
  • A. Liu,
  • C. Maitra,
  • A. Malyali,
  • M. G. F. Mayer,
  • K. Nandra,
  • P. Predehl,
  • J. Robrade,
  • M. Salvato,
  • J. S. Sanders,
  • I. Stewart,
  • D. Tubín-Arenas,
  • P. Weber,
  • J. Wilms,
  • R. Arcodia,
  • E. Artis,
  • J. Aschersleben,
  • A. Avakyan,
  • C. Aydar,
  • Y. E. Bahar,
  • F. Balzer,
  • W. Becker,
  • K. Berger,
  • T. Boller,
  • W. Bornemann,
  • M. Brüggen,
  • M. Brusa,
  • J. Buchner,
  • V. Burwitz,
  • F. Camilloni,
  • N. Clerc,
  • J. Comparat,
  • D. Coutinho,
  • S. Czesla,
  • S. M. Dannhauer,
  • L. Dauner,
  • T. Dauser,
  • J. Dietl,
  • K. Dolag,
  • T. Dwelly,
  • K. Egg,
  • E. Ehl,
  • S. Freund,
  • P. Friedrich,
  • R. Gaida,
  • C. Garrel,
  • V. Ghirardini,
  • A. Gokus,
  • G. Grünwald,
  • S. Grandis,
  • I. Grotova,
  • D. Gruen,
  • A. Gueguen,
  • S. Hämmerich,
  • N. Hamaus,
  • G. Hasinger,
  • K. Haubner,
  • D. Homan,
  • J. Ider Chitham,
  • W. M. Joseph,
  • A. Joyce,
  • O. König,
  • D. M. Kaltenbrunner,
  • A. Khokhriakova,
  • W. Kink,
  • C. Kirsch,
  • M. Kluge,
  • J. Knies,
  • S. Krippendorf,
  • M. Krumpe,
  • J. Kurpas,
  • P. Li,
  • Z. Liu,
  • N. Locatelli,
  • M. Lorenz,
  • S. Müller,
  • E. Magaudda,
  • C. Mannes,
  • H. McCall,
  • N. Meidinger,
  • M. Michailidis,
  • K. Migkas,
  • D. Muñoz-Giraldo,
  • B. Musiimenta,
  • N. T. Nguyen-Dang,
  • Q. Ni,
  • A. Olechowska,
  • N. Ota,
  • F. Pacaud,
  • T. Pasini,
  • E. Perinati,
  • A. M. Pires,
  • C. Pommranz,
  • G. Ponti,
  • K. Poppenhaeger,
  • G. Pühlhofer,
  • A. Rau,
  • M. Reh,
  • T. H. Reiprich,
  • W. Roster,
  • S. Saeedi,
  • A. Santangelo,
  • M. Sasaki,
  • J. Schmitt,
  • P. C. Schneider,
  • T. Schrabback,
  • N. Schuster,
  • A. Schwope,
  • R. Seppi,
  • M. M. Serim,
  • S. Shreeram,
  • E. Sokolova-Lapa,
  • H. Starck,
  • B. Stelzer,
  • J. Stierhof,
  • V. Suleimanov,
  • C. Tenzer,
  • I. Traulsen,
  • J. Trümper,
  • K. Tsuge,
  • T. Urrutia,
  • A. Veronica,
  • S. G. H. Waddell,
  • R. Willer,
  • J. Wolf,
  • M. C. H. Yeung,
  • A. Zainab,
  • F. Zangrandi,
  • X. Zhang,
  • Y. Zhang,
  • X. Zheng
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347165
abstract + abstract -

The eROSITA telescope array aboard the Spektrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) satellite began surveying the sky in December 2019, with the aim of producing all-sky X-ray source lists and sky maps of an unprecedented depth. Here we present catalogues of both point-like and extended sources using the data acquired in the first six months of survey operations (eRASS1; completed June 2020) over the half sky whose proprietary data rights lie with the German eROSITA Consortium. We describe the observation process, the data analysis pipelines, and the characteristics of the X-ray sources. With nearly 930 000 entries detected in the most sensitive 0.2-2.3 keV energy range, the eRASS1 main catalogue presented here increases the number of known X-ray sources in the published literature by more than 60%, and provides a comprehensive inventory of all classes of X-ray celestial objects, covering a wide range of physical processes. A smaller catalogue of 5466 sources detected in the less sensitive but harder 2.3-5 keV band is the result of the first true imaging survey of the entire sky above 2 keV. We present methods to identify and flag potential spurious sources in the catalogues, which we applied for this work, and we tested and validated the astrometric accuracy via cross-comparison with other X-ray and multi-wavelength catalogues. We show that the number counts of X-ray sources in eRASSl are consistent with those derived over narrower fields by past X-ray surveys of a similar depth, and we explore the number counts variation as a function of the location in the sky. Adopting a uniform all-sky flux limit (at 50% completeness) of F05-2 keV > 5 × 10−14 erg s−1 cm−2, we estimate that the eROSITA all-sky survey resolves into individual sources about 20% of the cosmic X-ray background in the 1-2 keV range. The catalogues presented here form part of the first data release (DR1) of the SRG/eROSITA all-sky survey. Beyond the X-ray catalogues, DR1 contains all detected and calibrated event files, source products (light curves and spectra), and all-sky maps. Illustrative examples of these are provided.

The catalogue is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via https://cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/682/A34


(1370)Merge and Strip -- Dwarf Galaxies in Clusters Can Be Formed by Galaxy Mergers
  • Anna Ivleva,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus,
  • Lucas M. Valenzuela,
  • Klaus Dolag
arXiv e-prints (02/2024) e-Print:2402.09060
abstract + abstract -

Recent observations of galaxy mergers inside galaxy cluster environments report high star formation rates in the ejected tidal tails, which point towards currently developing tidal dwarf galaxies. We test whether these dwarf objects could get stripped from the galaxy potential by the galaxy cluster and thus populate it with dwarf galaxies. To this end, we perform three high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of mergers between spiral galaxies in a cluster environment, varying the initial orbit of the infalling galaxies with respect to the cluster center. We demonstrate that cluster environments are indeed capable of stripping tidal dwarf galaxies from the host potential in all tested setups. In the three orbit scenarios, we find 3, 7, and 8 tidal dwarf galaxies per merger, respectively, which survive longer than 1 Gyr after the merger event. Exposed to ram pressure, these gas dominated dwarf galaxies exhibit high star formation rates while also losing gas to the environment. Experiencing a strong headwind due to their motion through the intracluster medium, they quickly lose momentum and start spiraling towards the cluster center, reaching distances on the order of ~Mpc from their progenitor. About 4 Gyr after the merger event, we still find several intact dwarf galaxies, demonstrating that such objects can prevail for a significant fraction of the Hubble time. Comparing their contribution to the observed galaxy mass function in clusters, our results indicate that ~30% of dwarf galaxies in clusters could have been formed by stripping from galaxy mergers.


(1369)Cracking the relation between mass and 1P-star fraction of globular clusters: I. Present-day cluster masses as a first tool
  • Geneviève Parmentier
arXiv e-prints (02/2024) e-Print:2402.07979
abstract + abstract -

The phenomenon of multiple stellar populations is exacerbated in massive globular clusters, with the fraction of first-population (1P) stars a decreasing function of the cluster present-day mass. We decipher this relation in far greater detail than has been done so far. We assume (i) a fixed stellar mass threshold for the formation of second-population (2P) stars, (ii) a power-law scaling $F_{1P} \propto m_{ecl}^{-1}$ between the mass $m_{ecl}$ of newly-formed clusters and their 1P-star fraction $F_{1P}$, and (iii) a constant $F_{1P}$ over time. The $F_{1P}(m_{ecl})$ relation is then evolved up to an age of 12Gyr for tidal field strengths representative of the entire Galactic halo. The 12Gyr-old model tracks cover extremely well the present-day distribution of Galactic globular clusters in (mass,$F_{1P}$) space. The distribution is curtailed on its top-right side by the scarcity of clusters at large Galactocentric distances, and on its bottom-left side by the initial scarcity of very high-mass clusters, and dynamical friction. Given their distinct dissolution rates, "inner" and "outer" model clusters are offset from each other, as observed. The locus of Magellanic Clouds clusters in (mass,$F_{1P}$) space is as expected for intermediate-age clusters evolving in a gentle tidal field. Given the assumed constancy of $F_{1P}$, we conclude that 2P-stars do not necessarily form centrally-concentrated. We infer a minimum mass of $4 \cdot 10^5~M_{\odot}$ for multiple-populations clusters at secular evolution onset. This high-mass threshold severely limits the amount of 2P-stars lost from evolving clusters, thereby fitting the low 2P-star fraction of the Galactic halo field.


(1368)Simulating the LOcal Web (SLOW) -- II: Properties of local galaxy clusters
  • Elena Hernández-Martínez,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Benjamin Seidel,
  • Jenny G. Sorce,
  • Nabila Aghanim
  • +4
  • Sergey Pilipenko,
  • Stefan Gottloeber,
  • Théo Lebeau,
  • Milena Valentini
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

This is the second paper in a series presenting the results from a 500 $h^{-1}$Mpc large constrained hydro-dynamical simulation of the local Universe (SLOW). The initial conditions are based on peculiar velocities derived from the CosmicFlows-2 catalogue. The inclusion of galaxy formation treatment, allows to directly predict observable properties of the Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM) within galaxy clusters. Comparing the properties of observed galaxy clusters within the local Universe with the properties of their simulated counterparts, enables us to assess the effectiveness of the initial condition constraints in accurately replicating the non-linear properties of the largest, collapsed objects within the simulation. Based on the combination of several, publicly available surveys, we identified 45 local Universe galaxy clusters in SLOW, including the 13 most massive from the Planck SZ catalog and 70% of those with $M_{500} > 2\times 10^{14}$ M$_{\odot}$. We then derived the probability of the cross identification based on mass, X-ray luminosity, temperature and Compton-y by comparing it to a random selection. In relation to previous constrained simulations of the local volume, we found in SLOW a much larger amount of replicated galaxy clusters, where their simulation based mass prediction falls within the uncertainties of the observational mass estimates. Comparing the median observed and simulated masses of our cross identified sample allows to independently deduce a hydrostatic mass bias of $(1-b)\approx0.87$. The SLOW constrained simulation of the local Universe faithfully reproduces numerous fundamental characteristics of the galaxy clusters within our local neighbourhood, opening a new avenue for studying the formation and evolution of a large set of individual galaxy clusters as well as testing our understanding of physical processes governing the ICM.


(1367)Augmenting the power of time-delay cosmography in lens galaxy clusters by probing their member galaxies. II. Cosmic chronometers
  • P. Bergamini,
  • S. Schuldt,
  • A. Acebron,
  • C. Grillo,
  • U. Meštrić
  • +7
  • G. Granata,
  • G. B. Caminha,
  • M. Meneghetti,
  • A. Mercurio,
  • P. Rosati,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • E. Vanzella
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202348267
abstract + abstract -

We present a novel approach to measuring the expansion rate and the geometry of the Universe, which combines time-delay cosmography in lens galaxy clusters with pure samples of `cosmic chronometers' by probing the member galaxies. The former makes use of the measured time delays between the multiple images of time-varying sources strongly lensed by galaxy clusters, while the latter exploits the most massive and passive cluster member galaxies to measure the differential time evolution of the Universe. We applied two different statistical techniques, adopting realistic errors on the measured quantities, to assess the accuracy and the gain in precision on the values of the cosmological parameters. We demonstrate that the proposed combined method allows for a robust and accurate measurement of the value of the Hubble constant. In addition, this provides valuable information on the other cosmological parameters thanks to the complementarity between the two different probes in breaking parameter degeneracies. Finally, we showcased the immediate observational feasibility of the proposed joint method by taking advantage of the existing high-quality spectro-photometric data for several lens galaxy clusters.


(1366)The perspective of voids on rising cosmology tensions
  • S. Contarini,
  • A. Pisani,
  • N. Hamaus,
  • F. Marulli,
  • L. Moscardini
  • +1
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347572
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the main tensions within the current standard model of cosmology from the perspective of the main statistics of cosmic voids, using the final BOSS DR12 data set. For this purpose, we present the first estimate of the S8 ≡ σ8 Ωm/0.3 and H0 parameters obtained from void number counts and shape distortions. To analyze void counts we relied on an extension of the popular volume-conserving model for the void size function, tailored to the application on data, including geometric and dynamic distortions. We calibrated the two nuisance parameters of this model with the official BOSS Collaboration mock catalogs and propagated their uncertainty through the statistical analysis of the BOSS void number counts. The constraints from void shapes come from the study of the geometric distortions of the stacked void-galaxy cross-correlation function. In this work we focus our analysis on the Ωm − σ8 and Ωm − H0 parameter planes and derive the marginalized constraints S8 = 0.813−0.068+0.093 and H0 = 67.3−9.1+10.0 km s−1 Mpc−1, which are fully compatible with constraints from the literature. These results are expected to notably improve in precision when analyzed jointly with independent probes and will open a new viewing angle on the rising cosmological tensions in the near future.


(1365)Cloud Formation by Supernova Implosion
  • Leonard E. C. Romano,
  • Manuel Behrendt,
  • Andreas Burkert
abstract + abstract -

The deposition of energy and momentum by supernova explosions has been subject to numerous studies in the past few decades. However, while there has been some work that focused on the transition from the adiabatic to the radiative stage of a supernova remnant (SNR), the late radiative stage and merging with the interstellar medium (ISM) have received little attention. Here, we use three-dimensional, hydrodynamic simulations, focusing on the evolution of SNRs during the radiative phase, considering a wide range of physical explosion parameters ($n_{\text{H, ISM}} \in \left[0.1, 100\right] \text{cm}^{-3}$ and $E_{\text{SN}} \in \left[1, 14\right]\times 10^{51} \text{erg}$). We find that the radiative phase can be subdivided in four stages: A pressure driven snowplow phase during which the hot overpressurized bubble gas is evacuated and pushed into the cold shell, a momentum conserving snowplow phase which is accompanied by a broadening of the shell, an implosion phase where cold material from the back of the shell is flooding the central vacuum and a final cloud phase, during which the imploding gas is settling as a central, compact overdensity. The launching timescale for the implosion ranges from a few 100 kyr to a few Myr, while the cloud formation timescale ranges from a few to about 10 Myr. The highly chemically enriched clouds can become massive ($M_{\text{cl}} \sim 10^3 - 10^4 \, \text{M}_{\odot}$) and self-gravitating within a few Myr after their formation, providing an attractive, novel pathway for supernova induced star and planet formation in the ISM.


(1364)Variable stars in galactic globular Clusters I. The population of RR Lyrae stars
  • Mauricio Cruz Reyes,
  • Richard I. Anderson,
  • Lucas Johansson,
  • Henryka Netzel,
  • Zoé Medaric
arXiv e-prints (02/2024) e-Print:2402.08843
abstract + abstract -

We present a comprehensive catalog of 2824 RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) residing in 115 Galactic globular clusters (GCs). Our catalog includes 1594 fundamental-mode (RRab), 824 first-overtone (RRc), and 28 double-mode (RRd) RRLs, as well as 378 RRLs of an unknown pulsation mode. We cross-matched 481349 RRLs reported in the third data release (DR3) of the ESA mission Gaia and the literature to 170 known GCs. Membership probabilities were computed as the products of a position and shape-dependent prior and a likelihood was computed using parallaxes, proper motions, and, where available, radial velocities from Gaia. Membership likelihoods of RRLs were computed by comparing cluster average parameters based on known member stars and the cross-matched RRLs. We determined empirical RRL instability strip (IS) boundaries based on our catalog and detected three new cluster RRLs inside this region via their excess Gaia G-band photometric uncertainties. We find that 77% of RRLs in GCs are included in the Gaia DR3 Specific Object Study, and 82% were classified as RRLs by the Gaia DR3 classifier, with the majority of the missing sources being located at the crowded GC centers. Surprisingly, we find that 25% of cluster member stars located within the empirical IS are not RRLs and appear to be non-variable. Additionally, we find that 80% of RRab, 84% of RRc, and 100% of the RRd stars are located within theoretical IS boundaries predicted using MESA models with Z = 0.0003, M = 0.7 (M_\odot), and Y = 0.290. Unexpectedly, a higher Y = 0.357 is required to fully match the location of RRc stars, and lower Y = 0.220 is needed to match the location of RRab stars. Lastly, our catalog does not exhibit an Oosterhoff dichotomy, with at least 22 GCs located inside the Oosterhoff "gap," which is close to the mode of the distribution of mean RRL periods in GCs.


(1363)The formation of the magnetic symbiotic star FN Sgr
  • Diogo Belloni,
  • Joanna Mikołajewska,
  • Matthias R. Schreiber
arXiv e-prints (02/2024) e-Print:2402.08647
abstract + abstract -

To shed light on the origin of magnetic symbiotic stars, we investigated the system FN Sgr in detail. We searched for a reasonable formation pathway to explain its stellar and binary parameters including the magnetic field of the accreting white dwarf. We used the MESA code to carry out pre-CE and post-CE binary evolution and determined the outcome of CE evolution assuming the energy formalism. For the origin and evolution of the white dwarf magnetic field, we adopted the crystallization scenario. We found that FN Sgr can be explained as follows. First, a non-magnetic white dwarf is formed through CE evolution. Later, during post-CE evolution, the white dwarf starts to crystallize and a weak magnetic field is generated. After a few hundred Myr, the magnetic field penetrates the white dwarf surface and becomes detectable. Meanwhile, its companion evolves and becomes an evolved red giant. Subsequently, the white dwarf accretes part of the angular momentum from the red giant stellar winds. As a result, the white dwarf spin period decreases and its magnetic field reaches super-equipartition, getting amplified due to a rotation- and crystallization-driven dynamo. The binary then evolves into a symbiotic star, with a magnetic white dwarf accreting from an evolved red giant through atmospheric Roche-lobe overflow. We conclude that the rotation- and crystallization-driven dynamo scenario, or any age-dependent scenario, can explain the origin of magnetic symbiotic stars reasonably well. This adds another piece to the pile of evidence supporting this scenario. If our formation channel is correct, our findings suggest that white dwarfs in most symbiotic stars formed through CE evolution might be magnetic, provided that the red giant has spent >3 Gyr as a main-sequence star.


(1362)An emulator-based halo model in modified gravity - I. The halo concentration-mass relation and density profile
  • Cheng-Zong Ruan,
  • Carolina Cuesta-Lazaro,
  • Alexander Eggemeier,
  • Baojiu Li,
  • Carlton M. Baugh
  • +5
  • Christian Arnold,
  • Sownak Bose,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Pauline Zarrouk,
  • Christopher T. Davies
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (01/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad3021
abstract + abstract -

In this series of papers, we present an emulator-based halo model for the non-linear clustering of galaxies in modified gravity cosmologies. In the first paper, we present emulators for the following halo properties: the halo mass function, concentration-mass relation and halo-matter cross-correlation function. The emulators are trained on data extracted from the FORGE and BRIDGE suites of N-body simulations, respectively, for two modified gravity (MG) theories: f(R) gravity, and the DGP model, varying three standard cosmological parameters Ωm0, H0, σ8, and one MG parameter, either $\bar{f}_{R0}$ or rc. Our halo property emulators achieve an accuracy of ${\lesssim}1\ \hbox{per cent}$ on independent test data sets. We demonstrate that the emulators can be combined with a galaxy-halo connection prescription to accurately predict the galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-matter correlation functions using the halo model framework.


(1361)First Observation of the Complete Rotation Period of the Ultra-Slowly Rotating Magnetic O Star HD 54879
  • C. Erba,
  • C. P. Folsom,
  • A. David-Uraz,
  • G. A. Wade,
  • S. Seadrow
  • +4
  • S. Bellotti,
  • L. Fossati,
  • V. Petit,
  • M. E. Shultz
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

HD 54879 is the most recently discovered magnetic O-type star. Previous studies ruled out a rotation period shorter than 7 years, implying that HD 54879 is the second most slowly-rotating known magnetic O-type star. We report new high-resolution spectropolarimetric measurements of HD 54879, which confirm that a full stellar rotation cycle has been observed, and derive a rotation period of $P = 2562^{+63}_{-58}$ d (about 7.02 yr). The radial velocity of HD 54879 has been stable over the last decade of observations. We explore equivalent widths and longitudinal magnetic fields calculated from lines of different elements, and conclude the atmosphere of HD 54879 is likely chemically homogeneous, with no strong evidence for chemical stratification or lateral abundance nonuniformities. We present the first detailed magnetic map of the star, with an average surface magnetic field strength of 2954 G, and a strength for the dipole component of 3939 G. There is a significant amount of magnetic energy in the quadrupole components of the field (23 percent). Thus, we find HD 54879 has a strong magnetic field with a significantly complex topology.


(1360)Oscillations of high-energy cosmic neutrinos in the copious MeV neutrino background
  • Sajad Abbar,
  • Jose Alonso Carpio,
  • Kohta Murase
Physical Review D (01/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.109.023025
abstract + abstract -

The core-collapse of massive stars and the merger of neutron star binaries are among the most promising candidate sites for the production of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. We demonstrate that the high-energy neutrinos produced in such extreme environments can experience efficient flavor conversions on scales much shorter than those expected in vacuum, due to their coherent forward scatterings with the bath of decohered low-energy neutrinos emitted from the central engine. These low-energy neutrinos, which exist as mass eigenstates, provide a very special and peculiar dominant background for the propagation of the high-energy ones. We point out that the high-energy neutrino flavor ratio is modified to a value independent of neutrinos energies, which is distinct from the conventional prediction with the matter effect. We also suggest that the signals can be used as a novel probe of new neutrino interactions beyond the Standard Model. This is yet another context where neutrino-neutrino interactions can play a crucial role in their flavor evolution.


(1359)Adjoint chromoelectric and -magnetic correlators with gradient flow
  • Viljami Leino
abstract + abstract -

When QCD is described by a nonrelativistic effective field theory, operators consisting of gluonic correlators of two chromoelectric or -magnetic fields will often appear in descriptions of quarkonium physics. At zero T, these correlators give the masses of gluelumps and the moments of these correlators can be used to understand the inclusive P-wave decay of quarkonium. At finite T these correlators define the diffusion of the heavy quarkonium. However, these correlators come with a divergent term in lattice spacing which needs to be taken care of. We inspect these correlators in pure gauge theory with gradient flow smearing, which should allow us to reduce and remove the divergence more carefully. In these proceedings, we focus on the effect of gradient flow to these correlators and the reduction of this divergence.


(1358)PartonDensity.jl: a novel parton density determination code
  • Francesca Capel,
  • Ritu Aggarwal,
  • Michiel Botje,
  • Allen Caldwell,
  • Oliver Schulz
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

We introduce our novel Bayesian parton density determination code, PartonDensity.jl. The motivation for this new code, the framework and its validation are described. As we show, PartonDensity.jl provides both a flexible environment for the determination of parton densities and a wealth of information concerning the knowledge update provided by the analyzed data set.


(1357)Protostellar disk accretion in turbulent filaments
  • Stefan Heigl,
  • Elena Hoemann,
  • Andreas Burkert
abstract + abstract -

Recent observations of protostellar cores suggest that most of the material in the protostellar phase is accreted along streamers. Streamers in this context are defined as velocity coherent funnels of denser material potentially connecting the large scale environment to the small scales of the forming accretion disk. Using simulations which simultaneously resolve the driving of turbulence on the filament scale as well as the collapse of the core down to protostellar disk scales, we aim to understand the effect of the turbulent velocity field on the formation of overdensities in the accretion flow. We perform a three-dimensional numerical study on a core collapse within a turbulent filament using the RAMSES code and analyse the properties of overdensities in the accretion flow. We find that overdensities are formed naturally by the initial turbulent velocity field inherited from the filament and subsequent gravitational collimation. This leads to streams which are not really filamentary but show a sheet-like morphology. Moreover, they have the same radial infall velocities as the low density material. As a main consequence of the turbulent initial condition, the mass accretion onto the disk does not follow the predictions for solid body rotation. Instead, most of the mass is funneled by the overdensities to intermediate disk radii.


(1356)Dust-gas dynamics driven by the streaming instability with various pressure gradients
  • Stanley A. Baronett,
  • Chao-Chin Yang,
  • Zhaohuan Zhu
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (01/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae272
abstract + abstract -

The streaming instability, a promising mechanism to drive planetesimal formation in dusty protoplanetary discs, relies on aerodynamic drag naturally induced by the background radial pressure gradient. This gradient should vary in disks, but its effect on the streaming instability has not been sufficiently explored. For this purpose, we use numerical simulations of an unstratified disc to study the non-linear saturation of the streaming instability with mono-disperse dust particles and survey a wide range of gradients for two distinct combinations of the particle stopping time and the dust-to-gas mass ratio. As the gradient increases, we find most kinematic and morphological properties increase but not always in linear proportion. The density distributions of tightly-coupled particles are insensitive to the gradient whereas marginally-coupled particles tend to concentrate by more than an order of magnitude as the gradient decreases. Moreover, dust-gas vortices for tightly-coupled particles shrink as the gradient decreases, and we note higher resolutions are required to trigger the instability in this case. In addition, we find various properties at saturation that depend on the gradient may be observable and may help reconstruct models of observed discs dominated by streaming turbulence. In general, increased dust diffusion from stronger gradients can lower the concentration of dust filaments and can explain the higher solid abundances needed to trigger strong particle clumping and the reduced planetesimal formation efficiency previously found in vertically-stratified simulations.


(1355)Flat F-theory and friends
  • Peng Cheng,
  • Ilarion V. Melnikov,
  • Ruben Minasian
Journal of High Energy Physics (01/2024) doi:10.1007/JHEP01(2024)027
abstract + abstract -

We discuss F-theory backgrounds associated to flat torus bundles over Ricci-flat manifolds. In this setting the F-theory background can be understood as a IIB orientifold with a large radius limit described by a supersymmetric compactification of IIB supergravity on a smooth, Ricci flat, but in general non-spin geometry. When compactified on an additional circle these backgrounds are T-dual to IIA compactifications on smooth non-orientable manifolds with a Pin structure.


(1354)Can the giant planets of the Solar System form via pebble accretion in a smooth protoplanetary disc?
  • Tommy Chi Ho Lau,
  • Man Hoi Lee,
  • Ramon Brasser,
  • Soko Matsumura
abstract + abstract -

Prevailing $N$-body planet formation models typically start with lunar-mass embryos and show a general trend of rapid migration of massive planetary cores to the inner Solar System in the absence of a migration trap. This setup cannot capture the evolution from a planetesimal to embryo, which is crucial to the final architecture of the system. We aim to model planet formation with planet migration starting with planetesimals of $\sim10^{-6}$ -- $10^{-4}M_\oplus$ and reproduce the giant planets of the Solar System. We simulated a population of 1,000 -- 5,000 planetesimals in a smooth protoplanetary disc, which was evolved under the effects of their mutual gravity, pebble accretion, gas accretion, and planet migration, employing the parallelized $N$-body code SyMBAp. We find that the dynamical interactions among growing planetesimals are vigorous and can halt pebble accretion for excited bodies. While a set of results without planet migration produces one to two gas giants and one to two ice giants beyond 6 au, massive planetary cores readily move to the inner Solar System once planet migration is in effect. Dynamical heating is important in a planetesimal disc and the reduced pebble encounter time should be considered in similar models. Planet migration remains a challenge to form cold giant planets in a smooth protoplanetary disc, which suggests an alternative mechanism is required to stop them at wide orbits.


(1353)The TYPHOON Stellar Population Synthesis Survey. I. The Young Stellar Population of the Great Barred Spiral NGC 1365
  • Eva Sextl,
  • Rolf-Peter Kudritzki,
  • Andreas Burkert,
  • I. -Ting Ho,
  • H. Jabran Zahid
  • +4
  • Mark Seibert,
  • Andrew J. Battisti,
  • Barry F. Madore,
  • Jeffrey A. Rich
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (01/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad08b3
abstract + abstract -

We analyze TYPHOON long-slit-absorption line spectra of the starburst barred spiral galaxy NGC 1365 obtained with the Progressive Integral Step Method covering an area of 15 kpc2. Applying a population synthesis technique, we determine the spatial distribution of ages and metallicities of the young and old stellar populations together with star formation rates, reddening, extinction, and the ratio R V of extinction to reddening. We detect a clear indication of inside-out growth of the stellar disk beyond 3 kpc characterized by an outward increasing luminosity fraction of the young stellar population, a decreasing average age, and a history of mass growth, which was finished 2 Gyr later in the outermost disk. The metallicity of the young stellar population is clearly super solar but decreases toward larger galactocentric radii with a gradient of -0.02 dex kpc-1. On the other hand, the metal content of the old population does not show a gradient and stays constant at a level roughly 0.4 dex lower than that of the young population. In the center of NGC 1365, we find a confined region where the metallicity of the young population drops dramatically and becomes lower than that of the old population. We attribute this to the infall of metal-poor gas, and additionally, to interrupted chemical evolution where star formation is stopped by active galactic nuclei and supernova feedback and then after several gigayears resumes with gas ejected by stellar winds from earlier generations of stars. We provide a simple model calculation as support for the latter.


CN-7
RU-A
(1352)Indication of a p-ϕ bound state from a correlation function analysis
  • Emma Chizzali,
  • Yuki Kamiya,
  • Raffaele Del Grande,
  • Takumi Doi,
  • Laura Fabbietti
  • +2
Physics Letters B (01/2024) doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2023.138358
abstract + abstract -

The existence of a nucleon-ϕ (N-ϕ) bound state has been subject of theoretical and experimental investigations for decades. In this letter, indication of a p-ϕ bound state is found, using for the first time two-particle correlation functions as alternative to invariant mass spectra. Newly available lattice calculations for the spin 3/2 N-ϕ interaction by the HAL QCD collaboration are used to constrain the spin 1/2 counterpart from the fit of the experimental p-ϕ correlation function measured by ALICE. The corresponding scattering length and effective range are f0(1/2) = (-1.54-0.53+0.53 (stat .)-0.09+0.16 (syst .) + i ⋅0.00-0.00+0.35 (stat .)-0.00+0.16 (syst .)) fm and d0(1/2) = (0.39-0.09+0.09 (stat .)-0.03+0.02 (syst .) + i ⋅ 0.00-0.04+0.00 (stat .)-0.02+0.00 (syst .)) fm, respectively. The results imply the appearance of a p-ϕ bound state with an estimated binding energy in the range of 12.8 - 56.1 MeV.


(1351)Dense nuclear matter equation of state from heavy-ion collisions
  • Agnieszka Sorensen,
  • Kshitij Agarwal,
  • Kyle W. Brown,
  • Zbigniew Chajęcki,
  • Paweł Danielewicz
  • +131
  • Christian Drischler,
  • Stefano Gandolfi,
  • Jeremy W. Holt,
  • Matthias Kaminski,
  • Che-Ming Ko,
  • Rohit Kumar,
  • Bao-An Li,
  • William G. Lynch,
  • Alan B. McIntosh,
  • William G. Newton,
  • Scott Pratt,
  • Oleh Savchuk,
  • Maria Stefaniak,
  • Ingo Tews,
  • ManYee Betty Tsang,
  • Ramona Vogt,
  • Hermann Wolter,
  • Hanna Zbroszczyk,
  • Navid Abbasi,
  • Jörg Aichelin,
  • Anton Andronic,
  • Steffen A. Bass,
  • Francesco Becattini,
  • David Blaschke,
  • Marcus Bleicher,
  • Christoph Blume,
  • Elena Bratkovskaya,
  • B. Alex Brown,
  • David A. Brown,
  • Alberto Camaiani,
  • Giovanni Casini,
  • Katerina Chatziioannou,
  • Abdelouahad Chbihi,
  • Maria Colonna,
  • Mircea Dan Cozma,
  • Veronica Dexheimer,
  • Xin Dong,
  • Travis Dore,
  • Lipei Du,
  • José A. Dueñas,
  • Hannah Elfner,
  • Wojciech Florkowski,
  • Yuki Fujimoto,
  • Richard J. Furnstahl,
  • Alexandra Gade,
  • Tetyana Galatyuk,
  • Charles Gale,
  • Frank Geurts,
  • Fabiana Gramegna,
  • Sašo Grozdanov,
  • Kris Hagel,
  • Steven P. Harris,
  • Wick Haxton,
  • Ulrich Heinz,
  • Michal P. Heller,
  • Or Hen,
  • Heiko Hergert,
  • Norbert Herrmann,
  • Huan Zhong Huang,
  • Xu-Guang Huang,
  • Natsumi Ikeno,
  • Gabriele Inghirami,
  • Jakub Jankowski,
  • Jiangyong Jia,
  • José C. Jiménez,
  • Joseph Kapusta,
  • Behruz Kardan,
  • Iurii Karpenko,
  • Declan Keane,
  • Dmitri Kharzeev,
  • Andrej Kugler,
  • Arnaud Le Fèvre,
  • Dean Lee,
  • Hong Liu,
  • Michael A. Lisa,
  • William J. Llope,
  • Ivano Lombardo,
  • Manuel Lorenz,
  • Tommaso Marchi,
  • Larry McLerran,
  • Ulrich Mosel,
  • Anton Motornenko,
  • Berndt Müller,
  • Paolo Napolitani,
  • Joseph B. Natowitz,
  • Witold Nazarewicz,
  • Jorge Noronha,
  • Jacquelyn Noronha-Hostler,
  • Grażyna Odyniec,
  • Panagiota Papakonstantinou,
  • Zuzana Paulínyová,
  • Jorge Piekarewicz,
  • Robert D. Pisarski,
  • Christopher Plumberg,
  • Madappa Prakash,
  • Jørgen Randrup,
  • Claudia Ratti,
  • Peter Rau,
  • Sanjay Reddy,
  • Hans-Rudolf Schmidt,
  • Paolo Russotto,
  • Radoslaw Ryblewski,
  • Andreas Schäfer,
  • Björn Schenke,
  • Srimoyee Sen,
  • Peter Senger,
  • Richard Seto,
  • Chun Shen,
  • Bradley Sherrill,
  • Mayank Singh,
  • Vladimir Skokov,
  • Michał Spaliński,
  • Jan Steinheimer,
  • Mikhail Stephanov,
  • Joachim Stroth,
  • Christian Sturm,
  • Kai-Jia Sun,
  • Aihong Tang,
  • Giorgio Torrieri,
  • Wolfgang Trautmann,
  • Giuseppe Verde,
  • Volodymyr Vovchenko,
  • Ryoichi Wada,
  • Fuqiang Wang,
  • Gang Wang,
  • Klaus Werner,
  • Nu Xu,
  • Zhangbu Xu,
  • Ho-Ung Yee,
  • Sherry Yennello,
  • Yi Yin
  • (less)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics (01/2024) doi:10.1016/j.ppnp.2023.104080
abstract + abstract -

The nuclear equation of state (EOS) is at the center of numerous theoretical and experimental efforts in nuclear physics. With advances in microscopic theories for nuclear interactions, the availability of experiments probing nuclear matter under conditions not reached before, endeavors to develop sophisticated and reliable transport simulations to interpret these experiments, and the advent of multi-messenger astronomy, the next decade will bring new opportunities for determining the nuclear matter EOS, elucidating its dependence on density, temperature, and isospin asymmetry. Among controlled terrestrial experiments, collisions of heavy nuclei at intermediate beam energies (from a few tens of MeV/nucleon to about 25 GeV/nucleon in the fixed-target frame) probe the widest ranges of baryon density and temperature, enabling studies of nuclear matter from a few tenths to about 5 times the nuclear saturation density and for temperatures from a few to well above a hundred MeV, respectively. Collisions of neutron-rich isotopes further bring the opportunity to probe effects due to the isospin asymmetry. However, capitalizing on the enormous scientific effort aimed at uncovering the dense nuclear matter EOS, both at RHIC and at FRIB as well as at other international facilities, depends on the continued development of state-of-the-art hadronic transport simulations. This white paper highlights the essential role that heavy-ion collision experiments and hadronic transport simulations play in understanding strong interactions in dense nuclear matter, with an emphasis on how these efforts can be used together with microscopic approaches and neutron star studies to uncover the nuclear EOS.


CN-7
(1350)Inhomogeneous Kinetic Equation for Mixed Neutrinos: Tracing the Missing Energy
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Georg G. Raffelt,
  • Günter Sigl
abstract + abstract -

Flavor-dependent neutrino transport is described by a well-known kinetic equation for occupation-number matrices in flavor space. However, as an overlooked theoretical problem, we show that in the inhomogeneous case, neutrino-neutrino refractive energy is not conserved. We derive the missing gradient terms in the fast flavor limit (vanishing neutrino masses), and prove that the missing refractive energy is traded with the huge reservoir of neutrino kinetic energy through gradients of the weak interaction potential. Even small changes of the kinetic energy accommodate the refractive energy gained or lost. Flavor evolution alone is negligibly affected by the new terms.


(1349)A JWST Survey of the Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A
  • Dan Milisavljevic,
  • Tea Temim,
  • Ilse De Looze,
  • Danielle Dickinson,
  • J. Martin Laming
  • +41
  • Robert Fesen,
  • John C. Raymond,
  • Richard G. Arendt,
  • Jacco Vink,
  • Bettina Posselt,
  • George G. Pavlov,
  • Ori D. Fox,
  • Ethan Pinarski,
  • Bhagya Subrayan,
  • Judy Schmidt,
  • William P. Blair,
  • Armin Rest,
  • Daniel Patnaude,
  • Bon-Chul Koo,
  • Jeonghee Rho,
  • Salvatore Orlando,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka,
  • Moira Andrews,
  • Michael J. Barlow,
  • Adam Burrows,
  • Roger Chevalier,
  • Geoffrey Clayton,
  • Claes Fransson,
  • Christopher Fryer,
  • Haley L. Gomez,
  • Florian Kirchschlager,
  • Jae-Joon Lee,
  • Mikako Matsuura,
  • Maria Niculescu-Duvaz,
  • Justin D. R. Pierel,
  • Paul P. Plucinsky,
  • Felix D. Priestley,
  • Aravind P. Ravi,
  • Nina S. Sartorio,
  • Franziska Schmidt,
  • Melissa Shahbandeh,
  • Patrick Slane,
  • Nathan Smith,
  • Kathryn Weil,
  • Roger Wesson,
  • J. Craig Wheeler
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present initial results from a JWST survey of the youngest Galactic core-collapse supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A), made up of NIRCam and MIRI imaging mosaics that map emission from the main shell, interior, and surrounding circumstellar/interstellar material (CSM/ISM). We also present four exploratory positions of MIRI/MRS IFU spectroscopy that sample ejecta, CSM, and associated dust from representative shocked and unshocked regions. Surprising discoveries include: 1) a web-like network of unshocked ejecta filaments resolved to 0.01 pc scales exhibiting an overall morphology consistent with turbulent mixing of cool, low-entropy matter from the progenitor's oxygen layer with hot, neutrino and radioactively heated high-entropy matter, 2) a thick sheet of dust-dominated emission from shocked CSM seen in projection toward the remnant's interior pockmarked with small (approximately one arcsecond) round holes formed by knots of high-velocity ejecta that have pierced through the CSM and driven expanding tangential shocks, 3) dozens of light echoes with angular sizes between 0.1 arcsecond to 1 arcminute reflecting previously unseen fine-scale structure in the ISM. NIRCam observations place new upper limits on infrared emission from the neutron star in Cas A's center and tightly constrain scenarios involving a possible fallback disk. These JWST survey data and initial findings help address unresolved questions about massive star explosions that have broad implications for the formation and evolution of stellar populations, the metal and dust enrichment of galaxies, and the origin of compact remnant objects.


(1348)Constraining $f(R)$ gravity using future galaxy cluster abundance and weak-lensing mass calibration datasets
  • Sophie M. L. Vogt,
  • Sebastian Bocquet,
  • Christopher T. Davies,
  • Joseph J. Mohr,
  • Fabian Schmidt
abstract + abstract -

We present forecasts for constraints on the Hu \& Sawicki $f(R)$ modified gravity model using realistic mock data representative of future cluster and weak lensing surveys. We create mock thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect selected cluster samples for SPT-3G and CMB-S4 and the corresponding weak gravitational lensing data from next-generation weak-lensing (ngWL) surveys like Euclid and Rubin. We employ a state-of-the-art Bayesian likelihood approach that includes all observational effects and systematic uncertainties to obtain constraints on the $f(R)$ gravity parameter $\log_{10}|f_{R0}|$. In this analysis we vary the cosmological parameters $[\Omega_{\rm m}, \Omega_\nu h^2, h^2, A_s, n_s, \log_{10}|f_{R0}|]$, which allows us to account for possible degeneracies between cosmological parameters and $f(R)$ modified gravity. The analysis accounts for $f(R)$ gravity via its effect on the halo mass function which is enhanced on cluster mass scales compared to the expectations within general relativity (GR). Assuming a fiducial GR model, the upcoming cluster dataset SPT-3G$\times$ngWL is expected to obtain an upper limit of $\log_{10}|f_{R0}| < -5.95$ at $95\,\%$ credibility, which significantly improves upon the current best bounds. The CMB-S4$\times$ngWL dataset is expected to improve this even further to $\log_{10}|f_{R0}| < -6.23$. Furthermore, $f(R)$ gravity models with $\log_{10}|f_{R0}| \geq -6$, which have larger numbers of clusters, would be distinguishable from GR with both datasets. We also report degeneracies between $\log_{10}|f_{R0}|$ and $\Omega_{\mathrm{m}}$ as well as $\sigma_8$ for $\log_{10}|f_{R0}| > -6$ and $\log_{10}|f_{R0}| > -5$ respectively. Our forecasts indicate that future cluster abundance studies of $f(R)$ gravity will enable substantially improved constraints that are competitive with other cosmological probes.


CN-7
(1347)Astrophysical Axion Bounds: The 2024 Edition
  • Andrea Caputo,
  • Georg Raffelt
abstract + abstract -

We review the current status of astrophysical bounds on QCD axions, primarily based on the observational effects of nonstandard energy losses on stars, including black-hole superradiance. Over the past few years, many of the traditional arguments have been reexamined both theoretically and using modern data and new ideas have been put forth. This compact review updates similar Lecture Notes written by one of us in 2006 [Lect. Notes Phys. 741 (2008) 51-71].


(1346)Interplay Between Neutrino Kicks and Hydrodynamic Kicks of Neutron Stars and Black Holes
  • H. -Thomas Janka,
  • Daniel Kresse
abstract + abstract -

Neutron stars (NSs) are observed with high space velocities and elliptical orbits in binaries. The magnitude of these effects points to natal kicks that originate from asymmetries during the supernova (SN) explosions. Using a growing set of long-time 3D SN simulations with the Prometheus-Vertex code, we explore the interplay of NS kicks that are induced by asymmetric neutrino emission and by asymmetric mass ejection. Anisotropic neutrino emission can arise from a large-amplitude dipolar convection asymmetry inside the proto-NS (PNS) termed LESA (Lepton-number Emission Self-sustained Asymmetry), which determines the kicks of NSs born from stars near the low-mass end of SN progenitors. In more massive progenitors aspherical accretion downflows around the PNS can also lead to anisotropic neutrino emission (absorption) with a neutrino-induced NS kick roughly opposite to (aligned with) the kick by asymmetric mass ejection. We estimate upper bounds for the final neutrino kicks of 150-260 km/s, whereas the hydrodynamic kicks can reach up to more than 1300 km/s. Therefore the hydrodynamic kicks dominate for NSs from explosions of higher-mass progenitors, whereas the neutrino kicks dominate in the case of NSs from the lowest-mass progenitors. Our models suggest that the Crab pulsar as a representative of the latter category could have received its velocity of about 160 km/s by a neutrino kick due to the LESA asymmetry. Such neutrino kicks of 100-200 km/s define a nearly ubiquitous floor value, which may shed new light on the origin of pulsars in globular clusters. Black holes, if formed by the collapse of short-lived PNSs and solely kicked by anisotropic neutrino emission, obtain velocities of only some km/s.


(1345)Self-consistent sharp interface theory of active condensate dynamics
  • Andriy Goychuk,
  • Leonardo Demarchi,
  • Ivan Maryshev,
  • Erwin Frey
abstract + abstract -

Biomolecular condensates help organize the cell cytoplasm and nucleoplasm into spatial compartments with different chemical compositions. A key feature of such compositional patterning is the local enrichment of enzymatically active biomolecules which, after transient binding via molecular interactions, catalyze reactions among their substrates. Thereby, biomolecular condensates provide a spatial template for non-uniform concentration profiles of substrates. In turn, the concentration profiles of substrates, and their molecular interactions with enzymes, drive enzyme fluxes which can enable novel non-equilibrium dynamics. To analyze this generic class of systems, with a current focus on self-propelled droplet motion, we here develop a self-consistent sharp interface theory. In our theory, we diverge from the usual bottom-up approach, which involves calculating the dynamics of concentration profiles based on a given chemical potential gradient. Instead, reminiscent of control theory, we take the reverse approach by deriving the chemical potential profile and enzyme fluxes required to maintain a desired condensate form and dynamics. The chemical potential profile and currents of enzymes come with a corresponding power dissipation rate, which allows us to derive a thermodynamic consistency criterion for the passive part of the system (here, reciprocal enzyme-enzyme interactions). As a first use case of our theory, we study the role of reciprocal interactions, where the transport of substrates due to reactions and diffusion is, in part, compensated by redistribution due to molecular interactions. More generally, our theory applies to mass-conserved active matter systems with moving phase boundaries.


(1344)Search for Supernova Progenitor Stars with ZTF and LSST
  • Nora L. Strotjohann,
  • Eran O. Ofek,
  • Avishay Gal-Yam,
  • Jesper Sollerman,
  • Ping Chen
  • +7
  • Ofer Yaron,
  • Barak Zackay,
  • Nabeel Rehemtulla,
  • Phillipe Gris,
  • Frank J. Masci,
  • Ben Rusholme,
  • Josiah Purdum
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (01/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad06b6
abstract + abstract -

The direct detection of core-collapse supernova (SN) progenitor stars is a powerful way of probing the last stages of stellar evolution. However, detections in archival Hubble Space Telescope images are limited to about one detection per year. Here, we explore whether we can increase the detection rate by using data from ground-based wide-field surveys. Due to crowding and atmospheric blurring, progenitor stars can typically not be identified in preexplosion images alone. Instead, we combine many pre-SN and late-time images to search for the disappearance of the progenitor star. As a proof of concept, we implement our search of ZTF data. For a few hundred images, we achieve limiting magnitudes of ~23 mag in the g and r bands. However, no progenitor stars or long-lived outbursts are detected for 29 SNe within z ≤ 0.01, and the ZTF limits are typically several magnitudes less constraining than detected progenitors in the literature. Next, we estimate progenitor detection rates for the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) with the Vera C. Rubin telescope by simulating a population of nearby SNe. The background from bright host galaxies reduces the nominal LSST sensitivity by, on average, 0.4 mag. Over the 10 yr survey, we expect the detection of ~50 red supergiant progenitors and several yellow and blue supergiants. The progenitors of Type Ib and Ic SNe will be detectable if they are brighter than -4.7 or -4.0 mag in the LSST i band, respectively. In addition, we expect the detection of hundreds of pre-SN outbursts depending on their brightness and duration.


(1343)Buzzard to Cardinal: Improved Mock Catalogs for Large Galaxy Surveys
  • Chun-Hao To,
  • Joseph DeRose,
  • Risa H. Wechsler,
  • Eli Rykoff,
  • Hao-Yi Wu
  • +4
  • Susmita Adhikari,
  • Elisabeth Krause,
  • Eduardo Rozo,
  • David H. Weinberg
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (01/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad0e61
abstract + abstract -

We present the Cardinal mock galaxy catalogs, a new version of the Buzzard simulation that has been updated to support ongoing and future cosmological surveys, including the Dark Energy Survey (DES), DESI, and LSST. These catalogs are based on a one-quarter sky simulation populated with galaxies out to a redshift of z = 2.35 to a depth of m r = 27. Compared to the Buzzard mocks, the Cardinal mocks include an updated subhalo abundance matching model that considers orphan galaxies and includes mass-dependent scatter between galaxy luminosity and halo properties. This model can simultaneously fit galaxy clustering and group-galaxy cross-correlations measured in three different luminosity threshold samples. The Cardinal mocks also feature a new color assignment model that can simultaneously fit color-dependent galaxy clustering in three different luminosity bins. We have developed an algorithm that uses photometric data to further improve the color assignment model and have also developed a novel method to improve small-scale lensing below the ray-tracing resolution. These improvements enable the Cardinal mocks to accurately reproduce the abundance of galaxy clusters and the properties of lens galaxies in the DES data. As such, these simulations will be a valuable tool for future cosmological analyses based on large sky surveys.


(1342)First JWST Observations of JAGB Stars in the SN Ia Host Galaxies: NGC 7250, NGC 4536, NGC 3972
  • Abigail J. Lee,
  • Wendy L. Freedman,
  • In Sung Jang,
  • Barry F. Madore,
  • Kayla A. Owens
The Astrophysical Journal (01/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad12c7
abstract + abstract -

The J-region Asymptotic Giant Branch (JAGB) method is a standard candle that leverages the constant luminosities of color-selected, carbon-rich AGB stars, measured in the near-infrared at 1.2 μm. The Chicago-Carnegie Hubble Program has obtained JWST imaging of the SN Ia host galaxies NGC 7250, NGC 4536, and NGC 3972. With these observations, the JAGB method can be studied for the first time using JWST. Lee et al. demonstrated the JAGB magnitude is optimally measured in the outer disks of galaxies, because in the inner regions the JAGB magnitude can vary significantly due to a confluence of reddening, blending, and crowding effects. However, determining where the "outer disk" lies can be subjective. Therefore, we introduce a novel method for systematically selecting the outer disk. In a given galaxy, the JAGB magnitude is first separately measured in concentric regions, and the "outer disk" is then defined as the first radial bin where the JAGB magnitude stabilizes to a few hundredths of a magnitude. After successfully employing this method in our JWST galaxy sample, we find the JAGB stars are well segregated from other stellar populations in color-magnitude space, and have observed dispersions about their individual F115W modes of σ N7250 = 0.32 mag, σ N4536 = 0.34 mag, and σ N3972 = 0.35 mag. These measured dispersions are similar to the scatter measured for the JAGB stars in the LMC using 2MASS data (σ = 0.33 mag). In conclusion, the JAGB stars as observed with JWST clearly demonstrate their considerable power both as high-precision extragalactic distance indicators and as SN Ia supernova calibrators.


(1341)Machine Learning-Based Detection of Non-Axisymmetric Fast Neutrino Flavor Instabilities in Core-Collapse Supernovae
  • Sajad Abbar,
  • Akira Harada,
  • Hiroki Nagakura
abstract + abstract -

In dense neutrino environments like core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and neutron star mergers (NSMs), neutrinos can undergo fast flavor conversions (FFC) when their angular distribution of neutrino electron lepton number ($\nu$ELN) crosses zero along some directions. While previous studies have demonstrated the detection of axisymmetric $\nu$ELN crossings in these extreme environments, non-axisymmetric crossings have remained elusive, mostly due to the absence of models for their angular distributions. In this study, we present a pioneering analysis of the detection of non-axisymmetric $\nu$ELN crossings using machine learning (ML) techniques. Our ML models are trained on data from two CCSN simulations, one with rotation and one without, where non-axisymmetric features in neutrino angular distributions play a crucial role. We demonstrate that our ML models achieve detection accuracies exceeding 90\%. This is an important improvement, especially considering that a significant portion of $\nu$ELN crossings in these models eluded detection by earlier methods.


(1340)Vortex creep heating vs. dark matter heating in neutron stars
  • Motoko Fujiwara,
  • Koichi Hamaguchi,
  • Natsumi Nagata,
  • Maura E. Ramirez-Quezada
Physics Letters B (01/2024) doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2023.138341
abstract + abstract -

Dark matter particles captured in neutron stars deposit their energy as heat. This DM heating effect can be observed only if it dominates over other internal heating effects in neutron stars. In this work, as an example of such an internal heating source, we consider the frictional heating caused by the creep motion of neutron superfluid vortex lines in the neutron star crust. The luminosity of this heating effect is controlled by the strength of the interaction between the vortex lines and nuclei in the crust, which can be estimated from the many-body calculation of a high-density nuclear system as well as through the temperature observation of old neutron stars. We show that both the temperature observation and theoretical calculation suggest that the vortex creep heating dominates over the DM heating. The vortex-nuclei interaction must be smaller than the estimated values by several orders of magnitude to overturn this.


CN-7
(1339)Large Neutrino Secret Interactions Have a Small Impact on Supernovae
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Georg G. Raffelt,
  • Edoardo Vitagliano
abstract + abstract -

When hypothetical neutrino secret interactions (ν SI ) are large, they form a fluid in a supernova (SN) core, flow out with sonic speed, and stream away as a fireball. For the first time, we tackle the complete dynamical problem and solve all steps, systematically using relativistic hydrodynamics. The impact on SN physics and the neutrino signal is remarkably small. For complete thermalization within the fireball, the observable spectrum changes in a way that is independent of the coupling strength. One potentially large effect beyond our study is quick deleptonization if ν SI violate lepton number. By present evidence, however, SN physics leaves open a large region in parameter space, where laboratory searches and future high-energy neutrino telescopes will probe ν SI .


CN-7
(1338)Supernova emission of secretly interacting neutrino fluid: Theoretical foundations
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Georg G. Raffelt,
  • Edoardo Vitagliano
abstract + abstract -

Neutrino-neutrino scattering could have a large secret component that would turn neutrinos within a supernova (SN) core into a self-coupled fluid. Neutrino transport within the SN core, emission from its surface, expansion into space, and the flux spectrum and time structure at Earth might all be affected. We examine these questions from first principles. First, diffusive transport differs only by a modified spectral average of the interaction rate. We next study the fluid energy transfer between a hot and a cold blackbody surface in plane-parallel and spherical geometry. The key element is the decoupling process within the radiating bodies, which themselves are taken to be isothermal. For a zero-temperature cold plate, mimicking radiation into free space by the hot plate, the energy flux is 3%-4% smaller than the usual Stefan-Boltzmann law. The fluid energy density just outside the hot plate is numerically 0.70 of the standard case, the outflow velocity is the speed of sound vs=c /√{3 } , conspiring to a nearly unchanged energy flux. Our results provide the crucial boundary condition for the expansion of the self-interacting fluid into space, assuming an isothermal neutrino sphere. We also derive a dynamical solution, assuming the emission suddenly begins at some instant. A neutrino front expands in space with luminal speed, whereas the outflow velocity at the radiating surface asymptotically approaches vs from above. Asymptotically, one thus recovers the steady-state emission found in the two-plate model. A sudden end to neutrino emission leads to a fireball with constant thickness equal to the duration of neutrino emission.


(1337)The DRAGON-II simulations - III. Compact binary mergers in clusters with up to 1 million stars: Mass, spin, eccentricity, merger rate and pair instability supernovae rate.
  • Manuel Arca Sedda,
  • Albrecht W. H. Kamlah,
  • Rainer Spurzem,
  • Francesco Paolo Rizzuto,
  • Mirek Giersz
  • +2
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (01/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad3951
abstract + abstract -

Compact binary mergers forming in star clusters may exhibit distinctive features that can be used to identify them among observed gravitational-wave (GW) sources. Such features likely depend on the host cluster structure and the physics of massive star evolution. Here, we dissect the population of compact binary mergers in the DRAGON-II simulation database, a suite of 19 direct N-body models representing dense star clusters with up to 106 stars and $<33~{{\%}}$ of stars in primordial binaries. We find a substantial population of black hole binary (BBH) mergers, some of them involving an intermediate-mass BH (IMBH), and a handful mergers involving a stellar BH and either a neutron star (NS) or a white dwarf (WD). Primordial binary mergers, $\sim 30~{{\%}}$ of the whole population, dominate ejected mergers. Dynamical mergers, instead, dominate the population of in-cluster mergers and are systematically heavier than primordial ones. Around 20 % of DRAGON-II mergers are eccentric in the LISA band and 5 % in the LIGO band. We infer a mean cosmic merger rate of $\mathcal {R}\sim 30(4.4)(1.2)$ yr-1 Gpc-3 for BBHs, NS-BH, and WD-BH binary mergers, respectively, and discuss the prospects for multimessenger detection of WD-BH binaries with LISA. We model the rate of pair-instability supernovae (PISNe) in star clusters and find that surveys with a limiting magnitude mbol = 25 can detect ~1 - 15 yr-1 PISNe. Comparing these estimates with future observations could help to pin down the impact of massive star evolution on the mass spectrum of compact stellar objects in star clusters.


(1336)The Uchuu-SDSS galaxy lightcones: A clustering, Redshift Space Distortion and Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation study
  • C. A. Dong-Páez,
  • A. Smith,
  • A. O. Szewciw,
  • J. Ereza,
  • M. H. Abdullah
  • +9
  • C. Hernández-Aguayo,
  • S. Trusov,
  • F. Prada,
  • A. Klypin,
  • T. Ishiyama,
  • A. Berlind,
  • P. Zarrouk,
  • J. López Cacheiro,
  • J. Ruedas
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (01/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae062
abstract + abstract -

We present the data release of the Uchuu-SDSS galaxies: a set of 32 high-fidelity galaxy lightcones constructed from the large Uchuu 2.1 trillion particles N-body simulation using Planck cosmology. We adopt subhalo abundance matching to populate the Uchuu-box halo catalogues with SDSS galaxy luminosities. These box catalogues generated at several redshifts are combined to create a set of lightcones with redshift-evolving galaxy properties. The Uchuu-SDSS galaxy lightcones are built to reproduce the footprint and statistical properties of the SDSS main galaxy survey, along with stellar masses and star formation rates. This facilitates a direct comparison of the observed SDSS and simulated Uchuu-SDSS data. Our lightcones reproduce a large number of observational results, such as the distribution of galaxy properties, galaxy clustering, stellar mass functions, and halo occupation distributions. Using simulated and real data we select samples of bright red galaxies at zeff = 0.15 to explore Redshift Space Distortions and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) by fitting the full two-point correlation function and the BAO peak. We create a set of 5100 galaxy lightcones using GLAM N-body simulations to compute covariance errors. We report a $\sim 30~{{\%}}$ precision increase on fσ8 and the pre-reconstruction BAO scale, due to our better estimate of the covariance matrix. From our BAO-inferred α and α parameters, we obtain the first SDSS measurements of the Hubble and angular diameter distances $D_\mathrm{H}(z=0.15) / r_d = 27.9^{+3.1}_{-2.7}$, $D_\mathrm{M}(z=0.15) / r_d = 5.1^{+0.4}_{-0.4}$. Overall, we conclude that the Planck Λ CDM cosmology nicely explains the observed large-scale structure statistics of SDSS. All data sets are made publicly available.


CN-7
(1335)Collective neutrino-antineutrino oscillations in dense neutrino environments?
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Georg G. Raffelt,
  • Günter Sigl
abstract + abstract -

The paradigm-changing possibility of collective neutrino-antineutrino oscillations was recently advanced in analogy to collective flavor oscillations. However, the amplitude for the backward scattering process $\nu_{\mathbf{p}_1}\overline\nu_{\mathbf{p}_2}\to\nu_{\mathbf{p}_2}\overline\nu_{\mathbf{p}_1}$ is helicity-suppressed and vanishes for massless neutrinos, implying that there is no off-diagonal refractive index between $\nu$ and $\overline\nu$ of a single flavor of massless neutrinos. For a nonvanishing mass, collective helicity oscillations are possible, representing de-facto $\nu$--$\overline\nu$ oscillations in the Majorana case. However, such phenomena are suppressed by the smallness of neutrino masses as discussed in the previous literature.


(1334)Tracing the ejecta from cosmic nucleosynthesis
  • Roland Diehl
abstract + abstract -

Long-lived radioactive by-products of nucleosynthesis provide an opportunity to trace the flow of ejecta away from its sources for times beyond where ejecta can be seen otherwise. Gamma rays from such radioactive decay in interstellar space can be measured with space-borne telescopes. A prominent useful example is 26Al with a radioactive decay time of one My. Such observations have revealed that typical surroundings of massive stars are composed of large cavities, extending to kpc sizes. Implications are that material recycling into new stars is twofold: rather direct as parental clouds are hosts to new star formation triggered by feedback, and more indirect as these large cavities merge with ambient interstellar gas after some delay. Kinematic measurements of hot interstellar gas carrying such ejecta promises important measurements complementing stellar and dense gas kinematics.


(1333)Supramolecular assemblies in active motor-filament systems: micelles, bilayers, and foams
  • Filippo De Luca,
  • Ivan Maryshev,
  • Erwin Frey
abstract + abstract -

Active matter systems evade the constraints of thermal equilibrium, leading to the emergence of intriguing collective behavior. A paradigmatic example is given by motor-filament mixtures, where the motion of motor proteins drives alignment and sliding interactions between filaments and their self-organization into macroscopic structures. After defining a microscopic model for these systems, we derive continuum equations, exhibiting the formation of active supramolecular assemblies such as micelles, bilayers and foams. The transition between these structures is driven by a branching instability, which destabilizes the orientational order within the micelles, leading to the growth of bilayers at high microtubule densities. Additionally, we identify a fingering instability, modulating the shape of the micelle interface at high motor densities. We study the role of various mechanisms in these two instabilities, such as contractility, active splay, and anchoring, allowing for generalization beyond the system considered here.


(1332)Combined track finding with GNN &amp; CKF
  • Lukas Heinrich,
  • Benjamin Huth,
  • Andreas Salzburger,
  • Tilo Wettig
abstract + abstract -

The application of Graph Neural Networks (GNN) in track reconstruction is a promising approach to cope with the challenges arising at the High-Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). GNNs show good track-finding performance in high-multiplicity scenarios and are naturally parallelizable on heterogeneous compute architectures. Typical high-energy-physics detectors have high resolution in the innermost layers to support vertex reconstruction but lower resolution in the outer parts. GNNs mainly rely on 3D space-point information, which can cause reduced track-finding performance in the outer regions. In this contribution, we present a novel combination of GNN-based track finding with the classical Combinatorial Kalman Filter (CKF) algorithm to circumvent this issue: The GNN resolves the track candidates in the inner pixel region, where 3D space points can represent measurements very well. These candidates are then picked up by the CKF in the outer regions, where the CKF performs well even for 1D measurements. Using the ACTS infrastructure, we present a proof of concept based on truth tracking in the pixels as well as a dedicated GNN pipeline trained on $t\bar{t}$ events with pile-up 200 in the OpenDataDetector.


(1331)Quenched Static force from generalized Wilson loops with gradient flow
  • Julian Mayer-Steudte
abstract + abstract -

We compute the static force on the lattice in the quenched case directly through generalized Wilson loops. We modify the Wilson loop by inserting an $E$-field component on one of the temporal Wilson lines. However, chromo-field components prevent us from performing the continuum limit properly, hence, we use gradient flow to renormalize the field insertion. As a result, we obtain continuum results and compare them to perturbative expression to extract $\Lambda_0$, and we predict the value $\sqrt{8t_0} \Lambda_{\overline{\textrm{MS}}}^{n_f=0} =0.629^{+22}_{-26}$. This work serves as preparation for similar operators with field insertions required in nonrelativistic effective field theories.


(1330)Disk Evolution Study Through Imaging of Nearby Young Stars (DESTINYS): HD 34700 A unveils an inner ring
  • G. Columba,
  • E. Rigliaco,
  • R. Gratton,
  • D. Mesa,
  • V. D'Orazi
  • +16
  • C. Ginski,
  • N. Engler,
  • J. P. Williams,
  • J. Bae,
  • M. Benisty,
  • T. Birnstiel,
  • P. Delorme,
  • C. Dominik,
  • S. Facchini,
  • F. Menard,
  • P. Pinilla,
  • C. Rab,
  • Á. Ribas,
  • V. Squicciarini,
  • R. G. van Holstein,
  • A. Zurlo
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (01/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347109
abstract + abstract -

Context. The study of protoplanetary disks is fundamental to understand their evolution and interaction with the surrounding environment, and to constrain planet formation mechanisms.
Aims: We aim to characterise the young binary system HD 34700 A, which shows a wealth of structures.
Methods: Taking advantage of the high-contrast imaging instruments SPHERE at the VLT, LMIRCam at the LBT, and of ALMA observations, we analyse this system at multiple wavelengths. We study the morphology of the rings and spiral arms and the scattering properties of the dust. We discuss the possible causes of all the observed features.
Results: We detect for the first time, in the Hα band, a ring extending from ~65 au to ~120 au, inside the ring which is already known from recent studies. These two have different physical and geometrical properties. Based on the scattering properties, the outer ring may consist of grains with a typical size of aout ≥ 4 µm, while the inner ring has a smaller typical size of ain ≤ 0.4 µm. Two extended logarithmic spiral arms stem from opposite sides of the disk. The outer ring appears as a spiral arm itself, with a variable radial distance from the centre and extended substructures. ALMA data confirm the presence of a millimetric dust substructure centred just outside the outer ring, and detect misaligned gas rotation patterns for HD 34700 A and B.
Conclusions: The complexity of HD 34700 A, revealed by the variety of observed features, suggests the existence of one or more disk-shaping physical mechanisms. Our findings are compatible with the presence inside the disk of an as of yet undetected planet of several Jupiter masses and the system interaction with the surroundings, by means of gas cloudlet capture or flybys. Further observations with JWST/MIRI or ALMA (gas kinematics) could shed more light on them.


(1329)Bulge-disc decomposition of the Hydra cluster galaxies in 12 bands
  • Ciria Lima-Dias,
  • Antonela Monachesi,
  • Sergio Torres-Flores,
  • Arianna Cortesi,
  • Daniel Hernández-Lang
  • +13
  • Gissel P. Montaguth,
  • Yolanda Jiménez-Teja,
  • Swayamtrupta Panda,
  • Karín Menéndez-Delmestre,
  • Thiago S. Gonçalves,
  • Hugo Méndez-Hernández,
  • Eduardo Telles,
  • Paola Dimauro,
  • Clécio R. Bom,
  • Claudia Mendes de Oliveira,
  • Antonio Kanaan,
  • Tiago Ribeiro,
  • William Schoenell
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (01/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad3571
abstract + abstract -

When a galaxy falls into a cluster, its outermost parts are the most affected by the environment. In this paper, we are interested in studying the influence of a dense environment on different galaxy's components to better understand how this affects the evolution of galaxies. We use, as laboratory for this study, the Hydra cluster which is close to virialization; yet it still shows evidence of substructures. We present a multiwavelength bulge-disc decomposition performed simultaneously in 12 bands from S-PLUS (Southern Photometric Local Universe Survey) data for 52 galaxies brighter than mr = 16. We model the galaxies with a Sérsic profile for the bulge and an exponential profile for the disc. We find that the smaller, more compact, and bulge-dominated galaxies tend to exhibit a redder colour at a fixed stellar mass. This suggests that the same mechanisms (ram-pressure and tidal stripping) that are causing the compaction in these galaxies are also causing them to stop forming stars. The bulge size is unrelated to the galaxy's stellar mass, while the disc size increases with greater stellar mass, indicating the dominant role of the disc in the overall galaxy mass-size relation found. Furthermore, our analysis of the environment unveils that quenched galaxies are prevalent in regions likely associated with substructures. However, these areas also harbour a minority of star-forming galaxies, primarily resulting from galaxy interactions. Lastly, we find that ~37 per cent of the galaxies exhibit bulges that are bluer than their discs, indicative of an outside-in quenching process in this type of dense environments.


(1328)The elusive atmosphere of WASP-12 b / High-resolution transmission spectroscopy with CARMENES
  • S. Czesla,
  • M. Lampón,
  • D. Cont,
  • F. Lesjak,
  • J. Orell-Miquel
  • +17
  • J. Sanz-Forcada,
  • E. Nagel,
  • L. Nortmann,
  • K. Molaverdikhani,
  • M. López-Puertas,
  • F. Yan,
  • A. Quirrenbach,
  • J. A. Caballero,
  • E. Pallé,
  • J. Aceituno,
  • P. J. Amado,
  • Th. Henning,
  • S. Khalafinejad,
  • D. Montes,
  • A. Reiners,
  • I. Ribas,
  • A. Schweitzer
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

To date, the hot Jupiter WASP-12 b has been the only planet with confirmed orbital decay. The late F-type host star has been hypothesized to be surrounded by a large structure of circumstellar material evaporated from the planet. We obtained two high-resolution spectral transit time series with CARMENES and extensively searched for absorption signals by the atomic species Na, H, Ca, and He using transmission spectroscopy, thereby covering the He I triplet with high resolution for the first time. We apply SYSREM for atomic line transmission spectroscopy, introduce the technique of signal protection to improve the results for individual absorption lines, and compare the outcomes to those of established methods. No transmission signals were detected and the most stringent upper limits as of yet were derived for the individual indicators. Nonetheless, we found variation in the stellar Halpha and He I lines, the origin of which remains uncertain but is unlikely to be activity. To constrain the enigmatic activity state of WASP-12, we analyzed XMM-Newton X-ray data and found the star to be moderately active at most. We deduced an upper limit for the X-ray luminosity and the irradiating X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) flux of WASP-12 b. Based on the XUV flux upper limit and the lack of the He I signal, our hydrodynamic models slightly favor a moderately irradiated planet with a thermospheric temperature of <= 12,000 K, and a conservative upper limit of <= 4e12 g/s on the mass-loss rate. Our study does not provide evidence for an extended planetary atmosphere or absorption by circumstellar material close to the planetary orbit.


(1327)At the end of cosmic noon: Short gas depletion times in unobscured quasars at $z \sim$ 1
  • M. Frias Castillo,
  • M. Rybak,
  • J. Hodge,
  • P. van der Werf,
  • L. J. Abbo
  • +6
  • F. J. Ballieux,
  • S. Ward,
  • C. Harrison,
  • G. Calistro Rivera,
  • J. P. McKean,
  • H. R. Stacey
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Unobscured quasars (QSOs) are predicted to be the final stage in the evolutionary sequence from gas-rich mergers to gas-depleted, quenched galaxies. Studies of this population, however, find a high incidence of far-infrared-luminous sources -suggesting significant dust-obscured star formation-but direct observations of the cold molecular gas fuelling this star formation are still necessary. We present a NOEMA study of CO(2-1) emission, tracing the cold molecular gas, in ten lensed z=1-1.5 unobscured QSOs. We detected CO(2-1) in seven of our targets, four of which also show continuum emission (\lambda_rest = 1.3mm). After subtracting the foreground galaxy contribution to the photometry, spectral energy distribution fitting yielded stellar masses of 10^9-11 M_\odot, with star formation rates of 25-160 M_\odot yr^-1 for the host galaxies. These QSOs have lower $L'_\mathrm{CO}$ than star-forming galaxies with the same L_IR, and show depletion times spanning a large range (50-900 Myr), but with a median of just 90 Myr. We find molecular gas masses in the range 2-40 x 10^9(alpha_CO/4) M_\odot, which suggest gas fractions above ~50% for most of the targets. Despite the presence of an unobscured QSO, the host galaxies are able to retain significant amounts of cold gas. However, with a median depletion time of ~90 Myr, the intense burst of star formation taking place in these targets will quickly deplete their molecular gas reservoirs in the absence of gas replenishment, resulting in a quiescent host galaxy. The non-detected QSOs are three of the four radio-loud QSOs in the sample, and their properties indicate that they are likely already transitioning into quiescence. Recent cosmological simulations tend to overestimate the depletion times expected for these z~1 QSO-host galaxies, which is likely linked to their difficulty producing starbursts across the general high-redshift galaxy population.


(1326)Insights into the broad-band emission of the TeV blazar Mrk 501 during the first X-ray polarization measurements
  • S. Abe,
  • J. Abhir,
  • V. A. Acciari,
  • A. Aguasca-Cabot,
  • I. Agudo
  • +259
  • T. Aniello,
  • S. Ansoldi,
  • L. A. Antonelli,
  • A. Arbet Engels,
  • C. Arcaro,
  • K. Asano,
  • A. Babić,
  • A. Baquero,
  • U. Barres de Almeida,
  • J. A. Barrio,
  • I. Batković,
  • A. Bautista,
  • J. Baxter,
  • J. Becerra González,
  • W. Bednarek,
  • E. Bernardini,
  • M. Bernardos,
  • J. Bernete,
  • A. Berti,
  • J. Besenrieder,
  • C. Bigongiari,
  • A. Biland,
  • O. Blanch,
  • G. Bonnoli,
  • Ž. Bošnjak,
  • I. Burelli,
  • G. Busetto,
  • A. Campoy-Ordaz,
  • A. Carosi,
  • R. Carosi,
  • M. Carretero-Castrillo,
  • A. J. Castro-Tirado,
  • G. Ceribella,
  • Y. Chai,
  • A. Cifuentes,
  • E. Colombo,
  • J. L. Contreras,
  • J. Cortina,
  • S. Covino,
  • G. D'Amico,
  • V. D'Elia,
  • P. Da Vela,
  • F. Dazzi,
  • A. De Angelis,
  • B. De Lotto,
  • R. de Menezes,
  • A. Del Popolo,
  • M. Delfino,
  • J. Delgado,
  • C. Delgado Mendez,
  • F. Di Pierro,
  • L. Di Venere,
  • D. Dominis Prester,
  • A. Donini,
  • D. Dorner,
  • M. Doro,
  • D. Elsaesser,
  • G. Emery,
  • J. Escudero,
  • L. Fariña,
  • A. Fattorini,
  • L. Foffano,
  • L. Font,
  • S. Fröse,
  • Y. Fukazawa,
  • R. J. García López,
  • M. Garczarczyk,
  • S. Gasparyan,
  • M. Gaug,
  • J. G. Giesbrecht Paiva,
  • N. Giglietto,
  • F. Giordano,
  • P. Gliwny,
  • N. Godinović,
  • T. Gradetzke,
  • R. Grau,
  • D. Green,
  • J. G. Green,
  • P. Günther,
  • D. Hadasch,
  • A. Hahn,
  • T. Hassan,
  • L. Heckmann,
  • J. Herrera,
  • D. Hrupec,
  • M. Hütten,
  • R. Imazawa,
  • K. Ishio,
  • I. Jiménez Mart'inez,
  • T. Kayanoki,
  • D. Kerszberg,
  • G. W. Kluge,
  • Y. Kobayashi,
  • P. M. Kouch,
  • H. Kubo,
  • J. Kushida,
  • M. Láinez Lezáun,
  • A. Lamastra,
  • F. Leone,
  • E. Lindfors,
  • L. Linhoff,
  • S. Lombardi,
  • F. Longo,
  • R. López-Coto,
  • M. López-Moya,
  • A. López-Oramas,
  • S. Loporchio,
  • A. Lorini,
  • E. Lyard,
  • B. Machado de Oliveira Fraga,
  • P. Majumdar,
  • M. Makariev,
  • G. Maneva,
  • N. Mang,
  • M. Manganaro,
  • S. Mangano,
  • K. Mannheim,
  • M. Mariotti,
  • M. Martínez,
  • M. Martínez-Chicharro,
  • A. Mas-Aguilar,
  • D. Mazin,
  • S. Menchiari,
  • S. Mender,
  • D. Miceli,
  • T. Miener,
  • J. M. Miranda,
  • R. Mirzoyan,
  • M. Molero González,
  • E. Molina,
  • H. A. Mondal,
  • A. Moralejo,
  • D. Morcuende,
  • T. Nakamori,
  • C. Nanci,
  • V. Neustroev,
  • C. Nigro,
  • L. Nikolić,
  • K. Nilsson,
  • K. Nishijima,
  • T. Njoh Ekoume,
  • K. Noda,
  • S. Nozaki,
  • Y. Ohtani,
  • A. Okumura,
  • J. Otero-Santos,
  • S. Paiano,
  • M. Palatiello,
  • D. Paneque,
  • R. Paoletti,
  • J. M. Paredes,
  • M. Peresano,
  • M. Persic,
  • M. Pihet,
  • G. Pirola,
  • F. Podobnik,
  • P. G. Prada Moroni,
  • E. Prandini,
  • G. Principe,
  • C. Priyadarshi,
  • W. Rhode,
  • M. Ribó,
  • J. Rico,
  • C. Righi,
  • N. Sahakyan,
  • T. Saito,
  • K. Satalecka,
  • F. G. Saturni,
  • B. Schleicher,
  • K. Schmidt,
  • F. Schmuckermaier,
  • J. L. Schubert,
  • T. Schweizer,
  • A. Sciaccaluga,
  • G. Silvestri,
  • J. Sitarek,
  • D. Sobczynska,
  • A. Spolon,
  • A. Stamerra,
  • J. Strišković,
  • D. Strom,
  • Y. Suda,
  • S. Suutarinen,
  • H. Tajima,
  • M. Takahashi,
  • R. Takeishi,
  • F. Tavecchio,
  • P. Temnikov,
  • K. Terauchi,
  • T. Terzić,
  • M. Teshima,
  • L. Tosti,
  • S. Truzzi,
  • A. Tutone,
  • S. Ubach,
  • J. van Scherpenberg,
  • S. Ventura,
  • I. Viale,
  • C. F. Vigorito,
  • V. Vitale,
  • I. Vovk,
  • R. Walter,
  • M. Will,
  • C. Wunderlich,
  • T. Yamamoto,
  • I. Liodakis,
  • F. J. Aceituno,
  • B. Agís-González,
  • H. Akitaya,
  • M. I. Bernardos,
  • D. Blinov,
  • I. G. Bourbah,
  • C. Casadio,
  • V. Casanova,
  • F. D'Ammando,
  • V. Fallah Ramazani,
  • E. Fernández-García,
  • Y. Fukazawa,
  • M. García-Comas,
  • E. Gau,
  • A. Gokus,
  • M. Gurwell,
  • P. Hakala,
  • T. Hovatta,
  • Y. -D. Hu,
  • C. Husillos,
  • J. Jormanainen,
  • S. G. Jorstad,
  • K. S. Kawabata,
  • G. K. Keating,
  • S. Kiehlmann,
  • E. Kontopodis,
  • H. Krawczynski,
  • A. Lähteenmäki,
  • C. Leto,
  • L. Lisalda,
  • N. Mandarakas,
  • A. Marchini,
  • A. P. Marscher,
  • W. Max-Moerbeck,
  • R. Middei,
  • T. Mizuno,
  • I. Myserlis,
  • T. Nakaoka,
  • M. Perri,
  • S. Puccetti,
  • R. Rao,
  • A. C. S. Readhead,
  • R. Reeves,
  • N. Rodriguez Cavero,
  • Q. Salomé,
  • M. Sasada,
  • R. Skalidis,
  • A. Sota,
  • I. Syrjärinne,
  • M. Tornikoski,
  • M. Uemura,
  • F. Verrecchia,
  • A. Vervelaki
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present the first multi-wavelength study of Mrk 501 including very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations simultaneous to X-ray polarization measurements from the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE). We use radio-to-VHE data from a multi-wavelength campaign organized between 2022-03-01 and 2022-07-19. The observations were performed by MAGIC, Fermi-LAT, NuSTAR, Swift (XRT and UVOT), and several instruments covering the optical and radio bands. During the IXPE pointings, the VHE state is close to the average behavior with a 0.2-1 TeV flux of 20%-50% the emission of the Crab Nebula. Despite the average VHE activity, an extreme X-ray behavior is measured for the first two IXPE pointings in March 2022 with a synchrotron peak frequency >1 keV. For the third IXPE pointing in July 2022, the synchrotron peak shifts towards lower energies and the optical/X-ray polarization degrees drop. The X-ray polarization is systematically higher than at lower energies, suggesting an energy-stratification of the jet. While during the IXPE epochs the polarization angle in the X-ray, optical and radio bands align well, we find a clear discrepancy in the optical and radio polarization angles in the middle of the campaign. We model the broad-band spectra simultaneous to the IXPE pointings assuming a compact zone dominating in the X-rays and VHE, and an extended zone stretching further downstream the jet dominating the emission at lower energies. NuSTAR data allow us to precisely constrain the synchrotron peak and therefore the underlying electron distribution. The change between the different states observed in the three IXPE pointings can be explained by a change of magnetization and/or emission region size, which directly connects the shift of the synchrotron peak to lower energies with the drop in polarization degree.


(1325)Formation of long-period post-common-envelope binaries I. No extra energy is needed to explain oxygen-neon white dwarfs paired with AFGK-type main-sequence stars
  • Diogo Belloni,
  • Monica Zorotovic,
  • Matthias R. Schreiber,
  • Steven G. Parsons,
  • James A. Garbutt
abstract + abstract -

In this first of a series of papers related to long-period post-common-envelope (CE) binaries, we investigated whether extra energy is required or not to explain the currently known post-CE binaries with sufficiently long orbital periods consisting of oxygen-neon white dwarfs with AFGK-type main-sequence star companions. We carried out binary population simulations with the BSE code and searched for their formation pathways. Unlike what has been claimed for a long time, we show that all such post-CE binaries can be explained by assuming inefficient CE evolution, which is consistent with results achieved for the remaining post-CE binaries. There is therefore no need for an extra energy source. We also found that for CE efficiency close to 100%, post-CE binaries hosting oxygen-neon white dwarfs with orbital periods as long as a thousand days can be explained. For all known systems we found formation pathways consisting of CE evolution triggered when a highly evolved (i.e. the envelope mass being comparable to the core mass) thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch star fills its Roche lobe at an orbital period of several thousand days. Due to the sufficiently low envelope mass and sufficiently long orbital period, the resulting post-CE orbital period can easily be several tens of days. We conclude that the known post-CE binaries with oxygen-neon white dwarfs and AFGK-type main-sequence stars can be explained without invoking any energy source other than orbital and thermal energy. Our results strengthen the idea that the most common formation pathway of the overall population of post-CE binaries hosting white dwarfs is through inefficient CE evolution.


(1324)Constraint characterization and degree of freedom counting in Lagrangian field theory
  • Verónica Errasti Díez,
  • Markus Maier,
  • Julio A. Méndez-Zavaleta
Physical Review D (01/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.109.025010
abstract + abstract -

We present a Lagrangian approach to counting degrees of freedom in first-order field theories. The emphasis is on the systematic attainment of a complete set of constraints. In particular, we provide the first comprehensive procedure to ensure the functional independence of all constraints and discuss in detail the possible closures of the constraint algorithm. We argue degrees of freedom can but need not correspond to physical modes. The appendix comprises fully worked out, physically relevant examples of varying complexity.


(1323)Unveiling the white dwarf in J191213.72 - 441045.1 through ultraviolet observations
  • Ingrid Pelisoli,
  • Snehalata Sahu,
  • Maxim Lyutikov,
  • Maxim Barkov,
  • Boris T. Gänsicke
  • +5
  • Jaco Brink,
  • David A. H. Buckley,
  • Stephen B. Potter,
  • Axel Schwope,
  • S. H. Ramírez
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (01/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad3442
abstract + abstract -

J191213.72 - 441045.1 is a binary system composed of a white dwarf and an M-dwarf in a 4.03-h orbit. It shows emission in radio, optical, and X-ray, all modulated at the white dwarf spin period of 5.3 min, as well as various orbital sideband frequencies. Like in the prototype of the class of radio-pulsing white dwarfs, AR Scorpii, the observed pulsed emission seems to be driven by the binary interaction. In this work, we present an analysis of far-ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph at the Hubble Space Telescope, in which we directly detect the white dwarf in J191213.72 - 441045.1. We find that the white dwarf has a temperature of Teff = 11485 ± 90 K and mass of 0.59 ± 0.05 M. We place a tentative upper limit on the magnetic field of ≈50 MG. If the white dwarf is in thermal equilibrium, its physical parameters would imply that crystallization has not started in the core of the white dwarf. Alternatively, the effective temperature could have been affected by compressional heating, indicating a past phase of accretion. The relatively low upper limit to the magnetic field and potential lack of crystallization that could generate a strong field pose challenges to pulsar-like models for the system and give preference to propeller models with a low magnetic field. We also develop a geometric model of the binary interaction which explains many salient features of the system.


(1322)TIPSY: Trajectory of Infalling Particles in Streamers around Young stars. Dynamical analysis of the streamers around S CrA and HL Tau
  • Aashish Gupta,
  • Anna Miotello,
  • Jonathan P. Williams,
  • Til Birnstiel,
  • Michael Kuffmeier
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

Context. Elongated trails of infalling gas, often referred to as "streamers," have recently been observed around young stellar objects (YSOs) at different evolutionary stages. This asymmetric infall of material can significantly alter star and planet formation processes, especially in the more evolved YSOs. Aims. In order to ascertain the infalling nature of observed streamer-like structures and then systematically characterize their dynamics, we developed the code TIPSY (Trajectory of Infalling Particles in Streamers around Young stars). Methods. Using TIPSY, the streamer molecular line emission is first isolated from the disk emission. Then the streamer emission, which is effectively a point cloud in three-dimensional (3D) position-position-velocity space, is simplified to a curve-like representation. The observed streamer curve is then compared to the theoretical trajectories of infalling material. The best-fit trajectories are used to constrain streamer features, such as the specific energy, the specific angular momenta, the infall timescale, and the 3D morphology. Results. We used TIPSY to fit molecular-line ALMA observations of streamers around a Class II binary system, S CrA, and a Class I/II protostar, HL Tau. Our results indicate that both of the streamers are consistent with infalling motion. TIPSY results and mass estimates suggest that S CrA and HL Tau are accreting material at a rate of $\gtrsim27$ M$_{jupiter}$ Myr$^{-1}$ and $\gtrsim5$ M$_{jupiter}$ Myr$^{-1}$, respectively, which can significantly increase the mass budget available to form planets. Conclusions. TIPSY can be used to assess whether the morphology and kinematics of observed streamers are consistent with infalling motion and to characterize their dynamics, which is crucial for quantifying their impact on the protostellar systems.


(1321)Planar three-loop QCD helicity amplitudes for V+jet production at hadron colliders
  • Thomas Gehrmann,
  • Petr Jakubčík,
  • Cesare Carlo Mella,
  • Nikolaos Syrrakos,
  • Lorenzo Tancredi
Physics Letters B (01/2024) doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2023.138369
abstract + abstract -

We compute the planar three-loop Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) corrections to the helicity amplitudes involving a vector boson V = Z ,W±, two quarks and a gluon. These amplitudes are relevant to vector-boson-plus-jet production at hadron colliders and other precision QCD observables. The planar corrections encompass the leading colour factors N3, N2Nf, NNf2 and Nf3 . We provide the finite remainders of the independent helicity amplitudes in terms of multiple polylogarithms, continued to all kinematic regions and in a form which is compact and lends itself to efficient numerical evaluation. The presented amplitude respects the conjectured symbol-adjacency constraints for amplitudes with three massless and one massive leg.


(1320)Formation of long-period post-common-envelope binaries II. Explaining the self-lensing binary KOI 3278
  • Diogo Belloni,
  • Matthias R. Schreiber,
  • Monica Zorotovic
abstract + abstract -

The vast majority of close binaries containing a compact object form through common-envelope (CE) evolution. Despite this importance, we struggle to even understand the energy budget of CE evolution. For decades, observed long-period post-CE binaries have been interpreted as evidence for additional energies to contribute during CE evolution. We have recently shown that this argument is based on simplified assumptions for all long-period post-CE binaries containing massive white dwarfs. The only remaining post-CE binary star that has been claimed to require contributions from additional energy sources to understand its formation is KOI 3278. Here we address in detail the potential evolutionary history of KOI 3278. In particular, we investigated whether extra energy sources, such as recombination energy, are indeed required to explain its existence. We used the 1D stellar evolution code MESA to carry out binary evolution simulations and searched for potential formation pathways for KOI 3278 that are able to explain its observed properties. We found that KOI 3278 can be explained if the white dwarf progenitor filled its Roche lobe during a helium shell flash. In this case, the orbital period of KOI 3278 can be reproduced if the CE binding energy is calculated taking into account gravitational energy and thermodynamic internal energy. While the CE evolution that led to the formation of KOI 3278 must have been efficient, that is, most of the available orbital energy must have been used to unbind the CE, recombination energy is not required. We conclude that currently not a single observed post-CE binary requires to assume energy sources other than gravitational and thermodynamic energy to contribute to CE evolution. KOI 3278, however, remains an intriguing post-CE binary as, unlike its siblings, understanding its existence requires highly efficient CE ejection.


(1319)The SRG/eROSITA all-sky survey: Hard X-ray selected Active Galactic Nuclei
  • Sophia G. H. Waddell,
  • J. Buchner,
  • K. Nandra,
  • M. Salvato,
  • A. Merloni
  • +10
  • I. Gauger,
  • Th. Boller,
  • R. Seppi,
  • J. Wolf,
  • T. Liu,
  • M. Brusa,
  • J. Comparat,
  • T. Dwelly,
  • Z. Igo,
  • B. Musiimenta
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The eROSITA instrument aboard the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) satellite has performed its first all-sky survey between December 2019 and June 2020. This paper presents the resulting hard X-ray (2.3-5 keV) sample, the first created from an all-sky imaging survey in the 2-8 keV band, for sources within western galactic sky. The 5466 hard X-ray selected sources detected with eROSITA are presented and discussed. The Bayesian statistics-based code NWAY is used to identify the counterparts for the X-ray sources. These sources are classified based on their multiwavelength properties, and the literature is searched to identify spectroscopic redshifts, which further inform the source classification. A total of 2547 sources are found to have good-quality counterparts, and 111 of these are detected only in the hard band. Comparing with other hard X-ray selected surveys, the eROSITA hard sample covers a larger redshift range and probes dimmer sources, providing a complementary and expanded sample as compared to Swift-BAT. Examining the column density distribution of missed and detected eROSITA sources present in the follow-up catalog of Swift BAT 70 month sources, it is demonstrated that eROSITA can detect obscured sources with column densities $>10^{24}$ cm$^{-2}$, but that the completeness drops rapidly after $10^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$. A sample of hard-only sources, many of which are likely to be heavily obscured AGN, is also presented and discussed. X-ray spectral fitting reveals that these sources have extremely faint soft X-ray emission and their optical images suggest that they are found in more edge-on galaxies with lower b/a. The resulting X-ray catalog is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for understanding AGN, in particular heavily obscured AGN found in the hard-only sample.


(1318)Spectrum of global string networks and the axion dark matter mass
  • Ken'ichi Saikawa,
  • Javier Redondo,
  • Alejandro Vaquero,
  • Mathieu Kaltschmidt
abstract + abstract -

Cold dark matter axions produced in the post-inflationary Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scenario serve as clear targets for their experimental detection, since it is in principle possible to give a sharp prediction for their mass once we understand precisely how they are produced from the decay of global cosmic strings in the early Universe. In this paper, we perform a dedicated analysis of the spectrum of axions radiated from strings based on large scale numerical simulations of the cosmological evolution of the Peccei-Quinn field on a static lattice. Making full use of the massively parallel code and computing resources, we executed the simulations with up to $11264^3$ lattice sites, which allows us to improve our understanding of the dependence on the parameter controlling the string tension and thus give a more accurate extrapolation of the numerical results. We found that there are several systematic effects that have been overlooked in previous works, such as the dependence on the initial conditions, contaminations due to oscillations in the spectrum, and discretisation effects, some of which could explain the discrepancy in the literature. We confirmed the trend that the spectral index of the axion emission spectrum increases with the string tension, but did not find a clear evidence of whether it continues to increase or saturates to a constant at larger values of the string tension due to the severe discretisation effects. Taking this uncertainty into account and performing the extrapolation with a simple power law assumption on the spectrum, we find that the dark matter mass is predicted in the range of $m_a \approx 95$-$450\,\mu\mathrm{eV}$.


(1317)The eROSITA view of the Abell 3391/95 field. Cluster outskirts and filaments
  • Angie Veronica,
  • Thomas H. Reiprich,
  • Florian Pacaud,
  • Naomi Ota,
  • Jann Aschersleben
  • +15
  • Veronica Biffi,
  • Esra Bulbul,
  • Nicolas Clerc,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Thomas Erben,
  • Efrain Gatuzz,
  • Vittorio Ghirardini,
  • Jürgen Kerp,
  • Matthias Klein,
  • Ang Liu,
  • Teng Liu,
  • Konstantinos Migkas,
  • Miriam E. Ramos-Ceja,
  • Jeremy Sanders,
  • Claudia Spinelli
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (01/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347037
abstract + abstract -

Context. About 30% - 40% of the baryons in the local Universe remain unobserved. Many of these "missing" baryons are expected to reside in the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) of the cosmic web filaments that connect clusters of galaxies. SRG/eROSITA performance verification (PV) observations covered about 15 square degrees of the A3391/95 system and have revealed a ~15 Mpc continuous soft emission connecting several galaxy groups and clusters.
Aims: We aim to characterize the gas properties in the cluster outskirts (R500 < r < R200) and in the detected inter-cluster filaments (> R200) and to compare them to predictions.
Methods: We performed X-ray image and spectral analyses using the eROSITA PV data in order to assess the gas morphology and properties in the outskirts and the filaments in the directions of the previously detected Northern and Southern Filament of the A3391/95 system. We constructed surface brightness profiles using particle-induced background-subtracted, exposure- and Galactic absorption-corrected eROSITA products in the soft band (0.3-2.0 keV). We constrained the temperatures, metallicities, and electron densities through X-ray spectral fitting and compared them with the expected properties of the WHIM. We took particular care of the foreground.
Results: In the filament-facing outskirts of A3391 and the Northern Clump, we find higher temperatures than typical cluster outskirts profiles, with a significance of between 1.6 and 2.8σ, suggesting heating due to their connections with the filaments. We confirm surface brightness excess in the profiles of the Northern, Eastern, and Southern Filaments. From spectral analysis, we detect hot gas of 0.96−0.14+0.17 keV and 1.09−0.06+0.09 for the Northern and Southern Filament, respectively, which are close to the upper WHIM temperature limit. The filament metallicities are below 10% solar metallicity and the electron densities are ranging between 2.6 and 6.3 × 10−5 cm−3. The characteristic properties of the Little Southern Clump (LSC), which is located at a distance of ~1.5R200 from A3395S in the Southern Filament, suggest that it is a small galaxy group. Excluding the LSC from the analysis of the Southern Filament does not significantly change the temperature or metallicity of the gas, but it decreases the gas density by 30%. This shows the importance of taking into account any clumps in order to avoid overestimation of the gas measurement in the outskirts and filament regions.
Conclusions: We present measurements of morphology, temperature, metallicity, and density of individual warm-hot filaments. The electron densities of the filaments are consistent with the WHIM properties as predicted by cosmological simulations, but the temperatures are higher. As both filaments are short (1.8 and 2.7 Mpc) and located in a denser environment, stronger gravitational heating may be responsible for this temperature enhancement. The metallicities are low, but still within the expected range from the simulations.

Image that is displayed in Fig. 1 is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via https://cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/681/A108


(1316)Cepheid Metallicity in the Leavitt Law (C-MetaLL) Survey. V. New multiband (grizJHKs) Cepheid light curves and period-luminosity relations
  • A. Bhardwaj,
  • V. Ripepi,
  • V. Testa,
  • R. Molinaro,
  • M. Marconi
  • +6
  • G. De Somma,
  • E. Trentin,
  • I. Musella,
  • J. Storm,
  • T. Sicignano,
  • G. Catanzaro
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present homogeneous multiband (grizJHKs) time-series observations of 78 Cepheids including 49 fundamental mode variables and 29 first-overtone mode variables. These observations were collected simultaneously using the ROS2 and REMIR instruments at the Rapid Eye Mount telescope. The Cepheid sample covers a large range of distances (0.5 - 19.7 kpc) with varying precision of parallaxes, and thus astrometry-based luminosity fits were used to derive PL and PW relations in optical Sloan (griz) and near-infrared (JHKs) filters. These empirically calibrated relations exhibit large scatter primarily due to larger uncertainties in parallaxes of distant Cepheids, but their slopes agree well with those previously determined in the literature. Using homogeneous high-resolution spectroscopic metallicities of 61 Cepheids covering -1.1 < [Fe/H] < 0.6 dex, we quantified the metallicity dependence of PL and PW relations which varies between $-0.30\pm0.11$ (in Ks) and $-0.55\pm0.12$ (in z) mag/dex in grizJHKs bands. However, the metallicity dependence in the residuals of the PL and PW relations is predominantly seen for metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < -0.3 dex), which also have larger parallax uncertainties. The modest sample size precludes us from separating the contribution to the residuals due to parallax uncertainties, metallicity effects, and reddening errors. While this Cepheid sample is not optimal for calibrating the Leavitt law, upcoming photometric and spectroscopic datasets of the C-MetaLL survey will allow the accurate derivation of PL and PW relations in the Sloan and near-infrared bandpasses, which will be useful for the distance measurements in the era of the Vera C. Rubin Observatory's Legacy Survey of Space and Time and upcoming extremely large telescopes.


(1315)Application of Neural Networks for the Reconstruction of Supernova Neutrino Energy Spectra Following Fast Neutrino Flavor Conversions
  • Sajad Abbar,
  • Meng-Ru Wu,
  • Zewei Xiong
abstract + abstract -

Neutrinos can undergo fast flavor conversions (FFCs) within extremely dense astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and neutron star mergers (NSMs). In this study, we explore FFCs in a \emph{multi-energy} neutrino gas, revealing that when the FFC growth rate significantly exceeds that of the vacuum Hamiltonian, all neutrinos (regardless of energy) share a common survival probability dictated by the energy-integrated neutrino spectrum. We then employ physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) to predict the asymptotic outcomes of FFCs within such a multi-energy neutrino gas. These predictions are based on the first two moments of neutrino angular distributions for each energy bin, typically available in state-of-the-art CCSN and NSM simulations. Our PINNs achieve errors as low as $\lesssim6\%$ and $\lesssim 18\%$ for predicting the number of neutrinos in the electron channel and the relative absolute error in the neutrino moments, respectively.


(1314)Exploring High-Purity Multiparton Scattering at Hadron Colliders
  • Jeppe R. Andersen,
  • Pier Francesco Monni,
  • Luca Rottoli,
  • Gavin P. Salam,
  • Alba Soto-Ontoso
Physical Review Letters (01/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.132.041901
abstract + abstract -

Multiparton interactions are a fascinating phenomenon that occur in almost every high-energy hadron-hadron collision yet are remarkably difficult to study quantitatively. In this Letter, we present a strategy to optimally disentangle multiparton interactions from the primary scattering in a collision. That strategy enables probes of multiparton interactions that are significantly beyond the state of the art, including their characteristic momentum scale, the interconnection between primary and secondary scatters, and the pattern of three and potentially even more simultaneous hard scatterings. This opens a path to powerful new constraints on multiparton interactions for LHC phenomenology and to the investigation of their rich field-theoretical structure.


(1313)Finetuning Foundation Models for Joint Analysis Optimization
  • Matthias Vigl,
  • Nicole Hartman,
  • Lukas Heinrich
abstract + abstract -

In this work we demonstrate that significant gains in performance and data efficiency can be achieved in High Energy Physics (HEP) by moving beyond the standard paradigm of sequential optimization or reconstruction and analysis components. We conceptually connect HEP reconstruction and analysis to modern machine learning workflows such as pretraining, finetuning, domain adaptation and high-dimensional embedding spaces and quantify the gains in the example usecase of searches of heavy resonances decaying via an intermediate di-Higgs system to four $b$-jets.


(1312)The SRG/eROSITA All-Sky Survey: Constraints on AGN Feedback in Galaxy Groups
  • Y. E. Bahar,
  • E. Bulbul,
  • V. Ghirardini,
  • J. S. Sanders,
  • X. Zhang
  • +23
  • A. Liu,
  • N. Clerc,
  • E. Artis,
  • F. Balzer,
  • V. Biffi,
  • S. Bose,
  • J. Comparat,
  • K. Dolag,
  • C. Garrel,
  • B. Hadzhiyska,
  • C. Hernández-Aguayo,
  • L. Hernquist,
  • M. Kluge,
  • S. Krippendorf,
  • A. Merloni,
  • K. Nandra,
  • R. Pakmor,
  • P. Popesso,
  • M. Ramos-Ceja,
  • R. Seppi,
  • V. Springel,
  • J. Weller,
  • S. Zelmer
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the impact of AGN feedback, on the entropy and characteristic temperature measurements of galaxy groups detected in the SRG/eROSITA's first All-Sky Survey (eRASS1) to shed light on the characteristics of the feedback mechanisms. We analyze deeper eROSITA observations of 1178 galaxy groups detected in eRASS1. We divide the sample into 271 subsamples and extract average thermodynamic properties, including electron density, temperature, and entropy at three characteristic radii along with the integrated temperature by jointly analyzing X-ray images and spectra following a Bayesian approach. We present the tightest constraints on the impact of AGN feedback through our average entropy and characteristic temperature measurements of the largest group sample used in X-ray studies, incorporating major systematics in our analysis. We find that entropy shows an increasing trend with temperature in the form of a power-law-like relation at the higher intra-group medium temperatures, while for the low mass groups, a slight flattening is observed on the average entropy. Overall, the observed entropy measurements agree well with the earlier measurements in the literature. The comparisons with the state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulations (MillenniumTNG, Magneticum, OWL simulations) after the applications of the selection function calibrated for our galaxy groups reveal that observed entropy profiles in the cores are below the predictions of simulations. At the mid-region, the entropy measurements agree well with the Magneticum simulations, whereas the predictions of MillenniumTNG and OWL simulations fall below observations. At the outskirts, the overall agreement between the observations and simulations improves, with Magneticum simulations reproducing the observations the best. Our measurements will pave the way for more realistic AGN feedback implementations in simulations.


(1311)Masked Particle Modeling on Sets: Towards Self-Supervised High Energy Physics Foundation Models
  • Lukas Heinrich,
  • Tobias Golling,
  • Michael Kagan,
  • Samuel Klein,
  • Matthew Leigh
  • +2
  • Margarita Osadchy,
  • John Andrew Raine
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We propose masked particle modeling (MPM) as a self-supervised method for learning generic, transferable, and reusable representations on unordered sets of inputs for use in high energy physics (HEP) scientific data. This work provides a novel scheme to perform masked modeling based pre-training to learn permutation invariant functions on sets. More generally, this work provides a step towards building large foundation models for HEP that can be generically pre-trained with self-supervised learning and later fine-tuned for a variety of down-stream tasks. In MPM, particles in a set are masked and the training objective is to recover their identity, as defined by a discretized token representation of a pre-trained vector quantized variational autoencoder. We study the efficacy of the method in samples of high energy jets at collider physics experiments, including studies on the impact of discretization, permutation invariance, and ordering. We also study the fine-tuning capability of the model, showing that it can be adapted to tasks such as supervised and weakly supervised jet classification, and that the model can transfer efficiently with small fine-tuning data sets to new classes and new data domains.


(1310)Tracing the rise of supermassive black holes: A panchromatic search for faint, unobscured quasars at z &gt; 6 with COSMOS-Web and other surveys
  • Irham T. Andika,
  • Knud Jahnke,
  • Masafusa Onoue,
  • John D. Silverman,
  • Itsna K. Fitriana
  • +18
  • Angela Bongiorno,
  • Malte Brinch,
  • Caitlin M. Casey,
  • Andreas Faisst,
  • Steven Gillman,
  • Ghassem Gozaliasl,
  • Christopher C. Hayward,
  • Michaela Hirschmann,
  • Dale Kocevski,
  • Anton M. Koekemoer,
  • Vasily Kokorev,
  • Erini Lambrides,
  • Minju M. Lee,
  • R. Michael Rich,
  • Benny Trakhtenbrot,
  • C. Megan Urry,
  • Stephen M. Wilkins,
  • Aswin P. Vijayan
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We report the identification of 64 new candidates of compact galaxies, potentially hosting faint quasars with bolometric luminosities of $L_\mathrm{bol} = 10^{43}$--10$^{46}$ erg s$^{-1}$, residing in the reionization epoch within the redshift range of $6 \lesssim z \lesssim 8$. These candidates were selected by harnessing the rich multiband datasets provided by the emerging JWST-driven extragalactic surveys, focusing on COSMOS-Web, as well as JADES, UNCOVER, CEERS, and PRIMER. Our search strategy includes two stages: applying stringent photometric cuts to catalog-level data and detailed spectral energy distribution fitting. These techniques effectively isolate the quasar candidates while mitigating contamination from low-redshift interlopers, such as brown dwarfs and nearby galaxies. The selected candidates indicate physical traits compatible with low-luminosity active galactic nuclei, likely hosting $\approx10^5$--$10^7~M_\odot$ supermassive black holes (SMBHs) living in galaxies with stellar masses of $\approx10^8$--$10^{10}~M_\odot$. The SMBHs selected in this study, on average, exhibit an elevated mass compared to their hosts, with the mass ratio distribution slightly higher than those of galaxies in the local Universe. As with other high-$z$ studies, this is at least in part due to the selection method for these quasars. An extensive Monte Carlo analysis provides compelling evidence that heavy black hole seeds from the direct collapse scenario appear to be the preferred pathway to mature this specific subset of SMBHs by $z\approx7$. This work underscores the significance of further spectroscopic observations, as the quasar candidates presented here offer exceptional opportunities to delve into the nature of the earliest galaxies and SMBHs that formed during cosmic infancy.


PhD Thesis
RU-A
(1309)Precision Measurement of the Chiral Anomaly and Improvements of the Data Acquisition System at the COMPASS experiment at CERN
  • Dominik Ecker - Advisor: Stephan Paul
Thesis (9/2023) link
abstract + abstract -

The chiral anomaly, a fundamental property of QCD, relates the coupling of an odd number of Goldstone bosons to vector bosons, e.g. of the coupling of three pions to one photon. This coupling can experimentally be measured in pion-photon scattering. We report on a precision experiment using the COMPASS experiment at CERN where pion-photon scattering is mediated via the Primakoff effect. We present also improvements of monitoring beam stability and of controlling the DAQ of COMPASS.


PhD Thesis
RU-D
(1308)Tracing the evolution of super-massive black holes through cosmic time with luminous active galactic nuclei
  • Julien Wolf - Advisor: Kirpal Nandra
Thesis (6/2023) doi:10.5282/edoc.31872
abstract + abstract -

Black holes are an essential building block of the baryonic structure in the Universe. Their masses range from a few times to a few billion times the mass of our Sun. Super-massive black holes (SMBHs), the largest form of compact objects, are believed to reside at the centre of all galaxies. Scaling relations between host properties and SMBH masses hint at a tight co-evolution between galaxies and their central black holes. In the deep nuclear gravitational potential, matter is accreted onto the SMBH. Under certain conditions, the viscous flow in the accretion disk releases extreme amounts of energy in the form of radiation. The galactic cores irradiating their environment under the effect of accretion are called active galactic nuclei (AGN). Over the last 20 years, quasars, the most luminous sub-species of AGN, have been discovered at ever-increasing distances. [...]


CN-7
PhD Thesis
RU-A
(1307)First measurement of the absorption of anti-3He and anti-3H in matter and its impact on anti-3He propagation in the galaxy
  • Stephan Königstorfer - Advisor: Laura Fabbietti
Thesis (4/2023) link
abstract + abstract -

This work contains the first measurement of the anti-3He and anti-3H inelastic cross sections on matter, measured with the ALICE experiment at the LHC. It also evaluates the effect of the measurements of inelastic cross sections on matter on the propagation of antinuclei through the galaxy, and thus determines the transparency of the galaxy to antinuclei from different sources.


(1306)Constraining the p{\Lambda} interaction from a combined analysis of scattering data and correlation functions
  • D. L. Mihaylov,
  • J. Haidenbauer,
  • V. Mantovani Sarti
abstract + abstract -

This work provides the first combined analysis of low-energy p$\Lambda$ scattering, considering both cross section and correlation data. The obtained results establish the most stringent constraints to date on the two-body p$\Lambda$ interaction, pointing to a weaker attraction than so far accepted. The best set of scattering lengths for the spin singlet and triplet are found to range from $f_0, f_1 = (2.1, 1.56)$ to $(3.34, 1.18)~$fm. With a chiral NY potential fine-tuned to those scattering parameters, the in-medium properties of the $\Lambda$ are explored and a potential depth of $U_\Lambda= -36.3\pm 1.3 \mathrm{(stat)}^{+2.5}_{-6.2}\mathrm{(syst)}$ MeV is found at nuclear matter saturation density.


(1305)Time Delay Cosmography: Analysis of Quadruply Lensed QSO SDSSJ1433 from Wendelstein Observatory
  • G. Queirolo,
  • S. Seitz,
  • A. Riffeser,
  • M. Kluge,
  • R. Bender
  • +5
  • C. Gössl,
  • U. Hopp,
  • C. Ries,
  • M. Schmidt,
  • R. Zöller
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The goal of this work is to obtain a Hubble constant estimate through the study of the quadruply lensed, variable QSO SDSSJ1433+6007. To achieve this we combine multi-filter, archival $\textit{HST}$ data for lens modelling and a dedicated time delay monitoring campaign with the 2.1m Fraunhofer telescope at the $\textit{Wendelstein Observatory}$. The lens modelling is carried out with the public $\texttt{lenstronomy}$ Python package for each of the filters individually. Through this approach, we find that the data in one of the $\textit{HST}$ filters (F160W) contain a light contaminant, that would, if remained undetected, have severely biased the lensing potentials and thus our cosmological inference. After rejecting these data we obtain a combined posterior for the Fermat potential differences from the lens modelling in the remaining filters (F475X, F814W, F105W and F140W) with a precision of $\sim6\%$. The analysis of the $\textit{g'}$-band Wendelstein light curve data is carried out with a free-knot spline fitting method implemented in the public Python $\texttt{PyCS3}$ tools. The precision of the time delays between the QSO images has a range between 7.5 and 9.8$\%$ depending on the brightness of the images and their time delay. We then combine the posteriors for the Fermat potential differences and time delays. Assuming a flat $\Lambda$CDM cosmology, we infer a Hubble parameter of $H_0=76.6^{+7.7}_{-7.0}\frac{\mathrm{km}}{\mathrm{Mpc\;s}}$, reaching $9.6\%$ uncertainty for a single system.


(1304)One loop QCD corrections to $gg \to t\overline{t}H$ at $\mathcal{O}(\epsilon^2)$
  • Federico Buccioni,
  • Philipp Alexander Kreer,
  • Xiao Liu,
  • Lorenzo Tancredi
abstract + abstract -

We compute the one-loop corrections to \tth up to order $\mathcal{O}(\epsilon^2)$ in the dimensional regularization parameter. We apply the projector method to compute polarized amplitudes, which generalize massless helicity amplitudes to the massive case. We employ a semi-numerical strategy to evaluate the scattering amplitudes. We express the form factors through scalar integrals analytically, and obtain separately integration by parts reduction identities in compact form. We integrate numerically the corresponding master integrals with an enhanced implementation of the Auxiliary Mass Flow algorithm. Using a numerical fit method, we concatenate the analytic and the numeric results, to obtain fast and reliable evaluation of the scattering amplitude. This approach improves numerical stability and evaluation time. Our results are implemented in the \texttt{Mathematica} package \texttt{TTH}.


(1303)The static force from generalized Wilson loops on the lattice using gradient flow
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Viljami Leino,
  • Julian Mayer-Steudte,
  • Antonio Vairo
abstract + abstract -

The static QCD force from the lattice can be used to extract $\Lambda_{\overline{\textrm{MS}}}$, which determines the running of the strong coupling. Usually, this is done with a numerical derivative of the static potential. However, this introduces additional systematic uncertainties; thus, we use another observable to measure the static force directly. This observable consists of a Wilson loop with a chromoelectric field insertion. We work in the pure SU(3) gauge theory. We use gradient flow to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and to address the field insertion. We extract $\Lambda_{\overline{\textrm{MS}}}^{n_f=0}$ from the data by exploring different methods to perform the zero flow time limit. We obtain the value $\sqrt{8t_0} \Lambda_{\overline{\textrm{MS}}}^{n_f=0} =0.629^{+22}_{-26}$, where $t_0$ is a flow time reference scale. We also obtain precise determinations of several scales: $r_0/r_1$, $\sqrt{8 t_0}/r_0$, $\sqrt{8 t_0}/r_1$ and we compare to the literature. The gradient flow appears to be a promising method for calculations of Wilson loops with chromolectric and chromomagnetic insertions in quenched and unquenched configurations.


(1302)Two-Higgs Doublet Model Matched to Nonlinear Effective Theory
  • G. Buchalla,
  • F. König,
  • Ch. Müller-Salditt,
  • F. Pandler
abstract + abstract -

We use functional methods to match the Two-Higgs Doublet Model with heavy scalars in the nondecoupling regime to the appropriate nonlinear effective field theory, which takes the form of an electroweak chiral Lagrangian (HEFT). The effective Lagrangian is derived to leading order in the chiral counting. This includes the loop induced $h\to\gamma\gamma$ and $h\to Z\gamma$ local terms, which enter at the same chiral order as their counterparts in the Standard Model. An algorithm is presented that allows us to compute the coefficient functions to all orders in $h$. Some of the all-orders results are given in closed form. The parameter regimes for decoupling, nondecoupling and alignment scenarios in the effective field theory context and some phenomenological implications are briefly discussed.


(1301)LiteBIRD Science Goals and Forecasts: Improving Sensitivity to Inflationary Gravitational Waves with Multitracer Delensing
  • T. Namikawa,
  • A. I. Lonappan,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • N. Bartolo,
  • D. Beck
  • +117
  • K. Benabed,
  • A. Challinor,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • J. Errard,
  • S. Farrens,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • N. Krachmalnicoff,
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • E. Martínez-González,
  • V. Pettorino,
  • G. Piccirilli,
  • M. Ruiz-Granda,
  • B. Sherwin,
  • J. Starck,
  • P. Vielva,
  • R. Akizawa,
  • A. Anand,
  • J. Aumont,
  • R. Aurlien,
  • S. Azzoni,
  • M. Ballardini,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • D. Blinov,
  • M. Bortolami,
  • T. Brinckmann,
  • E. Calabrese,
  • P. Campeti,
  • A. Carones,
  • F. Carralot,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • K. Cheung,
  • L. Clermont,
  • F. Columbro,
  • G. Conenna,
  • A. Coppolecchia,
  • F. Cuttaia,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • T. de Haan,
  • M. De Petris,
  • S. Della Torre,
  • E. Di Giorgi,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • F. Finelli,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • G. Galloni,
  • M. Galloway,
  • M. Georges,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • T. Ghigna,
  • S. Giardiello,
  • C. Gimeno-Amo,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • L. T. Hergt,
  • E. Hivon,
  • K. Kohri,
  • E. Komatsu,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • C. Leloup,
  • M. Lembo,
  • M. López-Caniego,
  • G. Luzzi,
  • B. Maffei,
  • S. Masi,
  • M. Massa,
  • S. Matarrese,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • S. Micheli,
  • A. Moggi,
  • M. Monelli,
  • L. Montier,
  • G. Morgante,
  • B. Mot,
  • L. Mousset,
  • R. Nagata,
  • P. Natoli,
  • A. Novelli,
  • I. Obata,
  • A. Occhiuzzi,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • G. Pascual-Cisneros,
  • V. Pavlidou,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • M. Pinchera,
  • G. Pisano,
  • G. Polenta,
  • G. Puglisi,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • A. Rizzieri,
  • J. Rubino-Martin,
  • Y. Sakurai,
  • D. Scott,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • S. L. Stever,
  • Y. Takase,
  • H. Tanimura,
  • A. Tartari,
  • K. Tassis,
  • L. Terenzi,
  • M. Tristram,
  • L. Vacher,
  • B. van Tent,
  • I. K. Wehus,
  • G. Weymann-Despres,
  • M. Zannoni,
  • Y. Zhou
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We estimate the efficiency of mitigating the lensing $B$-mode polarization, the so-called delensing, for the $LiteBIRD$ experiment with multiple external data sets of lensing-mass tracers. The current best bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, $r$, is limited by lensing rather than Galactic foregrounds. Delensing will be a critical step to improve sensitivity to $r$ as measurements of $r$ become more and more limited by lensing. In this paper, we extend the analysis of the recent $LiteBIRD$ forecast paper to include multiple mass tracers, i.e., the CMB lensing maps from $LiteBIRD$ and CMB-S4-like experiment, cosmic infrared background, and galaxy number density from $Euclid$- and LSST-like survey. We find that multi-tracer delensing will further improve the constraint on $r$ by about $20\%$. In $LiteBIRD$, the residual Galactic foregrounds also significantly contribute to uncertainties of the $B$-modes, and delensing becomes more important if the residual foregrounds are further reduced by an improved component separation method.


(1300)Why Cosmic Voids Matter: Mitigation of Baryonic Physics
  • Nico Schuster,
  • Nico Hamaus,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Jochen Weller
abstract + abstract -

We utilize the Magneticum suite of state-of-the-art hydrodynamical, as well as dark-matter-only simulations to investigate the effects of baryonic physics on cosmic voids in the highest-resolution study of its kind. This includes the size, shape and inner density distributions of voids, as well as their radial density and velocity profiles traced by halos, baryonic and cold dark matter particles. Our results reveal observationally insignificant effects that slightly increase with the inner densities of voids and are exclusively relevant on scales of only a few Mpc. Most notably, we identify deviations in the distributions of baryons and cold dark matter around halo-defined voids, relevant for weak lensing studies. In contrast, we find that voids identified in cold dark matter, as well as in halos of fixed tracer density exhibit nearly indistinguishable distributions and profiles between hydrodynamical and dark-matter-only simulations, consolidating the universality and robustness of the latter for comparisons of void statistics with observations in upcoming surveys. This corroborates that voids are the components of the cosmic web that are least affected by baryonic physics, further enhancing their use as cosmological probes.


(1299)Deep Generative Models for Detector Signature Simulation: An Analytical Taxonomy
  • Hosein Hashemi,
  • Claudius Krause
abstract + abstract -

In modern collider experiments, the quest to explore fundamental interactions between elementary particles has reached unparalleled levels of precision. Signatures from particle physics detectors are low-level objects encoding the physics of collisions. The complete simulation of them in a detector is a memory and storage-intensive task. To address this computational bottleneck in particle physics, "Fast Simulation" has been introduced and refined over the years. The field has seen a surge in interest in surrogate modeling the detector simulation, fueled by the advancements in deep generative models. These models aim to generate responses that are statistically identical to the observed data. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive and exhaustive taxonomic review of the existing literature on the simulation of detector signatures from both methodological and application-wise perspectives. Initially, we formulate the problem of detector signature simulation and discuss its different variations that can be unified. Next, we classify the state-of-the-art methods into four distinct categories based on their underlying model architectures, summarizing their respective generation strategies. We then identify and discuss three key application areas. Finally, we shed light on the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead in detector signature simulation, setting the stage for future research and development.


(1298)Lattice Holography on a Quantum Computer
  • Ying-Ying Li,
  • Muhammad Omer Sajid,
  • Judah Unmuth-Yockey
abstract + abstract -

We explore the potential application of quantum computers to the examination of lattice holography, which extends to the strongly-coupled bulk theory regime. With adiabatic evolution, we compute the ground state of a spin system on a $(2+1)$-dimensional hyperbolic lattice, and measure the spin-spin correlation function on the boundary. Notably, we observe that with achievable resources for coming quantum devices, the correlation function demonstrates an approximate scale-invariant behavior, aligning with the pivotal theoretical predictions of the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence.


(1297)Probing interacting dark sector models with future weak lensing-informed galaxy cluster abundance constraints from SPT-3G and CMB-S4
  • Asmaa Mazoun,
  • Sebastian Bocquet,
  • Mathias Garny,
  • Joseph J. Mohr,
  • Henrique Rubira
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

We forecast the sensitivity of ongoing and future galaxy cluster abundance measurements to detect deviations from the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. Concretely, we consider a class of dark sector models that feature an interaction between dark matter and a dark radiation species (IDM-DR). This setup can be naturally realized by a non-Abelian gauge symmetry and has the potential to explain $S_8$ tensions arising within $\Lambda$CDM. We create mock catalogs of the ongoing SPT-3G as well as the future CMB-S4 surveys of galaxy clusters selected via the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (tSZE). Both datasets are complemented with cluster mass calibration from next-generation weak gravitational lensing data (ngWL) like those expected from the Euclid mission and the Vera C. Rubin Observatory. We consider an IDM-DR scenario with parameters chosen to be in agreement with Planck 2018 data and that also leads to a low value of $S_8$ as indicated by some local structure formation analyses. Accounting for systematic and stochastic uncertainties in the mass determination and the cluster tSZE selection, we find that both SPT-3G$\times$ngWL and CMB-S4$\times$ngWL cluster data will be able to discriminate this IDM-DR model from $\Lambda$CDM, and thus test whether dark matter - dark radiation interactions are responsible for lowering $S_8$. Assuming IDM-DR, we forecast that the temperature of the dark radiation can be determined to about 40% (10%) with SPT-3G$\times$ngWL (CMB-S4$\times$ngWL), considering 68% credibility, while $S_8$ can be recovered with percent-level accuracy. Furthermore, we show that IDM-DR can be discriminated from massive neutrinos, and that cluster counts will be able to constrain the dark radiation temperature to be below $\sim 10%$ (at 95% credibility) of the cosmic microwave background temperature if the true cosmological model is $\Lambda$CDM.


(1296)Interference Effects in $\mathbf{gg \to H \to Z \gamma}$ Beyond Leading Order
  • Federico Buccioni,
  • Federica Devoto,
  • Abdelhak Djouadi,
  • John Ellis,
  • Jérémie Quevillon
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

The ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the LHC have recently announced evidence for the rare Higgs boson decay into a $Z$ boson and a photon. We analyze the interference between the process $gg\! \to \! H \! \to \! Z \gamma$ induced by loops of heavy particles, which is by far the dominant contribution to the signal, and the continuum $gg \to Z \gamma$ QCD background process mediated by light quark loops. This interference modifies the event yield, the resonance line-shape and the apparent mass of the Higgs boson. We calculate the radiative corrections to this interference beyond the leading-order approximation in perturbative QCD and find that, while differing numerically from the corresponding effects on the more studied $gg \! \to \! \gamma \gamma$ signal, they are generally rather small. As such, they do not impact significantly the interpretation of the present measurements of the $H \to Z \gamma$ decay mode.


CN-7
(1295)Collisions and collective flavor conversion: Integrating out the fast dynamics
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Ian Padilla-Gay,
  • Georg G. Raffelt
abstract + abstract -

In dense astrophysical environments, notably core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers, neutrino-neutrino forward scattering can spawn flavor conversion on very short scales. Scattering with the background medium can impact collective flavor conversion in various ways, either damping oscillations or possibly setting off novel collisional flavor instabilities (CFIs). A key feature in this process is the slowness of collisions compared to the much faster dynamics of neutrino-neutrino refraction. Assuming spatial homogeneity, we leverage this hierarchy of scales to simplify the description accounting only for the slow dynamics driven by collisions. We illustrate our new approach both in the case of CFIs and in the case of fast instabilities damped by collisions. In both cases, our strategy provides new equations, the slow-dynamics equations, that simplify the description of flavor conversion and allow us to qualitatively understand the final state of the system after the instability, either collisional or fast, has saturated.


(1294)LiteBIRD Science Goals and Forecasts: A full-sky measurement of gravitational lensing of the CMB
  • A. I. Lonappan,
  • T. Namikawa,
  • G. Piccirilli,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • M. Ruiz-Granda
  • +117
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • N. Bartolo,
  • D. Beck,
  • K. Benabed,
  • A. Challinor,
  • J. Errard,
  • S. Farrens,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • N. Krachmalnicoff,
  • E. Martínez-González,
  • V. Pettorino,
  • B. Sherwin,
  • J. Starck,
  • P. Vielva,
  • R. Akizawa,
  • A. Anand,
  • J. Aumont,
  • R. Aurlien,
  • S. Azzoni,
  • M. Ballardini,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • D. Blinov,
  • M. Bortolami,
  • T. Brinckmann,
  • E. Calabrese,
  • P. Campeti,
  • A. Carones,
  • F. Carralot,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • K. Cheung,
  • L. Clermont,
  • F. Columbro,
  • G. Conenna,
  • A. Coppolecchia,
  • F. Cuttaia,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • M. De Petris,
  • S. Della Torre,
  • E. Di Giorgi,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • F. Finelli,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • G. Galloni,
  • M. Galloway,
  • M. Georges,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • R. T. Génova-Santos,
  • T. Ghigna,
  • S. Giardiello,
  • C. Gimeno-Amo,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • L. T. Hergt,
  • E. Hivon,
  • K. Kohri,
  • E. Komatsu,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • C. Leloup,
  • M. Lembo,
  • M. López-Caniego,
  • G. Luzzi,
  • J. Macias-Perez,
  • B. Maffei,
  • S. Masi,
  • M. Massa,
  • S. Matarrese,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • S. Micheli,
  • A. Moggi,
  • M. Monelli,
  • L. Montier,
  • G. Morgante,
  • B. Mot,
  • L. Mousset,
  • R. Nagata,
  • P. Natoli,
  • A. Novelli,
  • I. Obata,
  • A. Occhiuzzi,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • G. Pascual-Cisneros,
  • V. Pavlidou,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • M. Pinchera,
  • G. Pisano,
  • G. Polenta,
  • G. Puglisi,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • A. Rizzieri,
  • Y. Sakurai,
  • D. Scott,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • S. L. Stever,
  • Y. Takase,
  • H. Tanimura,
  • A. Tartari,
  • K. Tassis,
  • L. Terenzi,
  • M. Tristram,
  • L. Vacher,
  • B. van Tent,
  • I. K. Wehus,
  • G. Weymann-Despres,
  • M. Zannoni,
  • Y. Zhou
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We explore the capability of measuring lensing signals in $LiteBIRD$ full-sky polarization maps. With a $30$ arcmin beam width and an impressively low polarization noise of $2.16\,\mu$K-arcmin, $LiteBIRD$ will be able to measure the full-sky polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) very precisely. This unique sensitivity also enables the reconstruction of a nearly full-sky lensing map using only polarization data, even considering its limited capability to capture small-scale CMB anisotropies. In this paper, we investigate the ability to construct a full-sky lensing measurement in the presence of Galactic foregrounds, finding that several possible biases from Galactic foregrounds should be negligible after component separation by harmonic-space internal linear combination. We find that the signal-to-noise ratio of the lensing is approximately $40$ using only polarization data measured over $90\%$ of the sky. This achievement is comparable to $Planck$'s recent lensing measurement with both temperature and polarization and represents a four-fold improvement over $Planck$'s polarization-only lensing measurement. The $LiteBIRD$ lensing map will complement the $Planck$ lensing map and provide several opportunities for cross-correlation science, especially in the northern hemisphere.


(1293)Dust growth and evolution in protoplanetary disks
  • Tilman Birnstiel
abstract + abstract -

Over the past decade, advancement of observational capabilities, specifically the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and SPHERE instrument, alongside theoretical innovations like pebble accretion, have reshaped our understanding of planet formation and the physics of protoplanetary disks. Despite this progress, mysteries persist along the winded path of micrometer-sized dust, from the interstellar medium, through transport and growth in the protoplanetary disk, to becoming gravitationally bound bodies. This review outlines our current knowledge of dust evolution in circumstellar disks, yielding the following insights: $\bullet$ Theoretical and laboratory studies have accurately predicted the growth of dust particles to sizes that are susceptible to accumulation through transport processes like radial drift and settling. $\bullet$ Critical uncertainties in that process remain the level of turbulence, the threshold collision velocities at which dust growth stalls, and the evolution of dust porosity. $\bullet$ Symmetric and asymmetric substructure are widespread. Dust traps appear to be solving several long-standing issues in planet formation models, and they are observationally consistent with being sites of active planetesimal formation. $\bullet$ In some instances, planets have been identified as the causes behind substructures. This underlines the need to study earlier stages of disks to understand how planets can form so rapidly. In the future, better probes of the physical conditions in optically thick regions, including densities, turbulence strength, kinematics, and particle properties will be essential for unraveling the physical processes at play.


(1292)Cosmological Correlators in massless ${\phi}^4$-theory and the Method of Regions
  • Martin Beneke,
  • Patrick Hager,
  • Andrea F. Sanfilippo
abstract + abstract -

The calculation of loop corrections to the correlation functions of quantum fields during inflation or in the de~Sitter background presents greater challenges than in flat space due to the more complicated form of the mode functions. While in flat space highly sophisticated approaches to Feynman integrals exist, similar tools still remain to be developed for cosmological correlators. However, usually only their late-time limit is of interest. We introduce the method-of-region expansion for cosmological correlators as a tool to extract the late-time limit, and illustrate it with several examples for the interacting, massless, minimally coupled scalar field in de~Sitter space. In particular, we consider the in-in correlator $\langle\phi^2(\eta,q)\phi(\eta,k_1)\phi(\eta,k_2)\rangle$, whose region structure is relevant to anomalous dimensions and matching coefficients in Soft de Sitter effective theory.


(1291)A Nearby Polluted White Dwarf with a 6.2 h Spin Period
  • J. Farihi,
  • A. Robert,
  • N. Walters
abstract + abstract -

This letter reports the first detection of a periodic light curve whose modulation is unambiguously due to rotation in a polluted white dwarf. TESS observations of WD 2138-332, at a distance of 16.1 pc, reveal a 0.39 per cent amplitude modulation with a 6.19 h period. While this rotation is relatively rapid for isolated white dwarfs, it falls within the range of spin periods common to those with detectable magnetic fields, where WD 2138-332 is notably both metal-rich and weakly magnetic. Within the local 20 pc volume of white dwarfs, multi-sector TESS data find no significant periodicities among the remaining 16 polluted objects (five of which are also magnetic), whereas six of 23 magnetic and metal-free targets have light curves consistent with rotation periods between 0.7 and 35 h (three of which are new discoveries). This indicates the variable light curve of WD 2138-332 is primarily a result of magnetism, as opposed to an inhomogeneous distribution of metals. From 13 magnetic and metallic degenerates with acceptable TESS data, a single detection of periodicity suggests that polluted white dwarfs are not rotating as rapidly as their magnetic counterparts, and planet ingestion is thus unlikely to be a significant channel for rapid rotation.


(1290)Soft-photon spectra and the LBK theorem
  • Roger Balsach,
  • Domenico Bonocore,
  • Anna Kulesza
abstract + abstract -

The study of next-to-leading-power (NLP) corrections in soft emissions continues to attract interest both in QCD and in QED. Soft-photon spectra in particular provide a clean case-study for the experimental verification of the Low-Burnett-Kroll (LBK) theorem. In this paper we study the consistency of the LBK theorem in the context of an ambiguity arising from momentum-conservation constraints in the computation of non-radiative amplitudes. We clarify that this ambiguity leads to various possible formulations of the LBK theorem, which are all equivalent up to power-suppressed effects (i.e. beyond the formal accuracy of the LBK theorem). We also propose a new formulation of the LBK theorem with a modified shifted kinematics which facilitates the numerical computation of non-radiative amplitudes with publicly available tools. Furthermore, we present numerical results for soft-photon spectra in the associated production of a muon pair with a photon, both in $e^+e^-$ annihilation and proton-proton collisions.


(1289)Off-lightcone Wilson-line operators in gradient flow
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Xiang-Peng Wang
abstract + abstract -

Off-lightcone Wilson-line operators are constructed using local operators connected by time-like or space-like Wilson lines, which ensure gauge invariance. Off-lightcone Wilson-line operators have broad applications in various contexts. For instance, space-like Wilson-line operators play a crucial role in determining quasi-distribution functions (quasi-PDFs), while time-like Wilson-line operators are essential for understanding quarkonium decay and production within the potential non-relativistic QCD (pNRQCD) framework. In this work, we establish a systematic approach for calculating the matching from the gradient-flow scheme to the $\overline{\rm MS}$ scheme in the limit of small flow time for off-lightcone Wilson-line operators. By employing the one-dimensional auxiliary-field formalism, we simplify the matching procedure, reducing it to the matching of local current operators. We provide one-loop level matching coefficients for these local current operators. For the case of hadronic matrix element related to the quark quasi-PDFs, we show at one-loop level that the finite flow time effect is very small as long as the flow radius is smaller than the physical distance $z$, which is usually satisfied in lattice gradient flow computations. Applications include lattice gradient flow computations of quark/gluon quasi-PDFs, gluonic correlators related to quarkonium decay and production in pNRQCD, and spin-dependent potentials in terms of chromoelectric and chromomagnetic field insertions into a Wilson loop.


(1288)Linking Circumstellar Disk Lifetimes to the Rotational Evolution of Low-mass Stars
  • K. Monsch,
  • J. J. Drake,
  • C. Garraffo,
  • G. Picogna,
  • B. Ercolano
The Astrophysical Journal (12/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad0a60
abstract + abstract -

The high-energy radiation emitted by young stars can have a strong influence on their rotational evolution at later stages. This is because internal photoevaporation is one of the major drivers of the dispersal of circumstellar disks, which surround all newly born low-mass stars during the first few million years of their evolution. Employing an internal EUV/X-ray photoevaporation model, we have derived a simple recipe for calculating realistic inner disk lifetimes of protoplanetary disks. This prescription was implemented into a magnetic-morphology-driven rotational evolution model and is used to investigate the impact of disk locking on the spin evolution of low-mass stars. We find that the length of the disk locking phase has a profound impact on the subsequent rotational evolution of a young star, and the implementation of realistic disk lifetimes leads to an improved agreement of model outcomes with observed rotation period distributions for open clusters of various ages. However, for both young star-forming regions tested in our model, the strong bimodality in rotation periods that is observed in h Per could not be recovered. h Per is only successfully recovered if the model is started from a double-peaked distribution with an initial disk fraction of 65%. However, at an age of only ~1 Myr, such a low disk fraction can only be achieved if an additional disk dispersal process, such as external photoevaporation, is invoked. These results therefore highlight the importance of including realistic disk dispersal mechanisms in rotational evolution models of young stars.


(1287)SUNRISE: The rich molecular inventory of high-redshift dusty galaxies revealed by broadband spectral line surveys
  • Chentao Yang,
  • Alain Omont,
  • Sergio Martín,
  • Thomas G. Bisbas,
  • Pierre Cox
  • +19
  • Alexandre Beelen,
  • Eduardo González-Alfonso,
  • Raphaël Gavazzi,
  • Susanne Aalto,
  • Paola Andreani,
  • Cecilia Ceccarelli,
  • Yu Gao,
  • Mark Gorski,
  • Michel Guélin,
  • Hai Fu,
  • R. J. Ivison,
  • Kirsten K. Knudsen,
  • Matthew Lehnert,
  • Hugo Messias,
  • Sebastien Muller,
  • Roberto Neri,
  • Dominik Riechers,
  • Paul van der Werf,
  • Zhi-Yu Zhang
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (12/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347610
abstract + abstract -

Understanding the nature of high-redshift dusty galaxies requires a comprehensive view of their interstellar medium (ISM) and molecular complexity. However, the molecular ISM at high redshifts is commonly studied using only a few species beyond 12C16O, limiting our understanding. In this paper, we present the results of deep 3 mm spectral line surveys using the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) targeting two strongly lensed dusty galaxies observed when the Universe was less than 1.8 Gyr old: APM 08279+5255, a quasar at redshift z = 3.911, and NCv1.143 (H-ATLAS J125632.7+233625), a z = 3.565 starburst galaxy. The spectral line surveys cover rest-frame frequencies from about 330 to 550 GHz for both galaxies. We report the detection of 38 and 25 emission lines in APM 08279+5255 and NCv1.143, respectively. These lines originate from 17 species, namely CO, 13CO, C18O, CN, CCH, HCN, HCO+, HNC, CS, C34S, H2O, H3O+, NO, N2H+, CH, c-C3H2, and the vibrationally excited HCN and neutral carbon. The spectra reveal the chemical richness and the complexity of the physical properties of the ISM. By comparing the spectra of the two sources and combining the analysis of the molecular gas excitation, we find that the physical properties and the chemical imprints of the ISM are different: the molecular gas is more excited in APM 08279+5255, which exhibits higher molecular gas temperatures and densities compared to NCv1.143; the molecular abundances in APM 08279+5255 are akin to the values of local active galactic nuclei (AGN), showing boosted relative abundances of the dense gas tracers that might be related to high-temperature chemistry and/or the X-ray-dominated regions, while NCv1.143 more closely resembles local starburst galaxies. The most significant differences between the two sources are found in H2O: the 448 GHz ortho-H2O(423 − 330) line is significantly brighter in APM 08279+5255, which is likely linked to the intense far-infrared radiation from the dust powered by AGN. Our astrochemical model suggests that, at such high column densities, far-ultraviolet radiation is less important in regulating the ISM, while cosmic rays (and/or X-rays and shocks) are the key players in shaping the molecular abundances and the initial conditions of star formation. Both our observed CO isotopologs line ratios and the derived extreme ISM conditions (high gas temperatures, densities, and cosmic-ray ionization rates) suggest the presence of a top-heavy stellar initial mass function. From the ∼330-550 GHz continuum, we also find evidence of nonthermal millimeter flux excess in APM 08279+5255 that might be related to the central supermassive black hole. Such deep spectral line surveys open a new window into the physics and chemistry of the ISM and the radiation field of galaxies in the early Universe.

The final data products of the tables derived from UVFIT are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via https://cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/680/A95

We dedicate this paper to the memory of our coauthor and friend, Yu Gao, who passed away in May 2022.


(1286)Conservation and breaking of pseudospin symmetry
  • Ting-Ting Sun,
  • Zhi Pan Li,
  • Peter Ring
Physics Letters B (12/2023) doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2023.138320
abstract + abstract -

Pseudospin symmetry (PSS) is a relativistic dynamical symmetry connected with the lower component of the Dirac spinor. Here, we investigate the conservation and breaking of PSS in the single-nucleon resonant states, as an example, using Green's function method that provides a novel way to precisely describe not only the resonant energies and widths but also the spacial density distributions for both narrow and wide resonances. The PSS conservation and breaking are perfectly displayed in the evolution of resonant parameters and density distributions with the potential depth: In the PSS limit, i.e., when the attractive scalar and repulsive vector potentials have the same magnitude but opposite sign, PSS is exactly conserved with strictly the same energy and width between the PS partners as well as identical density distributions of the lower components. As the potential depth increases, the PSS is broken gradually with energy and width splittings and a phase shift in the density distributions.


(1285)Dust Coagulation Reconciles Protoplanetary Disk Observations with the Vertical Shear Instability. I. Dust Coagulation and the VSI Dead Zone
  • Thomas Pfeil,
  • Tilman Birnstiel,
  • Hubert Klahr
The Astrophysical Journal (12/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad00af
abstract + abstract -

Protoplanetary disks exhibit a vertical gradient in angular momentum, rendering them susceptible to the vertical shear instability (VSI). The most important condition for the onset of this mechanism is a short timescale of thermal relaxation (≲0.1 orbital timescales). Simulations of fully VSI active disks are characterized by turbulent, vertically extended dust layers. This is in contradiction with recent observations of the outer regions of some protoplanetary disks, which appear highly settled. In this work, we demonstrate that the process of dust coagulation can diminish the cooling rate of the gas in the outer disk and extinct the VSI activity. Our findings indicate that the turbulence strength is especially susceptible to variations in the fragmentation velocity of the grains. A small fragmentation velocity of ≈100 cm s-1 results in a fully turbulent simulation, whereas a value of ≈400 cm s-1 results in a laminar outer disk, being consistent with observations. We show that VSI turbulence remains relatively unaffected by variations in the maximum particle size in the inner disk regions. However, we find that dust coagulation can significantly suppress the occurrence of VSI turbulence at larger distances from the central star.


(1284)Revised gas-phase formation network of methyl cyanide: the origin of methyl cyanide and methanol abundance correlation in hot corinos
  • Lisa Giani,
  • Cecilia Ceccarelli,
  • Luca Mancini,
  • Eleonora Bianchi,
  • Fernando Pirani
  • +2
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (12/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad2892
abstract + abstract -

Methyl cyanide (CH3CN) is one of the most abundant and widely spread interstellar complex organic molecules (iCOMs). Several studies found that, in hot corinos, methyl cyanide and methanol abundances are correlated suggesting a chemical link, often interpreted as a synthesis of them on the interstellar grain surfaces. In this article, we present a revised network of the reactions forming methyl cyanide in the gas phase. We carried out an exhaustive review of the gas-phase CH3CN formation routes, propose two new reactions, and performed new quantum mechanics calculations of several reactions. We found that 13 of the 15 reactions reported in the databases KIDA and UDfA have incorrect products and/or rate constants. The new corrected reaction network contains 10 reactions leading to methyl cyanide. We tested the relative importance of those reactions in forming CH3CN using our astrochemical model. We confirm that the radiative association of CH3+ and HCN, forming CH3CNH+, followed by the electron recombination of CH3CNH+, is the most important CH3CN formation route in both cold and warm environments, notwithstanding that we significantly corrected the rate constants and products of both reactions. The two newly proposed reactions play an important role in warm environments. Finally, we found a very good agreement between the CH3CN predicted abundances with those measured in cold (~10 K) and warm (~90 K) objects. Unexpectedly, we also found a chemical link between methanol and methyl cyanide via the CH$_{3}^{+}$ ion, which can explain the observed correlation between the CH3OH and CH3CN abundances measured in hot corinos.


(1283)Coarsening and wavelength selection far from equilibrium: A unifying framework based on singular perturbation theory
  • Henrik Weyer,
  • Fridtjof Brauns,
  • Erwin Frey
Physical Review E (12/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.108.064202
abstract + abstract -

Intracellular protein patterns are described by (nearly) mass-conserving reaction-diffusion systems. While these patterns initially form out of a homogeneous steady state due to the well-understood Turing instability, no general theory exists for the dynamics of fully nonlinear patterns. We develop a unifying theory for nonlinear wavelength-selection dynamics in (nearly) mass-conserving two-component reaction-diffusion systems independent of the specific mathematical model chosen. Previous work has shown that these systems support an extremely broad band of stable wavelengths, but the mechanism by which a specific wavelength is selected has remained unclear. We show that an interrupted coarsening process selects the wavelength at the threshold to stability. Based on the physical intuition that coarsening is driven by competition for mass and interrupted by weak source terms that break strict mass conservation, we develop a singular perturbation theory for the stability of stationary patterns. The resulting closed-form analytical expressions enable us to quantitatively predict the coarsening dynamics and the final pattern wavelength. We find excellent agreement with numerical results throughout the diffusion- and reaction-limited regimes of the dynamics, including the crossover region. Further, we show how, in these limits, the two-component reaction-diffusion systems map to generalized Cahn-Hilliard and conserved Allen-Cahn dynamics, therefore providing a link to these two fundamental scalar field theories. The systematic understanding of the length-scale dynamics of fully nonlinear patterns in two-component systems provided here builds the basis to reveal the mechanisms underlying wavelength selection in multicomponent systems with potentially several conservation laws.


(1282)The BarYon Cycle project (ByCycle): identifying and localizing Mg II metal absorbers with machine learning
  • Roland Szakacs,
  • Céline Péroux,
  • Dylan Nelson,
  • Martin A. Zwaan,
  • Daniel Grün
  • +4
  • Simon Weng,
  • Alejandra Y. Fresco,
  • Victoria Bollo,
  • Benedetta Casavecchia
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (12/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad2431
abstract + abstract -

The upcoming ByCycle project on the VISTA/4MOST multi-object spectrograph will offer new prospects of using a massive sample of ~1 million high spectral resolution (R = 20 000) background quasars to map the circumgalactic metal content of foreground galaxies (observed at R = 4000-7000), as traced by metal absorption. Such large surveys require specialized analysis methodologies. In the absence of early data, we instead produce synthetic 4MOST high-resolution fibre quasar spectra. To do so, we use the TNG50 cosmological magnetohydrodynamical simulation, combining photo-ionization post-processing and ray tracing, to capture Mg II (λ2796, λ2803) absorbers. We then use this sample to train a convolutional neural network (CNN) which searches for, and estimates the redshift of, Mg II absorbers within these spectra. For a test sample of quasar spectra with uniformly distributed properties ($\lambda _{\rm {Mg\, {\small II},2796}}$, $\rm {EW}_{\rm {Mg\, {\small II},2796}}^{\rm {rest}} = 0.05\!-\!5.15$ Å, $\rm {SNR} = 3\!-\!50$), the algorithm has a robust classification accuracy of 98.6 per cent and a mean wavelength accuracy of 6.9 Å. For high signal-to-noise (SNR) spectra ($\rm {SNR \gt 20}$), the algorithm robustly detects and localizes Mg II absorbers down to equivalent widths of $\rm {EW}_{\rm {Mg\, {\small II},2796}}^{\rm {rest}} = 0.05$ Å. For the lowest SNR spectra ($\rm {SNR=3}$), the CNN reliably recovers and localizes EW$_{\rm {Mg\, {\small II},2796}}^{\rm {rest}}$ ≥0.75 Å absorbers. This is more than sufficient for subsequent Voigt profile fitting to characterize the detected Mg II absorbers. We make the code publicly available through GitHub. Our work provides a proof-of-concept for future analyses of quasar spectra data sets numbering in the millions, soon to be delivered by the next generation of surveys.


(1281)AM$^3$: An Open-Source Tool for Time-Dependent Lepto-Hadronic Modeling of Astrophysical Sources
  • Marc Klinger,
  • Annika Rudolph,
  • Xavier Rodrigues,
  • Chengchao Yuan,
  • Gaëtan Fichet de Clairfontaine
  • +4
  • Anatoli Fedynitch,
  • Walter Winter,
  • Martin Pohl,
  • Shan Gao
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present the AM$^3$ (``Astrophysical Multi-Messenger Modeling'') software, which has been successfully used in the past to simulate the multi-messenger emission, including neutrinos, from active galactic nuclei, including the blazar sub-class, gamma-ray bursts, and tidal disruption events. AM$^3$ is a documented state-of-the-art open source software that efficiently solves the coupled integro-differential equations for the spectral and temporal evolution of the relevant particle densities (photons, electrons, positrons, protons, neutrons, pions, muons, and neutrinos). AM$^3$ includes all relevant non-thermal processes (synchrotron, inverse Compton scattering, photon-photon annihilation, proton-proton and proton-photon pion production, and photo-pair production). The software self-consistently calculates the full cascade of primary and secondary particles, outperforming simple test-particle approaches, and allows for non-linear feedback and predictions in the time domain. It also allows to track separately the contributions of different radiative processes to the overall photon and neutrino spectra, including the different hadronic interaction channels. With its efficient hybrid solver combining analytical and numerical techniques, AM$^3$ combines efficiency and accuracy at a user-adjustable level. We describe the technical details of the numerical framework and present examples of applications to various astrophysical environments.


(1280)Reviving stochasticity: uncertainty in SMBH binary eccentricity is unavoidable
  • Alexander Rawlings,
  • Matias Mannerkoski,
  • Peter H. Johansson,
  • Thorsten Naab
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (12/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad2891
abstract + abstract -

We study supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary eccentricity of equal-mass galaxy mergers in N-body simulations with the KETJU code, which combines the GADGET-4 fast multipole gravity solver with accurate regularized integration and post-Newtonian corrections around SMBHs. In simulations with realistic, high-eccentricity galactic merger orbits, the hard binary eccentricity is found to be a non-linear function of the deflection angle in the SMBH orbit during the final, nearly radial close encounter between the SMBHs before they form a bound binary. This mapping between the deflection angle and the binary eccentricity has no apparent resolution dependence in our simulations spanning the resolution range of 1 × 105 to 8 × 106 particles per galaxy. The mapping is also captured using a simple model with an analytical potential, indicating that it is driven by the interplay between a smooth asymmetric stellar background potential and dynamical friction acting on the SMBHs. Due to the non-linearity of this mapping, in eccentric major merger configurations, small, parsec-scale variations in the merger orbit can result in binary eccentricities varying in nearly the full possible range between e = 0 and e = 1. In idealized simulations, such variations are caused by finite resolution effects, and convergence of the binary eccentricity can be achieved with increasing resolution. However, in real galaxies, other mechanisms such as nuclear gas and substructure that perturb the merger orbit are likely to be significant enough for the binary eccentricity to be effectively random. Our results indicate that the distribution of these effectively random eccentricities can be studied using even moderate resolution simulations.