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(1404)Formation mechanism of thermally controlled pH gradients
  • Thomas Matreux,
  • Bernhard Altaner,
  • Johannes Raith,
  • Dieter Braun,
  • Christof B. Mast
  • +1
Communications Physics, 6 (12/2023) doi:10.1038/s42005-023-01126-y
abstract + abstract -

Spatial proton gradients create energy in biological systems and are likely a driving force for prebiotic systems. Due to the fast diffusion of protons, they are however difficult to create as steady state, unless driven by other non-equilibria such as thermal gradients. Here, we quantitatively predict the heat-flux driven formation of pH gradients for the case of a simple acid-base reaction system. To this end, we (i) establish a theoretical framework that describes the spatial interplay of chemical reactions with thermal convection, thermophoresis, and electrostatic forces by a separation of timescales, and (ii) report quantitative measurements in a purpose-built microfluidic device. We show experimentally that the slope of such pH gradients undergoes pronounced amplitude changes in a concentration-dependent manner and can even be inverted. The predictions of the theoretical framework fully reflect these features and establish an understanding of how naturally occurring non-equilibrium environmental conditions can drive pH gradients.

(1403)Mapping gravity in stellar nurseries - establishing the effectiveness of 2D acceleration maps
  • Zhen-Zhen He,
  • Guang-Xing Li,
  • Andreas Burkert
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 526 (11/2023) doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slad104
abstract + abstract -

Gravity is the driving force of star formation. Although gravity is caused by the presence of matter, its role in complex regions is still unsettled. One effective way to study the pattern of gravity is to compute the accretion it exerts on the gas by providing gravitational acceleration maps. A practical way to study acceleration is by computing it using 2D surface density maps, yet whether these maps are accurate remains uncertain. Using numerical simulations, we confirm that the accuracy of the acceleration maps a2D(x, y) computed from 2D surface density are good representations for the mean acceleration weighted by mass. Due to the underestimations of the distances from projected maps, the magnitudes of accelerations will be overestimated $|\mathbf {a}_{\rm 2D}(x,y)| \approx 2.3 \pm 1.8 \,\, |\mathbf {a}_{\rm 3D}^{\rm proj}(x,y)|$, where $\mathbf {a}_{\rm 3D}^{\rm proj}(x,y)$ is mass-weighted projected gravitational acceleration, yet a2D(x, y) and $\mathbf {a}_{\rm 3D}^{\rm proj}(x,y)$ stay aligned within 20°. Significant deviations only occur in regions where multiple structures are present along the line of sight. The acceleration maps estimated from surface density provide good descriptions of the projection of 3D acceleration fields. We expect this technique useful in establishing the link between cloud morphology and star formation, and in understanding the link between gravity and other processes such as the magnetic field. A version of the code for calculating surface density gravitational potential is available at

(1402)The MillenniumTNG Project: the impact of baryons and massive neutrinos on high-resolution weak gravitational lensing convergence maps
  • Fulvio Ferlito,
  • Volker Springel,
  • Christopher T. Davies,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Rüdiger Pakmor
  • +8
  • Monica Barrera,
  • Simon D. M. White,
  • Ana Maria Delgado,
  • Boryana Hadzhiyska,
  • Lars Hernquist,
  • Rahul Kannan,
  • Sownak Bose,
  • Carlos Frenk
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 524, p16 (10/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad2205
abstract + abstract -

We study weak gravitational lensing convergence maps produced from the MILLENNIUMTNG simulations by direct projection of the mass distribution on the past backwards lightcone of a fiducial observer. We explore the lensing maps over a large dynamic range in simulation mass and angular resolution, allowing us to establish a clear assessment of numerical convergence. By comparing full physics hydrodynamical simulations with corresponding dark-matter-only runs, we quantify the impact of baryonic physics on the most important weak lensing statistics. Likewise, we predict the impact of massive neutrinos reliably far into the non-linear regime. We also demonstrate that the 'fixed & paired' variance suppression technique increases the statistical robustness of the simulation predictions on large scales not only for time slices but also for continuously output lightcone data. We find that both baryonic and neutrino effects substantially impact weak lensing shear measurements, with the latter dominating over the former on large angular scales. Thus, both effects must explicitly be included to obtain sufficiently accurate predictions for stage IV lensing surveys. Reassuringly, our results agree accurately with other simulation results where available, supporting the promise of simulation modelling for precision cosmology far into the non-linear regime.

(1401)Clash of Titans: the impact of cluster mergers in the galaxy cluster red sequence
  • Franklin Aldás,
  • Alfredo Zenteno,
  • Facundo A. Gómez,
  • Daniel Hernandez-Lang,
  • Eleazar R. Carrasco
  • +2
  • Cristian A. Vega-Martínez,
  • J. L. Nilo Castellón
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 525, p10 (10/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad2261
abstract + abstract -

Merging of galaxy clusters are some of the most energetic events in the Universe, and they provide a unique environment to study galaxy evolution. We use a sample of 84 merging and relaxed SPT galaxy clusters candidates, observed with the Dark Energy Camera in the 0.11 < z < 0.88 redshift range, to build colour-magnitude diagrams to characterize the impact of cluster mergers on the galaxy population. We divided the sample between relaxed and disturbed, and in two redshifts bin at z = 0.55. When comparing the high-z to low-z clusters we find the high-z sample is richer in blue galaxies, independently of the cluster dynamical state. In the high-z bin, we find that disturbed clusters exhibit a larger scatter in the red sequence, with wider distribution and an excess of bluer galaxies compared to relaxed clusters, while in the low-z bin we find a complete agreement between the relaxed and disturbed clusters. Our results support the scenario in which massive cluster halos at z < 0.55 galaxies are quenched as satellites of another structure, i.e. outside the cluster, while at z ≥ 0.55 the quenching is dominated by in situ processes.

(1400)The PSZ-MCMF catalogue of Planck clusters over the DES region
  • D. Hernández-Lang,
  • M. Klein,
  • J. J. Mohr,
  • S. Grandis,
  • J. -B. Melin
  • +57
  • P. Tarrío,
  • M. Arnaud,
  • G. W. Pratt,
  • T. M. C. Abbott,
  • M. Aguena,
  • O. Alves,
  • F. Andrade-Oliveira,
  • D. Bacon,
  • E. Bertin,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D. L. Burke,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • F. J. Castander,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • L. N. da Costa,
  • M. E. S. Pereira,
  • S. Desai,
  • H. T. Diehl,
  • P. Doel,
  • S. Everett,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R. A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • S. R. Hinton,
  • D. L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D. J. James,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • O. Lahav,
  • C. Lidman,
  • P. Melchior,
  • J. Mena-Fernández,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • A. Palmese,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A. Pieres,
  • A. A. Plazas Malagón,
  • M. Raveri,
  • M. Rodriguez-Monroy,
  • A. K. Romer,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • M. Smith,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • N. Weaverdyck,
  • DES Collaboration
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 525, p20 (10/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad2319
abstract + abstract -

We present the first systematic follow-up of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) selected candidates down to signal-to-noise (S/N) of 3 over the 5000 deg2 covered by the Dark Energy Survey. Using the MCMF cluster confirmation algorithm, we identify optical counterparts, determine photometric redshifts, and richnesses and assign a parameter, fcont, that reflects the probability that each SZE-optical pairing represents a random superposition of physically unassociated systems rather than a real cluster. The new PSZ-MCMF cluster catalogue consists of 853 MCMF confirmed clusters and has a purity of 90 per cent. We present the properties of subsamples of the PSZ-MCMF catalogue that have purities ranging from 90 per cent to 97.5 per cent, depending on the adopted fcont threshold. Halo mass estimates M500, redshifts, richnesses, and optical centres are presented for all PSZ-MCMF clusters. The PSZ-MCMF catalogue adds 589 previously unknown Planck identified clusters over the DES footprint and provides redshifts for an additional 50 previously published Planck-selected clusters with S/N>4.5. Using the subsample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate excellent cluster photo-z performance with an RMS scatter in Δz/(1 + z) of 0.47 per cent. Our MCMF based analysis allows us to infer the contamination fraction of the initial S/N>3 Planck-selected candidate list, which is ~50 per cent. We present a method of estimating the completeness of the PSZ-MCMF cluster sample. In comparison to the previously published Planck cluster catalogues, this new S/N>3 MCMF confirmed cluster catalogue populates the lower mass regime at all redshifts and includes clusters up to z~1.3.

(1399)Towards an electrostatic storage ring for fundamental physics measurements
  • Chiara Brandenstein,
  • Stefan Stelzl,
  • Erwin Gutsmiedl,
  • Wolfgang Schott,
  • Andreas Weiler
  • +1
European Physical Journal Web of Conferences, 282 (09/2023) doi:10.1051/epjconf/202328201017
abstract + abstract -

We describe a new table-top electrostatic storage ring concept for 30 keV polarized ions with fixed spin orientation. The device will ultimately be capable of measuring magnetic fields with a resolution of 10−20 T with sub-mHz bandwidth. With the possibility to store different kinds of ions or ionic molecules and access to prepare and probe states of the systems using lasers and SQUIDs, it can be used to search for electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electrons and nucleons, as well as axion-like particle dark matter and dark photon dark matter. Its sensitivity potential stems from several hours of storage time, comparably long spin coherence times, and the possibility to trap up to 109 particles in bunches with possibly different state preparations for differential measurements. As a dark matter experiment, it is most sensitive in the mass range of 10−10 to 10−19 eV, where it can potentially probe couplings orders of magnitude below current and proposed laboratory experiments.

(1398)The MillenniumTNG Project: high-precision predictions for matter clustering and halo statistics
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Volker Springel,
  • Rüdiger Pakmor,
  • Monica Barrera,
  • Fulvio Ferlito
  • +7
  • Simon D. M. White,
  • Lars Hernquist,
  • Boryana Hadzhiyska,
  • Ana Maria Delgado,
  • Rahul Kannan,
  • Sownak Bose,
  • Carlos Frenk
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 524, p23 (09/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1657
abstract + abstract -

Cosmological inference with large galaxy surveys requires theoretical models that combine precise predictions for large-scale structure with robust and flexible galaxy formation modelling throughout a sufficiently large cosmic volume. Here, we introduce the MILLENNIUMTNG (MTNG) project which combines the hydrodynamical galaxy formation model of ILLUSTRISTNG with the large volume of the MILLENNIUM simulation. Our largest hydrodynamic simulation, covering $(500 \, h^{-1}{\rm Mpc})^3 \simeq (740\, {\rm Mpc})^3$, is complemented by a suite of dark-matter-only simulations with up to 43203 dark matter particles (a mass resolution of $1.32\times 10^8 \, h^{-1}{\rm M}_\odot$) using the fixed-and-paired technique to reduce large-scale cosmic variance. The hydro simulation adds 43203 gas cells, achieving a baryonic mass resolution of $2\times 10^7 \, h^{-1}{\rm M}_\odot$. High time-resolution merger trees and direct light-cone outputs facilitate the construction of a new generation of semi-analytic galaxy formation models that can be calibrated against both the hydro simulation and observation, and then applied to even larger volumes - MTNG includes a flagship simulation with 1.1 trillion dark matter particles and massive neutrinos in a volume of $(3000\, {\rm Mpc})^3$. In this introductory analysis we carry out convergence tests on basic measures of non-linear clustering such as the matter power spectrum, the halo mass function and halo clustering, and we compare simulation predictions to those from current cosmological emulators. We also use our simulations to study matter and halo statistics, such as halo bias and clustering at the baryonic acoustic oscillation scale. Finally we measure the impact of baryonic physics on the matter and halo distributions.

(1397)KETJU - resolving small-scale supermassive black hole dynamics in GADGET-4
  • Matias Mannerkoski,
  • Alexander Rawlings,
  • Peter H. Johansson,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Antti Rantala
  • +3
  • Volker Springel,
  • Dimitrios Irodotou,
  • Shihong Liao
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 524, p21 (09/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad2139
abstract + abstract -

We present the new public version of the KETJU supermassive black hole (SMBH) dynamics module, as implemented into GADGET-4. KETJU adds a small region around each SMBH where the dynamics of the SMBHs and stellar particles are integrated using an algorithmically regularized integrator instead of the leapfrog integrator with gravitational softening used by GADGET-4. This enables modelling SMBHs as point particles even during close interactions with stellar particles or other SMBHs, effectively removing the spatial resolution limitation caused by gravitational softening. KETJU also includes post-Newtonian (PN) corrections, which allows following the dynamics of SMBH binaries to sub-parsec scales and down to tens of Schwarzschild radii. Systems with multiple SMBHs are also supported, with the code also including the leading non-linear cross terms that appear in the PN equations for such systems. We present tests of the code showing that it correctly captures, at sufficient mass resolution, the sinking driven by dynamical friction and binary hardening driven by stellar scattering. We also present an example application demonstrating how the code can be applied to study the dynamics of SMBHs in mergers of multiple galaxies and the effect they have on the properties of the surrounding galaxy. We expect that the presented KETJU SMBH dynamics module can also be straightforwardly incorporated into other codes similar to GADGET-4, which would allow coupling small-scale SMBH dynamics to the rich variety of galactic physics models that exist in the literature.

(1396)The MillenniumTNG Project: inferring cosmology from galaxy clustering with accelerated N-body scaling and subhalo abundance matching
  • Sergio Contreras,
  • Raul E. Angulo,
  • Volker Springel,
  • Simon D. M. White,
  • Boryana Hadzhiyska
  • +9
  • Lars Hernquist,
  • Rüdiger Pakmor,
  • Rahul Kannan,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Monica Barrera,
  • Fulvio Ferlito,
  • Ana Maria Delgado,
  • Sownak Bose,
  • Carlos Frenk
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 524, p18 (09/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac3699
abstract + abstract -

We introduce a novel technique for constraining cosmological parameters and galaxy assembly bias using non-linear redshift-space clustering of galaxies. We scale cosmological N-body simulations and insert galaxies with the SubHalo Abundance Matching extended (SHAMe) empirical model to generate over 175 000 clustering measurements spanning all relevant cosmological and SHAMe parameter values. We then build an emulator capable of reproducing the projected galaxy correlation function at the monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole level for separations between $0.1\, h^{-1}\, {\rm Mpc}$ and $25\, h^{-1}\, {\rm Mpc}$. We test this approach by using the emulator and Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) inference to jointly estimate cosmology and assembly bias parameters both for the MTNG740 hydrodynamic simulation and for a semi-analytical model (SAM) galaxy formation built on the MTNG740-DM dark matter-only simulation, obtaining unbiased results for all cosmological parameters. For instance, for MTNG740 and a galaxy number density of $n\sim 0.01 h^{3}\, {\rm Mpc}^{-3}$, we obtain $\sigma _{8}=0.799^{+0.039}_{-0.044}$ and $\Omega _\mathrm{M}h^2= 0.138^{+ 0.025}_{- 0.018}$ (which are within 0.4 and 0.2σ of the MTNG cosmology). For fixed Hubble parameter (h), the constraint becomes $\Omega _\mathrm{M}h^2= 0.137^{+ 0.011}_{- 0.012}$. Our method performs similarly well for the SAM and for other tested sample densities. We almost always recover the true amount of galaxy assembly bias within 1σ. The best constraints are obtained when scales smaller than $2\, h^{-1}\, {\rm Mpc}$ are included, as well as when at least the projected correlation function and the monopole are incorporated. These methods offer a powerful way to constrain cosmological parameters using galaxy surveys.

(1395)The MillenniumTNG Project: the hydrodynamical full physics simulation and a first look at its galaxy clusters
  • Rüdiger Pakmor,
  • Volker Springel,
  • Jonathan P. Coles,
  • Thomas Guillet,
  • Christoph Pfrommer
  • +10
  • Sownak Bose,
  • Monica Barrera,
  • Ana Maria Delgado,
  • Fulvio Ferlito,
  • Carlos Frenk,
  • Boryana Hadzhiyska,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Lars Hernquist,
  • Rahul Kannan,
  • Simon D. M. White
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 524, p17 (09/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac3620
abstract + abstract -

Cosmological simulations are an important theoretical pillar for understanding non-linear structure formation in our Universe and for relating it to observations on large scales. In several papers, we introduce our MillenniumTNG (MTNG) project that provides a comprehensive set of high-resolution, large-volume simulations of cosmic structure formation aiming to better understand physical processes on large scales and to help interpret upcoming large-scale galaxy surveys. We here focus on the full physics box MTNG740 that computes a volume of $740\, \mathrm{Mpc}^3$ with a baryonic mass resolution of $3.1\times ~10^7\, \mathrm{M_\odot }$ using AREPO with 80.6 billion cells and the IllustrisTNG galaxy formation model. We verify that the galaxy properties produced by MTNG740 are consistent with the TNG simulations, including more recent observations. We focus on galaxy clusters and analyse cluster scaling relations and radial profiles. We show that both are broadly consistent with various observational constraints. We demonstrate that the SZ-signal on a deep light-cone is consistent with Planck limits. Finally, we compare MTNG740 clusters with galaxy clusters found in Planck and the SDSS-8 RedMaPPer richness catalogue in observational space, finding very good agreement as well. However, simultaneously matching cluster masses, richness, and Compton-y requires us to assume that the SZ mass estimates for Planck clusters are underestimated by 0.2 dex on average. Due to its unprecedented volume for a high-resolution hydrodynamical calculation, the MTNG740 simulation offers rich possibilities to study baryons in galaxies, galaxy clusters, and in large-scale structure, and in particular their impact on upcoming large cosmological surveys.

(1394)The MillenniumTNG Project: refining the one-halo model of red and blue galaxies at different redshifts
  • Boryana Hadzhiyska,
  • Lars Hernquist,
  • Daniel Eisenstein,
  • Ana Maria Delgado,
  • Sownak Bose
  • +9
  • Rahul Kannan,
  • Rüdiger Pakmor,
  • Volker Springel,
  • Sergio Contreras,
  • Monica Barrera,
  • Fulvio Ferlito,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Simon D. M. White,
  • Carlos Frenk
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 524, p15 (09/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad279
abstract + abstract -

Luminous red galaxies (LRGs) and blue star-forming emission-line galaxies (ELGs) are key tracers of large-scale structure used by cosmological surveys. Theoretical predictions for such data are often done via simplistic models for the galaxy-halo connection. In this work, we use the large, high-fidelity hydrodynamical simulation of the MillenniumTNG project (MTNG) to inform a new phenomenological approach for obtaining an accurate and flexible galaxy-halo model on small scales. Our aim is to study LRGs and ELGs at two distinct epochs, z = 1 and z = 0, and recover their clustering down to very small scales, $r \sim 0.1 \ h^{-1}\, {\rm Mpc}$, i.e. the one-halo regime, while a companion paper extends this to a two-halo model for larger distances. The occupation statistics of ELGs in MTNG inform us that (1) the satellite occupations exhibit a slightly super-Poisson distribution, contrary to commonly made assumptions, and (2) that haloes containing at least one ELG satellite are twice as likely to host a central ELG. We propose simple recipes for modelling these effects, each of which calls for the addition of a single free parameter to simpler halo occupation models. To construct a reliable satellite population model, we explore the LRG and ELG satellite radial and velocity distributions and compare them with those of subhaloes and particles in the simulation. We find that ELGs are anisotropically distributed within haloes, which together with our occupation results provides strong evidence for cooperative galaxy formation (manifesting itself as one-halo galaxy conformity); i.e. galaxies with similar properties form in close proximity to each other. Our refined galaxy-halo model represents a useful improvement of commonly used analysis tools and thus can be of help to increase the constraining power of large-scale structure surveys.

(1393)Cosmological covariance of fast radio burst dispersions
  • Robert Reischke,
  • Steffen Hagstotz
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 524, p7 (09/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1645
abstract + abstract -

The dispersion of fast radio bursts (FRBs) is a measure of the large-scale electron distribution. It enables measurements of cosmological parameters, especially of the expansion rate and the cosmic baryon fraction. The number of events is expected to increase dramatically over the coming years, and of particular interest are bursts with identified host galaxy and therefore redshift information. In this paper, we explore the covariance matrix of the dispersion measure (DM) of FRBs induced by the large-scale structure, as bursts from a similar direction on the sky are correlated by long-wavelength modes of the electron distribution. We derive analytical expressions for the covariance matrix and examine the impact on parameter estimation from the FRB DM-redshift relation. The covariance also contains additional information that is missed by analysing the events individually. For future samples containing over ~300 FRBs with host identification over the full sky, the covariance needs to be taken into account for unbiased inference, and the effect increases dramatically for smaller patches of the sky. Also, forecasts must consider these effects as they would yield too optimistic parameter constraints. Our procedure can also be applied to the DM of the afterglow of gamma-ray bursts.

(1392)Observational predictions for Thorne-Żytkow objects
  • R. Farmer,
  • M. Renzo,
  • Y. Götberg,
  • E. Bellinger,
  • S. Justham
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 524, p18 (09/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1977
abstract + abstract -

Thorne-Żytkow objects (TŻO) are potential end products of the merger of a neutron star with a non-degenerate star. In this work, we have computed the first grid of evolutionary models of TŻOs with the MESA stellar evolution code. With these models, we predict several observational properties of TŻOs, including their surface temperatures and luminosities, pulsation periods, and nucleosynthetic products. We expand the range of possible TŻO solutions to cover $3.45 \lesssim \rm {\log \left(T_{eff}/K\right)}\lesssim 3.65$ and $4.85 \lesssim \rm {\log \left(L/L_{\odot }\right)}\lesssim 5.5$. Due to the much higher densities our TŻOs reach compared to previous models, if TŻOs form we expect them to be stable over a larger mass range than previously predicted, without exhibiting a gap in their mass distribution. Using the GYRE stellar pulsation code we show that TŻOs should have fundamental pulsation periods of 1000-2000 d, and period ratios of ≈0.2-0.3. Models computed with a large 399 isotope fully coupled nuclear network show a nucleosynthetic signal that is different to previously predicted. We propose a new nucleosynthetic signal to determine a star's status as a TŻO: the isotopologues $\mathrm{^{44}Ti} \rm {O}_2$ and $\mathrm{^{44}Ti} \rm {O}$, which will have a shift in their spectral features as compared to stable titanium-containing molecules. We find that in the local Universe (~SMC metallicities and above) TŻOs show little heavy metal enrichment, potentially explaining the difficulty in finding TŻOs to-date.

(1391)The MillenniumTNG Project: an improved two-halo model for the galaxy-halo connection of red and blue galaxies
  • Boryana Hadzhiyska,
  • Daniel Eisenstein,
  • Lars Hernquist,
  • Rüdiger Pakmor,
  • Sownak Bose
  • +9
  • Ana Maria Delgado,
  • Sergio Contreras,
  • Rahul Kannan,
  • Simon D. M. White,
  • Volker Springel,
  • Carlos Frenk,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Fulvio Ferlito Barrera,
  • Monica
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 524, p17 (09/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad731
abstract + abstract -

Approximate methods to populate dark-matter haloes with galaxies are of great utility to galaxy surveys. However, the limitations of simple halo occupation models (HODs) preclude a full use of small-scale galaxy clustering data and call for more sophisticated models. We study two galaxy populations, luminous red galaxies (LRGs) and star-forming emission-line galaxies (ELGs), at two epochs, z = 1 and z = 0, in the large-volume, high-resolution hydrodynamical simulation of the MillenniumTNG project. In a partner study we concentrated on the small-scale, one-halo regime down to r ~ 0.1 h-1 Mpc, while here we focus on modelling galaxy assembly bias in the two-halo regime, r ≳ 1 h-1 Mpc. Interestingly, the ELG signal exhibits scale dependence out to relatively large scales (r ~ 20 h-1 Mpc), implying that the linear bias approximation for this tracer is invalid on these scales, contrary to common assumptions. The 10-15 per cent discrepancy is only reconciled when we augment our halo occupation model with a dependence on extrinsic halo properties ('shear' being the best-performing one) rather than intrinsic ones (e.g. concentration, peak mass). We argue that this fact constitutes evidence for two-halo galaxy conformity. Including tertiary assembly bias (i.e. a property beyond mass and 'shear') is not an essential requirement for reconciling the galaxy assembly bias signal of LRGs, but the combination of external and internal properties is beneficial for recovering ELG the clustering. We find that centrals in low-mass haloes dominate the assembly bias signal of both populations. Finally, we explore the predictions of our model for higher order statistics such as nearest neighbour counts. The latter supplies additional information about galaxy assembly bias and can be used to break degeneracies between halo model parameters.

(1390)The MillenniumTNG Project: the large-scale clustering of galaxies
  • Sownak Bose,
  • Boryana Hadzhiyska,
  • Monica Barrera,
  • Ana Maria Delgado,
  • Fulvio Ferlito
  • +7
  • Carlos Frenk,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Lars Hernquist,
  • Rahul Kannan,
  • Rüdiger Pakmor,
  • Volker Springel,
  • Simon D. M. White
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 524, p15 (09/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1097
abstract + abstract -

Modern redshift surveys are tasked with mapping out the galaxy distribution over enormous distance scales. Existing hydrodynamical simulations, however, do not reach the volumes needed to match upcoming surveys. We present results for the clustering of galaxies using a new, large volume hydrodynamical simulation as part of the MillenniumTNG (MTNG) project. With a computational volume that is ≈15 times larger than the next largest such simulation currently available, we show that MTNG is able to accurately reproduce the observed clustering of galaxies as a function of stellar mass. When separated by colour, there are some discrepancies with respect to the observed population, which can be attributed to the quenching of satellite galaxies in our model. We combine MTNG galaxies with those generated using a semi-analytic model to emulate the sample selection of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) and emission-line galaxies (ELGs) and show that, although the bias of these populations is approximately (but not exactly) constant on scales larger than ≈10 Mpc, there is significant scale-dependent bias on smaller scales. The amplitude of this effect varies between the two galaxy types and between the semi-analytic model and MTNG. We show that this is related to the distribution of haloes hosting LRGs and ELGs. Using mock SDSS-like catalogues generated on MTNG lightcones, we demonstrate the existence of prominent baryonic acoustic features in the large-scale galaxy clustering. We also demonstrate the presence of realistic redshift space distortions in our mocks, finding excellent agreement with the multipoles of the redshift-space clustering measured in SDSS data.

(1389)The MillenniumTNG project: the galaxy population at z ≥ 8
  • Rahul Kannan,
  • Volker Springel,
  • Lars Hernquist,
  • Rüdiger Pakmor,
  • Ana Maria Delgado
  • +9
  • Boryana Hadzhiyska,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Monica Barrera,
  • Fulvio Ferlito,
  • Sownak Bose,
  • Simon D. M. White,
  • Carlos Frenk,
  • Aaron Smith,
  • Enrico Garaldi
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 524, p12 (09/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac3743
abstract + abstract -

The early release science results from JWST have yielded an unexpected abundance of high-redshift luminous galaxies that seems to be in tension with current theories of galaxy formation. However, it is currently difficult to draw definitive conclusions form these results as the sources have not yet been spectroscopically confirmed. It is in any case important to establish baseline predictions from current state-of-the-art galaxy formation models that can be compared and contrasted with these new measurements. In this work, we use the new large-volume ($L_\mathrm{box}\sim 740 \, \mathrm{cMpc}$) hydrodynamic simulation of the MillenniumTNG project, suitably scaled to match results from higher resolution - smaller volume simulations, to make predictions for the high-redshift (z ≳ 8) galaxy population and compare them to recent JWST observations. We show that the simulated galaxy population is broadly consistent with observations until z ~ 10. From z ≈ 10-12, the observations indicate a preference for a galaxy population that is largely dust-free, but is still consistent with the simulations. Beyond z ≳ 12, however, our simulation results underpredict the abundance of luminous galaxies and their star-formation rates by almost an order of magnitude. This indicates either an incomplete understanding of the new JWST data or a need for more sophisticated galaxy formation models that account for additional physical processes such as Population III stars, variable stellar initial mass functions, or even deviations from the standard ΛCDM model. We emphasize that any new process invoked to explain this tension should only significantly influence the galaxy population beyond z ≳ 10, while leaving the successful galaxy formation predictions of the fiducial model intact below this redshift.

(1388)Impact of systematic nuclear uncertainties on composition and decay heat of dynamical and disc ejecta in compact binary mergers
  • I. Kullmann,
  • S. Goriely,
  • O. Just,
  • A. Bauswein,
  • H. -T. Janka
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 523, p26 (08/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1458
abstract + abstract -

Theoretically predicted yields of elements created by the rapid neutron capture (r-)process carry potentially large uncertainties associated with incomplete knowledge of nuclear properties and approximative hydrodynamical modelling of the matter ejection processes. We present an in-depth study of the nuclear uncertainties by varying theoretical nuclear input models that describe the experimentally unknown neutron-rich nuclei. This includes two frameworks for calculating the radiative neutron capture rates and 14 different models for nuclear masses, β-decay rates, and fission properties. Our r-process nuclear network calculations are based on detailed hydrodynamical simulations of dynamically ejected material from NS-NS or NS-BH binary mergers plus the secular ejecta from BH-torus systems. The impact of nuclear uncertainties on the r-process abundance distribution and the early radioactive heating rate is found to be modest (within a factor of ~20 for individual A > 90 abundances and a factor of 2 for the heating rate). However, the impact on the late-time heating rate is more significant and depends strongly on the contribution from fission. We witness significantly higher sensitivity to the nuclear physics input if only a single trajectory is used compared to considering ensembles with a much larger number of trajectories (ranging between 150 and 300), and the quantitative effects of the nuclear uncertainties strongly depend on the adopted conditions for the individual trajectory. We use the predicted Th/U ratio to estimate the cosmochronometric age of six metal-poor stars and find the impact of the nuclear uncertainties to be up to 2 Gyr.

(1387)Observability of photoevaporation signatures in the dust continuum emission of transition discs
  • Giovanni Picogna,
  • Carolina Schäfer,
  • Barbara Ercolano,
  • Christian Rab,
  • Rafael Franz
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 523, p10 (08/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1504
abstract + abstract -

Photoevaporative disc winds play a key role in our understanding of circumstellar disc evolution, especially in the final stages, and they might affect the planet formation process and the final location of planets. The study of transition discs (i.e. discs with a central dust cavity) is central for our understanding of the photoevaporation process and disc dispersal. However, we need to distinguish cavities created by photoevaporation from those created by giant planets. Theoretical models are necessary to identify possible observational signatures of the two different processes, and models to find the differences between the two processes are still lacking. In this paper, we study a sample of transition discs obtained from radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of internally photoevaporated discs, and focus on the dust dynamics relevant for current Atacama Large Millimetre Array observations. We then compared our results with gaps opened by a super-Earth/giant planets, finding that the photoevaporated cavity steepness depends mildly on gap size, and it is similar to that of a ${1}\, {\rm M_J}$ planet. However, the dust density drops less rapidly inside the photoevaporated cavity compared to the planetary case due to the less efficient dust filtering. This effect is visible in the resulting spectral index, which shows a larger spectral index at the cavity edge and a shallower increase inside it with respect to the planetary case. The combination of cavity steepness and spectral index might reveal the true nature of transition discs.

(1386)New description of the scaling evolution of the cosmological magneto-hydrodynamic system
  • Fumio Uchida,
  • Motoko Fujiwara,
  • Kohei Kamada,
  • Jun'ichi Yokoyama
Physics Letters B, 843 (08/2023) doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2023.138002
abstract + abstract -

We present a new description of cosmological evolution of the primordial magnetic field under the condition that it is non-helical and its energy density is larger than the kinetic energy density. We argue that the evolution can be described by four different regimes, according to whether the decay dynamics is linear or not, and whether the dominant dissipation term is the shear viscosity or the drag force. Using this classification and conservation of the Hosking integral, we present analytic models to adequately interpret the results of various numerical simulations of field evolution with variety of initial conditions. It is found that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, the decay of the field is generally slow, exhibiting the inverse transfer, because of the conservation of the Hosking integral. Using the description proposed here, one can trace the intermediate evolution history of the magnetic field and clarify whether each process governing its evolution is frozen or not. Its applicability to the early cosmology is important, since primordial magnetic fields are sometimes constrained to be quite weak, and multiple regimes including the frozen regime matters for such weak fields.

(1385)The impact of human expert visual inspection on the discovery of strong gravitational lenses
  • Karina Rojas,
  • Thomas E. Collett,
  • Daniel Ballard,
  • Mark R. Magee,
  • Simon Birrer
  • +51
  • Elizabeth Buckley-Geer,
  • James H. H. Chan,
  • Benjamin Clément,
  • José M. Diego,
  • Fabrizio Gentile,
  • Jimena González,
  • Rémy Joseph,
  • Jorge Mastache,
  • Stefan Schuldt,
  • Crescenzo Tortora,
  • Tomás Verdugo,
  • Aprajita Verma,
  • Tansu Daylan,
  • Martin Millon,
  • Neal Jackson,
  • Simon Dye,
  • Alejandra Melo,
  • Guillaume Mahler,
  • Ricardo L. C. Ogando,
  • Frédéric Courbin,
  • Alexander Fritz,
  • Aniruddh Herle,
  • Javier A. Acevedo Barroso,
  • Raoul Cañameras,
  • Claude Cornen,
  • Birendra Dhanasingham,
  • Karl Glazebrook,
  • Michael N. Martinez,
  • Dan Ryczanowski,
  • Elodie Savary,
  • Filipe Góis-Silva,
  • L. Arturo Ureña-López,
  • Matthew P. Wiesner,
  • Joshua Wilde,
  • Gabriel Valim Calçada,
  • Rémi Cabanac,
  • Yue Pan,
  • Isaac Sierra,
  • Giulia Despali,
  • Micaele V. Cavalcante-Gomes,
  • Christine Macmillan,
  • Jacob Maresca,
  • Aleksandra Grudskaia,
  • Jackson H. O'Donnell,
  • Eric Paic,
  • Anna Niemiec,
  • Lucia F. de la Bella,
  • Jane Bromley,
  • Devon M. Williams,
  • Anupreeta More,
  • Benjamin C. Levine
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 523, p18 (08/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1680
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the ability of human 'expert' classifiers to identify strong gravitational lens candidates in Dark Energy Survey like imaging. We recruited a total of 55 people that completed more than 25 per cent of the project. During the classification task, we present to the participants 1489 images. The sample contains a variety of data including lens simulations, real lenses, non-lens examples, and unlabelled data. We find that experts are extremely good at finding bright, well-resolved Einstein rings, while arcs with g-band signal to noise less than ~25 or Einstein radii less than ~1.2 times the seeing are rarely recovered. Very few non-lenses are scored highly. There is substantial variation in the performance of individual classifiers, but they do not appear to depend on the classifier's experience, confidence or academic position. These variations can be mitigated with a team of 6 or more independent classifiers. Our results give confidence that humans are a reliable pruning step for lens candidates, providing pure and quantifiably complete samples for follow-up studies.

(1384)Mechanochemical feedback loop drives persistent motion of liposomes
  • Meifang Fu,
  • Tom Burkart,
  • Ivan Maryshev,
  • Henri G. Franquelim,
  • Adrián Merino-Salomón
  • +3
  • María Reverte-López,
  • Erwin Frey,
  • Petra Schwille
  • (less)
Nature Physics, 19, p8 (08/2023) doi:10.1038/s41567-023-02058-8
abstract + abstract -

Achieving autonomous motion is a central objective in designing artificial cells that mimic biological cells in form and function. Cellular motion often involves complex multiprotein machineries, which are challenging to reconstitute in vitro. Here we achieve persistent motion of cell-sized liposomes. These small artificial vesicles are driven by a direct mechanochemical feedback loop between the MinD and MinE protein systems of Escherichia coli and the liposome membrane. Membrane-binding Min proteins self-organize asymmetrically around the liposomes, which results in shape deformation and generates a mechanical force gradient leading to motion. The protein distribution responds to the deformed liposome shape through the inherent geometry sensitivity of the reaction-diffusion dynamics of the Min proteins. We show that such a mechanochemical feedback loop between liposome and Min proteins is sufficient to drive continuous motion. Our combined experimental and theoretical study provides a starting point for the future design of motility features in artificial cells.

(1383)Fast Neutrino Flavor Conversions Can Help and Hinder Neutrino-Driven Explosions
  • Jakob Ehring,
  • Sajad Abbar,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka,
  • Georg Raffelt,
  • Irene Tamborra
Physical Review Letters, 131 (08/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.131.061401
abstract + abstract -

We present the first simulations of core-collapse supernovae in axial symmetry with feedback from fast neutrino flavor conversion (FFC). Our schematic treatment of FFCs assumes instantaneous flavor equilibration under the constraint of lepton-number conservation individually for each flavor. Systematically varying the spatial domain where FFCs are assumed to occur, we find that they facilitate SN explosions in low-mass (9 - 12 M ) progenitors that otherwise explode with longer time delays, whereas FFCs weaken the tendency to explode of higher-mass (around 20 M) progenitors.

(1382)Presence of liquid water during the evolution of exomoons orbiting ejected free-floating planets
  • Giulia Roccetti,
  • Tommaso Grassi,
  • Barbara Ercolano,
  • Karan Molaverdikhani,
  • Aurélien Crida
  • +2
International Journal of Astrobiology, 22, p30 (08/2023) doi:10.1017/S1473550423000046
abstract + abstract -

Free-floating planets (FFPs) can result from dynamical scattering processes happening in the first few million years of a planetary system's life. Several models predict the possibility, for these isolated planetary-mass objects, to retain exomoons after their ejection. The tidal heating mechanism and the presence of an atmosphere with a relatively high optical thickness may support the formation and maintenance of oceans of liquid water on the surface of these satellites. In order to study the timescales over which liquid water can be maintained, we perform dynamical simulations of the ejection process and infer the resulting statistics of the population of surviving exomoons around FFPs. The subsequent tidal evolution of the moons' orbital parameters is a pivotal step to determine when the orbits will circularize, with a consequential decay of the tidal heating. We find that close-in ($a \lesssim 25$ RJ) Earth-mass moons with carbon dioxide-dominated atmospheres could retain liquid water on their surfaces for long timescales, depending on the mass of the atmospheric envelope and the surface pressure assumed. Massive atmospheres are needed to trap the heat produced by tidal friction that makes these moons habitable. For Earth-like pressure conditions (p0 = 1 bar), satellites could sustain liquid water on their surfaces up to 52 Myr. For higher surface pressures (10 and 100 bar), moons could be habitable up to 276 Myr and 1.6 Gyr, respectively. Close-in satellites experience habitable conditions for long timescales, and during the ejection of the FFP remain bound with the escaping planet, being less affected by the close encounter.

(1381)Super-sample covariance of the power spectrum, bispectrum, halos, voids, and their cross covariances
  • Adrian E. Bayer,
  • Jia Liu,
  • Ryo Terasawa,
  • Alexandre Barreira,
  • Yici Zhong
  • +1
Physical Review D, 108 (08/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.108.043521
abstract + abstract -

We study the effect of super-sample covariance (SSC) on the power spectrum and higher-order statistics; bispectrum, halo mass function, and void size function. We also investigate the effect of SSC on the cross covariance between the statistics. We consider both the matter and halo fields. Higher-order statistics of the large-scale structure contain additional cosmological information beyond the power spectrum and are a powerful tool to constrain cosmology. They are a promising probe for ongoing and upcoming high-precision cosmological surveys such as DESI, PFS, Rubin Observatory LSST, Euclid, SPHEREx, SKA, and Roman Space Telescope. Cosmological simulations used in modeling and validating these statistics often have sizes that are much smaller than the observed Universe. Density fluctuations on scales larger than the simulation box, known as super-sample modes, are not captured by the simulations and in turn can lead to inaccuracies in the covariance matrix. We compare the covariance measured using simulation boxes containing super-sample modes to those without. We also compare with the separate universe approach. We find that while the power spectrum, bispectrum and halo mass function show significant scale- or mass-dependent SSC, the void size function shows relatively small SSC. We also find significant SSC contributions to the cross covariances between the different statistics, implying that future joint analyses will need to carefully take into consideration the effect of SSC. To enable further study of SSC, our simulations have been made publicly available.

(1380)Consistent constraints on the equivalence principle from localized fast radio bursts
  • Robert Reischke,
  • Steffen Hagstotz
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 523, p8 (08/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1866
abstract + abstract -

Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are short astrophysical transients of extragalactic origin. Their burst signal is dispersed by the free electrons in the large-scale-structure (LSS), leading to delayed arrival times at different frequencies. Another potential source of time delay is the well known Shapiro delay, which measures the space-space and time-time metric perturbations along the line-of-sight. If photons of different frequencies follow different trajectories, i.e. if the universality of free fall guaranteed by the weak equivalence principle (WEP) is violated, they would experience an additional relative delay. This quantity, however, is not observable at the background level as it is not gauge independent, which has led to confusion in previous papers. Instead, an imprint can be seen in the correlation between the time delays of different pulses. In this paper, we derive robust and consistent constraints from twelve localized FRBs on the violation of the WEP in the energy range between 4.6 and 6 meV. In contrast to a number of previous studies, we consider our signal to be not in the model, but in the covariance matrix of the likelihood. To do so, we calculate the covariance of the time delays induced by the free electrons in the LSS, the WEP breaking terms, the Milky Way and host galaxy. By marginalizing both host galaxy contribution and the contribution from the free electrons, we find that the parametrized post-Newtonian parameter γ characterizing the WEP violation must be constant in this energy range to 1 in 1013 at 68 per cent confidence. These are the tightest constraints to-date on Δγ in this low-energy range.

(1379)Lattice simulations of axion-U(1) inflation
  • Angelo Caravano,
  • Eiichiro Komatsu,
  • Kaloian D. Lozanov,
  • Jochen Weller
Physical Review D, 108 (08/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.108.043504
abstract + abstract -

We present the first nonlinear lattice simulation of an axion field coupled to a U(1) gauge field during inflation. We use it to fully characterize the statistics of the primordial curvature perturbation ζ . We find high-order statistics to be essential in describing non-Gaussianity of ζ in the linear regime of the theory. On the contrary, non-Gaussianity is suppressed when the dynamics become nonlinear. This relaxes the bounds from overproduction of primordial black holes, allowing for an observable gravitational waves signal at pulsar timing array and interferometer scales. Our work establishes lattice simulations as a crucial tool to study the inflationary epoch and its predictions.

(1378)The MillenniumTNG project: intrinsic alignments of galaxies and haloes
  • Ana Maria Delgado,
  • Boryana Hadzhiyska,
  • Sownak Bose,
  • Volker Springel,
  • Lars Hernquist
  • +7
  • Monica Barrera,
  • Rüdiger Pakmor,
  • Fulvio Ferlito,
  • Rahul Kannan,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Simon D. M. White,
  • Carlos Frenk
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 523, p16 (08/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1781
abstract + abstract -

The intrinsic alignment (IA) of observed galaxy shapes with the underlying cosmic web is a source of contamination in weak lensing surveys. Sensitive methods to identify the IA signal will therefore need to be included in the upcoming weak lensing analysis pipelines. Hydrodynamical cosmological simulations allow us to directly measure the intrinsic ellipticities of galaxies, and thus provide a powerful approach to predict and understand the IA signal. Here we employ the novel, large-volume hydrodynamical simulation MTNG740, a product of the MillenniumTNG (MTNG) project, to study the IA of galaxies. We measure the projected correlation functions between the intrinsic shape/shear of galaxies and various tracers of large-scale structure, w+g, w+m, w++ over the radial range $r_{\rm p} \in [0.02 , 200]\, h^{-1}{\rm Mpc}$ and at redshifts z = 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0. We detect significant signal-to-noise IA signals with the density field for both elliptical and spiral galaxies. We also find significant intrinsic shear-shear correlations for ellipticals. We further examine correlations of the intrinsic shape of galaxies with the local tidal field. Here we find a significant IA signal for elliptical galaxies assuming a linear model. We also detect a weak IA signal for spiral galaxies under a quadratic tidal torquing model. Lastly, we measure the alignment between central galaxies and their host dark-matter haloes, finding small to moderate misalignments between their principal axes that decline with halo mass.

(1377)Soft gluon self-energy at finite temperature and density: hard NLO corrections in general covariant gauge
  • Tyler Gorda,
  • Risto Paatelainen,
  • Saga Säppi,
  • Kaapo Seppänen
Journal of High Energy Physics, 2023 (08/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP08(2023)021
abstract + abstract -

We compute the next-to-leading order (NLO) hard correction to the gluon self-energy tensor with arbitrary soft momenta in a hot and/or dense weakly coupled plasma in Quantum Chromodynamics. Our diagrammatic computations of the two-loop and power corrections are performed within the hard-thermal-loop (HTL) framework and in general covariant gauge, using the real-time formalism. We find that after renormalization our individual results are finite and gauge-dependent, and they reproduce previously computed results in Quantum Electrodynamics in the appropriate limit. Combining our results, we also recover a formerly known gauge-independent matching coefficient and associated screening mass in a specific kinematic limit. Our NLO results supersede leading-order HTL results from the 1980s and pave the way to an improved understanding of the bulk properties of deconfined matter, such as the equation of state.

(1376)Tensor-to-scalar ratio forecasts for extended LiteBIRD frequency configurations
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • J. Aumont,
  • R. Aurlien,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • A. J. Banday
  • +112
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • J. Errard,
  • R. T. Génova-Santos,
  • T. Hasebe,
  • J. Hubmayr,
  • H. Imada,
  • N. Krachmalnicoff,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • G. Pisano,
  • D. Poletti,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • K. L. Thompson,
  • L. Vacher,
  • I. K. Wehus,
  • S. Azzoni,
  • M. Ballardini,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • N. Bartolo,
  • A. Basyrov,
  • D. Beck,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • M. Bortolami,
  • M. Brilenkov,
  • E. Calabrese,
  • A. Carones,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • K. Cheung,
  • J. Chluba,
  • S. E. Clark,
  • L. Clermont,
  • F. Columbro,
  • A. Coppolecchia,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • T. de Haan,
  • E. de la Hoz,
  • M. De Petris,
  • S. Della Torre,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • F. Finelli,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • G. Galloni,
  • M. Galloway,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • T. Ghigna,
  • S. Giardiello,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • P. Hargrave,
  • M. Hattori,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • L. T. Hergt,
  • D. Herman,
  • D. Herranz,
  • E. Hivon,
  • T. D. Hoang,
  • K. Kohri,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • A. T. Lee,
  • C. Leloup,
  • F. Levrier,
  • A. I. Lonappan,
  • G. Luzzi,
  • B. Maffei,
  • E. Martínez-González,
  • S. Masi,
  • S. Matarrese,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • L. Montier,
  • G. Morgante,
  • B. Mot,
  • L. Mousset,
  • R. Nagata,
  • T. Namikawa,
  • F. Nati,
  • P. Natoli,
  • S. Nerval,
  • A. Novelli,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • G. Pascual-Cisneros,
  • G. Patanchon,
  • V. Pelgrims,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • G. Piccirilli,
  • G. Polenta,
  • G. Puglisi,
  • N. Raffuzzi,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • J. A. Rubino-Martin,
  • G. Savini,
  • D. Scott,
  • Y. Sekimoto,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • S. L. Stever,
  • N. Stutzer,
  • R. M. Sullivan,
  • H. Takakura,
  • L. Terenzi,
  • H. Thommesen,
  • M. Tristram,
  • M. Tsuji,
  • P. Vielva,
  • J. Weller,
  • B. Westbrook,
  • G. Weymann-Despres,
  • E. J. Wollack,
  • M. Zannoni
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 676, p18 (08/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202346155
abstract + abstract -

LiteBIRD is a planned JAXA-led cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode satellite experiment aiming for launch in the late 2020s, with a primary goal of detecting the imprint of primordial inflationary gravitational waves. Its current baseline focal-plane configuration includes 15 frequency bands between 40 and 402 GHz, fulfilling the mission requirements to detect the amplitude of gravitational waves with the total uncertainty on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, δr, down to δr < 0.001. A key aspect of this performance is accurate astrophysical component separation, and the ability to remove polarized thermal dust emission is particularly important. In this paper we note that the CMB frequency spectrum falls off nearly exponentially above 300 GHz relative to the thermal dust spectral energy distribution, and a relatively minor high frequency extension can therefore result in even lower uncertainties and better model reconstructions. Specifically, we compared the baseline design with five extended configurations, while varying the underlying dust modeling, in each of which the High-Frequency Telescope (HFT) frequency range was shifted logarithmically toward higher frequencies, with an upper cutoff ranging between 400 and 600 GHz. In each case, we measured the tensor-to-scalar ratio r uncertainty and bias using both parametric and minimum-variance component-separation algorithms. When the thermal dust sky model includes a spatially varying spectral index and temperature, we find that the statistical uncertainty on r after foreground cleaning may be reduced by as much as 30-50% by extending the upper limit of the frequency range from 400 to 600 GHz, with most of the improvement already gained at 500 GHz. We also note that a broader frequency range leads to higher residuals when fitting an incorrect dust model, but also it is easier to discriminate between models through higher χ2 sensitivity. Even in the case in which the fitting procedure does not correspond to the underlying dust model in the sky, and when the highest frequency data cannot be modeled with sufficient fidelity and must be excluded from the analysis, the uncertainty on r increases by only about 5% for a 500 GHz configuration compared to the baseline.

(1375)Multiscale Stamps for Real-time Classification of Alert Streams
  • Ignacio Reyes-Jainaga,
  • Francisco Förster,
  • Alejandra M. Muñoz Arancibia,
  • Guillermo Cabrera-Vives,
  • Amelia Bayo
  • +13
  • Franz E. Bauer,
  • Javier Arredondo,
  • Esteban Reyes,
  • Giuliano Pignata,
  • A. M. Mourão,
  • Javier Silva-Farfán,
  • Lluís Galbany,
  • Alex Álvarez,
  • Nicolás Astorga,
  • Pablo Castellanos,
  • Pedro Gallardo,
  • Alberto Moya,
  • Diego Rodríguez
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal, 952, p12 (08/2023) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ace77e
abstract + abstract -

In recent years, automatic classifiers of image cutouts (also called "stamps") have been shown to be key for fast supernova discovery. The Vera C. Rubin Observatory will distribute about ten million alerts with their respective stamps each night, enabling the discovery of approximately one million supernovae each year. A growing source of confusion for these classifiers is the presence of satellite glints, sequences of point-like sources produced by rotating satellites or debris. The currently planned Rubin stamps will have a size smaller than the typical separation between these point sources. Thus, a larger field-of-view stamp could enable the automatic identification of these sources. However, the distribution of larger stamps would be limited by network bandwidth restrictions. We evaluate the impact of using image stamps of different angular sizes and resolutions for the fast classification of events (active galactic nuclei, asteroids, bogus, satellites, supernovae, and variable stars), using data from the Zwicky Transient Facility. We compare four scenarios: three with the same number of pixels (small field of view with high resolution, large field of view with low resolution, and a multiscale proposal) and a scenario with the full stamp that has a larger field of view and higher resolution. Compared to small field-of-view stamps, our multiscale strategy reduces misclassifications of satellites as asteroids or supernovae, performing on par with high-resolution stamps that are 15 times heavier. We encourage Rubin and its Science Collaborations to consider the benefits of implementing multiscale stamps as a possible update to the alert specification.

(1374)The role of baryons in self-interacting dark matter mergers
  • Moritz S. Fischer,
  • Nils-Henrik Durke,
  • Katharina Hollingshausen,
  • Claudius Hammer,
  • Marcus Brüggen
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 523, p19 (08/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1786
abstract + abstract -

Mergers of galaxy clusters are promising probes of dark matter (DM) physics. For example, an offset between the DM component and the galaxy distribution can constrain DM self-interactions. We investigate the role of the intracluster medium (ICM) and its influence on DM-galaxy offsets in self-interacting dark matter models. To this end, we employ Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics + N-body simulations to study idealized setups of equal- and unequal-mass mergers with head-on collisions. Our simulations show that the ICM hardly affects the offsets arising shortly after the first pericentre passage compared to DM-only simulations. But later on, e.g. at the first apocentre, the offsets can be amplified by the presence of the ICM. Furthermore, we find that cross-sections small enough not to be excluded by measurements of the core sizes of relaxed galaxy clusters have a chance to produce observable offsets. We found that different DM models affect the DM distribution and also the galaxy and ICM distribution, including its temperature. Potentially, the position of the shock fronts, combined with the brightest cluster galaxies, provides further clues to the properties of DM. Overall our results demonstrate that mergers of galaxy clusters at stages about the first apocentre passage could be more interesting in terms of DM physics than those shortly after the first pericentre passage. This may motivate further studies of mergers at later evolutionary stages.

(1373)Beyond Diffusion: A Generalized Mean-Field Theory of Turbulent Dust Transport in Protoplanetary Disks
  • Fabian Binkert
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (08/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad2471
abstract + abstract -

Turbulence in protoplanetary disks, when present, plays a critical role in transporting dust particles embedded in the gaseous disk component. When using a field description of dust dynamics, a diffusion approach is traditionally used to model this turbulent dust transport. However, it has been shown that classical turbulent diffusion models are not fully self-consistent. Several shortcomings exist, including the ambiguous nature of the diffused quantity and the nonconservation of angular momentum. Orbital effects are also neglected without an explicit prescription. In response to these inconsistencies, we present a novel Eulerian turbulent dust transport model for isotropic and homogeneous turbulence on the basis of a mean-field theory. Our model is based on density-weighted averaging applied to the pressureless fluid equations and uses appropriate turbulence closures. Our model yields novel dynamic equations for the turbulent dust mass flux and recovers existing turbulent transport models in special limiting cases, thus providing a more general and self-consistent description of turbulent particle transport. Importantly, our model ensures the conservation of global angular and linear momentum unconditionally and implicitly accounts for the effects of orbital dynamics in protoplanetary disks. Furthermore, our model correctly describes the vertical settling-diffusion equilibrium solutions for both small and large particles. Hence, this work presents a generalized Eulerian turbulent dust transport model, establishing a comprehensive framework for more detailed studies of turbulent dust transport in protoplanetary disks.

(1372)An algorithmic approach to finding canonical differential equations for elliptic Feynman integrals
  • Christoph Dlapa,
  • Johannes M. Henn,
  • Fabian J. Wagner
Journal of High Energy Physics, 2023 (08/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP08(2023)120
abstract + abstract -

In recent years, differential equations have become the method of choice to compute multi-loop Feynman integrals. Whenever they can be cast into canonical form, their solution in terms of special functions is straightforward. Recently, progress has been made in understanding the precise canonical form for Feynman integrals involving elliptic polylogarithms. In this article, we make use of an algorithmic approach that proves powerful to find canonical forms for these cases. To illustrate the method, we reproduce several known canonical forms from the literature and present examples where a canonical form is deduced for the first time. Together with this article, we also release an update for INITIAL, a publicly available Mathematica implementation of the algorithm.

(1371)Production of 44Ti and iron-group nuclei in the ejecta of 3D neutrino-driven supernovae
  • Andre Sieverding,
  • Daniel Kresse,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka
abstract + abstract -

The radioactive isotopes of 44Ti and 56Ni are important products of explosive nucleosynthesis, which play a key role for supernova (SN) diagnostics and were detected in several nearby young SN remnants. However, most SN models based on non-rotating single stars predict yields of 44Ti that are much lower than the values inferred from observations. We present, for the first time, the nucleosynthesis yields from a self-consistent three-dimensional (3D) SN simulation of an approximately 19 Msun progenitor star that reaches an explosion energy comparable to that of SN 1987A and that covers the evolution of the neutrino-driven explosion until more than 7 seconds after core bounce. We find a significant enhancement of the Ti/Fe yield compared to recent spherically symmetric (1D) models and demonstrate that the long-time evolution is crucial to understand the efficient production of 44Ti due to the non-monotonic temperature and density histories of ejected mass elements. Additionally, we identify characteristic signatures of the nucleosynthesis in proton-rich ejecta, in particular high yields of 45Sc and 64Zn.

(1370)Prediction and Anomaly Detection of accelerated particles in PIC simulations using neural networks
  • Gabriel Torralba Paz,
  • Artem Bohdan,
  • Jacek Niemiec
abstract + abstract -

Acceleration processes that occur in astrophysical plasmas produce cosmic rays that are observed on Earth. To study particle acceleration, fully-kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are often used as they can unveil the microphysics of energization processes. Tracing of individual particles in PIC simulations is particularly useful in this regard. However, by-eye inspection of particle trajectories includes a high level of bias and uncertainty in pinpointing specific acceleration mechanisms that affect particles. Here we present a new approach that uses neural networks to aid individual particle data analysis. We demonstrate this approach on the test data that consists of 252,000 electrons which have been traced in a PIC simulation of a non-relativistic high Mach number perpendicular shock, in which we observe the two-stream electrostatic Buneman instability to pre-accelerate a portion of electrons to nonthermal energies. We perform classification, regression and anomaly detection by using a Convolutional Neural Network. We show that regardless of how noisy and imbalanced the datasets are, the regression and classification are able to predict the final energies of particles with high accuracy, whereas anomaly detection is able to discern between energetic and non-energetic particles. The methodology proposed may considerably simplify particle classification in large-scale PIC and also hybrid kinetic simulations.

(1369)Lowest accreting protoplanetary discs consistent with X-ray photoevaporation driving their final dispersal
  • Barbara Ercolano,
  • Giovanni Picogna,
  • Kristina Monsch
abstract + abstract -

Photoevaporation from high energy stellar radiation has been thought to drive the dispersal of protoplanetary discs. Different theoretical models have been proposed, but their predictions diverge in terms of the rate and modality at which discs lose their mass, with significant implications for the formation and evolution of planets. In this paper we use disc population synthesis models to interpret recent observations of the lowest accreting protoplanetary discs, comparing predictions from EUV-driven, FUV-driven and X-ray driven photoevaporation models. We show that the recent observational data of stars with low accretion rates (low accretors) point to X-ray photoevaporation as the preferred mechanism driving the final stages of protoplanetary disc dispersal. We also show that the distribution of accretion rates predicted by the X-ray photoevaporation model is consistent with observations, while other dispersal models tested here are clearly ruled out.

(1368)The Inverted Pendulum as a Classical Analog of the EFT Paradigm
  • Martin Beneke,
  • Matthias König,
  • Martin Link
abstract + abstract -

The inverted pendulum is a mechanical system with a rapidly oscillating pivot point. Using techniques similar in spirit to the methodology of effective field theories, we derive an effective Lagrangian that allows for the systematic computation of corrections to the so-called Kapitza equation. The derivation of the effective potential of the system requires non-trivial matching conditions, which need to be determined order by order in the power-counting of the problem. The convergence behavior of the series is investigated on the basis of high-order results obtained by this method.

(1367)Branches of a Tree: Taking Derivatives of Programs with Discrete and Branching Randomness in High Energy Physics
  • Michael Kagan,
  • Lukas Heinrich
abstract + abstract -

We propose to apply several gradient estimation techniques to enable the differentiation of programs with discrete randomness in High Energy Physics. Such programs are common in High Energy Physics due to the presence of branching processes and clustering-based analysis. Thus differentiating such programs can open the way for gradient based optimization in the context of detector design optimization, simulator tuning, or data analysis and reconstruction optimization. We discuss several possible gradient estimation strategies, including the recent Stochastic AD method, and compare them in simplified detector design experiments. In doing so we develop, to the best of our knowledge, the first fully differentiable branching program.

(1366)First spatio-spectral Bayesian imaging of SN1006 in X-ray
  • Margret Westerkamp,
  • Vincent Eberle,
  • Matteo Guardiani,
  • Philipp Frank,
  • Lukas Platz
  • +4
  • Philipp Arras,
  • Jakob Knollmüller,
  • Julia Stadler,
  • Torsten Enßlin
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Supernovae are an important source of energy in the interstellar medium. Young remnants of supernovae have a peak emission in the X-ray region, making them interesting objects for X-ray observations. In particular, the supernova remnant SN1006 is of great interest due to its historical record, proximity and brightness. It has therefore been studied by several X-ray telescopes. Improving the X-ray imaging of this and other remnants is important but challenging as it requires to address a spatially varying instrument response in order to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we use Chandra observations to demonstrate the capabilities of Bayesian image reconstruction using information field theory. Our objective is to reconstruct denoised, deconvolved and spatio-spectral resolved images from X-ray observations and to decompose the emission into different morphologies, namely diffuse and point-like. Further, we aim to fuse data from different detectors and pointings into a mosaic and quantify the uncertainty of our result. Utilizing prior knowledge on the spatial and spectral correlation structure of the two components, diffuse emission and point sources, the presented method allows the effective decomposition of the signal into these. In order to accelerate the imaging process, we introduce a multi-step approach, in which the spatial reconstruction obtained for a single energy range is used to derive an informed starting point for the full spatio-spectral reconstruction. The method is applied to 11 Chandra observations of SN1006 from 2008 and 2012, providing a detailed, denoised and decomposed view of the remnant. In particular, the separated view of the diffuse emission should provide new insights into its complex small-scale structures in the center of the remnant and at the shock front profiles.

(1365)Cosmological Constraints from the BOSS DR12 Void Size Function
  • Sofia Contarini,
  • Alice Pisani,
  • Nico Hamaus,
  • Federico Marulli,
  • Lauro Moscardini
  • +1
The Astrophysical Journal, 953, p19 (08/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acde54
abstract + abstract -

We present the first cosmological constraints derived from the analysis of the void size function. This work relies on the final Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 12 (DR12) data set, a large spectroscopic galaxy catalog, ideal for the identification of cosmic voids. We extract a sample of voids from the distribution of galaxies, and we apply a cleaning procedure aimed at reaching high levels of purity and completeness. We model the void size function by means of an extension of the popular volume-conserving model, based on two additional nuisance parameters. Relying on mock catalogs specifically designed to reproduce the BOSS DR12 galaxy sample, we calibrate the extended size function model parameters and validate the methodology. We then apply a Bayesian analysis to constrain the Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model and one of its simplest extensions, featuring a constant dark energy equation of state parameter, w. Following a conservative approach, we put constraints on the total matter density parameter and the amplitude of density fluctuations, finding Ωm = 0.29 ± 0.06 and ${\sigma }_{8}={0.79}_{-0.08}^{+0.09}$ . Testing the alternative scenario, we derive w = -1.1 ± 0.2, in agreement with the ΛCDM model. These results are independent and complementary to those derived from standard cosmological probes, opening up new ways to identify the origin of potential tensions in the current cosmological paradigm.

(1364)The Accretion Mode in Sub-Eddington Supermassive Black Holes: Getting into the Central Parsecs of Andromeda
  • C. Alig,
  • A. Prieto,
  • M. Blaña,
  • M. Frischman,
  • C. Metzl
  • +3
  • A. Burkert,
  • O. Zier,
  • A. Streblyanska
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal, 953, p13 (08/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ace2c3
abstract + abstract -

The inner kiloparsec regions surrounding sub-Eddington (luminosity less than 10-3 in Eddington units, L Edd) supermassive black holes (BHs) often show a characteristic network of dust filaments that terminate in a nuclear spiral in the central parsecs. Here we study the role and fate of these filaments in one of the least accreting BHs known, M31 (10-7 L Edd) using hydrodynamical simulations. The evolution of a streamer of gas particles moving under the barred potential of M31 is followed from kiloparsec distance to the central parsecs. After an exploratory study of initial conditions, a compelling fit to the observed dust/ionized gas morphologies and line-of-sight velocities in the inner hundreds of parsecs is produced. After several million years of streamer evolution, during which friction, thermal dissipation, and self-collisions have taken place, the gas settles into a disk tens of parsecs wide. This is fed by numerous filaments that arise from an outer circumnuclear ring and spiral toward the center. The final configuration is tightly constrained by a critical input mass in the streamer of several 103 M (at an injection rate of 10-4 ${M}_{\odot }\,{{\rm{yr}}}^{-1}$ ); values above or below this lead to filament fragmentation or dispersion respectively, which are not observed. The creation of a hot gas atmosphere in the region of ~106 K is key to the development of a nuclear spiral during the simulation. The final inflow rate at 1 pc from the center is ~1.7 × 10-7 M yr-1, consistent with the quiescent state of the M31 BH.

(1363)Circumgalactic Medium on the Largest Scales: Detecting X-Ray Absorption Lines with Large-area Microcalorimeters
  • Ákos Bogdán,
  • Ildar Khabibullin,
  • Orsolya E. Kovács,
  • Gerrit Schellenberger,
  • John ZuHone
  • +20
  • Joseph N. Burchett,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Eugene Churazov,
  • William R. Forman,
  • Christine Jones,
  • Caroline Kilbourne,
  • Ralph P. Kraft,
  • Erwin Lau,
  • Maxim Markevitch,
  • Dan McCammon,
  • Daisuke Nagai,
  • Dylan Nelson,
  • Anna Ogorzalek,
  • Benjamin D. Oppenheimer,
  • Arnab Sarkar,
  • Yuanyuan Su,
  • Nhut Truong,
  • Sylvain Veilleux,
  • Stephan Vladutescu-Zopp,
  • Irina Zhuravleva
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal, 953, p16 (08/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acdeec
abstract + abstract -

The circumgalactic medium (CGM) plays a crucial role in galaxy evolution as it fuels star formation, retains metals ejected from the galaxies, and hosts gas flows in and out of galaxies. For Milky Way-type and more-massive galaxies, the bulk of the CGM is in hot phases best accessible at X-ray wavelengths. However, our understanding of the CGM remains largely unconstrained due to its tenuous nature. A promising way to probe the CGM is via X-ray absorption studies. Traditional absorption studies utilize bright background quasars, but this method probes the CGM in a pencil beam, and, due to the rarity of bright quasars, the galaxy population available for study is limited. Large-area, high spectral resolution X-ray microcalorimeters offer a new approach to exploring the CGM in emission and absorption. Here, we demonstrate that the cumulative X-ray emission from cosmic X-ray background sources can probe the CGM in absorption. We construct column density maps of major X-ray ions from the Magneticum simulation and build realistic mock images of nine galaxies to explore the detectability of X-ray absorption lines arising from the large-scale CGM. We conclude that the O VII absorption line is detectable around individual massive galaxies at the 3σ-6σ confidence level. For Milky Way-type galaxies, the O VII and O VIII absorption lines are detectable at the ~ 6σ and ~ 3σ levels even beyond the virial radius when coadding data from multiple galaxies. This approach complements emission studies, does not require additional exposures, and will allow for probing the baryon budget and the CGM at the largest scales.

(1362)A formation mechanism for "Wrong Way" Radio Relics
  • Ludwig M. Böss,
  • Ulrich P. Steinwandel,
  • Klaus Dolag
abstract + abstract -

Radio Relics are typically found to be arc-like regions of synchrotron emission in the outskirts of merging clusters. They typically show synchrotron spectra that steepen towards the cluster center, indicating that they are caused by relativistic electrons being accelerated at outwards traveling merger shocks. A number of radio relics break with this ideal picture and show morphologies that are bent the opposite way and spectral index distributions which do not follow expectations from the ideal picture. We propose that these "Wrong Way" Relics can form when an outwards travelling shock wave is bent inwards by an in-falling galaxy cluster or group. We test this in an ultra-high resolution zoom-in simulation of a massive galaxy cluster with an on-the-fly spectral Cosmic Ray model. This allows us to study not only the synchrotron emission at colliding shocks, but also their synchrotron spectra to adress the open question of relics with strongly varying spectral indices over the relic surface.

(1361)Anomalous Collective Dynamics of Autochemotactic Populations
  • Jasper van der Kolk,
  • Florian Raßhofer,
  • Richard Swiderski,
  • Astik Haldar,
  • Abhik Basu
  • +1
Physical Review Letters, 131 (08/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.131.088201
abstract + abstract -

While the role of local interactions in nonequilibrium phase transitions is well studied, a fundamental understanding of the effects of long-range interactions is lacking. We study the critical dynamics of reproducing agents subject to autochemotactic interactions and limited resources. A renormalization group analysis reveals distinct scaling regimes for fast (attractive or repulsive) interactions; for slow signal transduction, the dynamics is dominated by a diffusive fixed point. Furthermore, we present a correction to the Keller-Segel nonlinearity emerging close to the extinction threshold and a novel nonlinear mechanism that stabilizes the continuous transition against the emergence of a characteristic length scale due to a chemotactic collapse.

(1360)The SATIN project - I. Turbulent multiphase ISM in Milky Way simulations with SNe feedback from stellar clusters
  • Rebekka Bieri,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Sam Geen,
  • Jonathan P. Coles,
  • Rüdiger Pakmor
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 523, p24 (08/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1710
abstract + abstract -

We introduce the star formation and supernova (SN) feedback model of the SATIN (Simulating AGNs Through ISM with Non-Equilibrium Effects) project to simulate the evolution of the star forming multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) of entire disc galaxies. This galaxy-wide implementation of a successful ISM feedback model tested in small box simulations naturally covers an order of magnitude in gas surface density, shear and radial motions. It is implemented in the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES at a peak resolution of 9 pc. New stars are represented by star cluster (sink) particles with individual SN delay times for massive stars. With SN feedback, cooling, and gravity, the galactic ISM develops a three-phase structure. The star formation rates naturally follow observed scaling relations for the local Milky Way gas surface density. SNe drive additional turbulence in the warm (300 < T < 104 K) gas and increase the kinetic energy of the cold gas, cooling out of the warm phase. The majority of the gas leaving the galactic ISM is warm and hot with mass loading factors of 3 ≤ η ≤ 10 up to h = 5 kpc away from the galaxy. While the hot gas is leaving the system, the warm and cold gas falls back onto the disc in a galactic fountain flow. The inclusion of other stellar feedback processes from massive stars seems to be needed to reduce the rate at which stars form at higher surface densities and to increase/decrease the amount of warm/cold gas.

(1359)Using PIC and PIC-MHD to investigate cosmic ray acceleration in mildly relativistic shocks
  • Artem Bohdan,
  • Anabella Araudo,
  • Allard Jan van Marle,
  • Fabien Casse,
  • Alexandre Marcowith
abstract + abstract -

Astrophysical shocks create cosmic rays by accelerating charged particles to relativistic speeds. However, the relative contribution of various types of shocks to the cosmic ray spectrum is still the subject of ongoing debate. Numerical studies have shown that in the non-relativistic regime, oblique shocks are capable of accelerating cosmic rays, depending on the Alfvénic Mach number of the shock. We now seek to extend this study into the mildly relativistic regime. In this case, dependence of the ion reflection rate on the shock obliquity is different compared to the nonrelativistic regime. Faster relativistic shocks are perpendicular for the majority of shock obliquity angles therefore their ability to initialize efficient DSA is limited. We define the ion injection rate using fully kinetic PIC simulation where we follow the formation of the shock and determine the fraction of ions that gets involved into formation of the shock precursor in the mildly relativistic regime covering a Lorentz factor range from 1 to 3. Then, with this result, we use a combined PIC-MHD method to model the large-scale evolution of the shock with the ion injection recipe dependent on the local shock obliquity. This methodology accounts for the influence of the self-generated or pre-existing upstream turbulence on the shock obliquity which allows study substantially larger and longer simulations compared to classical hybrid techniques.

(1358)Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Exoplanet Atmospheres I. Thermochemical Equilibrium Models
  • Dwaipayan Dubey,
  • Fabian Grübel,
  • Rosa Arenales-Lope,
  • Karan Molaverdikhani,
  • Barbara Ercolano
  • +2
abstract + abstract -

Context: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, largely known as PAHs, are widespread in the universe and have been identified in a vast array of astronomical observations from the interstellar medium to protoplanetary discs. They are likely to be associated with the chemical history of the universe and the emergence of life on Earth. However, their abundance on exoplanets remains unknown. Aims: We aim to investigate the feasibility of PAH formation in the thermalized atmospheres of irradiated and non-irradiated hot Jupiters around Sun-like stars. Methods: To this aim, we introduced PAHs in the 1-D self-consistent forward modeling code petitCODE. We simulated a large number of planet atmospheres with different parameters (e.g. carbon to oxygen ratio, metallicity, and effective planetary temperature) to study PAH formation. By coupling the thermochemical equilibrium solution from petitCODE with the 1-D radiative transfer code, petitRADTRANS, we calculated the synthetic transmission and emission spectra for irradiated and non-irradiated planets, respectively, and explored the role of PAHs on planet spectra. Results: Our models show strong correlations between PAH abundance and the aforementioned parameters. In thermochemical equilibrium scenarios, an optimal temperature, elevated carbon to oxygen ratio, and increased metallicity values are conducive to the formation of PAHs, with the carbon to oxygen ratio having the largest effect.

(1357)Supernova Simulations Confront SN 1987A Neutrinos
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Malte Heinlein,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka,
  • Georg Raffelt,
  • Edoardo Vitagliano
abstract + abstract -

We return to interpreting the historical SN~1987A neutrino data from a modern perspective. To this end, we construct a suite of spherically symmetric supernova models with the Prometheus-Vertex code, using four different equations of state and five choices of final baryonic neutron-star (NS) mass in the 1.36-1.93 M$_\odot$ range. Our models include muons and proto-neutron star (PNS) convection by a mixing-length approximation. The time-integrated signals of our 1.44 M$_\odot$ models agree reasonably well with the combined data of the four relevant experiments, IMB, Kam-II, BUST, and LSD, but the high-threshold IMB detector alone favors a NS mass of 1.7-1.8 M$_\odot$, whereas Kam-II alone prefers a mass around 1.4 M$_\odot$. The cumulative energy distributions in these two detectors are well matched by models for such NS masses, and the previous tension between predicted mean neutrino energies and the combined measurements is gone, with and without flavor swap. Generally, our predicted signals do not strongly depend on assumptions about flavor mixing, because the PNS flux spectra depend only weakly on antineutrino flavor. While our models show compatibility with the events detected during the first seconds, PNS convection and nucleon correlations in the neutrino opacities lead to short PNS cooling times of 5-9 s, in conflict with the late event bunches in Kam-II and BUST after 8-9 s, which are also difficult to explain by background. Speculative interpretations include the onset of fallback of transiently ejected material onto the NS, a late phase transition in the nuclear medium, e.g., from hadronic to quark matter, or other effects that add to the standard PNS cooling emission and either stretch the signal or provide a late source of energy. More research, including systematic 3D simulations, is needed to assess these open issues.

(1356)SUNRISE: The rich molecular inventory of high-redshift dusty galaxies revealed by broadband spectral line surveys
  • Chentao Yang,
  • Alain Omont,
  • Sergio Martín,
  • Thomas G. Bisbas,
  • Pierre Cox
  • +19
  • Alexandre Beelen,
  • Eduardo González-Alfonso,
  • Raphaël Gavazzi,
  • Susanne Aalto,
  • Paola Andreani,
  • Cecilia Ceccarelli,
  • Yu Gao,
  • Mark Gorski,
  • Michel Guélin,
  • Hai Fu,
  • Rob J. Ivison,
  • Kirsten K. Knudsen,
  • Matthew Lehnert,
  • Hugo Messias,
  • Sebastien Muller,
  • Roberto Neri,
  • Dominik Riechers,
  • Paul van der Werf,
  • Zhi-Yu Zhang
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Understanding the nature of high-$z$ dusty galaxies requires a comprehensive view of their ISM and molecular complexity. However, the molecular ISM at high redshifts is commonly studied using only a few species beyond CO, limiting our understanding of the ISM in these objects. In this paper, we present the results of deep 3 mm spectral line surveys using the NOEMA targeting two lensed dusty galaxies: APM 08279+5255 (APM), a quasar at redshift $z=3.911$, and NCv1.143 (NC), a $z=3.565$ starburst galaxy. The spectral line surveys cover rest-frame frequencies from about 330-550 GHz. We report the detection of 38 and 25 emission lines in APM and NC, respectively. The spectra reveal the chemical richness and the complexity of the physical properties of the ISM. By comparing the spectra of the two sources and combining the gas excitation analysis, we find that the physical properties and the chemical imprints of the ISM are different between them: the molecular gas is more excited in APM, exhibiting higher molecular-gas temperatures and densities compared to NC; the chemical abundances in APM are akin to the values of local AGN, showing boosted relative abundances of the dense gas tracers that might be related to high-temperature chemistry and/or XDRs, while NC more closely resembles local starburst galaxies. The most significant differences are found in H2O, where the 448 GHz H2O line is significantly brighter in APM, likely linked to the intense far-infrared radiation from the dust powered by AGN. Our astrochemical model suggests that, at such high column densities, UV radiation is less important in regulating the ISM, while CRs (and/or X-rays and shocks) are the key players in shaping the abundance of the molecules. Such deep spectral line surveys open a new window to study the physical and chemical properties of the ISM and the radiation field of galaxies in the early Universe. (abridged)

(1355)Evolution of eccentric stellar disks around supermassive black holes: the complex disk disruption dynamics and the milliparsec stars
  • Antti Rantala,
  • Thorsten Naab
abstract + abstract -

We study the 10 Myr evolution of parsec-scale stellar disks with initial masses of $M_{\mathrm{disk}} = 1.0$ - $7.5 \times 10^4 M_\odot$ and eccentricities $e_\mathrm{init}=0.1$-$0.9$ around supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Our disk models are embedded in a spherical background potential and have top-heavy single and binary star initial mass functions (IMF) with slopes of $0.25$-$1.7$. The systems are evolved with the N-body code $\texttt{BIFROST}$ including post-Newtonian (PN) equations of motion and simplified stellar evolution. All disks are unstable and evolve on Myr timescales towards similar eccentricity distributions peaking at $e_\star \sim 0.3$-$0.4$. Models with high $e_\mathrm{init}$ also develop a very eccentric $(e_\star\gtrsim0.9)$ stellar population. For higher disk masses $M_\mathrm{disk} \gtrsim3 \times10^4\;\mathrm{M_\odot}$, the disk disruption dynamics is more complex than the standard secular eccentric disk instability with opposite precession directions at different disk radii - a precession direction instability. We present an analytical model describing this behavior. A milliparsec population of $N\sim10$-$100$ stars forms around the SMBH in all models. For low $e_\mathrm{init}$ stars migrate inward while for $e_\mathrm{init}\gtrsim0.6$ stars are captured by the Hills mechanism. Without PN, after $6$ Myr the captured stars have a sub-thermal eccentricity distribution. We show that including PN effects prevents this thermalization by suppressing resonant relaxation effects and cannot be ignored. The number of tidally disrupted stars is similar or larger than the number of milliparsec stars. None of the simulated models can simultaneously reproduce the kinematic and stellar population properties of the Milky Way center clockwise disk and the S-cluster.

(1354)Minimal Basis for Exact Time Dependent Kernels in Cosmological Perturbation Theory and Application to $\Lambda$CDM and $w_0w_a$CDM
  • Michael Hartmeier,
  • Mathias Garny
abstract + abstract -

We derive a minimal basis of kernels furnishing the perturbative expansion of the density contrast and velocity divergence in powers of the initial density field that is applicable to cosmological models with arbitrary expansion history, thereby relaxing the commonly adopted Einstein-de-Sitter (EdS) approximation. For this class of cosmological models, the non-linear kernels are at every order given by a sum of terms, each of which factorizes into a time-dependent growth factor and a wavenumber-dependent basis function. We show how to reduce the set of basis functions to a minimal amount, and give explicit expressions up to order $n=5$. We find that for this minimal basis choice, each basis function individually displays the expected scaling behaviour due to momentum conservation, being non-trivial at $n\geq 4$. This is a highly desirable property for numerical evaluation of loop corrections. In addition, it allows us to match the density field to an effective field theory (EFT) description for cosmologies with an arbitrary expansion history, which we explicitly derive at order four. We evaluate the differences to the EdS approximation for $\Lambda$CDM and $w_0w_a$CDM, paying special attention to the irreducible cosmology dependence that cannot be absorbed into EFT terms for the one-loop bispectrum. Finally, we provide algebraic recursion relations for a special generalization of the EdS approximation that retains its simplicity and is relevant for mixed hot and cold dark matter models.

(1353)Galaxy Cluster simulations with a spectral Cosmic Ray model -- "Wrong Way" Radio Relics
  • Ludwig M. Böss,
  • Ulrich P. Steinwandel,
  • Klaus Dolag
abstract + abstract -

Non-thermal emission from relativistic electrons gives insight into the strength and morphology of intra-cluster magnetic fields, as well as providing powerful tracers of structure formation shocks. Emission caused by Cosmic Ray (CR) protons on the other hand still challenges current observations and is therefore testing models of proton acceleration at intra-cluster shocks. Large-scale simulations including the effects of CRs have been difficult to achieve and have been mainly reduced to simulating an overall energy budget, or tracing CR populations in post-processing of simulation output and has often been done for either protons or electrons. We use an efficient on-the-fly Fokker-Planck solver to evolve distributions of CR protons and electrons within every resolution element of our simulation. The solver accounts for CR acceleration at intra-cluster shocks, based on results of recent PIC simulations, re-acceleration due to shocks and MHD turbulence, adiabatic changes and radiative losses of electrons. We apply this model to zoom simulations of galaxy clusters, recently used to show the evolution of the small-scale turbulent dynamo on cluster scales. For these simulations we use a spectral resolution of 48 bins over 6 orders of magnitude in momentum for electrons and 12 bins over 6 orders of magnitude in momentum for protons. We present preliminary results about a possible formation mechanism for Wrong Way Radio Relics in our simulation.

(1352)Small but mighty: High-resolution spectroscopy of ultra-hot Jupiter atmospheres with compact telescopes. KELT-9 b's transmission spectrum with Wendelstein's FOCES Spectrograph
  • N. W. Borsato,
  • H. J. Hoeijmakers,
  • D. Cont,
  • D. Kitzmann,
  • J. Ehrhardt
  • +7
  • C. Gössl,
  • C. Ries,
  • B. Prinoth,
  • K. Molaverdikhani,
  • B. Ercolano,
  • H. Kellerman,
  • Kevin Heng
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

When observing transmission spectra produced by atmospheres of ultra-hot Jupiters, large telescopes are typically the instrument of choice due to the very weak signal of the planet's atmosphere. This study aims to alleviate the desire for large telescopes by illustrating that the same science is possible with smaller telescope classes. We use the cross-correlation technique to showcase the potential of the high-resolution spectrograph FOCES at Wendelstein Observatory and demonstrate its potential to resolve the atmosphere of the ultra-hot Jupiter, KELT-9 b. A performance comparison is conducted between FOCES and HARPS-N spectrographs, considering both single transit and combined observations over three nights. With FOCES, we have detected seven species in KELT-9 b's atmosphere: Ti II, Fe I, Fe II, Na I, Mg I, Na II, Cr II, Sc II. Although HARPS-N surpasses FOCES in performance, our results reveal that smaller telescope classes are capable of resolving ultra-hot Jupiter atmospheres. This broadens the scope of potential studies, allowing for investigations into phenomena like temporal variations in atmospheric signals and the atmospheric loss characteristics of these close-in planets.

(1351)TeV pion bumps in the gamma-ray spectra of flaring blazars
  • M. Petropoulou,
  • A. Mastichiadis,
  • G. Vasilopoulos,
  • D. Paneque,
  • J. Becerra González
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

(Abridged) Very high-energy (VHE, $E>100$ GeV) observations of the blazar Mrk 501 with MAGIC in 2014 have provided evidence for an unusual narrow spectral feature at about 3 TeV during an extreme X-ray flaring activity. The one-zone synchrotron-self Compton scenario, widely used in blazar broadband spectral modeling, fails to explain the narrow TeV component. Motivated by this rare observation, we propose an alternative model for the production of narrow features in the VHE spectra of flaring blazars. These spectral features may result from the decay of neutral pions ($\pi^0$ bumps) that are in turn produced via interactions of protons (of tens of TeV energy) with energetic photons, whose density increases during hard X-ray flares. We explore the conditions needed for the emergence of narrow $\pi^0$ bumps in VHE blazar spectra during X-ray flares reaching synchrotron energies $\sim100$ keV using time-dependent radiative transfer calculations. We focus on high-synchrotron peaked (HSP) blazars, which consist the majority of VHE detected extragalactic sources. We find that synchrotron-dominated flares with peak energies $\gtrsim100$ keV can be ideal periods for the search of $\pi^0$ bumps in the VHE spectra of HSP blazars. Application of the model to the SED of Mrk 501 on MJD 56857.98 shows that the VHE spectrum of the flare is described well by the sum of an SSC component and a distinct $\pi^0$ bump centered at 3 TeV. Spectral fitting of simulated SSC+$\pi^0$ spectra for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) show that a $\pi^0$ bump could be detected at a 5$\sigma$ significance level with a 30-min exposure.

(1350)Oxygen, sulfur, and iron radial abundance gradients of classical Cepheids across the Galactic thin disk
  • R. da Silva,
  • V. D'Orazi,
  • M. Palla,
  • G. Bono,
  • V. F. Braga
  • +23
  • M. Fabrizio,
  • B. Lemasle,
  • E. Spitoni,
  • F. Matteucci,
  • H. Jonsson,
  • V. Kovtyukh,
  • L. Magrini,
  • M. Bergemann,
  • M. Dall'Ora,
  • I. Ferraro,
  • G. Fiorentino,
  • P. Francois,
  • G. Iannicola,
  • L. Inno,
  • R. -P. Kudritzki,
  • N. Matsunaga,
  • M. Monelli,
  • M. Nonino,
  • C. Sneden,
  • J. Storm,
  • F. Thevenin,
  • T. Tsujimoto,
  • A. Zocchi
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Classical Cepheids (CCs) are solid distance indicators and tracers of young stellar populations. Our aim is to provide iron, oxygen, and sulfur abundances for the largest and most homogeneous sample of Galactic CCs ever analyzed. The current sample covers a wide range in Galactocentric distances (RG), pulsation modes and periods. High-resolution and high S/N spectra collected with different spectrographs were adopted to estimate the atmospheric parameters. Individual distances are based on Gaia trigonometric parallaxes or on near-infrared Period-Luminosity relations. We found that Fe and alpha-element radial gradients based on CCs display a well-defined change in the slope for RG larger than 12 kpc. Radial gradients based on open clusters, covering a wide range in age, display similar trends, meaning that the flattening in the outer disk is an intrinsic feature of the radial gradients since it is independent of age. Empirical evidence indicates that the radial gradient for S is steeper than for Fe. The difference in the slope is a factor of two in the linear fit. We also found that S is, on average, under-abundant compared with O. We performed a detailed comparison with Galactic chemical evolution models and we found that a constant Star Formation Efficiency for RG larger than 12 kpc takes account for the flattening in both Fe and alpha-elements. To further constrain the impact that predicted S yields for massive stars have on radial gradients, we adopted a "toy model" and we found that the flattening in the outermost regions requires a decrease of a factor of four in the current S predictions. Sulfur photospheric abundances, compared with other alpha-elements, have the key advantage of being a volatile element. Therefore, stellar S abundances can be directly compared with nebular S abundances in external galaxies.

(1349)The missing quasar image in the gravitationally lensed quasar HE0230$-$2130: implications on dark satellites and the cored lens mass distribution
  • S. Ertl,
  • S. Schuldt,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • P. L. Schechter,
  • A. Halkola
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

The quasar HE0230$-$2130 is lensed by two galaxies at similar redshifts into four observed images. Using modeled quasar positions from fitting the brightness of the quasar images in ground-based imaging data from the Magellan telescope, we find that lens mass models where both galaxies are each parametrized with a singular power-law (PL) profile predict five quasar images. One of the predicted images is unobserved even though it is distinctively offset from the lensing galaxies and is bright enough to be observable. This missing image gives rise to new opportunities to study the galaxies' mass distribution. To interpret the quad configuration of this system, we test different profile assumption with the aim to obtain lens mass models that predicts correctly only four observed images. We test the effect of adopting cored profiles for the lensing galaxies, of external shear, and of additional profiles to represent a dark matter clump. By comparing the Bayesian evidence of different model parametrizations, we favor the model class that consists of two singular PL profiles for the lensing galaxies and a cored isothermal sphere in the region of the previously predicted fifth images (rNIS profile). We estimate the mass of the rNIS clumps inside its Einstein radius and find that 18\% are in the range $10^6 M_{\odot} \leq M_{\rm rNIS}\leq 10^9 M_{\odot}$, which is the predicted mass range of dark matter subhalos in cold dark matter simulations, or the mass of low-mass dark matter satellite galaxies. The second most likely model class, with a relative probability of 94\%, is the model where the smaller lensing galaxy is described by a cored PL profile with external shear. Our study demonstrates that lensed quasar images are sensitive to dark matter structure in the gravitational lens.

(1348)Planar three-loop QCD helicity amplitudes for $V$+jet production at hadron colliders
  • Thomas Gehrmann,
  • Petr Jakubčík,
  • Cesare Carlo Mella,
  • Nikolaos Syrrakos,
  • Lorenzo Tancredi
abstract + abstract -

We compute the planar three-loop Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) corrections to the helicity amplitudes involving a vector boson $V=Z,W^\pm,\gamma^*$, two quarks and a gluon. These amplitudes are relevant to vector-boson-plus-jet production at hadron colliders and other precision QCD observables. The planar corrections encompass the leading colour factors $N^3$, $N^2 N_f$, $N N_f^2$ and $N_f^3$. We provide the finite remainders of the independent helicity amplitudes in terms of multiple polylogrithms, continued to all kinematic regions and in a form which is compact and lends itself to efficient numerical evaluation.

(1347)Accelerating galaxy dynamical modeling using a neural network for joint lensing and kinematics analyses
  • Matthew R. Gomer,
  • Sebastian Ertl,
  • Luca Biggio,
  • Han Wang,
  • Aymeric Galan
  • +4
  • Lyne Van de Vyvere,
  • Dominique Sluse,
  • Georgios Vernardos,
  • Sherry H. Suyu
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Strong gravitational lensing is a powerful tool to provide constraints on galaxy mass distributions and cosmological parameters, such as the Hubble constant, $H_0$. Nevertheless, inference of such parameters from images of lensing systems is not trivial as parameter degeneracies can limit the precision in the measured lens mass and cosmological results. External information on the mass of the lens, in the form of kinematic measurements, is needed to ensure a precise and unbiased inference. Traditionally, such kinematic information has been included in the inference after the image modeling, using spherical Jeans approximations to match the measured velocity dispersion integrated within an aperture. However, as spatially resolved kinematic measurements become available via IFU data, more sophisticated dynamical modeling is necessary. Such kinematic modeling is expensive, and constitutes a computational bottleneck which we aim to overcome with our Stellar Kinematics Neural Network (SKiNN). SKiNN emulates axisymmetric modeling using a neural network, quickly synthesizing from a given mass model a kinematic map which can be compared to the observations to evaluate a likelihood. With a joint lensing plus kinematic framework, this likelihood constrains the mass model at the same time as the imaging data. We show that SKiNN's emulation of a kinematic map is accurate to considerably better precision than can be measured (better than $1\%$ in almost all cases). Using SKiNN speeds up the likelihood evaluation by a factor of $\sim 200$. This speedup makes dynamical modeling economical, and enables lens modelers to make effective use of modern data quality in the JWST era.

(1346)z-GAL -- A NOEMA spectroscopic redshift survey of bright Herschel galaxies: [II] Dust properties
  • D. Ismail,
  • A. Beelen,
  • V. Buat,
  • S. Berta,
  • P. Cox
  • +32
  • F. Stanley,
  • A. Young,
  • S. Jin,
  • R. Neri,
  • T. Bakx,
  • H. Dannerbauer,
  • K. Butler,
  • A. Cooray,
  • A. Nanni,
  • A. Omont,
  • S. Serjeant,
  • P. van der Werf,
  • C. Vlahakis,
  • A. Weiss,
  • C. Yang,
  • A. J. Baker,
  • G. Bendo,
  • E. Borsato,
  • N. Chartab,
  • S. Dye,
  • S. Eales,
  • R. Gavazzi,
  • D. Hughes,
  • R. Ivison,
  • B. M. Jones M. Krips,
  • M. Lehnert,
  • L. Marchetti,
  • H. Messias,
  • M. Negrello,
  • I. Perez-Fournon,
  • D. A. Riechers,
  • S. Urquhart
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

(Abridged) We present the dust properties of 125 bright Herschel galaxies selected from the z-GAL survey. The large instantaneous bandwidth of NOEMA provides an exquisite sampling of the underlying dust continuum emission at 2 and 3 mm in the observed frame, with flux densities in at least four side bands for each source. Together with the available Herschel 250, 350, and 500 micron and SCUBA-2 850 micron flux densities, the spectral energy distribution of each source can be analyzed from the far-infrared to the millimeter, with a fine sampling of the Rayleigh-Jeans tail. This wealth of data provides a solid basis to derive robust dust properties, in particular the dust emissivity index, beta, and the dust temperature, T(dust). In order to demonstrate our ability to constrain the dust properties, we used a flux-generated mock catalog and analyzed the results under the assumption of an optically thin and optically thick modified black body emission. For the z-GAL sources, we report a range of dust emissivities with beta ~ 1.5 - 3 estimated up to high precision with relative uncertainties that vary in the range 7% - 15%, and an average of 2.2 +/- 0.3. We find dust temperatures varying from 20 to 50 K with an average of T(dust) ~ 30 K for the optically thin case and ~38 K in the optically thick case. For all the sources, we estimate the dust masses and apparent infrared luminosities (based on the optically thin approach). An inverse correlation is found between T(dust) and beta, which is similar to what is seen in the local Universe. Finally, we report an increasing trend in the dust temperature as a function of redshift at a rate of 6.5 +/- 0.5 K/z for this 500 micron-selected sample. Based on this study, future prospects are outlined to further explore the evolution of dust temperature across cosmic time.

(1345)High-Dimensional Bayesian Likelihood Normalisation for CRESST's Background Model
  • G. Angloher,
  • S. Banik,
  • G. Benato,
  • A. Bento,
  • A. Bertolini
  • +57
  • R. Breier,
  • C. Bucci,
  • J. Burkhart,
  • L. Canonica,
  • A. D'Addabbo,
  • S. Di Lorenzo,
  • L. Einfalt,
  • A. Erb,
  • F. v. Feilitzsch,
  • S. Fichtinger,
  • D. Fuchs,
  • A. Garai,
  • V. M. Ghete,
  • P. Gorla,
  • P. V. Guillaumon,
  • S. Gupta,
  • D. Hauff,
  • M. Jeskovsky,
  • J. Jochum,
  • M. Kaznacheeva,
  • A. Kinast,
  • H. Kluck,
  • H. Kraus,
  • S. Kuckuk,
  • A. Langenkaemper,
  • M. Mancuso,
  • L. Marini,
  • L. Meyer,
  • V. Mokina,
  • A. Nilima,
  • M. Olmi,
  • T. Ortmann,
  • C. Pagliarone,
  • L. Pattavina,
  • F. Petricca,
  • W. Potzel,
  • P. Povinec,
  • F. Proebst,
  • F. Pucci,
  • F. Reindl,
  • J. Rothe,
  • K. Schaeffner,
  • J. Schieck,
  • D. Schmiedmayer,
  • S. Schoenert,
  • C. Schwertner,
  • M. Stahlberg,
  • L. Stodolsky,
  • C. Strandhagen,
  • R. Strauss,
  • I. Usherov,
  • F. Wagner,
  • M. Willers,
  • V. Zema,
  • F. Ferella,
  • M. Laubenstein,
  • S. Nisi
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Using CaWO$_4$ crystals as cryogenic calorimeters, the CRESST experiment searches for nuclear recoils caused by the scattering of potential Dark Matter particles. A reliable identification of a potential signal crucially depends on an accurate background model. In this work we introduce an improved normalisation method for CRESST's model of the electromagnetic backgrounds. Spectral templates, based on Geant4 simulations, are normalised via a Bayesian likelihood fit to experimental background data. Contrary to our previous work, no assumption of partial secular equilibrium is required, which results in a more robust and versatile applicability. Furthermore, considering the correlation between all background components allows us to explain 82.7% of the experimental background within [1 keV, 40 keV], an improvement of 18.6% compared to our previous method.

(1344)Kaon Theory: 50 Years Later
  • Andrzej J. Buras
abstract + abstract -

We summarize the status of the Kaon Theory 50 years after the seminal paper of Kobayashi and Maskawa who pointed out that six quarks are necessary to have CP violation in the Standard Model (SM) and presented a parametrization of a $3\times 3$ unitary matrix that after the discovery of the charm quark in 1974 and the $b$ quark in 1977 dominated the field of flavour changing processes. One of the main goals of flavour physics since then was the determination of the four parameters of this matrix, which we will choose here to be $|V_{us}|$, $|V_{cb}|$ and the two angles of the unitarity triangle, $\beta$ and $\gamma$ with $|V_{us}|$ introduced by Cabibbo in 1963. I will summarize recent strategy for determination of these parameters without new physics (NP) infection. It is based on the conjecture of the absence of relevant NP contributions to $\Delta F=2$ processes that indeed can be demonstrated by a negative rapid test: the $|V_{cb}|-\gamma$ plot. This in turn allows to obtain SM predictions for rare $K$ and $B$ decays that are most precise to date. We present strategies for the explanation of the anticipated anomaly in the ratio $\varepsilon'/\varepsilon$ and the observed anomalies in $b\to s\mu^+\mu^-$ transitions that are consistent with our $\Delta F=2$ conjecture. In particular, the absence of NP in the parameter $\varepsilon_K$, still allows for significant NP effects in $\varepsilon'/\varepsilon$ and in rare Kaon decays, moreover in a correlated manner. Similar the absence of NP in $\Delta M_s$ combined with anomalies in $b\to s\mu^+\mu^-$ transitions hints for the presence of right-handed quark currents. We also discuss how the nature of neutrinos, Dirac vs. Majorana one, can be probed in $K\to\pi\nu\bar\nu$ and $B\to K(K^*)\nu\bar\nu$ decays. The present status of the $\Delta I=1/2$ rule and of $\varepsilon'/\varepsilon$ is summarized.

(1343)Environmental dependence of AGN activity and star formation in galaxy clusters from Magneticum simulations
  • Gregor Rihtaršič,
  • Veronica Biffi,
  • Dunja Fabjan,
  • Klaus Dolag
abstract + abstract -

(Abridged) Cluster environment has a strong impact on the star formation rate and AGN activity in cluster galaxies. In this work, we investigate the behaviour of different galaxy populations in galaxy clusters and their vicinity by means of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We studied galaxies with stellar mass $\log M_\ast (M_\odot) > 10.15$ in galaxy clusters with mass $M_{500} > 10^{13} M_\odot$ extracted from box2b (640 comoving Mpc/$h$) of the Magneticum Pathfinder suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations at redshifts 0.25 and 0.90. We examined the influence of stellar mass, distance to the nearest neighbouring galaxy, clustercentric radius, substructure membership and large-scale surroundings on the fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN, star formation rate and the ratio between star-forming and quiescent galaxies. We found that in low-mass galaxies, AGN activity and star formation are similarly affected by the environment and decline towards the cluster centre. In massive galaxies, the impact is different; star-formation level increases in the inner regions and peaks between 0.5 and 1 $R_{500}$ with a rapid decline in the centre, whereas AGN activity declines in the inner regions and rapidly rises below $R_{500}$ towards the centre - likely due to stellar mass stripping and the consequent selection of galaxies with more massive black holes. After disentangling the contributions of neighbouring cluster regions, we found an excess of AGN activity in massive galaxies on the cluster outskirts ($\sim 3 R_{500}$). We also found that the local density, substructure membership and stellar mass strongly influence star formation and AGN activity but verified that they cannot fully account for the observed radial trends.

(1342)Equation of state of cold quark matter to $O(\alpha_s^3 \ln \alpha_s)$
  • Tyler Gorda,
  • Risto Paatelainen,
  • Saga Säppi,
  • Kaapo Seppänen
abstract + abstract -

Accurately understanding the equation of state (EOS) of high-density, zero-temperature quark matter plays an essential role in constraining the behavior of dense strongly interacting matter inside the cores of neutron stars. In this Letter, we study the weak-coupling expansion of the EOS of cold quark matter and derive the complete, gauge-invariant contributions from the long-wavelength, dynamically screened gluonic sector at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N3LO) in the strong coupling constant $\alpha_s$. This elevates the EOS result to the $O(\alpha_s^3 \ln \alpha_s)$ level, leaving only one unknown constant from the unscreened sector at N3LO, and places it on par with its high-temperature counterpart from 2003. This is achieved by generalizing next-to-leading order gluon self-energies within the hard-thermal-loop limit from high temperatures and densities to zero temperature. We find that including these screened gluonic contributions at N3LO yields a remarkably well-converged EOS, with essentially no renormalization-scale dependence. Finally, we perform a Bayesian estimation of the remaining unscreened contribution at N3LO and find that the full EOS of cold quark matter at this order may show markedly improved convergence over the lower-order results.

(1341)BIFROST: simulating compact subsystems in star clusters using a hierarchical fourth-order forward symplectic integrator code
  • Antti Rantala,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Francesco Paolo Rizzuto,
  • Matias Mannerkoski,
  • Christian Partmann
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 522, p24 (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1360
abstract + abstract -

We present BIFROST, an extended version of the GPU-accelerated hierarchical fourth-order forward symplectic integrator code FROST. BIFROST (BInaries in FROST) can efficiently evolve collisional stellar systems with arbitrary binary fractions up to $f_\mathrm{bin}=100~{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ by using secular and regularized integration for binaries, triples, multiple systems, or small clusters around black holes within the fourth-order forward integrator framework. Post-Newtonian (PN) terms up to order PN3.5 are included in the equations of motion of compact subsystems with optional three-body and spin-dependent terms. PN1.0 terms for interactions with black holes are computed everywhere in the simulation domain. The code has several merger criteria (gravitational-wave inspirals, tidal disruption events, and stellar and compact object collisions) with the addition of relativistic recoil kicks for compact object mergers. We show that for systems with N particles the scaling of the code remains good up to NGPU ~ 40 × N/106 GPUs and that the increasing binary fractions up to 100 per cent hardly increase the code running time (less than a factor ~1.5). We also validate the numerical accuracy of BIFROST by presenting a number of star clusters simulations the most extreme ones including a core collapse and a merger of two intermediate mass black holes with a relativistic recoil kick.

(1340)Polarimetry and Astrometry of NIR Flares as Event Horizon Scale, Dynamical Probes for the Mass of Sgr A*
  • The GRAVITY Collaboration,
  • R. Abuter,
  • N. Aimar,
  • P. Amaro Seoane,
  • A. Amorim
  • +64
  • M. Bauböck,
  • J. P. Berger,
  • H. Bonnet,
  • G. Bourdarot,
  • W. Brandner,
  • V. Cardoso,
  • Y. Clénet,
  • R. Davies,
  • P. T. de Zeeuw,
  • J. Dexter,
  • A. Drescher,
  • A. Eckart,
  • F. Eisenhauer,
  • H. Feuchtgruber,
  • G. Finger,
  • N. M. Förster Schreiber,
  • A. Foschi,
  • P. Garcia,
  • F. Gao,
  • Z. Gelles,
  • E. Gendron,
  • R. Genzel,
  • S. Gillessen,
  • M. Hartl,
  • X. Haubois,
  • F. Haussmann,
  • G. Heißel,
  • T. Henning,
  • S. Hippler,
  • M. Horrobin,
  • L. Jochum,
  • L. Jocou,
  • A. Kaufer,
  • P. Kervella,
  • S. Lacour,
  • V. Lapeyrère,
  • J. -B. Le Bouquin,
  • P. Léna,
  • D. Lutz,
  • F. Mang,
  • N. More,
  • T. Ott,
  • T. Paumard,
  • K. Perraut,
  • G. Perrin,
  • O. Pfuhl,
  • S. Rabien,
  • D. C. Ribeiro,
  • M. Sadun Bordoni,
  • S. Scheithauer,
  • J. Shangguan,
  • T. Shimizu,
  • J. Stadler,
  • O. Straub,
  • C. Straubmeier,
  • E. Sturm,
  • L. J. Tacconi,
  • F. Vincent,
  • S. von Fellenberg,
  • F. Widmann,
  • M. Wielgus,
  • E. Wieprecht,
  • E. Wiezorrek,
  • J. Woillez
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present new astrometric and polarimetric observations of flares from Sgr A* obtained with GRAVITY, the near-infrared interferometer at ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), bringing the total sample of well-covered astrometric flares to four and polarimetric ones to six, where we have for two flares good coverage in both domains. All astrometric flares show clockwise motion in the plane of the sky with a period of around an hour, and the polarization vector rotates by one full loop in the same time. Given the apparent similarities of the flares, we present a common fit, taking into account the absence of strong Doppler boosting peaks in the light curves and the EHT-measured geometry. Our results are consistent with and significantly strengthen our model from 2018: We find that a) the combination of polarization period and measured flare radius of around nine gravitational radii ($9 R_g \approx 1.5 R_{ISCO}$, innermost stable circular orbit) is consistent with Keplerian orbital motion of hot spots in the innermost accretion zone. The mass inside the flares' radius is consistent with the $4.297 \times 10^6 \; \text{M}_\odot$ measured from stellar orbits at several thousand $R_g$. This finding and the diameter of the millimeter shadow of Sgr A* thus support a single black hole model. Further, b) the magnetic field configuration is predominantly poloidal (vertical), and the flares' orbital plane has a moderate inclination with respect to the plane of the sky, as shown by the non-detection of Doppler-boosting and the fact that we observe one polarization loop per astrometric loop. Moreover, c) both the position angle on sky and the required magnetic field strength suggest that the accretion flow is fueled and controlled by the winds of the massive, young stars of the clockwise stellar disk 1-5 arcsec from Sgr A*, in agreement with recent simulations.

(1339)The phase structure of cosmic ray driven outflows in stream fed disc galaxies
  • N. Peschken,
  • M. Hanasz,
  • T. Naab,
  • D. Wóltański,
  • A. Gawryszczak
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 522, p17 (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1358
abstract + abstract -

Feeding with gas in streams is well established to be an important galaxy growth mechanism. Using an idealized set-up of an isolated galaxy, we study the impact of stream feeding (with 107 MMyr-1 rate) on the star formation and outflows of disc galaxies with ~1011 M baryonic mass. The magnetohydrodynamical simulations are carried out with the PIERNIK code and include star formation, feedback from supernova, and cosmic ray advection and diffusion, on a uniform grid with 195 pc spatial resolution. We find that the introduction of a cold gas stream accreted by the disc enhances galactic star formation. Lower angular momentum streams result in more compact discs, higher star formation rates and stronger outflows. In agreement with previous studies, models including cosmic rays launch stronger outflows travelling much further into the galactic halo. Cosmic ray supported outflows are also cooler than supernova only driven outflows. With cosmic rays, the star formation is suppressed and the thermal pressure is reduced. We find evidence for two distinct outflow phases. The warm outflows have high angular momentum and stay close to the galactic disc, while the hot outflow phase has low angular momentum and escapes from the centre deep into the halo. Cosmic rays can therefore have a strong impact on galaxy evolution by removing low angular momentum, possibly metal enriched gas from the disc and injecting it into the circumgalactic medium.

(1338)The survey of planetary nebulae in Andromeda (M 31) VI. Kinematics of M 31 inner-halo substructures and comparison with major-merger simulation predictions
  • Souradeep Bhattacharya,
  • Magda Arnaboldi,
  • Francois Hammer,
  • Yanbin Yang,
  • Ortwin Gerhard
  • +2
  • Nelson Caldwell,
  • Kenneth C. Freeman
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 522, p14 (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1378
abstract + abstract -

M 31 has experienced a recent tumultuous merger history, as evidenced from the many substructures that are still present in its inner halo, particularly the G1-Clump, NE-, and W-shelves and the Giant Stream (GS). We present planetary nebulae (PNe) line-of-sight velocity (LOSV) measurements covering the entire spatial extent of these four substructures. We further use predictions for the satellite and host stellar particle phase space distributions for a major merger (mass ratio = 1:4) simulation to help interpret the data. The measured PN LOSVs for the two shelves and GS are consistent with those from red giant branch stars. Their projected radius versus LOSV phase space, links the formation of these substructures in a single unique event, consistent with a major merger. We find the G1-clump to be dynamically cold compared to the M 31 disc ($\rm \sigma _{LOS, PN}=27$ km s-1), consistent with pre-merger disc material. Such a structure can not form in a minor merger (mass ratio ~1:20) and is therefore a smoking gun for the recent major merger event in M 31. The simulation also predicts the formation of a predominantly in situ halo from splashed-out pre-merger disc material, in qualitative agreement with observations of a metal-rich inner halo in M 31. Juxtaposed with previous results for its discs, we conclude that M 31 has had a recent (2.5-4 Gyr ago) 'wet' major merger with the satellite falling along the GS, heating the pre-merger disc to form the M 31 thicker disc, rebuilding the M 31 thin disc, and creating the aforementioned inner-halo substructures.

(1337)Heavy neutron stars from light scalars
  • Reuven Balkin,
  • Javi Serra,
  • Konstantin Springmann,
  • Stefan Stelzl,
  • Andreas Weiler
abstract + abstract -

We study how light scalar fields can change the stellar landscape by triggering a new phase of nuclear matter. Scalars coupled to nucleons can develop a non-trivial expectation value at finite baryon density. This sourcing of a scalar reduces the nucleon mass and provides an additional energy density and pressure source. Under generic conditions, a new ground state of nuclear matter emerges, with striking implications for the configuration of stellar remnants. Notably, neutron stars in the new ground state can be significantly heavier than QCD equations of state currently predict. We also find hybrid stellar compositions and stable self-bound objects with sizes as small as the Compton wavelength of the scalar. We discuss several specific realizations of this scenario: the QCD axion and lighter generalizations thereof and linearly or quadratically coupled scalar fields effectively equivalent to a class of scalar-tensor modification of gravity. Lastly, we explore phenomenological signatures relevant to electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations of neutron stars, such as atypical compactness and instability gaps in radii.

(1336)The first X-ray look at SMSS J114447.77-430859.3: the most luminous quasar in the last 9 Gyr
  • E. S. Kammoun,
  • Z. Igo,
  • J. M. Miller,
  • A. C. Fabian,
  • M. T. Reynolds
  • +16
  • A. Merloni,
  • D. Barret,
  • E. Nardini,
  • P. O. Petrucci,
  • E. Piconcelli,
  • S. Barnier,
  • J. Buchner,
  • T. Dwelly,
  • I. Grotova,
  • M. Krumpe,
  • T. Liu,
  • K. Nandra,
  • A. Rau,
  • M. Salvato,
  • T. Urrutia,
  • J. Wolf
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 522, p21 (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad952
abstract + abstract -

SMSS J114447.77-430859.3 (z = 0.83) has been identified in the SkyMapper Southern Survey as the most luminous quasar in the last $\sim 9\, \rm Gyr$ . In this paper, we report on the eROSITA/Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) observations of the source from the eROSITA All Sky Survey, along with presenting results from recent monitoring performed using Swift, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR. The source shows a clear variability by factors of ~10 and ~2.7 over time-scales of a year and of a few days, respectively. When fit with an absorbed power law plus high-energy cutoff, the X-ray spectra reveal a Γ = 2.2 ± 0.2 and $E_{\rm cut}=23^{+26}_{-5}\, \rm keV$ . Assuming Comptonization, we estimate a coronal optical depth and electron temperature of $\tau =2.5-5.3\, (5.2-8)$ and $kT=8-18\, (7.5-14)\, \rm keV$ , respectively, for a slab (spherical) geometry. The broadband SED is successfully modelled by assuming either a standard accretion disc illuminated by a central X-ray source, or a thin disc with a slim disc emissivity profile. The former model results in a black hole mass estimate of the order of $10^{10}\, \mathrm{ M}_\odot$ , slightly higher than prior optical estimates; meanwhile, the latter model suggests a lower mass. Both models suggest sub-Eddington accretion when assuming a spinning black hole, and a compact ($\sim 10\, r_{\rm g}$ ) X-ray corona. The measured intrinsic column density and the Eddington ratio strongly suggest the presence of an outflow driven by radiation pressure. This is also supported by variation of absorption by an order of magnitude over the period of $\sim 900 \ \rm d$ .

(1335)Large Neutrino Secret Interactions, Small Impact on Supernovae
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Georg Raffelt,
  • Edoardo Vitagliano
abstract + abstract -

When hypothetical neutrino secret interactions ($\nu$SI) are large, they form a fluid in a supernova (SN) core, flow out with sonic speed, and stream away as a fireball. For the first time, we solve all steps, systematically using relativistic hydrodynamics, although a simplified source model. The impact on SN physics and the neutrino signal is remarkably small. Even for complete thermalization within the fireball, the observable spectrum barely changes. Small energy-transfer modifications may affect the neutrino-driven explosion mechanism, but on present evidence are not ruled in or out. One potentially large effect beyond our study is quick deleptonization if $\nu$SI violate lepton number.

(1334)Modelling supernova nebular lines in 3D with EXTRASS
  • Bart F. A. van Baal,
  • Anders Jerkstrand,
  • Annop Wongwathanarat,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 523, p20 (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1488
abstract + abstract -

We present EXplosive TRAnsient Spectral Simulator (EXTRASS), a newly developed code aimed at generating 3D spectra for supernovae in the nebular phase by using modern multidimensional explosion models as input. It is well established that supernovae are asymmetric by nature, and that the morphology is encoded in the line profiles during the nebular phase, months after the explosion. In this work, we use EXTRASS to study one such simulation of a $3.3\, \mathrm{ M}_\odot$ He-core explosion ($M_\text{ejecta}=1.3\, M_\odot$, $E_\text{kin}=1.05\times 10^{51}\,$erg) modelled with the Prometheus-HotB code and evolved to the homologous phase. Our code calculates the energy deposition from the radioactive decay of 56Ni → 56Co → 56Fe and uses this to determine the Non-Local-Thermodynamic-Equilibrium temperature, excitation, and ionization structure across the nebula. From the physical condition solutions we generate the emissivities to construct spectra depending on viewing angles. Our results show large variations in the line profiles with viewing angles, as diagnosed by the first three moments of the line profiles; shifts, widths, and skewness. We compare line profiles from different elements, and study the morphology of line-of-sight slices that determine the flux at each part of a line profile. We find that excitation conditions can sometimes make the momentum vector of the ejecta emitting in the excited states significantly different from that of the bulk of the ejecta of the respective element, thus giving blueshifted lines for bulk receding material, and vice versa. We compare the 3.3 M He-core model to observations of the Type Ib supernova SN 2007Y.

(1333)THE THREE HUNDRED Project: the evolution of physical baryon profiles
  • Qingyang Li,
  • Weiguang Cui,
  • Xiaohu Yang,
  • Romeel Davé,
  • Elena Rasia
  • +5
  • Stefano Borgani,
  • Meneghetti Massimo,
  • Alexander Knebe,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Jack Sayers
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 523, p19 (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1521
abstract + abstract -

The distribution of baryons provides a significant way to understand the formation of galaxy clusters by revealing the details of its internal structure and changes over time. In this paper, we present theoretical studies on the scaled profiles of physical properties associated with the baryonic components, including gas density, temperature, metallicity, pressure and entropy as well as stellar mass, metallicity and satellite galaxy number density in galaxy clusters from z = 4 to z = 0 by tracking their progenitors. These mass-complete simulated galaxy clusters are coming from THE THREE HUNDRED with two runs: GIZMO-SIMBA and GADGET-X. Through comparisons between the two simulations, and with observed profiles that are generally available at low redshift, we find that (1) the agreements between the two runs and observations are mostly at outer radii r ≳ 0.3r500, in line with the self-similarity assumption. While GADGET-X shows better agreements with the observed gas profiles in the central regions compared to GIZMO-SIMBA; (2) the evolution trends are generally consistent between the two simulations with slightly better consistency at outer radii. In detail, the gas density profile shows less discrepancy than the temperature and entropy profiles at high redshift. The differences in the cluster centre and gas properties imply different behaviours of the AGN models between GADGET-X and GIZMO-SIMBA, with the latter, maybe too strong for this cluster simulation. The high-redshift difference may be caused by the star formation and feedback models or hydrodynamics treatment, which requires observation constraints and understanding.

(1332)Prospects of detecting soft X-ray emission from typical WHIM filaments around massive clusters and the coma cluster soft excess
  • E. Churazov,
  • I. I. Khabibullin,
  • K. Dolag,
  • N. Lyskova,
  • R. A. Sunyaev
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 523, p19 (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1514
abstract + abstract -

While hot ICM in galaxy clusters makes these objects powerful X-ray sources, the cluster's outskirts and overdense gaseous filaments might give rise to much fainter sub-keV emission. Cosmological simulations show a prominent 'focusing' effect of rich clusters on the space density of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) filaments up to a distance of $\sim 10\, {\rm Mpc}$ (~ turnaround radius, rta) and beyond. Here, we use Magneticum simulations to characterize their properties in terms of integrated emission measure for a given temperature and overdensity cut and the level of contamination by the more dense gas. We suggest that the annuli $(\sim 0.5-1)\times \, r_{ta}$ around massive clusters might be the most promising sites for the search of the gas with overdensity ≲ 50. We model spectral signatures of the WHIM in the X-ray band and identify two distinct regimes for the gas at temperatures below and above $\sim 10^6\, {\rm K}$. Using this model, we estimate the sensitivity of X-ray telescopes to the WHIM spectral signatures. We found that the WHIM structures are within reach of future high spectral resolution missions, provided that the low-density gas is not extremely metal-poor. We then consider the Coma cluster observed by SRG/eROSITA during the CalPV phase as an example of a nearby massive object. We found that beyond the central r ~ 40 arcmin ($\sim 1100\, {\rm kpc}$) circle, where calibration uncertainties preclude clean separation of the extremely bright cluster emission from a possible softer component, the conservative upper limits are about an order of magnitude larger than the levels expected from simulations.

(1331)The $D^+_s \to K^+ \pi^+ \pi^-$ reaction and the scalar $f_0(500)$, $f_0(980)$ and $K^*_0 (700)$ resonances
  • L. R. Dai,
  • E. Oset
abstract + abstract -

We develop a model to reproduce the mass distributions of pairs of mesons in the Cabibbo-suppressed $D^+_s \to K^+ \pi^+ \pi^-$ decay. The largest contributions to the process comes from the $D^+_s \to K^+ \rho^0$ and $D^+_s \to K^{*0} \pi^+$ decay modes, but the $D^+_s \to K^*_0(1430) \pi^+$ and $D^+_s \to K^+ f_0(1370)$ modes also play a moderate role and all of them are introduced empirically. Instead, the contribution of the $f_0(500)$, $f_0(980)$ and $K^*_0(700)$ resonances is introduced dynamically by looking at the decay modes at the quark level, hadronizing $q \bar{q}$ pairs to give two mesons, and allowing these mesons to interact to finally produce the $K^+ \pi^+ \pi^-$ final state. These last three modes are correlated by means of only one parameter. We obtain a fair reproduction of the experimental data for the three mass distributions as well as the relative weight of the three light scalar mesons, which we see as further support for the nature of these states as dynamically generated from the interaction of pseudoscalar mesons.

(1330)Streamlined Lensed Quasar Identification in Multiband Images via Ensemble Networks
  • Irham Taufik Andika,
  • Sherry H. Suyu,
  • Raoul Cañameras,
  • Alejandra Melo,
  • Stefan Schuldt
  • +4
  • Yiping Shu,
  • Anna-Christina Eilers,
  • Anton Timur Jaelani,
  • Minghao Yue
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Quasars experiencing strong lensing offer unique viewpoints on subjects like the cosmic expansion rate, the dark matter profile within the foreground deflectors, and the quasar host galaxies. Unfortunately, identifying them in astronomical images is challenging since they are overwhelmed by the abundance of non-lenses. To address this, we have developed a novel approach by ensembling cutting-edge convolutional networks (CNNs) -- i.e., ResNet, Inception, NASNet, MobileNet, EfficientNet, and RegNet -- along with vision transformers (ViTs) trained on realistic galaxy-quasar lens simulations based on the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) multiband images. While the individual model exhibits remarkable performance when evaluated against the test dataset, achieving an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of $>$97.4% and a median false positive rate of 3.1%, it struggles to generalize in real data, indicated by numerous spurious sources picked by each classifier. A significant improvement is achieved by averaging these CNNs and ViTs, resulting in the impurities being downsized by factors up to 40. Subsequently, combining the HSC images with the UKIRT, VISTA, and unWISE data, we retrieve approximately 60 million sources as parent samples and reduce this to 892,609 after employing a photometry preselection to discover $z>1.5$ lensed quasars with Einstein radii of $\theta_\mathrm{E}<5$ arcsec. Afterward, the ensemble classifier indicates 3991 sources with a high probability of being lenses, for which we visually inspect, yielding 161 prevailing candidates awaiting spectroscopic confirmation. These outcomes suggest that automated deep learning pipelines hold great potential in effectively detecting strong lenses in vast datasets with minimal manual visual inspection involved.

(1329)Probing z ≳ six massive black holes with gravitational waves
  • Srija Chakraborty,
  • Simona Gallerani,
  • Tommaso Zana,
  • Alberto Sesana,
  • Milena Valentini
  • +4
  • David Izquierdo-Villalba,
  • Fabio Di Mascia,
  • Fabio Vito,
  • Paramita Barai
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 523, p16 (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1493
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the coalescence of massive black hole ($M_{\rm BH}\gtrsim 10^{6}~\rm {\rm M}_{\odot }$) binaries (MBHBs) at 6 < z < 10 by adopting a suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation, zoomed-in on biased (>3σ) overdense regions (Mh ~ 1012 M dark matter haloes at z = 6) of the Universe. We first analyse the impact of different resolutions and AGN feedback prescriptions on the merger rate, assuming instantaneous mergers. Then, we compute the halo bias correction factor due to the overdense simulated region. Our simulations predict merger rates that range between 3 and 15 $\rm yr^{-1}$ at z ~6, depending on the run considered, and after correcting for a bias factor of ~20-30. For our fiducial model, we further consider the effect of delay in the MBHB coalescence due to dynamical friction. We find that 83 per cent of MBHBs will merge within the Hubble time, and 21 per cent within 1 Gyr, namely the age of the Universe at z > 6. We finally compute the expected properties of the gravitational wave (GW) signals and find the fraction of LISA detectable events with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR > 5) to range between 66 per cent and 69 per cent. However, identifying the electro-magnetic counterpart of these events remains challenging due to the poor LISA sky localization that, for the loudest signals ($\mathcal {M}_c\sim 10^6~{{\rm M}_{\odot }}$ at z = 6), is around 10 $\rm deg^2$.

(1328)First Evidence of Multi-iron Subpopulations in the Bulge Fossil Fragment Candidate Liller 1
  • Chiara Crociati,
  • Elena Valenti,
  • Francesco R. Ferraro,
  • Cristina Pallanca,
  • Barbara Lanzoni
  • +7
  • Mario Cadelano,
  • Cristiano Fanelli,
  • Livia Origlia,
  • Silvia Leanza,
  • Emanuele Dalessandro,
  • Alessio Mucciarelli,
  • R. Michael Rich
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal, 951, p11 (07/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acd382
abstract + abstract -

In the context of a project aimed at characterizing the properties of the so-called Bulge Fossil Fragments (the fossil remnants of the bulge formation epoch), here we present the first determination of the metallicity distribution of Liller 1. For a sample of 64 individual member stars we used ESO-MUSE spectra to measure the equivalent width of the Ca II triplet and then derive the iron abundance. To test the validity of the adopted calibration in the metal-rich regime, the procedure was first applied to three reference bulge globular clusters (NGC 6569, NGC 6440, and NGC 6528). In all the three cases, we found single-component iron distributions, with abundance values fully in agreement with those reported in the literature. The application of the same methodology to Liller 1 yielded, instead, a clear bimodal iron distribution, with a subsolar component at [Fe/H] = -0.48 dex (σ = 0.22) and a supersolar component at [Fe/H] = +0.26 dex (σ = 0.17). The latter is found to be significantly more centrally concentrated than the metal-poor population, as expected in a self-enrichment scenario and in agreement with that found in another bulge system, Terzan 5. The obtained metallicity distribution is astonishingly similar to that predicted by the reconstructed star formation history of Liller 1, which is characterized by three main bursts and a low, but constant, activity of star formation over the entire lifetime. These findings provide further support to the possibility that, similar to Terzan 5, Liller 1 is also a Bulge Fossil Fragment. * Based on observations collected at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal (Chile), under the ESO-VLT Multi-Instrument Kinematic Survey (MIKiS survey) programs 106.21N5 and 105.20B9 (PI: Ferraro) and under MUSE science verification programs: 60.A-9489;60.A-9343.

(1327)TDCOSMO. XIII. Cosmological distance measurements in light of the mass-sheet degeneracy: Forecasts from strong lensing and integral field unit stellar kinematics
  • A. Yıldırım,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • G. C. -F. Chen,
  • E. Komatsu
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 675, p20 (07/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202142318
abstract + abstract -

Time-delay distance measurements of strongly lensed quasars have provided a powerful and independent probe of the current expansion rate of the Universe (H0). However, in light of the discrepancies between early- and late-time cosmological studies, current efforts revolve around the characterisation of systematic uncertainties in the methods. In this work we focus on the mass-sheet degeneracy (MSD), which is commonly considered a significant source of systematics in time-delay strong lensing studies, and aim to assess the constraining power provided by integral field unit (IFU) stellar kinematics. To this end, we approximated the MSD with a cored, two-parameter extension to the adopted lensing mass profiles (with core radius rc and mass-sheet parameter λint), which introduces a full degeneracy between λint and H0 from lensing data alone. In addition, we utilised spatially resolved mock IFU stellar kinematics of time-delay strong lenses, given the prospects of obtaining such high-quality data with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in the near future. We constructed joint strong lensing and generalised two-integral axisymmetric Jeans models, where the time delays, mock imaging, and IFU observations are used as input to constrain the mass profile of lens galaxies at the individual galaxy level and consequently yield joint constraints on the time-delay distance (DΔt) and the angular diameter distance (Dd) to the lens. We find that mock JWST-like stellar kinematics constrain the amount of internal mass sheet that is physically associated with the lens galaxy and limit its contribution to the uncertainties of DΔt and Dd, each at the ≤4% level, without assumptions on the background cosmological model. Incorporating additional uncertainties due to external mass sheets associated with mass structures along the lens line of sight, these distance constraints would translate to a ≲4% precision measurement on H0 in flat Λ cold dark matter cosmology for a single lens. Our study shows that future IFU stellar kinematics of time-delay lenses will be key in lifting the MSD on a per lens basis, assuming reasonable and physically motivated core sizes. However, even in the limit of infinite rc, where DΔt is fully degenerate with λint and is thus not constrained, stellar kinematics of the deflector, time delays, and imaging data will provide powerful constraints on Dd, which becomes the dominant source of information in the cosmological inference.

(1326)The optimized point-coupling interaction for the relativistic energy density functional of Hartree-Bogoliubov approach quantifying the nuclear bulk properties
  • Zi Xin Liu,
  • Yi Hua Lam,
  • Ning Lu,
  • Peter Ring
Physics Letters B, 842 (07/2023) doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2023.137946
abstract + abstract -

We propose a newly optimized nonlinear point-coupling parameterized interaction, PC-L3R, for the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov framework with a further optimized separable pairing force by fitting to observables, i.e., the binding energies of 91 spherical nuclei, charge radii of 63 nuclei, and 12 sets of mean pairing gaps consisting of 54 nuclei in total. The separable pairing force strengths of proton and neutron are optimized together with the point-coupling constants, and are justified in satisfactory reproducing the empirical pairing gaps. The comparison of experimental binding energies compiled in AME2020 for 91 nuclei with the ones generated from the present and other commonly used point-coupling interactions indicates that the implementation of PC-L3R in relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov yields the lowest root-mean-square deviation. The charge radii satisfactory agree with experiment. Meanwhile, PC-L3R is capable of estimating the saturation properties of the symmetric nuclear matter and of appropriately predicting the isospin and mass dependence of binding energy. The experimental odd-even staggering of single nucleon separation energies is well reproduced. The comparison of the estimated binding energies for 7,373 nuclei based on the PC-L3R and other point-coupling interactions is also presented.

(1325)Establishing the impact of luminous AGN with multi-wavelength observations and simulations
  • C. M. Harrison,
  • A. Girdhar,
  • S. R. Ward
abstract + abstract -

Cosmological simulations fail to reproduce realistic galaxy populations without energy injection from active galactic nuclei (AGN) into the interstellar medium (ISM) and circumgalactic medium (CGM); a process called `AGN feedback'. Consequently, observational work searches for evidence that luminous AGN impact their host galaxies. Here, we review some of this work. Multi-phase AGN outflows are common, some with potential for significant impact. Additionally, multiple feedback channels can be observed simultaneously; e.g., radio jets from `radio quiet' quasars can inject turbulence on ISM scales, and displace CGM-scale molecular gas. However, caution must be taken comparing outflows to simulations (e.g., kinetic coupling efficiencies) to infer feedback potential, due to a lack of comparable predictions. Furthermore, some work claims limited evidence for feedback because AGN live in gas-rich, star-forming galaxies. However, simulations do not predict instantaneous, global impact on molecular gas or star formation. The impact is expected to be cumulative, over multiple episodes.

(1324)The Dragon-II simulations -- III. Compact binary mergers in clusters with up to 1 million stars: mass, spin, eccentricity, merger rate and pair instability supernovae rate
  • Manuel Arca Sedda,
  • Albrecht W. H. Kamlah,
  • Rainer Spurzem,
  • Francesco Paolo Rizzuto,
  • Mirek Giersz
  • +2
abstract + abstract -

Compact binary mergers forming in star clusters may exhibit distinctive features that can be used to identify them among observed gravitational-wave (GW) sources. Such features likely depend on the host cluster structure and the physics of massive star evolution. Here, we dissect the population of compact binary mergers in the \textsc{Dragon-II} simulation database, a suite of 19 direct $N$-body models representing dense star clusters with up to $10^6$ stars and $<33\%$ of stars in primordial binaries. We find a substantial population of black hole binary (BBH) mergers, some of them involving an intermediate-mass BH (IMBH), and a handful mergers involving a stellar BH and either a neutron star (NS) or a white dwarf (WD). Primordial binary mergers, $\sim 30\%$ of the whole population, dominate ejected mergers. Dynamical mergers, instead, dominate the population of in-cluster mergers and are systematically heavier than primordial ones. Around $20\%$ of \textsc{Dragon-II} mergers are eccentric in the LISA band and $5\%$ in the LIGO band. We infer a mean cosmic merger rate of $\mathcal{R}\sim 12(4.4)(1.2)$ yr$^{-1}$ Gpc$^3$ for BBHs, NS-BH, and WD-BH binary mergers, respectively, and discuss the prospects for multimessenger detection of WD-BH binaries with LISA. We model the rate of pair-instability supernovae (PISNe) in star clusters and find that surveys with a limiting magnitude $m_{\rm bol}=25$ can detect $\sim 1-15$ yr$^{-1}$ PISNe. Comparing these estimates with future observations could help to pin down the impact of massive star evolution on the mass spectrum of compact stellar objects in star clusters.

(1323)Confirmation of an He I evaporating atmosphere around the 650-Myr-old sub-Neptune HD235088 b (TOI-1430 b) with CARMENES
  • J. Orell-Miquel,
  • M. Lampón,
  • M. López-Puertas,
  • M. Mallorquín,
  • F. Murgas
  • +29
  • A. Peláez-Torres,
  • E. Pallé,
  • E. Esparza-Borge,
  • J. Sanz-Forcada,
  • H. M. Tabernero,
  • L. Nortmann,
  • E. Nagel,
  • H. Parviainen,
  • M. R. Zapatero Osorio,
  • J. A. Caballero,
  • S. Czesla,
  • C. Cifuentes,
  • G. Morello,
  • A. Quirrenbach,
  • P. J. Amado,
  • A. Fernández-Martín,
  • A. Fukui,
  • Th. Henning,
  • K. Kawauchi,
  • J. P. de Leon,
  • K. Molaverdikhani,
  • D. Montes,
  • N. Narita,
  • A. Reiners,
  • I. Ribas,
  • A. Sánchez-López,
  • A. Schweitzer,
  • M. Stangret,
  • F. Yan
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

HD235088 (TOI-1430) is a young star known to host a sub-Neptune-sized planet candidate. We validated the planetary nature of HD235088 b with multiband photometry, refined its planetary parameters, and obtained a new age estimate of the host star, placing it at 600-800 Myr. Previous spectroscopic observations of a single transit detected an excess absorption of He I coincident in time with the planet candidate transit. Here, we confirm the presence of He I in the atmosphere of HD235088 b with one transit observed with CARMENES. We also detected hints of variability in the strength of the helium signal, with an absorption of $-$0.91$\pm$0.11%, which is slightly deeper (2$\sigma$) than the previous measurement. Furthermore, we simulated the He I signal with a spherically symmetric 1D hydrodynamic model, finding that the upper atmosphere of HD235088 b escapes hydrodynamically with a significant mass loss rate of (1.5-5) $\times$10$^{10}$g s$^{-1}$, in a relatively cold outflow, with $T$=3125$\pm$375 K, in the photon-limited escape regime. HD235088 b ($R_{p}$ = 2.045$\pm$0.075 R$_{\oplus}$) is the smallest planet found to date with a solid atmospheric detection - not just of He I but any other atom or molecule. This positions it a benchmark planet for further analyses of evolving young sub-Neptune atmospheres.

(1322)Effective field theories for dark matter pairs in the early universe: cross sections and widths
  • S. Biondini,
  • N. Brambilla,
  • G. Qerimi,
  • A. Vairo
Journal of High Energy Physics, 2023 (07/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP07(2023)006
abstract + abstract -

In order to predict the cosmological abundance of dark matter, an estimation of particle rates in an expanding thermal environment is needed. For thermal dark matter, the non-relativistic regime sets the stage for the freeze-out of the dark matter energy density. We compute transition widths and annihilation, bound-state formation, and dissociation cross sections of dark matter fermion pairs in the unifying framework of non-relativistic effective field theories at finite temperature, with the thermal bath modeling the thermodynamical behaviour of the early universe. We reproduce and extend some known results for the paradigmatic case of a dark fermion species coupled to dark gauge bosons. The effective field theory framework allows to highlight their range of validity and consistency, and to identify some possible improvements.

(1321)On a procedure to derive ϵ-factorised differential equations beyond polylogarithms
  • Lennard Görges,
  • Christoph Nega,
  • Lorenzo Tancredi,
  • Fabian J. Wagner
Journal of High Energy Physics, 2023 (07/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP07(2023)206
abstract + abstract -

In this manuscript, we elaborate on a procedure to derive ϵ-factorised differential equations for multi-scale, multi-loop classes of Feynman integrals that evaluate to special functions beyond multiple polylogarithms. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach to diverse classes of problems, by working out ϵ-factorised differential equations for single- and multi-scale problems of increasing complexity. To start we are reconsidering the well-studied equal-mass two-loop sunrise case, and move then to study other elliptic two-, three- and four-point problems depending on multiple different scales. Finally, we showcase how the same approach allows us to obtain ϵ-factorised differential equations also for Feynman integrals that involve geometries beyond a single elliptic curve.

(1320)Multipole vector dark matter below the GeV scale
  • Xiaoyong Chu,
  • Junji Hisano,
  • Alejandro Ibarra,
  • Jui-Lin Kuo,
  • Josef Pradler
Physical Review D, 108 (07/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.108.015029
abstract + abstract -

We consider electrically neutral complex-vector particles V below the GeV mass scale that, from a low-energy perspective, couple to the photon via higher-dimensional form factor interactions. We derive ensuing astrophysical constraints by considering the anomalous energy loss from the Sun, Horizontal Branch, and Red Giant stars as well as from SN1987A that arise from vector pair production in these environments. Under the assumption that the dark states V constitute dark matter, the bounds are then complemented by direct and indirect detection as well as cosmological limits. The relic density from freeze-out and freeze-in mechanisms is also computed. On the basis of a UV-complete model that realizes the considered effective couplings, we also discuss the naturalness of the constrained parameter space, and provide an analysis of the zero mass limit of V .

(1319)Machine learning Post-Minkowskian integrals
  • Ryusuke Jinno,
  • Gregor Kälin,
  • Zhengwen Liu,
  • Henrique Rubira
Journal of High Energy Physics, 2023 (07/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP07(2023)181
abstract + abstract -

We study a neural network framework for the numerical evaluation of Feynman loop integrals that are fundamental building blocks for perturbative computations of physical observables in gauge and gravity theories. We show that such a machine learning approach improves the convergence of the Monte Carlo algorithm for high-precision evaluation of multi-dimensional integrals compared to traditional algorithms. In particular, we use a neural network to improve the importance sampling. For a set of representative integrals appearing in the computation of the conservative dynamics for a compact binary system in General Relativity, we perform a quantitative comparison between the Monte Carlo integrators VEGAS and i-flow, an integrator based on neural network sampling.

(1318)Regeneration of bottomonia in an open quantum systems approach
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Miguel Ángel Escobedo,
  • Ajaharul Islam,
  • Michael Strickland,
  • Anurag Tiwari
  • +2
  • Antonio Vairo,
  • Peter Vander Griend
  • (less)
Physical Review D, 108 (07/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.108.L011502
abstract + abstract -

We demonstrate the importance of quantum jumps in the nonequilibrium evolution of bottomonium states in the quark-gluon plasma. Based on nonrelativistic effective field theory and the open quantum system framework, we evolve the density matrix of color singlet and octet pairs. We show that quantum regeneration of singlet states from octet configurations is necessary to understand experimental results for the suppression of both bottomonium ground and excited states. The values of the heavy-quarkonium transport coefficients used are consistent with recent lattice QCD determinations.

(1317)The cosmic web around the Coma cluster from constrained cosmological simulations. I. Filaments connected to Coma at z = 0
  • Nicola Malavasi,
  • Jenny G. Sorce,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Nabila Aghanim
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 675, p20 (07/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245777
abstract + abstract -

Galaxy clusters in the Universe occupy the important position of nodes of the cosmic web. They are connected among them by filaments, elongated structures composed of dark matter, galaxies, and gas. The connection of galaxy clusters to filaments is important, as it is related to the process of matter accretion onto the former. For this reason, investigating the connections to the cosmic web of massive clusters, especially well-known ones for which a lot of information is available, is a hot topic in astrophysics. In a previous work, we performed an analysis of the filament connections of the Coma cluster of galaxies, as detected from the observed galaxy distribution. In this work we resort to a numerical simulation whose initial conditions are constrained to reproduce the local Universe, including the region of the Coma cluster to interpret our observations in an evolutionary context. We detect the filaments connected to the simulated Coma cluster and perform an accurate comparison with the cosmic web configuration we detect in observations. We perform an analysis of the halos' spatial and velocity distributions close to the filaments in the cluster outskirts. We conclude that, although not significantly larger than the average, the flux of accreting matter on the simulated Coma cluster is significantly more collimated close to the filaments with respect to the general isotropic accretion flux. This paper is the first example of such a result and the first installment in a series of publications which will explore the build-up of the Coma cluster system in connection to the filaments of the cosmic web as a function of redshift.

(1316)Effects of multiphase gas and projection on X-ray observables in simulated galaxy clusters as seen by eROSITA
  • J. ZuHone,
  • Y. E. Bahar,
  • V. Biffi,
  • K. Dolag,
  • J. Sanders
  • +6
  • E. Bulbul,
  • T. Liu,
  • T. Dauser,
  • O. König,
  • X. Zhang,
  • V. Ghirardini
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 675, p17 (07/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245749
abstract + abstract -

Context. Galaxy clusters are the most massive bound objects in the recent history of the universe; the number density of galaxy clusters as a function of mass and redshift is a sensitive function of the cosmological parameters. To use clusters for cosmological parameter studies, it is necessary to determine their masses as accurately as possible, which is typically done via scaling relations between mass and observables.
Aims: X-ray observables can be biased by a number of effects, including multiphase gas and projection effects, especially in the case where cluster temperatures and luminosities are estimated from single-model fits to all of the emission with an overdensity radius such as r500c. Using simulated galaxy clusters from a realistic cosmological simulation, our aim is to determine the importance of these biases in the context of Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma/eROSITA observations of clusters.
Methods: We extracted clusters from the Box2_hr simulation from the Magneticum suite, and simulated synthetic eROSITA observations of these clusters using PHOX to generate the photons and the end-to-end simulator SIXTE to trace them through the optics and simulate the detection process. We fitted the spectra from these observations and compared the fitted temperatures and luminosities to the quantities derived from the simulations. We fitted an intrinsically scattered LX − T scaling relation to these measurements following a Bayesian approach with which we fully took into account the selection effects and the mass function.
Results: The largest biases on the estimated temperature and luminosities of the clusters come from the inadequacy of single-temperature model fits to represent emission from multiphase gas, and from a bias arising from cluster emission within the projected r500c along the line of sight but outside of the spherical r500c. We find that the biases on temperature and luminosity due to the projection of emission from other clusters within r500c is comparatively small. We find eROSITA-like measurements of Magneticum clusters following a LX − T scaling relation that has a broadly consistent but slightly shallower slope compared to the literature values. We also find that the intrinsic scatter of LX at given T is lower compared to the recent observational results where the selection effects are fully considered.

(1315)Dependency of high-mass satellite galaxy abundance on cosmology in Magneticum simulations
  • A. Ragagnin,
  • A. Fumagalli,
  • T. Castro,
  • K. Dolag,
  • A. Saro
  • +2
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 675, p13 (07/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202142392
abstract + abstract -

Context. Observational studies carried out to calibrate the masses of galaxy clusters often use mass-richness relations to interpret galaxy number counts.
Aims: Here, we aim to study the impact of the richness-mass relation modelled with cosmological parameters on mock mass calibrations.
Methods: We build a Gaussian process regression emulator of high-mass satellite abundance normalisation and log-slope based on cosmological parameters Ωm, Ωb, σ8, h0, and redshift z. We train our emulator using Magneticum hydrodynamic simulations that span different cosmologies for a given set of feedback scheme parameters.
Results: We find that the normalisation depends, albeit weakly, on cosmological parameters, especially on Ωm and Ωb, and that their inclusion in mock observations increases the constraining power of these latter by 10%. On the other hand, the log-slope is ≈1 in every setup, and the emulator does not predict it with significant accuracy. We also show that satellite abundance cosmology dependency differs between full-physics simulations, dark-matter only, and non-radiative simulations.
Conclusions: Mass-calibration studies would benefit from modelling of the mass-richness relations with cosmological parameters, especially if the satellite abundance cosmology dependency.

(1314)End-to-end Kilonova Models of Neutron Star Mergers with Delayed Black Hole Formation
  • O. Just,
  • V. Vijayan,
  • Z. Xiong,
  • S. Goriely,
  • T. Soultanis
  • +4
  • A. Bauswein,
  • J. Guilet,
  • H. -Th. Janka,
  • G. Martínez-Pinedo
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal, 951, p16 (07/2023) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/acdad2
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the nucleosynthesis and kilonova properties of binary neutron star (NS) merger models that lead to intermediate remnant lifetimes of ~0.1-1 s until black hole (BH) formation and describe all components of the material ejected during the dynamical merger phase, NS remnant evolution, and final viscous disintegration of the BH torus after gravitational collapse. To this end, we employ a combination of hydrodynamics, nucleosynthesis, and radiative transfer tools to achieve a consistent end-to-end modeling of the system and its observables. We adopt a novel version of the Shakura-Sunyaev scheme allowing the approximate turbulent viscosity inside the NS remnant to vary independently of the surrounding disk. We find that asymmetric progenitors lead to shorter remnant lifetimes and enhanced ejecta masses, although the viscosity affects the absolute values of these characteristics. The integrated production of lanthanides and heavier elements in such binary systems is subsolar, suggesting that the considered scenarios contribute in a subdominant fashion to r-process enrichment. One reason is that BH tori formed after delayed collapse exhibit less neutron-rich conditions than typically found, and often assumed in previous BH torus models, for early BH formation. The outflows in our models feature strong anisotropy as a result of the lanthanide-poor polar neutrino-driven wind pushing aside lanthanide-rich dynamical ejecta. Considering the complexity of the models, the estimated kilonova light curves show promising agreement with AT 2017gfo after times of several days, while the remaining inconsistencies at early times could possibly be overcome in binary configurations with a more dominant neutrino-driven wind relative to the dynamical ejecta.

(1313)Strong Supernova 1987A Constraints on Bosons Decaying to Neutrinos
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Georg G. Raffelt,
  • Edoardo Vitagliano
Physical Review Letters, 131 (07/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.131.021001
abstract + abstract -

Majoron-like bosons would emerge from a supernova (SN) core by neutrino coalescence of the form ν ν →ϕ and ν ¯ν ¯→ϕ with 100-MeV-range energies. Subsequent decays to (anti)neutrinos of all flavors provide a flux component with energies much larger than the usual flux from the "neutrino sphere." The absence of 100-MeV-range events in the Kamiokande-II and Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven signal of SN 1987A implies that less than 1% of the total energy was thus emitted and provides the strongest constraint on the Majoron-neutrino coupling of g ≲10-9 MeV /mϕ for 100 eV ≲mϕ≲100 MeV . It is straightforward to extend our new argument to other hypothetical feebly interacting particles.

(1312)Hierarchical defect-induced condensation in active nematics
  • Timo Krüger,
  • Ivan Maryshev,
  • Erwin Frey
abstract + abstract -

Topological defects play a central role in the formation and organization of various biological systems. Historically, such nonequilibrium defects have been mainly studied in the context of homogeneous active nematics. Phase-separated systems, in turn, are known to form dense and dynamic nematic bands, but typically lack topological defects. In this paper, we use agent-based simulations of weakly aligning, self-propelled polymers and demonstrate that contrary to the existing paradigm phase-separated active nematics form ${-1/2}$ defects. Moreover, these defects, emerging due to interactions among dense nematic bands, constitute a novel second-order collective state. We investigate the morphology of defects in detail and find that their cores correspond to a strong increase in density, associated with a condensation of nematic fluxes. Unlike their analogs in homogeneous systems, such condensed defects form and decay in a different way and do not involve positively charged partners. We additionally observe and characterize lateral arc-like structures that separate from a band's bulk and move in transverse direction. We show that the key control parameters defining the route from stable bands to the coexistence of dynamic lanes and defects are the total density of particles and their path persistence length. We introduce a hydrodynamic theory that qualitatively recapitulates all the main features of the agent-based model, and use it to show that the emergence of both defects and arcs can be attributed to the same anisotropic active fluxes. Finally, we present a way to artificially engineer and position defects, and speculate about experimental verification of the provided model.

(1311)Retrieval of the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b with CRIRES+
  • F. Lesjak,
  • L. Nortmann,
  • F. Yan,
  • D. Cont,
  • A. Reiners
  • +13
  • N. Piskunov,
  • A. Hatzes,
  • L. Boldt-Christmas,
  • S. Czesla,
  • U. Heiter,
  • O. Kochukhov,
  • A. Lavail,
  • E. Nagel,
  • A. D. Rains,
  • M. Rengel,
  • F. Rodler,
  • U. Seemann,
  • D. Shulyak
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Accurately estimating the C/O ratio of hot Jupiter atmospheres is a promising pathway towards understanding planet formation and migration, as well as the formation of clouds and the overall atmospheric composition. The atmosphere of the hot Jupiter WASP-43b has been extensively analysed using low-resolution observations with HST and Spitzer, but these previous observations did not cover the K band, which hosts prominent spectral features of major carbon-bearing species such as CO and CH$_{4}$. As a result, the ability to establish precise constraints on the C/O ratio was limited. Moreover, the planet has not been studied at high spectral resolution, which can provide insights into the atmospheric dynamics. In this study, we present the first high-resolution dayside spectra of WASP-43b with the new CRIRES$^+$ spectrograph. By observing the planet in the K band, we successfully detected the presence of CO and provide evidence for the existence of H$_2$O using the cross-correlation method. This discovery represents the first direct detection of CO in the atmosphere of WASP-43b. Furthermore, we retrieved the temperature-pressure profile, abundances of CO and H$_2$O, and a super-solar C/O ratio of 0.78 by applying a Bayesian retrieval framework to the data. Our findings also shed light on the atmospheric characteristics of WASP-43b. We found no evidence for a cloud deck on the dayside, and recovered a line broadening indicative of an equatorial super-rotation corresponding to a jet with a wind speed of $\sim$ 5 km s$^{-1}$, matching the results of previous forward models and low-resolution atmospheric retrievals for this planet.

(1310)Exploring high-purity multi-parton scattering at hadron colliders
  • Jeppe R. Andersen,
  • Pier Francesco Monni,
  • Luca Rottoli,
  • Gavin P. Salam,
  • Alba Soto-Ontoso
abstract + abstract -

Multi-parton interactions are a fascinating phenomenon that occur in almost every high-energy hadron--hadron collision, yet are remarkably difficult to study quantitatively. In this letter we present a strategy to optimally disentangle multi-parton interactions from the primary scattering in a collision. That strategy enables probes of multi-parton interactions that are significantly beyond the state of the art, including their characteristic momentum scale, the interconnection between primary and secondary scatters, and the pattern of three and potentially even more simultaneous hard scatterings. This opens a path to powerful new constraints on multi-parton interactions for LHC phenomenology and to the investigation of their rich field-theoretical structure.

(1309)Reviving stochasticity: uncertainty in SMBH binary eccentricity is unavoidable
  • Alexander Rawlings,
  • Matias Mannerkoski,
  • Peter H. Johansson,
  • Thorsten Naab
abstract + abstract -

We study supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary eccentricity of equal-mass galaxy mergers in $N$-body simulations with the KETJU code, which combines the GADGET-4 fast multipole gravity solver with accurate regularized integration and Post-Newtonian corrections around SMBHs. In simulations with realistic, high eccentricity galactic merger orbits, the binary eccentricity is found to be a non-linear function of the deflection angle in the SMBH orbit during the final, nearly radial close encounter between the SMBHs before they form a bound binary. This mapping between the deflection angle and the binary eccentricity has no apparent resolution dependence in our simulations spanning the resolution range of $1\times10^5 - 8\times10^6$ particles per galaxy. The mapping is also captured using a simple model with an analytic potential, indicating that it is driven by the interplay between a smooth asymmetric stellar background potential and dynamical friction acting on the SMBHs. Due to the non-linearity of this mapping, in certain merger configurations small, parsec-scale variations in the merger orbit can result in binary eccentricities varying in nearly the full possible range between $e=0$ and $e=1$. In idealized simulations, such variations are caused by finite resolution effects, and convergence of the binary eccentricity can be achieved with increasing resolution. However, in real galaxies, other mechanisms such as nuclear gas and substructure that perturb the merger orbit are likely to be significant enough for the binary eccentricity to be effectively random. Our results indicate that the distribution of these effectively random eccentricities can be studied using even moderate resolution simulations.

(1308)Three-loop master integrals for H+jet production at N$^3$LO: Towards the non-planar topologies
  • Dhimiter D. Canko,
  • Nikolaos Syrrakos
abstract + abstract -

We discuss the recent progress that has been made towards the computation of three-loop non-planar master integrals relevant to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N$^3$LO) corrections to processes such as H+jet production at the LHC. We describe the analytic structure of these integrals, as well as several technical issues regarding their analytic computation using canonical differential equations. Finally, we comment on the remaining steps towards the computation of all relevant three-loop topologies and their application to amplitude calculations.

(1307)On the Decline of Star Formation during the Evolution of Galaxies
  • Adelheid Teklu,
  • Rolf-Peter Kudritzki,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus,
  • Lucas Kimmig
abstract + abstract -

Cosmological simulations predict that during the evolution of galaxies, the specific star formation rate continuously decreases. In a previous study we showed that generally this is not caused by the galaxies running out of cold gas but rather a decrease in the fraction of gas capable of forming stars. To investigate the origin of this behavior, we use disk galaxies selected from the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Magneticum Pathfinder and follow their evolution in time. We find that the mean density of the cold gas regions decreases with time. This is caused by the fact that during the evolution of the galaxies, the star-forming regions move to larger galactic radii, where the gas density is lower. This supports the idea of inside-out growth of disk galaxies.

(1306)z-GAL -- A NOEMA spectroscopic redshift survey of bright Herschel galaxies: [III] Physical properties
  • S. Berta,
  • F. Stanley,
  • D. Ismail,
  • P. Cox,
  • R. Neri
  • +33
  • C. Yang,
  • A. J. Young,
  • S. Jin,
  • H. Dannerbauer,
  • T. J. Bakx,
  • A. Beelen,
  • A. Weiss,
  • A. Nanni,
  • A. Omont,
  • P. van der Werf,
  • M. Krips,
  • A. J. Baker,
  • G. Bendo,
  • E. Borsato,
  • V. Buat,
  • K. M. Butler,
  • N. Chartab,
  • A. Cooray,
  • S. Dye,
  • S. Eales,
  • R. Gavazzi,
  • D. Hughes,
  • R. J. Ivison,
  • B. M. Jones,
  • M. Lehnert,
  • L. Marchetti,
  • H. Messias,
  • M. Negrello,
  • I. Perez-Fournon,
  • D. A. Riechers,
  • S. Serjeant,
  • S. Urquhart,
  • C. Vlahakis
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The z-GAL survey observed 137 bright Herschel-selected targets with the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array, with the aim to measure their redshift and study their properties. Several of them have been resolved into multiple sources. Consequently, robust spectroscopic redshifts have been measured for 165 individual galaxies in the range 0.8<z<6.5. In this paper we analyse the millimetre spectra of the z-GAL sources, using both their continuum and line emission to derive their physical properties. At least two spectral lines are detected for each source, including transitions of 12CO, [CI], and H2O. The observed 12CO line ratios and spectral line energy distributions of individual sources resemble those of local starbursts. In seven sources the para-H2O(2_11-2_02) transition is detected and follows the IR versus H2O luminosity relation of sub-millimetre galaxies. The molecular gas mass of the z-GAL sources is derived from their 12CO, [CI], and sub-millimetre dust continuum emission. The three tracers lead to consistent results, with the dust continuum showing the largest scatter when compared to 12CO. The gas-to-dust mass ratio of these sources was computed by combining the information derived from 12CO and the dust continuum and has a median value of 107, similar to star-forming galaxies of near-solar metallicity. The same combined analysis leads to depletion timescales in the range between 0.1 and 1.0 Gyr, which place the z-GAL sources between the `main sequence' of star formation and the locus of starbursts. Finally, we derived a first estimate of stellar masses - modulo possible gravitational magnification - by inverting known gas scaling relations: the z-GAL sample is confirmed to be mostly composed by starbursts, whereas ~25% of its members lie on the main sequence of star-forming galaxies (within +/- 0.5 dex).

(1305)Supernova Emission of Secretly Interacting Neutrino Fluid: Theoretical Foundations
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Georg Raffelt,
  • Edoardo Vitagliano
abstract + abstract -

Neutrino-neutrino scattering could have a large secret component that would turn neutrinos within a supernova (SN) core into a self-coupled fluid. Neutrino transport within the SN core, emission from its surface, expansion into space, and the flux spectrum and time structure at Earth might all be affected. We examine these questions from first principles. First, diffusive transport differs only by a modified spectral average of the interaction rate. We next study the fluid energy transfer between a hot and a cold blackbody surface in plane-parallel and spherical geometry. The key element is the decoupling process within the radiating bodies, which themselves are taken to be isothermal. For a zero-temperature cold plate, mimicking radiation into free space by the hot plate, the energy flux is 3--4\% smaller than the usual Stefan-Boltzmann Law. The fluid energy density just outside the hot plate is numerically 0.70 of the standard case, the outflow velocity is the speed of sound $v_s=c/\sqrt{3}$, conspiring to a nearly unchanged energy flux. Our results provide the crucial boundary condition for the expansion of the self-interacting fluid into space, assuming an isothermal neutrino sphere. We also derive a dynamical solution, assuming the emission suddenly begins at some instant. A neutrino front expands in space with luminal speed, whereas the outflow velocity at the radiating surface asymptotically approaches $v_s$ from above. Asymptotically, one thus recovers the steady-state emission found in the two-plate model. A sudden end to neutrino emission leads to a fireball with constant thickness equal to the duration of neutrino emission.