page 1 of 18
(1716)Formation of long-period post-common envelope binaries. I. No extra energy is needed to explain oxygen-neon white dwarfs paired with AFGK-type main-sequence stars
  • Diogo Belloni,
  • Monica Zorotovic,
  • Matthias R. Schreiber,
  • Steven G. Parsons,
  • Maxwell Moe
  • +1
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202449235
abstract + abstract -

Context. It has been claimed for more than a decade that energies other than orbital and thermodynamic internal are required to explain post-common envelope (CE) binaries with sufficiently long orbital periods (≳1 d) hosting AFGK-type main-sequence stars (∼0.5 − 2.0 M) paired with oxygen-neon white dwarfs (≳1.1 M). This would imply a completely different energy budget during CE evolution for these post-CE binaries in comparison to the remaining systems hosting M dwarfs and/or less massive white dwarfs.
Aims: In this first in a series of papers related to long-period post-CE binaries, we investigated whether extra energy is required to explain the currently known post-CE binaries with sufficiently long orbital periods consisting of oxygen-neon white dwarfs with AFGK-type main-sequence star companions.
Methods: We carried out binary population simulations with the BSE code adopting empirically derived inter-correlated main-sequence binary distributions for the initial binary population and assuming that the only energy, in addition to orbital, that help to unbind the CE is thermal energy. We also searched for the formation pathways of the currently known systems from the zero-age main-sequence binary to their present-day observed properties.
Results: Unlike what has been claimed for a long time, we show that all such post-CE binaries can be explained by assuming inefficient CE evolution, which is consistent with results achieved for the remaining post-CE binaries. There is therefore no need for an extra energy source. We also found that for CE efficiency close to 100%, post-CE binaries hosting oxygen-neon white dwarfs with orbital periods as long as one thousand days can be explained. For all known systems we found formation pathways consisting of CE evolution triggered when a highly evolved (i.e. when the envelope mass is comparable to the core mass), thermally pulsing, asymptotic giant branch star fills its Roche lobe at an orbital period of several thousand days. Due to the sufficiently low envelope mass and sufficiently long orbital period, the resulting post-CE orbital period can easily be several tens of days.
Conclusions: We conclude that the known post-CE binaries with oxygen-neon white dwarfs and AFGK-type main-sequence stars can be explained without invoking any energy source other than orbital and thermal energy. Our results strengthen the idea that the most common formation pathway of the overall population of post-CE binaries hosting white dwarfs is through inefficient CE evolution.


(1715)Toward Cosmological Simulations of the Magnetized Intracluster Medium with Resolved Coulomb Collision Scale
  • Ulrich P. Steinwandel,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Ludwig M. Böss,
  • Tirso Marin-Gilabert
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad39ee
abstract + abstract -

We present the first results of one extremely high-resolution, nonradiative magnetohydrodynamical cosmological zoom-in simulation of a massive cluster with a virial mass of M vir = 2.0 × 1015 solar masses. We adopt a mass resolution of 4 × 105 M with a maximum spatial resolution of around 250 pc in the central regions of the cluster. We follow the detailed amplification process in a resolved small-scale turbulent dynamo in the intracluster medium (ICM) with strong exponential growth until redshift 4, after which the field grows weakly in the adiabatic compression limit until redshift 2. The energy in the field is slightly reduced as the system approaches redshift zero in agreement with adiabatic decompression. The field structure is highly turbulent in the center and shows field reversals on a length scale of a few tens of kiloparsecs and an anticorrelation between the radial and angular field components in the central region that is ordered by small-scale turbulent dynamo action. The large-scale field on megaparsec scales is almost isotropic, indicating that the structure formation process in massive galaxy cluster formation suppresses any memory of both the initial field configuration and the amplified morphology via the turbulent dynamo. We demonstrate that extremely high-resolution simulations of the magnetized ICM are within reach that can simultaneously resolve the small-scale magnetic field structure, which is of major importance for the injection of and transport of cosmic rays in the ICM. This work is a major cornerstone for follow-up studies with an on-the-fly treatment of cosmic rays to model in detail electron-synchrotron and gamma-ray emissions.


(1714)The M33 synoptic stellar survey. III. Miras and LPVs in griJHK<SUB>S</SUB>
  • Tarini Konchady,
  • Lucas M. Macri,
  • Xiaomeng Yan,
  • Jianhua Z. Huang
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1140
abstract + abstract -

We present the results of a search for Miras and long-period variables (LPVs) in M33 using griJHKS archival observations from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We use multiband information and machine learning techniques to identify and characterize these variables. We recover ~1300 previously discovered Mira candidates and identify ~13 000 new Miras and LPVs. We detect for the first time a clear first-overtone pulsation sequence among Mira candidates in this galaxy. We use O-rich, fundamental-mode Miras in the LMC and M33 to derive a distance modulus for the latter of μ = 24.629 ± 0.046 mag.


(1713)The inverted pendulum as a classical analog of the EFT paradigm
  • Martin Beneke,
  • Matthias König,
  • Martin Link
Physica Scripta (06/2024) doi:10.1088/1402-4896/ad4184
abstract + abstract -

The inverted pendulum is a mechanical system with a rapidly oscillating pivot point. Using techniques similar in spirit to the methodology of effective field theories, we derive an effective Lagrangian that allows for the systematic computation of corrections to the so-called Kapitza equation. The derivation of the effective potential of the system requires non-trivial matching conditions, which need to be determined order by order in the power-counting of the problem. The convergence behavior of the series is investigated on the basis of high-order results obtained by this method. The results from this analysis can be used to determine the regions of parameter space, in which the inverted position of the pendulum is stable or unstable to high precision.


(1712)On the role of $J/{\psi}$ production in electron-ion collisions
  • Zexuan Chu,
  • Jinhui Chen,
  • Xiang-Peng Wang,
  • Hongxi Xing
abstract + abstract -

Within the framework of non-relativistic QCD (NRQCD) effective field theory, we study the leptoproduction of $J/{\psi}$ at next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD for both unpolarized and polarized electron-ion collisions. We demonstrate that the $J/{\psi}$-tagged deep inelastic scattering in the future Electron-Ion Collider can be served as a golden channel for the reasons including constraining NRQCD long distance matrix elements, probing the nuclear gluon distribution functions, as well as investigating the gluon helicity distribution inside a longitudinal polarized proton.


(1711)Constraining f (R ) gravity using future galaxy cluster abundance and weak-lensing mass calibration datasets
  • Sophie M. L. Vogt,
  • Sebastian Bocquet,
  • Christopher T. Davies,
  • Joseph J. Mohr,
  • Fabian Schmidt
Physical Review D (06/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.109.123503
abstract + abstract -

We present forecasts for constraints on the Hu and Sawicki f (R ) modified gravity model using realistic mock data representative of future cluster and weak lensing surveys. We create mock thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect selected cluster samples for SPT-3G and CMB-S4 and the corresponding weak gravitational lensing data from next-generation weak-lensing (ngWL) surveys like Euclid and Rubin. We employ a state-of-the-art Bayesian likelihood approach that includes all observational effects and systematic uncertainties to obtain constraints on the f (R ) gravity parameter log10|fR 0|. In this analysis we vary the cosmological parameters [Ωmνh2,h ,As,ns,log10|fR 0|], which allows us to account for possible degeneracies between cosmological parameters and f (R ) modified gravity. The analysis accounts for f (R ) gravity via its effect on the halo mass function which is enhanced on cluster mass scales compared to the expectations within general relativity (GR). Assuming a fiducial GR model, the upcoming cluster dataset SPT -3 G ×ngWL is expected to obtain an upper limit of log10|fR 0|<-5.95 at 95% credibility, which significantly improves upon the current best bounds. The CMB -S 4 ×ngWL dataset is expected to improve this even further to log10|fR 0|<-6.23 . Furthermore, f (R ) gravity models with log10|fR 0|≥-6 , which have larger numbers of clusters, would be distinguishable from GR with both datasets. We also report degeneracies between log10|fR 0| and Ωm as well as σ8 for log10|fR 0|>-6 and log10|fR 0|>-5 respectively. Our forecasts indicate that future cluster abundance studies of f (R ) gravity will enable substantially improved constraints that are competitive with other cosmological probes.


CN-7
RU-A
(1710)Microscopic optical potential from the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory: Proton-nucleus scattering
  • Pianpian Qin,
  • Sibo Wang,
  • Hui Tong,
  • Qiang Zhao,
  • Chencan Wang
  • +2
Physical Review C (06/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.109.064603
abstract + abstract -

A relativistic microscopic optical model potential for nucleon-nucleus scattering is developed based on the ab initio relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (RBHF) theory with the improved local density approximation, which is abbreviated as the RBOM potential. Both real and imaginary parts of the single-particle potentials in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter at various densities are determined uniquely in the full Dirac space. The density distributions of the target nuclei are calculated by the covariant energy density functional theory with the density functional PC-PK1. The central and spin-orbit terms of the optical potentials are quantitatively consistent with the relativistic phenomenological optical potentials. The performance of the RBOM potential is evaluated by considering proton scattering with incident energy E ≤200 MeV on five target nuclei, 208Pb, 120Sn, 90Zr, 48Ca, and 40Ca. Scattering observables including the elastic scattering angular distributions, analyzing powers, spin rotation functions, and reaction cross sections are analyzed. Theoretical predictions show good agreements with the experimental data and the results derived from phenomenological optical potentials. We anticipate that the RBOM potential can provide reference for other phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials, as well as reliable descriptions for nucleon scattering on exotic nuclei in the era of rare-isotope beams.


(1709)Shockingly Bright Warm Carbon Monoxide Molecular Features in the Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A Revealed by JWST
  • J. Rho,
  • S. -H. Park,
  • R. Arendt,
  • M. Matsuura,
  • D. Milisavljevic
  • +34
  • T. Temim,
  • I. De Looze,
  • W. P. Blair,
  • A. Rest,
  • O. Fox,
  • A. P. Ravi,
  • B. -C. Koo,
  • M. Barlow,
  • A. Burrows,
  • R. Chevalier,
  • G. Clayton,
  • R. Fesen,
  • C. Fransson,
  • C. Fryer,
  • H. L. Gomez,
  • H. -T. Janka,
  • F. Kirchschlarger,
  • J. M. Laming,
  • S. Orlando,
  • D. Patnaude,
  • G. Pavlov,
  • P. Plucinsky,
  • B. Posselt,
  • F. Priestley,
  • J. Raymond,
  • N. Sartorio,
  • F. Schmidt,
  • P. Slane,
  • N. Smith,
  • N. Sravan,
  • J. Vink,
  • K. Weil,
  • J. Wheeler,
  • S. C. Yoon
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present JWST NIRCam (F356W and F444W filters) and MIRI (F770W) images and NIRSpec- IFU spectroscopy of the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). We obtained the data as part of a JWST survey of Cas A. The NIRCam and MIRI images map the spatial distributions of synchrotron radiation, Ar-rich ejecta, and CO on both large and small scales, revealing remarkably complex structures. The CO emission is stronger at the outer layers than the Ar ejecta, which indicates the reformation of CO molecules behind the reverse shock. NIRSpec-IFU spectra (3 - 5.5 microns) were obtained toward two representative knots in the NE and S fields. Both regions are dominated by the bright fundamental rovibrational band of CO in the two R and P branches, with strong [Ar VI] and relatively weaker, variable strength ejecta lines of [Si IX], [Ca IV], [Ca V] and [Mg IV]. The NIRSpec-IFU data resolve individual ejecta knots and filaments spatially and in velocity space. The fundamental CO band in the JWST spectra reveals unique shapes of CO, showing a few tens of sinusoidal patterns of rovibrational lines with pseudo-continuum underneath, which is attributed to the high-velocity widths of CO lines. The CO also shows high J lines at different vibrational transitions. Our results with LTE modeling of CO emission indicate a temperature of 1080 K and provide unique insight into the correlations between dust, molecules, and highly ionized ejecta in supernovae, and have strong ramifications for modeling dust formation that is led by CO cooling in the early Universe.


(1708)Transient fading X-ray emission detected during the optical rise of a tidal disruption event
  • A. Malyali,
  • A. Rau,
  • C. Bonnerot,
  • A. J. Goodwin,
  • Z. Liu
  • +7
  • G. E. Anderson,
  • J. Brink,
  • D. A. H. Buckley,
  • A. Merloni,
  • J. C. A. Miller-Jones,
  • I. Grotova,
  • A. Kawka
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae927
abstract + abstract -

We report on the SRG/eROSITA detection of ultra-soft ($kT=47^{+5}_{-5}$ eV) X-ray emission (LX =$2.5^{+0.6}_{-0.5} \times 10^{43}$ erg s-1) from the tidal disruption event (TDE) candidate AT 2022dsb ~14 d before peak optical brightness. As the optical luminosity increases after the eROSITA detection, then the 0.2-2 keV observed flux decays, decreasing by a factor of ~39 over the 19 d after the initial X-ray detection. Multi-epoch optical spectroscopic follow-up observations reveal transient broad Balmer emission lines and a broad He II 4686 Å emission complex with respect to the pre-outburst spectrum. Despite the early drop in the observed X-ray flux, the He II 4686 Å complex is still detected for ~40 d after the optical peak, suggesting the persistence of an obscured hard ionizing source in the system. Three outflow signatures are also detected at early times: (i) blueshifted H α emission lines in a pre-peak optical spectrum, (ii) transient radio emission, and (iii) blueshifted Ly α absorption lines. The joint evolution of this early-time X-ray emission, the He II 4686 Å complex, and these outflow signatures suggests that the X-ray emitting disc (formed promptly in this TDE) is still present after optical peak, but may have been enshrouded by optically thick debris, leading to the X-ray faintness in the months after the disruption. If the observed early-time properties in this TDE are not unique to this system, then other TDEs may also be X-ray bright at early times and become X-ray faint upon being veiled by debris launched shortly after the onset of circularization.


CN-6
(1707)Wakefield-driven filamentation of warm beams in plasma
  • Erwin Walter,
  • John P. Farmer,
  • Martin S. Weidl,
  • Alexander Pukhov,
  • Frank Jenko
abstract + abstract -

Charged and quasi-neutral beams propagating through an unmagnetised plasma are subject to numerous collisionless instabilities on the small scale of the plasma skin depth. The electrostatic two-stream instability, driven by longitudinal and transverse wakefields, dominates for dilute beams. This leads to modulation of the beam along the propagation direction and, for wide beams, transverse filamentation. A three-dimensional spatiotemporal two-stream theory for warm beams with a finite extent is developed. Unlike the cold beam limit, diffusion due to a finite emittance gives rise to a dominant wavenumber, and a cut-off wavenumber above which filamentation is suppressed. Particle-in-cell simulations give excellent agreement with the theoretical model. This work provides deeper insights into the effect of diffusion on filamentation of finite beams, crucial for comprehending plasma-based accelerators in laboratory and cosmic settings.


(1706)A survey for radio emission from white dwarfs in the VLA Sky Survey
  • Ingrid Pelisoli,
  • Laura Chomiuk,
  • Jay Strader,
  • T. R. Marsh,
  • Elias Aydi
  • +20
  • Kristen C. Dage,
  • Rebecca Kyer,
  • Isabella Molina,
  • Teresa Panurach,
  • Ryan Urquhart,
  • Thomas J. Maccarone,
  • R. Michael Rich,
  • Antonio C. Rodriguez,
  • E. Breedt,
  • A. J. Brown,
  • V. S. Dhillon,
  • M. J. Dyer,
  • Boris T. Gaensicke,
  • J. A. Garbutt,
  • M. J. Green,
  • M. R. Kennedy,
  • P. Kerry,
  • S. P. Littlefair,
  • James Munday,
  • S. G. Parsons
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1275
abstract + abstract -

Radio emission has been detected from tens of white dwarfs, in particular in accreting systems. Additionally, radio emission has been predicted as a possible outcome of a planetary system around a white dwarf. We searched for 3 GHz radio continuum emission in 846 000 candidate white dwarfs previously identified in Gaia using the Very Large Array Sky Survey (VLASS) Epoch 1 Quick Look Catalogue. We identified 13 candidate white dwarfs with a counterpart in VLASS within 2 arcsec. Five of those were found not to be white dwarfs in follow-up or archival spectroscopy, whereas seven others were found to be chance alignments with a background source in higher resolution optical or radio images. The remaining source, WDJ204259.71+152108.06, is found to be a white dwarf and M-dwarf binary with an orbital period of 4.1 d and long-term stochastic optical variability, as well as luminous radio and X-ray emission. For this binary, we find no direct evidence of a background contaminant, and a chance alignment probability of only ≈2 per cent. However, other evidence points to the possibility of an unfortunate chance alignment with a background radio and X-ray emitting quasar, including an unusually poor Gaia DR3 astrometric solution for this source. With at most one possible radio emitting white dwarf found, we conclude that strong (≳1-3 mJy) radio emission from white dwarfs in the 3 GHz band is virtually non-existent outside of interacting binaries.


(1705)TDCOSMO. XVII. Measurement of the Hubble Constant from the Lensed Quasar WGD$\,$2038$-$4008
  • Kenneth C. Wong,
  • Frédéric Dux,
  • Anowar J. Shajib,
  • Sherry H. Suyu,
  • Martin Millon
  • +15
  • Pritom Mozumdar,
  • Patrick R. Wells,
  • Adriano Agnello,
  • Simon Birrer,
  • Elizabeth J. Buckley-Geer,
  • Frédéric Courbin,
  • Christopher D. Fassnacht,
  • Joshua Frieman,
  • Aymeric Galan,
  • Huan Lin,
  • Philip J. Marshall,
  • Jason Poh,
  • Stefan Schuldt,
  • Dominique Sluse,
  • Tommaso Treu
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Time-delay cosmography is a powerful technique to constrain cosmological parameters, particularly the Hubble constant ($H_{0}$). The TDCOSMO collaboration is performing an ongoing analysis of lensed quasars to constrain cosmology using this method. In this work, we obtain constraints from the lensed quasar~WGD$\,$2038$-$4008~using new time-delay measurements and previous mass models by TDCOSMO. This is the first TDCOSMO lens to incorporate multiple lens modeling codes and the full time-delay covariance matrix into the cosmological inference. The models are fixed before the time delay is measured, and the analysis is performed blinded with respect to the cosmological parameters to prevent unconscious experimenter bias. We obtain $D_{\Delta t} = 1.68^{+0.40}_{-0.38}$ Gpc using two families of mass models, a power-law describing the total mass distribution, and a composite model of baryons and dark matter, although the composite model is disfavored due to kinematics constraints. In a flat $\Lambda$CDM cosmology, we constrain the Hubble constant to be $H_{0} = 65^{+23}_{-14}\, \rm km\ s^{-1}\,Mpc^{-1}$. The dominant source of uncertainty comes from the time delays, due to the low variability of the quasar. Future long-term monitoring, especially in the era of the Vera C. Rubin Observatory's Legacy Survey of Space and Time, could catch stronger quasar variability and further reduce the uncertainties. This system will be incorporated into an upcoming hierarchical analysis of the entire TDCOSMO sample, and improved time delays and spatially-resolved stellar kinematics could strengthen the constraints from this system in the future.


(1704)Radial X-ray profiles of simulated galaxies: Contributions from hot gas and XRBs
  • Stephan Vladutescu-Zopp,
  • Veronica Biffi,
  • Klaus Dolag
abstract + abstract -

Theoretical models of structure formation predict the presence of a hot gaseous atmosphere around galaxies. While this hot circum-galactic medium (CGM) has been observationally confirmed through UV absorption lines, the detection of its direct X-ray emission remains scarce. We investigate theoretical predictions of the intrinsic CGM X-ray surface brightness (SB) using simulated galaxies and connect them to their global properties such as gas temperature, hot gas fraction and stellar mass. We select a sample of galaxies from the ultra-high resolution ($48\ \rm{cMpc\, h^{-1}}$) cosmological volume of the Magneticum Pathfinder set of hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. We classify them as star-forming (SF) or quiescent (QU) based on their specific star-formation rate. For each galaxy we generate X-ray mock data using the X-ray photon simulator PHOX, from which we obtain SB profiles out to the virial radius for different X-ray emitting components, namely gas, active galactic nuclei and X-ray binaries (XRBs). We fit a $\beta$-profile to each galaxy and observe trends between its slope and global quantities of the simulated galaxy. We find marginal differences between the average total SB profile of the CGM in SF and QU galaxies, with the contribution from hot gas being the largest ($>50\%$) at radii $r>0.05\,R_{\rm{vir}}$. The contribution from X-ray binaries (XRBs) equals the gas contribution for small radii and is non-zero for large radii. The galaxy population shows positive correlations between global properties and normalization of the SB profile. The slope of fitted $\beta$-profiles correlates strongly with the total gas luminosity, which in turn shows strong connections to the current accretion rate of the central super-massive black hole (SMBH).


(1703)Star Formation by Supernova Implosion
  • Leonard Elias Cornelius Romano,
  • Andreas Burkert,
  • Manuel Behrendt
abstract + abstract -

Recent hydrodynamical simulations of the late stages of supernova remnant (SNR) evolution have revealed that as they merge with the ambient medium, SNRs implode, leading to the formation of dense clouds in their center. While being highly chemically enriched by their host SNR, these clouds appear to have similar properties as giant molecular clouds, which are believed to be the main site of star formation. Here, we develop a simple model, in order to estimate the efficiency of the star formation that might be triggered by the implosion of SNRs. We separately consider two cases, cyclic star formation, maintained by the episodic driving of feedback from new generations of stars; and a single burst of star formation, triggered by a single explosion. We find that in the cyclic case, star formation is inefficient, with implosion-triggered star-formation contributing a few percent of the observed star-formation efficiency per free-fall timescale. In the single-burst case, higher star-formation efficiencies can be obtained. However, while the implosion-triggered process might not contribute much to the overall star-formation, due to the high chemical enrichment of the birth clouds, it can explain the formation of a significant fraction of metal-rich stars.


(1702)Search for giant planets in M 67 V: A warm Jupiter orbiting the turn-off star S1429
  • Luis Thomas,
  • Roberto Saglia,
  • Luca Pasquini,
  • Anna Brucalassi,
  • Piercarlo Bonifacio
  • +7
  • José Renan de Medeiros,
  • Izan de Castro Leão,
  • Bruno Leonardo Canto Martins,
  • Henrik Lukas Ruh,
  • Luigi Rolly Bedin,
  • Mattia Libralato,
  • Katia Biazzo
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202449233
abstract + abstract -

Context. Planets orbiting members of open or globular clusters offer a great opportunity to study exoplanet populations systematically, as stars within clusters provide a mostly homogeneous sample, at least in chemical composition and stellar age. However, even though there have been coordinated efforts to search for exoplanets in stellar clusters, only a small number of planets have been detected. One successful example is the seven-year radial velocity (RV) survey `Search for giant planets in M 67' of 88 stars in the open cluster M 67, which led to the discovery of five giant planets, including three close-in (P < 10 days) hot-Jupiters.
Aims: In this work, we continue and extend the observation of stars in M 67, with the aim being to search for additional planets.
Methods: We conducted spectroscopic observations with the Habitable Planet Finder (HPF), HARPS, HARPS-North, and SOPHIE spectrographs of 11 stars in M 67. Six of our targets showed a variation or long-term trends in their RV during the original survey, while the other five were not observed in the original sample, bringing the total number of stars to 93.
Results: An analysis of the RVs reveals one additional planet around the turn-off point star S1429 and provides solutions for the orbits of stellar companions around S2207 and YBP2018. S1429 b is a warm-Jupiter on a likely circular orbit with a period of [77.48-0.19+0.18] days and a minimum mass of M sin i = 1.80 ± 0.2 MJ. We update the hot-Jupiter occurrence rate in M 67 to include the five new stars, deriving [4.2-2.3+4.1 %] when considering all stars, and [5.4-3.0+5.1 %] if binary star systems are removed.


(1701)The LiteBIRD mission to explore cosmic inflation
  • T. Ghigna,
  • A. Adler,
  • K. Aizawa,
  • H. Akamatsu,
  • R. Akizawa
  • +154
  • E. Allys,
  • A. Anand,
  • J. Aumont,
  • J. Austermann,
  • S. Azzoni,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • M. Ballardini,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • N. Bartolo,
  • S. Basak,
  • A. Basyrov,
  • S. Beckman,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • M. Bortolami,
  • F. Bouchet,
  • T. Brinckmann,
  • P. Campeti,
  • E. Carinos,
  • A. Carones,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • K. Cheung,
  • Y. Chinone,
  • L. Clermont,
  • F. Columbro,
  • A. Coppolecchia,
  • D. Curtis,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • T. de Haan,
  • E. de la Hoz,
  • M. De Petris,
  • S. Della Torre,
  • G. Delle Monache,
  • E. Di Giorgi,
  • C. Dickinson,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • J. J. Díaz García,
  • M. Dobbs,
  • T. Dotani,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • J. Errard,
  • T. Essinger-Hileman,
  • N. Farias,
  • E. Ferreira,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • G. Galloni,
  • M. Galloway,
  • K. Ganga,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • R. T. Génova-Santos,
  • S. Giardiello,
  • C. Gimeno-Amo,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • R. González González,
  • L. Grandsire,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • N. W. Halverson,
  • P. Hargrave,
  • S. E. Harper,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • L. T. Hergt,
  • D. Herranz,
  • E. Hivon,
  • R. A. Hlozek,
  • T. D. Hoang,
  • J. Hubmayr,
  • K. Ichiki,
  • K. Ikuma,
  • H. Ishino,
  • G. Jaehnig,
  • B. Jost,
  • K. Kohri,
  • K. Konishi,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • C. Leloup,
  • F. Levrier,
  • A. I. Lonappan,
  • G. Luzzi,
  • J. Macias-Perez,
  • B. Maffei,
  • E. Marchitelli,
  • E. Martínez-González,
  • S. Masi,
  • S. Matarrese,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • S. Micheli,
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • M. Monelli,
  • L. Montier,
  • G. Morgante,
  • L. Mousset,
  • Y. Nagano,
  • R. Nagata,
  • P. Natoli,
  • A. Novelli,
  • F. Noviello,
  • I. Obata,
  • A. Occhiuzzi,
  • K. Odagiri,
  • R. Omae,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • G. Pascual-Cisneros,
  • G. Patanchon,
  • V. Pavlidou,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • M. Piat,
  • G. Piccirilli,
  • M. Pinchera,
  • G. Pisano,
  • L. Porcelli,
  • N. Raffuzzi,
  • C. Raum,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • J. Rubino-Martin,
  • M. Ruiz-Granda,
  • Y. Sakurai,
  • G. Savini,
  • D. Scott,
  • Y. Sekimoto,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • S. L. Stever,
  • R. M. Sullivan,
  • A. Suzuki,
  • R. Takaku,
  • H. Takakura,
  • S. Takakura,
  • Y. Takase. A. Tartari,
  • K. Tassis,
  • K. L. Thompson,
  • M. Tomasi,
  • M. Tristram,
  • C. Tucker,
  • L. Vacher,
  • B. van Tent,
  • P. Vielva,
  • K. Watanuki,
  • I. K. Wehus,
  • B. Westbrook,
  • G. Weymann-Despres,
  • B. Winter,
  • E. J. Wollack,
  • A. Zacchei,
  • M. Zannoni,
  • Y. Zhou,
  • the LiteBIRD Collaboration
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

LiteBIRD, the next-generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment, aims for a launch in Japan's fiscal year 2032, marking a major advancement in the exploration of primordial cosmology and fundamental physics. Orbiting the Sun-Earth Lagrangian point L2, this JAXA-led strategic L-class mission will conduct a comprehensive mapping of the CMB polarization across the entire sky. During its 3-year mission, LiteBIRD will employ three telescopes within 15 unique frequency bands (ranging from 34 through 448 GHz), targeting a sensitivity of 2.2\,$\mu$K-arcmin and a resolution of 0.5$^\circ$ at 100\,GHz. Its primary goal is to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ with an uncertainty $\delta r = 0.001$, including systematic errors and margin. If $r \geq 0.01$, LiteBIRD expects to achieve a $>5\sigma$ detection in the $\ell=$2-10 and $\ell=$11-200 ranges separately, providing crucial insight into the early Universe. We describe LiteBIRD's scientific objectives, the application of systems engineering to mission requirements, the anticipated scientific impact, and the operations and scanning strategies vital to minimizing systematic effects. We will also highlight LiteBIRD's synergies with concurrent CMB projects.


(1700)Ray-tracing vs. Born approximation in full-sky weak lensing simulations of the MillenniumTNG project
  • Fulvio Ferlito,
  • Christopher T. Davies,
  • Volker Springel,
  • Martin Reinecke,
  • Alessandro Greco
  • +5
  • Ana Maria Delgado,
  • Simon D. M. White,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Sownak Bose,
  • Lars Hernquist
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Weak gravitational lensing is a powerful tool for precision tests of cosmology. As the expected deflection angles are small, predictions based on non-linear N-body simulations are commonly computed with the Born approximation. Here we examine this assumption using ${\small DORIAN}$, a newly developed full-sky ray-tracing scheme applied to high-resolution mass-shell outputs of the two largest simulations in the MillenniumTNG suite, each with a 3000 Mpc box containing almost 1.1 trillion cold dark matter particles in addition to 16.7 billion particles representing massive neutrinos. We examine simple two-point statistics like the angular power spectrum of the convergence field, as well as statistics sensitive to higher order correlations such as peak and minimum statistics, void statistics, and Minkowski functionals of the convergence maps. Overall, we find only small differences between the Born approximation and a full ray-tracing treatment. While these are negligibly small at power-spectrum level, some higher order statistics show more sizable effects; ray-tracing is necessary to achieve percent level precision. At the resolution reached here, full-sky maps with 0.8 billion pixels and an angular resolution of 0.43 arcmin, we find that interpolation accuracy can introduce appreciable errors in ray-tracing results. We therefore implemented an interpolation method based on nonuniform fast Fourier transforms (NUFFT) along with more traditional methods. Bilinear interpolation introduces significant smoothing, while nearest grid point sampling agrees well with NUFFT, at least for our fiducial source redshift, $z_s=1.0$, and for the 1 arcmin smoothing we use for higher-order statistics.


(1699)A low-mass helium star progenitor model for the Type Ibn SN 2020nxt
  • Qinan Wang,
  • Anika Goel,
  • Luc Dessart,
  • Ori D. Fox,
  • Melissa Shahbandeh
  • +53
  • Sofia Rest,
  • Armin Rest,
  • Jose H. Groh,
  • Andrew Allan,
  • Claes Fransson,
  • Nathan Smith,
  • Griffin Hosseinzadeh,
  • Alexei V. Filippenko,
  • Jennifer Andrews,
  • K. Azalee Bostroem,
  • Thomas G. Brink,
  • Peter Brown,
  • Jamison Burke,
  • Roger Chevalier,
  • Geoffrey C. Clayton,
  • Mi Dai,
  • Kyle W. Davis,
  • Ryan J. Foley,
  • Sebastian Gomez,
  • Chelsea Harris,
  • Daichi Hiramatsu,
  • D. Andrew Howell,
  • Connor Jennings,
  • Saurabh W. Jha,
  • Mansi M. Kasliwal,
  • Patrick L. Kelly,
  • Erik C. Kool,
  • Evelyn Liu,
  • Emily Ma,
  • Curtis McCully,
  • Adam M. Miller,
  • Yukei Murakami,
  • Estefania Padilla Gonzalez,
  • Craig Pellegrino,
  • Derek Perera,
  • Justin Pierel,
  • César Rojas-Bravo,
  • Matthew R. Siebert,
  • Jesper Sollerman,
  • Tamás Szalai,
  • Samaporn Tinyanont,
  • Schuyler D. Van Dyk,
  • WeiKang Zheng,
  • Kenneth C. Chambers,
  • David A. Coulter,
  • Thomas de Boer,
  • Nicholas Earl,
  • Diego Farias,
  • Christa Gall,
  • Peter McGill,
  • Conor L. Ransome,
  • Kirsty Taggart,
  • V. Ashley Villar
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1038
abstract + abstract -

A growing number of supernovae (SNe) are now known to exhibit evidence for significant interaction with a dense, pre-existing, circumstellar medium (CSM). SNe Ibn comprise one such class that can be characterized by both rapidly evolving light curves and persistent narrow He I lines. The origin of such a dense CSM in these systems remains a pressing question, specifically concerning the progenitor system and mass-loss mechanism. In this paper, we present multiwavelength data of the Type Ibn SN 2020nxt, including HST/STIS ultraviolet spectra. We fit the data with recently updated CMFGEN models designed to handle configurations for SNe Ibn. The UV coverage yields strong constraints on the energetics and, when combined with the CMFGEN models, offer new insight on potential progenitor systems. We find the most successful model is a ≲4 M helium star that lost its $\sim 1\, {\rm M}_\odot$ He-rich envelope in the years preceding core collapse. We also consider viable alternatives, such as a He white dwarf merger. Ultimately, we conclude at least some SNe Ibn do not arise from single, massive (>30 M) Wolf-Rayet-like stars.


(1698)Exploring the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-178b. Constraints on atmospheric chemistry and dynamics from a joint retrieval of VLT/CRIRES$^+$ and space photometric data
  • D. Cont,
  • L. Nortmann,
  • F. Yan,
  • F. Lesjak,
  • S. Czesla
  • +12
  • A. Lavail,
  • A. Reiners,
  • N. Piskunov,
  • A. Hatzes,
  • L. Boldt-Christmas,
  • O. Kochukhov,
  • T. Marquart,
  • E. Nagel,
  • A. D. Rains,
  • M. Rengel,
  • U. Seemann,
  • D. Shulyak
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Despite recent progress in the spectroscopic characterization of individual exoplanets, the atmospheres of key ultra-hot Jupiters (UHJs) still lack comprehensive investigations. These include WASP-178b, one of the most irradiated UHJs known to date. We observed the dayside emission signal of this planet with CRIRES$^+$ in the spectral K-band. By applying the cross-correlation technique and a Bayesian retrieval framework to the high-resolution spectra, we identified the emission signature of $^{12}$CO (S/N = 8.9) and H$_2$O (S/N = 4.9), and a strong atmospheric thermal inversion. A joint retrieval with space-based secondary eclipse measurements from TESS and CHEOPS allows us to refine our results on the thermal profile and thus to constrain the atmospheric chemistry, yielding a solar to super-solar metallicity (1.4$\pm$1.6 dex) and a solar C/O ratio (0.6$\pm$0.2). We infer a significant excess of spectral line broadening and identify a slight Doppler-shift between the $^{12}$CO and H$_2$O signals. These findings provide strong evidence for a super-rotating atmospheric flow pattern and suggest the possible existence of chemical inhomogeneities across the planetary dayside hemisphere. In addition, the inclusion of photometric data in our retrieval allows us to account for stellar light reflected by the planetary atmosphere, resulting in an upper limit on the geometric albedo (0.23). The successful characterization of WASP-178b's atmosphere through a joint analysis of CRIRES$^+$, TESS, and CHEOPS observations highlights the potential of combined studies with space- and ground-based instruments and represents a promising avenue for advancing our understanding of exoplanet atmospheres.


(1697)The interplay between forming planets and photoevaporating discs. II. Wind-driven gas redistribution
  • M. L. Weber,
  • G. Picogna,
  • B. Ercolano
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202348596
abstract + abstract -

Context. Disc winds and planet-disc interactions are two crucial mechanisms that define the structure, evolution, and dispersal of protoplanetary discs. While winds are capable of removing material from discs, eventually leading to their dispersal, massive planets can shape their disc by creating sub-structures such as gaps and spiral arms.
Aims: We studied the interplay between an X-ray photoevaporative disc wind and the sub-structures generated due to planet-disc interactions to determine how their mutual interactions affect the disc's and the planet's evolution.
Methods: We performed 3D hydrodynamic simulations of viscous discs (α = 6.9 × 10−4) that host a Jupiter-like planet and undergo X-ray photoevaporation. We traced the gas flows within the disc and wind and measured the rate of accretion onto the planet, as well as the gravitational torque that is acting on it.
Results: Our results show that the planetary gap removes the wind's pressure support, allowing wind material to fall back into the gap. This opens new pathways for material from the inner disc (and part of the outer disc) to be redistributed through the wind towards the gap. Consequently, the gap becomes shallower and the flow of mass across the gap in both directions is significantly increased, as is the planet's mass-accretion rate (by factors of ≈5 and ≈2, respectively). Moreover, the wind-driven redistribution results in a denser inner disc and a less dense outer disc, which, combined with the recycling of a significant portion of the inner wind, leads to longer lifetimes for the inner disc, contrary to the expectation in a planet-induced photoevaporation scenario that has been proposed in the past.


(1696)The Spectra of IceCube Neutrino (SIN) candidate sources -- V. Modeling and interpretation of multiwavelength and neutrino data
  • Xavier Rodrigues,
  • Martina Karl,
  • Paolo Padovani,
  • Paolo Giommi,
  • Simona Paiano
  • +3
  • Renato Falomo,
  • Maria Petropoulou,
  • Foteini Oikonomou
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

A correlation has been reported between the arrival directions of high-energy IceCube events and gamma-ray blazars classified as intermediate- and high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacs. Subsequent studies have investigated the optical properties of these sources, analyzed public multiwavelength data, and constrained their individual neutrino emission based on public IceCube data. In this work, we provide a theoretical interpretation of public multiwavelength and neutrino point source data for the 32 BL Lac objects in the sample previously associated with an IceCube alert event. We have performed particle interaction modeling using open-source numerical simulation software. We constrained the model parameters using a novel and unique approach that simultaneously describes the host galaxy contribution, the observed synchrotron peak, the multiwavelength fluxes, and the IceCube point source constraints. We show that a single-zone leptohadronic model can describe the multiwavelength fluxes from the 32 IceCube candidates. In some cases, the model suggests that hadronic emission may contribute a considerable fraction of the gamma-ray flux. The required power in relativistic protons ranges from a few percent to a factor of ten of the Eddington luminosity, which is energetically less demanding compared to other leptohadronic blazar models in recent literature. The model can describe the 68% confidence level IceCube flux for a large fraction of the masquerading BL Lacs in the sample, including TXS 0506+056; whereas, for true BL Lacs, the model predicts a low neutrino flux in the IceCube sensitivity range. The predicted neutrino flux peaks between a few PeV and 100 PeV and scales positively with the flux in the GeV, MeV, X-ray, and optical bands. Based on these results, we provide a list of the brightest neutrino emitters, which can be used for future searches targeting the 10-100 PeV regime.


(1695)Position-dependent light yield in short, coated SCSF-78 scintillating fibers
  • Martin J. Losekamm,
  • Stephan Paul,
  • Thomas Pöschl
Radiation Measurements (06/2024) doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2024.107116
abstract + abstract -

In fibers made from organic plastic scintillators, a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic effects results in the attenuation of light and thus in a position-dependent light yield. The trapping of photons can further be affected if fibers are coated with or wrapped in a light-absorbing or reflecting material to suppress optical cross-talk. These effects have frequently been studied for long (>0.5m) fibers, yet little data is available for shorter ones. We experimentally studied the position-dependent light yield of single-cladded Kuraray SCSF-78 fibers with lengths of <10cm and tested the effect of different cross-talk-preventing materials. Contrary to the often acceptable simplification that light is transmitted in the fiber core alone, we found that photons trapped by the protective cladding significantly contribute to the light transmission in short fibers. In this paper, we perform an in-depth characterization of the position-dependent light yield of fibers sputter-coated with aluminum and wrapped in aluminum foil using a double-exponential attenuation function. Finally, we compare our findings to a simple photon transport model.


(1694)Born-Oppenheimer Potentials for $SU(3)$ Gauge Theory
  • Fareed Alasiri,
  • Eric Braaten,
  • Abhishek Mohapatra
abstract + abstract -

We develop parameterizations of 8 of the lowest Born-Oppenheimer potentials for quarkonium hybrid mesons as functions of the separation $r$ of the static quark and antiquark sources. The parameters are determined by fitting results calculated using pure $SU(3)$ lattice gauge theory. The parameterizations have the correct limiting behavior at small $r$, where the potentials form multiplets associated with gluelumps. They have the correct limiting behavior at large $r$, where the potentials form multiplets associated with excitations of a relativistic string. There is a narrow avoided crossing in the small-$r$ region between two potentials with the same Born-Oppenheimer quantum numbers.


(1693)A Census of Sun's Ancestors and their Contributions to the Solar System Chemical Composition
  • F. Fiore,
  • F. Matteucci,
  • E. Spitoni,
  • M. Molero,
  • P. Salucci
  • +2
abstract + abstract -

In this work we compute the rates and numbers of different types of stars and phenomena (SNe, novae, white dwarfs, merging neutron stars, black holes) that contributed to the chemical composition of the Solar System. Stars die and restore the newly formed elements into the interstellar gas. This process is called "chemical evolution". In particular, we analyse the death rates of stars of all masses, dying either quiescently or explosively. These rates and total star numbers are computed in the context of a revised version of the two-infall model for the chemical evolution of the Milky Way, which reproduces fairly well the observed abundance patterns of several chemical species, as well as the global solar metallicity. We compute also the total number of stars ever born and still alive as well as the number of stars born up to the formation of the Solar System and with a mass and metallicity like the Sun. This latter number will account for all the possible existing Solar Systems which can host life in the solar vicinity. Among all the stars (from 0.8 to 100 M$_{\odot}$) born and died from the beginning up to the Solar System formation epoch, which contributed to its chemical composition, 93.00$\%$ are represented by stars dying as single white dwarfs (without interacting significantly with a companion star) and originating in the mass range 0.8-8 M$_{\odot}$, while 5.24$\%$ are neutron stars and 0.73$\%$ are black holes, both originating from SNe core-collapse (M>8 M$_{\odot}$); 0.64$\%$ are Type Ia SNe and 0.40$\%$ are nova systems, both originating from the same mass range as the white dwarfs. The number of stars similar to the Sun born from the beginning up to the Solar System formation, with metallicity in the range 12+log(Fe/H)= 7.50 $\pm$ 0.04 dex is 3.1732$\cdot$ 10$^{7}$, and in particular our Sun is the 2.6092$\cdot$ 10$^7$-th star of this kind, born in the solar vicinity.


(1692)The SRG/eROSITA All-Sky Survey: X-ray beacons at late cosmic dawn
  • J. Wolf,
  • M. Salvato,
  • S. Belladitta,
  • R. Arcodia,
  • S. Ciroi
  • +10
  • F. Di Mille,
  • T. Sbarrato,
  • J. Buchner,
  • S. Hämmerich,
  • J. Wilms,
  • W. Collmar,
  • T. Dwelly,
  • A. Merloni,
  • T. Urrutia,
  • K. Nandra
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The SRG/eROSITA All-Sky Survey (eRASS) is expected to contain ~100 quasars that emitted their light when the universe was less than a billion years old, i.e. at z>5.6. By selection, these quasars populate the bright end of the AGN X-ray luminosity function and their count offers a powerful demographic diagnostic of the parent super-massive black hole population. Of the >~ 400 quasars that have been discovered at z>5.6 to date, less than 15 % have been X-ray detected. We present a pilot survey to uncover the elusive X-ray luminous end of the distant quasar population. We have designed a quasar selection pipeline based on optical, infrared and X-ray imaging data from DES DR2, VHS DR5, CatWISE2020 and the eRASS. The core selection method relies on SED template fitting. We performed optical follow-up spectroscopy with the Magellan/LDSS3 instrument for the redshift confirmation of a subset of candidates. We have further obtained a deeper X-ray image of one of our candidates with Chandra ACIS-S. We report the discovery of five new quasars in the redshift range 5.6 < z < 6.1. Two of these quasars are detected in eRASS and are by selection X-ray ultra-luminous. These quasars are also detected at radio frequencies. The first one is a broad absorption line quasar which shows significant X-ray dimming over 3.5 years, i.e. about 6 months in the quasar rest frame. The second radio-detected quasar is a jetted source with compact morphology. We show that a blazar configuration is likely for this source, making it the second most distant blazar known to date. With our pilot study, we demonstrate the power of eROSITA as a discovery machine for luminous quasars in the epoch of reionization. The X-ray emission of the two eROSITA detected quasars are likely to be driven by different high-energetic emission mechanisms a diversity which will be further explored in a future systematic full-hemisphere survey.


(1691)The LOFAR - eFEDS survey: The incidence of radio and X-ray AGN and the disk-jet connection
  • Z. Igo,
  • A. Merloni,
  • D. Hoang,
  • J. Buchner,
  • T. Liu
  • +13
  • M. Salvato,
  • R. Arcodia,
  • S. Bellstedt,
  • M. Brüggen,
  • J. H. Croston,
  • F. de Gasperin,
  • A. Georgakakis,
  • M. J. Hardcastle,
  • K. Nandra,
  • Q. Ni,
  • T. Pasini,
  • T. Shimwell,
  • J. Wolf
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202349069
abstract + abstract -

Context. Radio jets are present in a diverse sample of AGN. However, the mechanisms of jet powering are not fully understood, and it remains unclear to what extent they obey mass-invariant scaling relations similar to those found for the triggering and fuelling of X-ray-selected AGN.
Aims: We use the multi-wavelength data in the eFEDS field observed by eROSITA/Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) and LOFAR to study the incidence of X-ray and radio AGN as a function of several stellar mass (M*)-normalised AGN power indicators.
Methods: From the LOFAR - eFEDS survey, we defined a new sample of radio AGN, with optical counterparts from Legacy Survey DR9, according to a radio-excess relative to their host star formation rate. We further divided the sample into compact and complex radio morphologies. In this work, we used the subset matching to the well-characterised, highly complete spectroscopic GAMA09 galaxies (0 < z < 0.4). We release this value-added LOFAR - eFEDS catalogue*. We calculated the fraction of GAMA09 galaxies hosting radio, X-ray, and both radio and X-ray AGN as functions of the specific black hole kinetic (λJet) and radiative (λEdd) power.
Results: Despite the soft-X-ray eROSITA-selected sample, the incidence of X-ray AGN as a function of λEdd shows the same mass-invariance and power law slope (−0.65) as that found in previous studies once corrected for completeness. Across the M* range probed, the incidence of compact radio AGN as a function of λJet is described by a power law with constant slope, showing that it is not only high mass galaxies hosting high power jets and vice versa. This slope is steeper than that of the X-ray incidence, which has a value of around −1.5. Furthermore, higher-mass galaxies are more likely to host radio AGN across the λJet range, indicating some residual mass dependence of jet powering. Upon adding complex radio morphologies, including 34 FRIIs, three of which are giant radio galaxies, the incidence not only shows a larger mass dependence but also a jet power dependence, being clearly boosted at high λJet values. Importantly, the latter effect cannot be explained by such radio AGN residing in more dense environments (or more massive dark matter haloes). The similarity in the incidence of quiescent and star-forming radio AGN reveals that radio AGN are not only found in "red and dead" galaxies. Overall, our incidence analysis reveals some fundamental statistical properties of radio AGN samples, but highlights open questions regarding the use of a single radio luminosity-jet power conversion. We explore how different mass and accretion rate dependencies of the incidence can explain the observed results for varying disk-jet coupling models.

The source catalogue is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via https://cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/686/A43 or on the LOFAR Surveys DR website: https://lofar-surveys.org/efeds.html


(1690)Multiple chemical tracers finally unveil the intricate NGC 1333 IRAS 4A outflow system. FAUST XVI
  • Layal Chahine,
  • Cecilia Ceccarelli,
  • Marta De Simone,
  • Claire J. Chandler,
  • Claudio Codella
  • +52
  • Linda Podio,
  • Ana López-Sepulcre,
  • Nami Sakai,
  • Laurent Loinard,
  • Mathilde Bouvier,
  • Paola Caselli,
  • Charlotte Vastel,
  • Eleonora Bianchi,
  • Nicolás Cuello,
  • Francesco Fontani,
  • Doug Johnstone,
  • Giovanni Sabatini,
  • Tomoyuki Hanawa,
  • Ziwei E. Zhang,
  • Yuri Aikawa,
  • Gemma Busquet,
  • Emmanuel Caux,
  • Aurore Durán,
  • Eric Herbst,
  • François Ménard,
  • Dominique Segura-Cox,
  • Brian Svoboda,
  • Nadia Balucani,
  • Steven Charnley,
  • François Dulieu,
  • Lucy Evans,
  • Davide Fedele,
  • Siyi Feng,
  • Tetsuya Hama,
  • Tomoya Hirota,
  • Andrea Isella,
  • Izaskun Jímenez-Serra,
  • Bertrand Lefloch,
  • Luke T. Maud,
  • María José Maureira,
  • Anna Miotello,
  • George Moellenbrock,
  • Hideko Nomura,
  • Yasuhiro Oba,
  • Satoshi Ohashi,
  • Yuki Okoda,
  • Yoko Oya,
  • Jaime Pineda,
  • Albert Rimola,
  • Takeshi Sakai,
  • Yancy Shirley,
  • Leonardo Testi,
  • Serena Viti,
  • Naoki Watanabe,
  • Yoshimasa Watanabe,
  • Yichen Zhang,
  • Satoshi Yamamoto
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1320
abstract + abstract -

The exploration of outflows in protobinary systems presents a challenging yet crucial endeavour, offering valuable insights into the dynamic interplay between protostars and their evolution. In this study, we examine the morphology and dynamics of jets and outflows within the IRAS 4A protobinary system. This analysis is based on ALMA observations of SiO(5-4), H2CO(30, 3-20, 3), and HDCO(41, 4-31, 3) with a spatial resolution of ~150 au. Leveraging an astrochemical approach involving the use of diverse tracers beyond traditional ones has enabled the identification of novel features and a comprehensive understanding of the broader outflow dynamics. Our analysis reveals the presence of two jets in the redshifted emission, emanating from IRAS 4A1 and IRAS 4A2, respectively. Furthermore, we identify four distinct outflows in the region for the first time, with each protostar, 4A1 and 4A2, contributing to two of them. We characterize the morphology and orientation of each outflow, challenging previous suggestions of bends in their trajectories. The outflow cavities of IRAS 4A1 exhibit extensions of 10 and 13 arcsec with position angles (PA) of 0° and -12°, respectively, while those of IRAS 4A2 are more extended, spanning 18 and 25 arcsec with PAs of 29° and 26°. We propose that the misalignment of the cavities is due to a jet precession in each protostar, a notion supported by the observation that the more extended cavities of the same source exhibit lower velocities, indicating they may stem from older ejection events.


(1689)Lensed Type Ia Supernova "Encore" at z = 2: The First Instance of Two Multiply Imaged Supernovae in the Same Host Galaxy
  • J. D. R. Pierel,
  • A. B. Newman,
  • S. Dhawan,
  • M. Gu,
  • B. A. Joshi
  • +58
  • T. Li,
  • S. Schuldt,
  • L. G. Strolger,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • G. B. Caminha,
  • S. H. Cohen,
  • J. M. Diego,
  • J. C. J. DŚilva,
  • S. Ertl,
  • B. L. Frye,
  • G. Granata,
  • C. Grillo,
  • A. M. Koekemoer,
  • J. Li,
  • A. Robotham,
  • J. Summers,
  • T. Treu,
  • R. A. Windhorst,
  • A. Zitrin,
  • S. Agarwal,
  • A. Agrawal,
  • N. Arendse,
  • S. Belli,
  • C. Burns,
  • R. Cañameras,
  • S. Chakrabarti,
  • W. Chen,
  • T. E. Collett,
  • D. A. Coulter,
  • R. S. Ellis,
  • M. Engesser,
  • N. Foo,
  • O. D. Fox,
  • C. Gall,
  • N. Garuda,
  • S. Gezari,
  • S. Gomez,
  • K. Glazebrook,
  • J. Hjorth,
  • X. Huang,
  • S. W. Jha,
  • P. S. Kamieneski,
  • P. Kelly,
  • C. Larison,
  • L. A. Moustakas,
  • M. Pascale,
  • I. Pérez-Fournon,
  • T. Petrushevska,
  • F. Poidevin,
  • A. Rest,
  • M. Shahbandeh,
  • A. J. Shajib,
  • M. Siebert,
  • C. Storfer,
  • M. Talbot,
  • Q. Wang,
  • T. Wevers,
  • Y. Zenati
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2024) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ad4648
abstract + abstract -

A bright (m F150W,AB = 24 mag), z = 1.95 supernova (SN) candidate was discovered in JWST/NIRCam imaging acquired on 2023 November 17. The SN is quintuply imaged as a result of strong gravitational lensing by a foreground galaxy cluster, detected in three locations, and remarkably is the second lensed SN found in the same host galaxy. The previous lensed SN was called "Requiem," and therefore the new SN is named "Encore." This makes the MACS J0138.0‑2155 cluster the first known system to produce more than one multiply imaged SN. Moreover, both SN Requiem and SN Encore are Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia), making this the most distant case of a galaxy hosting two SNe Ia. Using parametric host fitting, we determine the probability of detecting two SNe Ia in this host galaxy over a ∼10 yr window to be ≈3%. These observations have the potential to yield a Hubble constant (H 0) measurement with ∼10% precision, only the third lensed SN capable of such a result, using the three visible images of the SN. Both SN Requiem and SN Encore have a fourth image that is expected to appear within a few years of ∼2030, providing an unprecedented baseline for time-delay cosmography.


RU-C
(1688)LiteBIRD science goals and forecasts: improving sensitivity to inflationary gravitational waves with multitracer delensing
  • T. Namikawa,
  • A. I. Lonappan,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • N. Bartolo,
  • D. Beck
  • +118
  • K. Benabed,
  • A. Challinor,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • J. Errard,
  • S. Farrens,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • N. Krachmalnicoff,
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • E. Martínez-González,
  • V. Pettorino,
  • G. Piccirilli,
  • M. Ruiz-Granda,
  • B. Sherwin,
  • J. Starck,
  • P. Vielva,
  • R. Akizawa,
  • A. Anand,
  • J. Aumont,
  • R. Aurlien,
  • S. Azzoni,
  • M. Ballardini,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • D. Blinov,
  • M. Bortolami,
  • T. Brinckmann,
  • E. Calabrese,
  • P. Campeti,
  • A. Carones,
  • F. Carralot,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • K. Cheung,
  • L. Clermont,
  • F. Columbro,
  • G. Conenna,
  • A. Coppolecchia,
  • F. Cuttaia,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • T. de Haan,
  • M. De Petris,
  • S. Della Torre,
  • E. Di Giorgi,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • F. Finelli,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • G. Galloni,
  • M. Galloway,
  • M. Georges,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • T. Ghigna,
  • S. Giardiello,
  • C. Gimeno-Amo,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • L. T. Hergt,
  • E. Hivon,
  • K. Kohri,
  • E. Komatsu,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • C. Leloup,
  • M. Lembo,
  • M. López-Caniego,
  • G. Luzzi,
  • B. Maffei,
  • S. Masi,
  • M. Massa,
  • S. Matarrese,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • S. Micheli,
  • A. Moggi,
  • M. Monelli,
  • L. Montier,
  • G. Morgante,
  • B. Mot,
  • L. Mousset,
  • R. Nagata,
  • P. Natoli,
  • A. Novelli,
  • I. Obata,
  • A. Occhiuzzi,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • G. Pascual-Cisneros,
  • V. Pavlidou,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • M. Pinchera,
  • G. Pisano,
  • G. Polenta,
  • G. Puglisi,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • A. Rizzieri,
  • J. Rubino-Martin,
  • Y. Sakurai,
  • D. Scott,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • S. L. Stever,
  • Y. Takase,
  • H. Tanimura,
  • A. Tartari,
  • K. Tassis,
  • L. Terenzi,
  • M. Tristram,
  • L. Vacher,
  • B. van Tent,
  • I. K. Wehus,
  • G. Weymann-Despres,
  • M. Zannoni,
  • Y. Zhou,
  • LiteBIRD Collaboration
  • (less)
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (06/2024) doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2024/06/010
abstract + abstract -

We estimate the efficiency of mitigating the lensing B-mode polarization, the so-called delensing, for the LiteBIRD experiment with multiple external data sets of lensing-mass tracers. The current best bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, is limited by lensing rather than Galactic foregrounds. Delensing will be a critical step to improve sensitivity to r as measurements of r become more and more limited by lensing. In this paper, we extend the analysis of the recent LiteBIRD forecast paper to include multiple mass tracers, i.e., the CMB lensing maps from LiteBIRD and CMB-S4-like experiment, cosmic infrared background, and galaxy number density from Euclid- and LSST-like survey. We find that multi-tracer delensing will further improve the constraint on r by about 20%. In LiteBIRD, the residual Galactic foregrounds also significantly contribute to uncertainties of the B-modes, and delensing becomes more important if the residual foregrounds are further reduced by an improved component separation method.


(1687)DESI complete calibration of the colour-redshift relation (DC3R2): results from early DESI data
  • J. McCullough,
  • D. Gruen,
  • A. Amon,
  • A. Roodman,
  • D. Masters
  • +45
  • A. Raichoor,
  • D. Schlegel,
  • R. Canning,
  • F. J. Castander,
  • J. DeRose,
  • R. Miquel,
  • J. Myles,
  • J. A. Newman,
  • A. Slosar,
  • J. Speagle,
  • M. J. Wilson,
  • J. Aguilar,
  • S. Ahlen,
  • S. Bailey,
  • D. Brooks,
  • T. Claybaugh,
  • S. Cole,
  • K. Dawson,
  • A. de la Macorra,
  • P. Doel,
  • J. E. Forero-Romero,
  • S. Gontcho A Gontcho,
  • J. Guy,
  • R. Kehoe,
  • A. Kremin,
  • M. Landriau,
  • L. Le Guillou,
  • M. Levi,
  • M. Manera,
  • P. Martini,
  • A. Meisner,
  • J. Moustakas,
  • J. Nie,
  • W. J. Percival,
  • C. Poppett,
  • F. Prada,
  • M. Rezaie,
  • G. Rossi,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • H. Seo,
  • G. Tarlé,
  • B. A. Weaver,
  • Z. Zhou,
  • H. Zou,
  • DESI Collaboration
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1316
abstract + abstract -

We present initial results from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) complete calibration of the colour-redshift relation (DC3R2) secondary target survey. Our analysis uses 230 k galaxies that overlap with KiDS-VIKING ugriZYJHKs photometry to calibrate the colour-redshift relation and to inform photometric redshift (photo-z) inference methods of future weak lensing surveys. Together with emission line galaxies (ELGs), luminous red galaxies (LRGs), and the Bright Galaxy Survey (BGS) that provide samples of complementary colour, the DC3R2 targets help DESI to span 56 per cent of the colour space visible to Euclid and LSST with high confidence spectroscopic redshifts. The effects of spectroscopic completeness and quality are explored, as well as systematic uncertainties introduced with the use of common Self-Organizing Maps trained on different photometry than the analysis sample. We further examine the dependence of redshift on magnitude at fixed colour, important for the use of bright galaxy spectra to calibrate redshifts in a fainter photometric galaxy sample. We find that noise in the KiDS-VIKING photometry introduces a dominant, apparent magnitude dependence of redshift at fixed colour, which indicates a need for carefully chosen deep drilling fields, and survey simulation to model this effect for future weak lensing surveys.


RU-C
(1686)LiteBIRD science goals and forecasts. A case study of the origin of primordial gravitational waves using large-scale CMB polarization
  • P. Campeti,
  • E. Komatsu,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • M. Ballardini,
  • N. Bartolo
  • +106
  • A. Carones,
  • J. Errard,
  • F. Finelli,
  • R. Flauger,
  • S. Galli,
  • G. Galloni,
  • S. Giardiello,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • L. T. Hergt,
  • K. Kohri,
  • C. Leloup,
  • J. Lesgourgues,
  • J. Macias-Perez,
  • E. Martínez-González,
  • S. Matarrese,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • L. Montier,
  • T. Namikawa,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • D. Poletti,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • B. van Tent,
  • M. Tristram,
  • L. Vacher,
  • N. Vittorio,
  • G. Weymann-Despres,
  • A. Anand,
  • J. Aumont,
  • R. Aurlien,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • A. Basyrov,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • D. Blinov,
  • M. Bortolami,
  • T. Brinckmann,
  • E. Calabrese,
  • F. Carralot,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • L. Clermont,
  • F. Columbro,
  • G. Conenna,
  • A. Coppolecchia,
  • F. Cuttaia,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • M. De Petris,
  • S. Della Torre,
  • E. Di Giorgi,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • M. Galloway,
  • M. Georges,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • T. Ghigna,
  • C. Gimeno-Amo,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • J. E. Gudmundsson,
  • N. Krachmalnicoff,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • M. Lembo,
  • A. I. Lonappan,
  • S. Masi,
  • M. Massa,
  • S. Micheli,
  • A. Moggi,
  • M. Monelli,
  • G. Morgante,
  • B. Mot,
  • L. Mousset,
  • R. Nagata,
  • P. Natoli,
  • A. Novelli,
  • I. Obata,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • V. Pavlidou,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • M. Pinchera,
  • G. Pisano,
  • G. Puglisi,
  • N. Raffuzzi,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • A. Rizzieri,
  • M. Ruiz-Granda,
  • G. Savini,
  • D. Scott,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • S. L. Stever,
  • N. Stutzer,
  • R. M. Sullivan,
  • A. Tartari,
  • K. Tassis,
  • L. Terenzi,
  • K. L. Thompson,
  • P. Vielva,
  • I. K. Wehus,
  • Y. Zhou,
  • LiteBIRD Collaboration
  • (less)
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (06/2024) doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2024/06/008
abstract + abstract -

We study the possibility of using the LiteBIRD satellite B-mode survey to constrain models of inflation producing specific features in CMB angular power spectra. We explore a particular model example, i.e. spectator axion-SU(2) gauge field inflation. This model can source parity-violating gravitational waves from the amplification of gauge field fluctuations driven by a pseudoscalar "axionlike" field, rolling for a few e-folds during inflation. The sourced gravitational waves can exceed the vacuum contribution at reionization bump scales by about an order of magnitude and can be comparable to the vacuum contribution at recombination bump scales. We argue that a satellite mission with full sky coverage and access to the reionization bump scales is necessary to understand the origin of the primordial gravitational wave signal and distinguish among two production mechanisms: quantum vacuum fluctuations of spacetime and matter sources during inflation. We present the expected constraints on model parameters from LiteBIRD satellite simulations, which complement and expand previous studies in the literature. We find that LiteBIRD will be able to exclude with high significance standard single-field slow-roll models, such as the Starobinsky model, if the true model is the axion-SU(2) model with a feature at CMB scales. We further investigate the possibility of using the parity-violating signature of the model, such as the TB and EB angular power spectra, to disentangle it from the standard single-field slow-roll scenario. We find that most of the discriminating power of LiteBIRD will reside in BB angular power spectra rather than in TB and EB correlations.


RU-C
(1685)LiteBIRD science goals and forecasts: a full-sky measurement of gravitational lensing of the CMB
  • A. I. Lonappan,
  • T. Namikawa,
  • G. Piccirilli,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • M. Ruiz-Granda
  • +118
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • N. Bartolo,
  • D. Beck,
  • K. Benabed,
  • A. Challinor,
  • J. Errard,
  • S. Farrens,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • N. Krachmalnicoff,
  • E. Martínez-González,
  • V. Pettorino,
  • B. Sherwin,
  • J. Starck,
  • P. Vielva,
  • R. Akizawa,
  • A. Anand,
  • J. Aumont,
  • R. Aurlien,
  • S. Azzoni,
  • M. Ballardini,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • D. Blinov,
  • M. Bortolami,
  • T. Brinckmann,
  • E. Calabrese,
  • P. Campeti,
  • A. Carones,
  • F. Carralot,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • K. Cheung,
  • L. Clermont,
  • F. Columbro,
  • G. Conenna,
  • A. Coppolecchia,
  • F. Cuttaia,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • M. De Petris,
  • S. Della Torre,
  • E. Di Giorgi,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • F. Finelli,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • G. Galloni,
  • M. Galloway,
  • M. Georges,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • R. T. Génova-Santos,
  • T. Ghigna,
  • S. Giardiello,
  • C. Gimeno-Amo,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • L. T. Hergt,
  • E. Hivon,
  • K. Kohri,
  • E. Komatsu,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • C. Leloup,
  • M. Lembo,
  • M. López-Caniego,
  • G. Luzzi,
  • J. Macias-Perez,
  • B. Maffei,
  • S. Masi,
  • M. Massa,
  • S. Matarrese,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • S. Micheli,
  • A. Moggi,
  • M. Monelli,
  • L. Montier,
  • G. Morgante,
  • B. Mot,
  • L. Mousset,
  • R. Nagata,
  • P. Natoli,
  • A. Novelli,
  • I. Obata,
  • A. Occhiuzzi,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • G. Pascual-Cisneros,
  • V. Pavlidou,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • M. Pinchera,
  • G. Pisano,
  • G. Polenta,
  • G. Puglisi,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • A. Rizzieri,
  • Y. Sakurai,
  • D. Scott,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • S. L. Stever,
  • Y. Takase,
  • H. Tanimura,
  • A. Tartari,
  • K. Tassis,
  • L. Terenzi,
  • M. Tristram,
  • L. Vacher,
  • B. van Tent,
  • I. K. Wehus,
  • G. Weymann-Despres,
  • M. Zannoni,
  • Y. Zhou,
  • LiteBIRD Collaboration
  • (less)
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (06/2024) doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2024/06/009
abstract + abstract -

We explore the capability of measuring lensing signals in LiteBIRD full-sky polarization maps. With a 30 arcmin beam width and an impressively low polarization noise of 2.16 μK-arcmin, LiteBIRD will be able to measure the full-sky polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) very precisely. This unique sensitivity also enables the reconstruction of a nearly full-sky lensing map using only polarization data, even considering its limited capability to capture small-scale CMB anisotropies. In this paper, we investigate the ability to construct a full-sky lensing measurement in the presence of Galactic foregrounds, finding that several possible biases from Galactic foregrounds should be negligible after component separation by harmonic-space internal linear combination. We find that the signal-to-noise ratio of the lensing is approximately 40 using only polarization data measured over 80% of the sky. This achievement is comparable to Planck's recent lensing measurement with both temperature and polarization and represents a four-fold improvement over Planck's polarization-only lensing measurement. The LiteBIRD lensing map will complement the Planck lensing map and provide several opportunities for cross-correlation science, especially in the northern hemisphere.


(1684)Bias-free estimation of signals on top of unknown backgrounds
  • Johannes Diehl,
  • Jakob Knollmüller,
  • Oliver Schulz
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A (06/2024) doi:10.1016/j.nima.2024.169259
abstract + abstract -

We present a method for obtaining unbiased signal estimates in the presence of a significant unknown background, eliminating the need for a parametric model for the background itself. Our approach is based on a minimal set of conditions for observation and background estimators, which are typically satisfied in practical scenarios. To showcase the effectiveness of our method, we apply it to simulated data from the planned dielectric axion haloscope MADMAX.


(1683)Characterizing tidal features around galaxies in cosmological simulations
  • A. Khalid,
  • S. Brough,
  • G. Martin,
  • L. C. Kimmig,
  • C. D. P. Lagos
  • +2
  • R. -S. Remus,
  • C. Martinez-Lombilla
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1064
abstract + abstract -

Tidal features provide signatures of recent mergers and offer a unique insight into the assembly history of galaxies. The Vera C. Rubin Observatory's Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) will enable an unprecedentedly large survey of tidal features around millions of galaxies. To decipher the contributions of mergers to galaxy evolution it will be necessary to compare the observed tidal features with theoretical predictions. Therefore, we use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations NEWHORIZON, EAGLE, ILLUSTRISTNG, and MAGNETICUM to produce LSST-like mock images of z ~ 0 galaxies (z ~ 0.2 for NEWHORIZON) with $M_{\scriptstyle \star ,\text{ 30 pkpc}}\ge 10^{9.5}$ M$_{\scriptstyle \odot }$. We perform a visual classification to identify tidal features and classify their morphology. We find broadly good agreement between the simulations regarding their overall tidal feature fractions: $f_{{\small NewHorizon}}=0.40\pm 0.06$, $f_{{\small EAGLE}}=0.37\pm 0.01$, $f_{{\small TNG}}=0.32\pm 0.01$, and $f_{{\small Magneticum}}=0.32\pm 0.01$, and their specific tidal feature fractions. Furthermore, we find excellent agreement regarding the trends of tidal feature fraction with stellar and halo mass. All simulations agree in predicting that the majority of central galaxies of groups and clusters exhibit at least one tidal feature, while the satellite members rarely show such features. This agreement suggests that gravity is the primary driver of the occurrence of visually identifiable tidal features in cosmological simulations, rather than subgrid physics or hydrodynamics. All predictions can be verified directly with LSST observations.


(1682)RABBITS - II. The impact of AGN feedback on coalescing supermassive black holes in disc and elliptical galaxy mergers
  • Shihong Liao,
  • Dimitrios Irodotou,
  • Peter H. Johansson,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Francesco Paolo Rizzuto
  • +3
  • Jessica M. Hislop,
  • Ruby J. Wright,
  • Alexander Rawlings
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae1123
abstract + abstract -

In this study of the 'Resolving supermAssive Black hole Binaries In galacTic hydrodynamical Simulations' (RABBITS) series, we investigate the orbital evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) during galaxy mergers. We simulate both disc and elliptical galaxy mergers using the KETJU code, which can simultaneously follow galaxy (hydro-)dynamics and small-scale SMBH dynamics with post-Newtonian corrections. With our SMBH binary subgrid model, we show how active galactic nuclei (AGNs) feedback affects galaxy properties and SMBH coalescence. We find that simulations without AGN feedback exhibit excessive star formation, resulting in merger remnants that deviate from observed properties. Kinetic AGN feedback proves more effective than thermal AGN feedback in expelling gas from the centre and quenching star formation. The different central galaxy properties, which are a result of distinct AGN feedback models, lead to varying rates of SMBH orbital decay. In the dynamical friction phase, galaxies with higher star formation and higher SMBH masses possess denser centres, become more resistant to tidal stripping, experience greater dynamical friction, and consequently form SMBH binaries earlier. As AGN feedback reduces gas densities in the centres, dynamical friction by stars dominates over gas. In the SMBH hardening phase, compared to elliptical mergers, disc mergers exhibit higher central densities of newly formed stars, resulting in accelerated SMBH hardening and shorter merger time-scales (i.e. $\lesssim 500$ Myr versus $\gtrsim 1$ Gyr). Our findings highlight the importance of AGN feedback and its numerical implementation in understanding the SMBH coalescing process, a key focus for low-frequency gravitational wave observatories.


(1681)A novel cryogenic VUV spectrofluorometer for the characterization of wavelength shifters
  • Andreas Leonhardt,
  • Maximilian Goldbrunner,
  • Brennan Hackett,
  • Stefan Schönert
Journal of Instrumentation (05/2024) doi:10.1088/1748-0221/19/05/C05020
abstract + abstract -

We present a novel cryogenic VUV spectrofluorometer designed to characterize wavelength shifters (WLS) crucial for experiments based on liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light detection. Wavelength shifters like 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) are used in these experiments to shift the VUV scintillation light to the visible region. Precise knowledge of the optical properties of the WLS at liquid argon's temperature (87 K) and LAr scintillation wavelength (128 nm) is necessary to model and understand the detector response. The cryogenic VUV spectrofluorometer was commissioned to measure the emission spectra and relative wavelength shifting efficiency (WLSE) of samples between 300 K to 87 K for VUV (120 nm to 190 nm) and UV (310 nm) excitation. New mitigation techniques for surface effects on cold WLS were established. As part of this work, the TPB-based wavelength shifting reflector (WLSR) featured in the neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment LEGEND-200 was characterized. The WLSE was observed to increase by (54 ± 5) % from room temperature (RT) to 87 K. PEN installed in LEGEND-200 was also characterized, and a first measurement of the relative WLSE and emission spectrum at RT and 87 K is presented. The WLSE of amorphous PEN was found to be enhanced by at least (37 ± 4) % for excitation with 128 nm and by (52 ± 3) % for UV excitation at 87 K compared to RT.


(1680)A sequence of Type Ib, IIb, II-L, and II-P supernovae from binary-star progenitors with varying initial separations
  • Luc Dessart,
  • Claudia P. Gutiérrez,
  • Andrea Ercolino,
  • Harim Jin,
  • Norbert Langer
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202349066
abstract + abstract -

Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that massive stars do not typically evolve in isolation but instead follow a tumultuous journey with a companion star on their way to core collapse. While Roche-lobe overflow appears instrumental for the production of a large fraction of Type Ib and Ic supernovae (SNe), variations in the initial orbital period, Pinit, of massive interacting binaries may also produce a wide diversity of case B, BC, or C systems, with pre-SN stars endowed from minute to massive H-rich envelopes. Focusing here on the explosion of the primary donor star, originally 12.6 M, we used radiation hydrodynamics and nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium time-dependent radiative transfer to document the gas and radiation properties of such SNe, covering Types Ib, IIb, II-L, and II-P. Variations in Pinit are the root cause of the wide diversity of our SN light curves, which present single-peak, double-peak, fast-declining, or plateau-like morphologies in the V band. The different ejecta structures, expansion rates, and relative abundances (e.g., H, He, and 56Ni) can lead to a great deal of diversity in terms of spectral line shapes (absorption versus emission strength and width) and evolution. We emphasize that Hα is a key tracer of these modulations, and that He I 7065 Å is an enduring optical diagnostic for the presence of He. Our grid of simulations fares well against representative Type Ib, IIb, and II-P SNe, but interaction with circumstellar material, which is ignored in this work, is likely at the origin of the tension between our Type II-L SN models and observations (e.g., of SN 2006Y). Remaining discrepancies in the rise time to bolometric maximum of our models call for a proper account of both small-scale and large-scale structures in core-collapse SN ejecta. Discrepant Type II-P SN models, with a high plateau brightness but small spectral line widths, can be fixed by adopting more compact red-supergiant star progenitors.


(1679)TeV pion bumps in the gamma-ray spectra of flaring blazars
  • M. Petropoulou,
  • A. Mastichiadis,
  • G. Vasilopoulos,
  • D. Paneque,
  • J. Becerra González
  • +1
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347809
abstract + abstract -

Context. Very high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) observations of the blazar Mrk 501 with MAGIC in 2014 provided evidence for an unusual narrow spectral feature at about 3 TeV during an extreme X-ray flaring activity. The one-zone synchrotron-self Compton scenario, widely used in blazar broadband spectral modeling, fails to explain the narrow TeV component.
Aims: Motivated by this rare observation, we propose an alternative model for the production of narrow features in the VHE spectra of flaring blazars. These spectral features may result from the decay of neutral pions (π0 bumps) that are in turn produced via interactions of protons (of tens of TeV energy) with energetic photons, whose density increases during hard X-ray flares.
Methods: We explored the conditions needed for the emergence of narrow π0 bumps in VHE blazar spectra during X-ray flares reaching synchrotron energies ∼100 keV using time-dependent radiative transfer calculations. We focused on high-synchrotron peaked (HSP) blazars, which comprise the majority of VHE-detected extragalactic sources.
Results: We find that synchrotron-dominated flares with peak energies ≳100 keV can be ideal periods for the search of π0 bumps in the VHE spectra of HSP blazars. The flaring region is optically thin to photopion production, its energy content is dominated by the relativistic proton population, and the inferred jet power is highly super-Eddington. Application of the model to the spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 on MJD 56857.98 shows that the VHE spectrum of the flare is described well by the sum of a synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) component and a distinct π0 bump centered at 3 TeV. Spectral fitting of simulated SSC+π0 spectra for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) show that a π0 bump could be detected at a 5σ significance level with a 30-min exposure.
Conclusions: A harder VHE γ-ray spectrum than the usual SSC prediction or, more occasionally, a distinct narrow bump at VHE energies during hard X-ray flares, can be suggestive of a relativistic hadronic component in blazar jets that otherwise would remain hidden. The production of narrow features or spectral hardenings due to π0 decay in the VHE spectra of blazars is testable with the advent of CTA.


(1678)Toward Early-type Eclipsing Binaries as Extragalactic Milestones. III. Physical Properties of the O-type Eclipsing Binary OGLE LMC-ECL-21568 in a Quadruple System
  • Mónica Taormina,
  • R. -P. Kudritzki,
  • B. Pilecki,
  • G. Pietrzyński,
  • I. B. Thompson
  • +6
  • J. Puls,
  • M. Górski,
  • B. Zgirski,
  • D. Graczyk,
  • W. Gieren,
  • G. Hajdu
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (05/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad3af0
abstract + abstract -

We present the results from a complex study of an eclipsing O-type binary (Aa+Ab) with the orbital period of P A = 3.2254367 days that forms part of a higher-order multiple system in a configuration of (A+B)+C. We derived masses of the Aa+Ab binary of M 1 = 19.02 ± 0.12 and M 2 = 17.50 ± 0.13 M , the radii of R 1 = 7.70 ± 0.05 and R 2 = 6.64 ± 0.06 R , and temperatures of T 1 = 34,250 ± 500 K and T 2 = 33,750 ± 500 K. From the analysis of the radial velocities, we found a spectroscopic orbit of A in the outer A+B system with P A+B = 195.8 days (P A+B/P A ≈ 61). In the O ‑ C analysis, we confirmed this orbit and found another component orbiting the A+B system with P AB+C = 2550 days (P AB+C/P A+B ≈ 13). From the total mass of the inner binary and its outer orbit, we estimated the mass of the third object, M B ≳ 10.7 M . From the light travel time effect fit to the O ‑ C data, we obtained the limit for the mass of the fourth component, M C ≳ 7.3 M . These extra components contribute about 20%–30% (increasing with wavelength) to the total system light. From the comparison of model spectra with the multiband photometry, we derived a distance modulus of 18.59 ± 0.06 mag, a reddening of 0.16 ± 0.02 mag, and an RV of 3.2. This work is part of our ongoing project, which aims to calibrate the surface brightness–color relation for early-type stars. *Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.


(1677)Memory Burden Effect in Black Holes and Solitons: Implications for PBH
  • Gia Dvali,
  • Juan Sebastián Valbuena-Bermúdez,
  • Michael Zantedeschi
abstract + abstract -

The essence of the \textit{memory burden} effect is that a load of information carried by a system stabilizes it. This universal effect is especially prominent in systems with a high capacity of information storage, such as black holes and other objects with maximal microstate degeneracy, the entities universally referred to as \textit{saturons}. The phenomenon has several implications. The memory burden effect suppresses a further decay of a black hole, the latest, after it has emitted about half of its initial mass. As a consequence, the light primordial black holes (PBHs), that previously were assumed to be fully evaporated, are expected to be present as viable dark matter candidates. In the present paper, we deepen the understanding of the memory burden effect. We first identify various memory burden regimes in generic Hamiltonian systems and then establish a precise correspondence in solitons and in black holes. We make transparent, at a microscopic level, the fundamental differences between the stabilization by a quantum memory burden versus the stabilization by a long-range classical hair due to a spin or an electric charge. We identify certain new features of potential observational interest, such as the model-independent spread of the stabilized masses of initially degenerate PBHs.


(1676)Status of QCD precision predictions for Drell-Yan processes
  • S. Alekhin,
  • S. Amoroso,
  • L. Buonocore,
  • A. Huss,
  • S. Kallweit
  • +7
  • A. Kardos,
  • J. Michel,
  • S. Moch,
  • F. Petriello,
  • L. Rottoli,
  • Z. Trócsányi,
  • M. Wiesemann
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We compute differential distributions for Drell-Yan processes at the LHC and the Tevatron colliders at next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD, including fiducial cuts on the decay leptons in the final state. The comparison of predictions obtained with four different codes shows excellent agreement, once linear power corrections from the fiducial cuts are included in those codes that rely on phase-space slicing subtraction schemes. For $Z$-boson production we perform a detailed study of the symmetric cuts on the transverse momenta of the decay leptons. Predictions at fixed order in perturbative QCD for those symmetric cuts, typically imposed in experiments, suffer from an instability. We show how this can be remedied by an all-order resummation of the fiducial transverse momentum spectrum, and we comment on the choice of cuts for future experimental analyses.


(1675)First Order Alignment Transition in an Interfaced Active Nematic Fluid
  • Olga Bantysh,
  • Berta Martínez-Prat,
  • Jyothishraj Nambisan,
  • Alberto Fernández-Nieves,
  • Francesc Sagués
  • +1
Physical Review Letters (05/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.132.228302
abstract + abstract -

We investigate experimentally the dynamic phase transition of a two-dimensional active nematic layer interfaced with a passive liquid crystal. Under a temperature ramp that leads to the transition of the passive liquid into a highly anisotropic lamellar smectic-A phase, and in the presence of a magnetic field, the coupled active nematic reorganizes its flow and orientational patterns from the turbulent into a quasilaminar regime aligned perpendicularly to the field. Remarkably, while the phase transition of the passive fluid is known to be continuous, or second order, our observations reveal intermittent dynamics of the order parameter and the coexistence of aligned and turbulent regions in the active nematic, a signature of discontinuous, or first order, phase transitions, similar to what is known to occur in relation to flocking in dry active matter. Our results suggest that alignment transitions in active systems are intrinsically discontinuous, regardless of the symmetry and momentum-damping mechanisms.


RU-B
(1674)Optimal Operation of Cryogenic Calorimeters Through Deep Reinforcement Learning
  • G. Angloher,
  • S. Banik,
  • G. Benato,
  • A. Bento,
  • A. Bertolini
  • +57
  • R. Breier,
  • C. Bucci,
  • J. Burkhart,
  • L. Canonica,
  • A. D'Addabbo,
  • S. Di Lorenzo,
  • L. Einfalt,
  • A. Erb,
  • F. v. Feilitzsch,
  • S. Fichtinger,
  • D. Fuchs,
  • A. Garai,
  • V. M. Ghete,
  • P. Gorla,
  • P. V. Guillaumon,
  • S. Gupta,
  • D. Hauff,
  • M. Ješkovský,
  • J. Jochum,
  • M. Kaznacheeva,
  • A. Kinast,
  • S. Kuckuk,
  • H. Kluck,
  • H. Kraus,
  • A. Langenkämper,
  • M. Mancuso,
  • L. Marini,
  • B. Mauri,
  • L. Meyer,
  • V. Mokina,
  • K. Niedermayer,
  • M. Olmi,
  • T. Ortmann,
  • C. Pagliarone,
  • L. Pattavina,
  • F. Petricca,
  • W. Potzel,
  • P. Povinec,
  • F. Pröbst,
  • F. Pucci,
  • F. Reindl,
  • J. Rothe,
  • K. Schäffner,
  • J. Schieck,
  • S. Schönert,
  • C. Schwertner,
  • M. Stahlberg,
  • L. Stodolsky,
  • C. Strandhagen,
  • R. Strauss,
  • I. Usherov,
  • F. Wagner,
  • V. Wagner,
  • M. Willers,
  • V. Zema,
  • C. Heitzinger,
  • W. Waltenberger
  • (less)
Computing and Software for Big Science (05/2024) doi:10.1007/s41781-024-00119-y
abstract + abstract -

Cryogenic phonon detectors with transition-edge sensors achieve the best sensitivity to sub-GeV/c2 dark matter interactions with nuclei in current direct detection experiments. In such devices, the temperature of the thermometer and the bias current in its readout circuit need careful optimization to achieve optimal detector performance. This task is not trivial and is typically done manually by an expert. In our work, we automated the procedure with reinforcement learning in two settings. First, we trained on a simulation of the response of three Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers (CRESST) detectors used as a virtual reinforcement learning environment. Second, we trained live on the same detectors operated in the CRESST underground setup. In both cases, we were able to optimize a standard detector as fast and with comparable results as human experts. Our method enables the tuning of large-scale cryogenic detector setups with minimal manual interventions.


(1673)Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243
  • Alejandro Vigna-Gómez,
  • Reinhold Willcox,
  • Irene Tamborra,
  • Ilya Mandel,
  • Mathieu Renzo
  • +6
  • Tom Wagg,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka,
  • Daniel Kresse,
  • Julia Bodensteiner,
  • Tomer Shenar,
  • Thomas M. Tauris
  • (less)
Physical Review Letters (05/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.132.191403
abstract + abstract -

The recently reported observation of VFTS 243 is the first example of a massive black-hole binary system with negligible binary interaction following black-hole formation. The black-hole mass (≈10 M) and near-circular orbit (e ≈0.02 ) of VFTS 243 suggest that the progenitor star experienced complete collapse, with energy-momentum being lost predominantly through neutrinos. VFTS 243 enables us to constrain the natal kick and neutrino-emission asymmetry during black-hole formation. At 68% confidence level, the natal kick velocity (mass decrement) is ≲10 km /s (≲1.0 M ), with a full probability distribution that peaks when ≈0.3 M were ejected, presumably in neutrinos, and the black hole experienced a natal kick of 4 km /s . The neutrino-emission asymmetry is ≲4 %, with best fit values of ∼0 - 0.2 % . Such a small neutrino natal kick accompanying black-hole formation is in agreement with theoretical predictions.


(1672)Euclid preparation. XXXIX. The effect of baryons on the halo mass function
  • Euclid Collaboration,
  • T. Castro,
  • S. Borgani,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • J. Dakin
  • +218
  • K. Dolag,
  • A. Fumagalli,
  • A. Ragagnin,
  • A. Saro,
  • A. M. C. Le Brun,
  • N. Aghanim,
  • A. Amara,
  • S. Andreon,
  • N. Auricchio,
  • M. Baldi,
  • S. Bardelli,
  • C. Bodendorf,
  • D. Bonino,
  • E. Branchini,
  • M. Brescia,
  • J. Brinchmann,
  • S. Camera,
  • V. Capobianco,
  • C. Carbone,
  • J. Carretero,
  • S. Casas,
  • M. Castellano,
  • S. Cavuoti,
  • A. Cimatti,
  • G. Congedo,
  • C. J. Conselice,
  • L. Conversi,
  • Y. Copin,
  • L. Corcione,
  • F. Courbin,
  • H. M. Courtois,
  • M. Cropper,
  • A. Da Silva,
  • H. Degaudenzi,
  • A. M. Di Giorgio,
  • J. Dinis,
  • F. Dubath,
  • C. A. J. Duncan,
  • X. Dupac,
  • M. Farina,
  • S. Farrens,
  • S. Ferriol,
  • M. Frailis,
  • E. Franceschi,
  • M. Fumana,
  • S. Galeotta,
  • B. Gillis,
  • C. Giocoli,
  • A. Grazian,
  • F. Grupp,
  • S. V. H. Haugan,
  • W. Holmes,
  • F. Hormuth,
  • A. Hornstrup,
  • K. Jahnke,
  • E. Keihänen,
  • S. Kermiche,
  • A. Kiessling,
  • M. Kilbinger,
  • B. Kubik,
  • M. Kunz,
  • H. Kurki-Suonio,
  • S. Ligori,
  • P. B. Lilje,
  • V. Lindholm,
  • I. Lloro,
  • E. Maiorano,
  • O. Mansutti,
  • O. Marggraf,
  • K. Markovic,
  • N. Martinet,
  • F. Marulli,
  • R. Massey,
  • S. Maurogordato,
  • E. Medinaceli,
  • M. Meneghetti,
  • E. Merlin,
  • G. Meylan,
  • M. Moresco,
  • L. Moscardini,
  • E. Munari,
  • S. -M. Niemi,
  • C. Padilla,
  • S. Paltani,
  • F. Pasian,
  • V. Pettorino,
  • S. Pires,
  • G. Polenta,
  • M. Poncet,
  • L. A. Popa,
  • L. Pozzetti,
  • F. Raison,
  • R. Rebolo,
  • A. Renzi,
  • J. Rhodes,
  • G. Riccio,
  • E. Romelli,
  • M. Roncarelli,
  • R. Saglia,
  • D. Sapone,
  • B. Sartoris,
  • P. Schneider,
  • T. Schrabback,
  • A. Secroun,
  • G. Seidel,
  • S. Serrano,
  • C. Sirignano,
  • G. Sirri,
  • L. Stanco,
  • J. -L. Starck,
  • P. Tallada-Crespí,
  • A. N. Taylor,
  • I. Tereno,
  • R. Toledo-Moreo,
  • F. Torradeflot,
  • I. Tutusaus,
  • E. A. Valentijn,
  • L. Valenziano,
  • T. Vassallo,
  • A. Veropalumbo,
  • Y. Wang,
  • J. Weller,
  • A. Zacchei,
  • G. Zamorani,
  • J. Zoubian,
  • E. Zucca,
  • A. Biviano,
  • E. Bozzo,
  • C. Cerna,
  • C. Colodro-Conde,
  • D. Di Ferdinando,
  • N. Mauri,
  • C. Neissner,
  • Z. Sakr,
  • V. Scottez,
  • M. Tenti,
  • M. Viel,
  • M. Wiesmann,
  • Y. Akrami,
  • S. Anselmi,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • M. Ballardini,
  • A. S. Borlaff,
  • S. Bruton,
  • C. Burigana,
  • R. Cabanac,
  • A. Cappi,
  • C. S. Carvalho,
  • G. Castignani,
  • G. Cañas-Herrera,
  • K. C. Chambers,
  • A. R. Cooray,
  • J. Coupon,
  • O. Cucciati,
  • A. Díaz-Sánchez,
  • S. Davini,
  • S. de la Torre,
  • G. De Lucia,
  • G. Desprez,
  • S. Di Domizio,
  • H. Dole,
  • S. Escoffier,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • F. Finelli,
  • L. Gabarra,
  • K. Ganga,
  • J. Garcia-Bellido,
  • F. Giacomini,
  • G. Gozaliasl,
  • H. Hildebrandt,
  • S. Ilić,
  • A. Jimanez Munñoz,
  • J. J. E. Kajava,
  • V. Kansal,
  • C. C. Kirkpatrick,
  • L. Legrand,
  • A. Loureiro,
  • J. Macias-Perez,
  • M. Magliocchetti,
  • G. Mainetti,
  • R. Maoli,
  • M. Martinelli,
  • C. J. A. P. Martins,
  • S. Matthew,
  • M. Maturi,
  • L. Maurin,
  • R. B. Metcalf,
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • P. Monaco,
  • G. Morgante,
  • S. Nadathur,
  • L. Patrizii,
  • A. Pezzotta,
  • V. Popa,
  • C. Porciani,
  • D. Potter,
  • M. Pöntinen,
  • P. Reimberg,
  • P. -F. Rocci,
  • A. G. Sánchez,
  • J. Schaye,
  • A. Schneider,
  • E. Sefusatti,
  • M. Sereno,
  • P. Simon,
  • A. Spurio Mancini,
  • J. Stadel,
  • S. A. Stanford,
  • J. Steinwagner,
  • G. Testera,
  • M. Tewes,
  • R. Teyssier,
  • S. Toft,
  • S. Tosi,
  • A. Troja,
  • M. Tucci,
  • J. Valiviita,
  • D. Vergani
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202348388
abstract + abstract -

The Euclid photometric survey of galaxy clusters stands as a powerful cosmological tool, with the capacity to significantly propel our understanding of the Universe. Despite being subdominant to dark matter and dark energy, the baryonic component of our Universe holds substantial influence over the structure and mass of galaxy clusters. This paper presents a novel model that can be used to precisely quantify the impact of baryons on the virial halo masses of galaxy clusters using the baryon fraction within a cluster as a proxy for their effect. Constructed on the premise of quasi-adiabaticity, the model includes two parameters, which are calibrated using non-radiative cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, and a single large-scale simulation from the Magneticum set, which includes the physical processes driving galaxy formation. As a main result of our analysis, we demonstrate that this model delivers a remarkable 1% relative accuracy in determining the virial dark matter-only equivalent mass of galaxy clusters starting from the corresponding total cluster mass and baryon fraction measured in hydrodynamical simulations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this result is robust against changes in cosmological parameters and against variation of the numerical implementation of the subresolution physical processes included in the simulations. Our work substantiates previous claims regarding the impact of baryons on cluster cosmology studies. In particular, we show how neglecting these effects would lead to biased cosmological constraints for a Euclid-like cluster abundance analysis. Importantly, we demonstrate that uncertainties associated with our model arising from baryonic corrections to cluster masses are subdominant when compared to the precision with which mass-observable (i.e. richness) relations will be calibrated using Euclid and to our current understanding of the baryon fraction within galaxy clusters.


(1671)Improved model of the Supernova Refsdal cluster MACS J1149.5+2223 thanks to VLT/MUSE
  • S. Schuldt,
  • C. Grillo,
  • G. B. Caminha,
  • A. Mercurio,
  • P. Rosati
  • +7
  • T. Morishita,
  • M. Stiavelli,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • P. Bergamini,
  • M. Brescia,
  • F. Calura,
  • M. Meneghetti
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present new VLT/MUSE observations of the Hubble Frontier Field (HFF) galaxy cluster MACS J1149.5+2223, lensing the well-known supernova "Refsdal" into multiple images, which enabled the first cosmological applications with a strongly lensed supernova. Thanks to these data, targeting a northern region of the cluster and thus complementing our previous MUSE program on the cluster core, we release a new catalog containing 162 secure spectroscopic redshifts. We confirm 22 cluster members, which were previously only photometrically selected, and detect ten additional ones, resulting in a total of 308 secure members, of which 63% are spectroscopically confirmed. We further identify 17 new spectroscopic multiple images belonging to 6 different background sources. By exploiting MUSE data, in combination with the deep HFF images, we develop an improved total mass model of MACS J1149.5+2223. This model includes 308 total mass components for the member galaxies and requires four additional mass profiles, one of which is associated with a cluster galaxy overdensity identified in the North, representing the DM mass distribution on larger scales. The values of the resulting 34 free parameters are optimized based on the observed positions of 106 multiple images from 34 different families, that cover the redshift range between 1.240 and 5.983. Our final model has a multiple image position rms value of 0.39", which is well in agreement with that of other cluster lens models. With this refined mass model, we pave the way towards even better strong-lensing analyses that will exploit the deep and high resolution observations with HST and JWST on a pixel level in the region of the supernova Refsdal host. This will increase the number of observables by around two orders of magnitudes, thus offering us the opportunity of carrying out more precise and accurate cosmographic measurements.


(1670)The PAU Survey: galaxy stellar population properties estimate with narrow-band data
  • Benjamin Csizi,
  • Luca Tortorelli,
  • Małgorzata Siudek,
  • Daniel Gruen,
  • Pablo Renard
  • +15
  • Pau Tallada-Crespí,
  • Eusebio Sanchez,
  • Ramon Miquel,
  • Cristobal Padilla,
  • Juan García-Bellido,
  • Enrique Gaztañaga,
  • Ricard Casas,
  • Santiago Serrano,
  • Juan De Vicente,
  • Enrique Fernandez,
  • Martin Eriksen,
  • Giorgio Manzoni,
  • Carlton M. Baugh,
  • Jorge Carretero,
  • Francisco J. Castander
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Narrowband galaxy surveys have recently gained interest as a promising method to achieve the necessary accuracy on the photometric redshift estimate of individual galaxies for stage-IV cosmological surveys. One key advantage is the ability to provide higher spectral resolution information about galaxies that should allow a more accurate and precise estimation of galaxy stellar population properties. However, the impact of adding narrow-band photometry on the stellar population properties estimate is largely unexplored. The scope of this work is two-fold: on one side, leveraging the predictive power of broad-band and narrow-band data to infer galaxy physical properties such as stellar masses, ages, star formation rates and metallicities. On the other hand, evaluating the improvement of performance in estimating galaxy properties when we use narrow-band data instead of broad-band. In this work we measure the stellar population properties of a sample of galaxies in the COSMOS field for which both narrowband and broadband data are available. In particular, we employ narrowband data from PAUS and broad-band data from CFHTLS. We use two different spectral energy distribution fitting codes to measure galaxy properties, namely CIGALE and Prospector. We find that the increased spectral resolution of narrow-band photometry does not yield a substantial improvement on constraining galaxy properties using spectral energy distribution fitting. Still we find that we obtain a more diverse distribution of metallicities and dust optical depths with cigale when employing the narrowband data. The effect is not as prominent as expected, which we relate this to the low narrowband SNR of a majority of the galaxies, the respective drawbacks of both codes as well as the coverage only in the optical regime. The measured properties are afterwards compared to the COSMOS2020 catalogue, showing good agreement.


(1669)Renormalization of the next-to-leading-power γγ → h and gg → h soft quark functions
  • Martin Beneke,
  • Yao Ji,
  • Xing Wang
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2024) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2024)246
abstract + abstract -

We calculate directly in position space the one-loop renormalization kernels of the soft operators Oγ and Og that appear in the soft-quark contributions to, respectively, the subleading-power γγ → h and gg → h form factors mediated by the b-quark. We present an IR/rapidity divergence-free definition for Og and demonstrate that with a correspondent definition of the collinear function, a consistent factorization theorem is recovered. Using conformal symmetry techniques, we establish a relation between the evolution kernels of the leading-twist heavy-light light-ray operator, whose matrix element defines the B-meson light-cone distribution amplitude (LCDA), and Oγ to all orders in perturbation theory. Application of this relation allows us to bootstrap the kernel of Oγ to the two-loop level. We construct an ansatz for the kernel of Og at higher orders. We test this ansatz against the consistency requirement at two-loop and find they differ only by a particular constant.


(1668)White dwarfs as a probe of exceptionally light QCD axions
  • Reuven Balkin,
  • Javi Serra,
  • Konstantin Springmann,
  • Stefan Stelzl,
  • Andreas Weiler
Physical Review D (05/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.109.095032
abstract + abstract -

We study the effects of exceptionally light QCD axions on the stellar configuration of white dwarfs. At finite baryon density, the nonderivative coupling of the axion to nucleons displaces the axion from its in-vacuum minimum, which implies a reduction of the nucleon mass. This dramatically alters the composition of stellar remnants. In particular, the modifications of the mass-radius relationship of white dwarfs allow us to probe large regions of unexplored parameter space without requiring that axions are dark matter.


(1667)HOLISMOKES XIII: Strong-lens candidates at all mass scales and their environments from the Hyper-Suprime Cam and deep learning
  • Stefan Schuldt,
  • Raoul Canameras,
  • Irham T. Andika,
  • Satadru Bag,
  • Alejandra Melo
  • +4
  • Yiping Shu,
  • Sherry H. Suyu,
  • Stefan Taubenberger,
  • Claudio Grillo
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We have performed a systematic search for galaxy-scale strong lenses using Hyper Suprime-Cam imaging data, focusing on lenses in overdense environments. To identify these lens candidates, we exploit our neural network from HOLISMOKES VI, which is trained on realistic gri mock-images as positive examples, and real images as negative examples. Compared to our previous work, we lower the i-Kron radius limit to >0.5". This results in an increase by around 73 million sources to more than 135 million images. During our visual multi-stage grading of the network candidates, we now inspect simultaneously larger stamps (80"x80") to identify large, extended arcs cropped in the 10"x10" cutouts, and classify additionally their overall environment. Here we also reinspect our previous lens candidates and classify their environment. Using these 546 visually identified lens candidates, we further define various criteria by exploiting extensive and complementary photometric redshift catalogs, to select the candidates in overdensities. In total, we identified 24 grade-A and 138 grade-B candidates with either spatially-resolved multiple images or extended, distorted arcs in the new sample. Furthermore, with our different techniques, we identify in total 237/546 lens candidates in a cluster-like or overdense environment, containing only 49 group- or cluster-scale re-discoveries. These results demonstrate the feasibility of downloading and applying network classifiers to hundreds of million cutouts, necessary in the upcoming era of big data from deep, wide-field imaging surveys like Euclid and the Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time, while leading to a sample size that can be inspected by humans. These networks, with false-positive rates of ~0.01%, are very powerful tools to identify such rare galaxy-scale strong lensing systems, while also aiding in the discovery of new strong lensing clusters.


(1666)A neutrino floor for the Migdal effect
  • Gonzalo Herrera
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2024) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2024)288
abstract + abstract -

Neutrino-nucleus scatterings in the detector could induce electron ionization signatures due to the Migdal effect. We derive prospects for a future detection of the Migdal effect via coherent elastic solar neutrino-nucleus scatterings in liquid xenon detectors, and discuss the irreducible background that it constitutes for the Migdal effect caused by light dark matter-nucleus scatterings. Furthermore, we explore the ionization signal induced by some neutrino electromagnetic and non-standard interactions on nuclei. In certain scenarios, we find a distinct peak on the ionization spectrum of xenon around 0.1 keV, in clear contrast to the Standard Model expectation.


(1665)Dynamical friction from self-interacting dark matter
  • Moritz S. Fischer,
  • Laura Sagunski
abstract + abstract -

Context. Merging compact objects such as binary black holes provide a promising probe for the physics of dark matter (DM). The gravitational waves emitted during inspiral potentially allow to detect DM spikes around black holes. This is because the dynamical friction force experienced by the inspiraling black hole alters the orbital period and thus the gravitational wave signal. Aims. The dynamical friction arising from DM can potentially differ from the collisionless case when DM is subject to self-interactions. This paper aims to understand how self-interactions impact dynamical friction. Methods. To study the dynamical friction force, we use idealized N-body simulations, where we include self-interacting dark matter. Results. We find that the dynamical friction force for inspiraling black holes would be typically enhanced by DM self-interactions compared to a collisionless medium (ignoring differences in the DM density). At lower velocities below the sound speed, we find that the dynamical friction force can be reduced by the presence of self-interactions. Conclusions. DM self-interactions have a significant effect on the dynamical friction for black hole mergers. Assuming the Chandrasekhar formula may underpredict the deceleration due to dynamical friction.


(1664)Supermassive black hole spin evolution in cosmological simulations with OPENGADGET3
  • Luca Sala,
  • Milena Valentini,
  • Veronica Biffi,
  • Klaus Dolag
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202348925
abstract + abstract -

Context. The mass and spin of massive black holes (BHs) at the centre of galaxies evolve due to gas accretion and mergers with other BHs. Besides affecting the evolution of relativistic jets, for example, the BH spin determines the efficiency with which the BH radiates energy.
Aims: Using cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations, we investigate the evolution of the BH spin across cosmic time and its role in controlling the joint growth of supermassive BHs and their host galaxies.
Methods: We implemented a sub-resolution prescription that models the BH spin, accounting for both BH coalescence and misaligned accretion through a geometrically thin, optically thick disc. We investigated how BH spin evolves in two idealised setups, in zoomed-in simulations and in a cosmological volume. The latter simulation allowed us to retrieve statistically robust results for the evolution and distribution of BH spins as a function of BH properties.
Results: We find that BHs with MBH ≲ 2 × 107 M grow through gas accretion, occurring mostly in a coherent fashion that favours spin-up. Above MBH ≳ 2 × 107 M, the gas angular momentum directions of subsequent accretion episodes are often uncorrelated with each other. The probability of counter-rotating accretion and hence spin-down increases with BH mass. In the latter mass regime, BH coalescence plays an important role. The spin magnitude displays a wide variety of histories, depending on the dynamical state of the gas feeding the BH and the relative contribution of mergers and gas accretion. As a result of their combined effect, we observe a broad range of values of the spin magnitude at the high-mass end. Reorientation of the BH spin direction occurs on short timescales (≲ 10 Myr) only during highly accreting phases (ƒEdd ≳ 0.1). Our predictions for the distributions of BH spin and spin-dependent radiative efficiency as a function of BH mass are in very good agreement with observations.

Movie associated to Fig. 7 is available at https://www.aanda.org


(1663)Systematic comparison of neural networks used in discovering strong gravitational lenses
  • Anupreeta More,
  • Raoul Canameras,
  • Anton T. Jaelani,
  • Yiping Shu,
  • Yuichiro Ishida
  • +4
  • Kenneth C. Wong,
  • Kaiki Taro Inoue,
  • Stefan Schuldt,
  • Alessandro Sonnenfeld
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Efficient algorithms are being developed to search for strong gravitational lens systems owing to increasing large imaging surveys. Neural networks have been successfully used to discover galaxy-scale lens systems in imaging surveys such as the Kilo Degree Survey, Hyper-Suprime Cam (HSC) Survey and Dark Energy Survey over the last few years. Thus, it has become imperative to understand how some of these networks compare, their strengths and the role of the training datasets as most of the networks make use of supervised learning algorithms. In this work, we present the first-of-its-kind systematic comparison and benchmarking of networks from four teams that have analysed the HSC Survey data. Each team has designed their training samples and developed neural networks independently but coordinated apriori in reserving specific datasets strictly for test purposes. The test sample consists of mock lenses, real (candidate) lenses and real non-lenses gathered from various sources to benchmark and characterise the performance of each of the network. While each team's network performed much better on their own constructed test samples compared to those from others, all networks performed comparable on the test sample with real (candidate) lenses and non-lenses. We also investigate the impact of swapping the training samples amongst the teams while retaining the same network architecture. We find that this resulted in improved performance for some networks. These results have direct implications on measures to be taken for lens searches with upcoming imaging surveys such as the Rubin-Legacy Survey of Space and Time, Roman and Euclid.


(1662)(Re)mind the gap: a hiatus in star formation history unveiled by APOGEE DR17
  • E. Spitoni,
  • F. Matteucci,
  • R. Gratton,
  • B. Ratcliffe,
  • I. Minchev
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

The analysis of several spectroscopic surveys indicates the presence of a bimodality between the disc stars in the abundance ratio space of [${\alpha}$/Fe] versus [Fe/H]. The two stellar groups are commonly referred to as the high-${\alpha}$ and low-${\alpha}$ sequences. Some models capable of reproducing such a bimodality, invoke the presence of a hiatus in the star formation history in our Galaxy, whereas other models explain the two sequences by means of stellar migration. Our aim is to show that the existence of the gap in the star formation rate between high-$\alpha$ and low-$\alpha$ is evident in the stars of APOGEE DR17, if one plots [Fe/$\alpha$] versus [$\alpha$/H], thus confirming previous suggestions by Gratton et al. (1996) and Fuhrmann (1998). Then we try to interpret the data by means of detailed chemical models. We compare the APOGEE DR17 red giant stars with the predictions of a detailed chemical evolution model based on the two-infall paradigm, taking also into account possible accretion of dwarf satellites. The APOGEE DR17 abundance ratios [Fe/$\alpha$] versus [$\alpha$/H] exhibit a sharp increase of [Fe/$\alpha$] at a nearly constant [$\alpha$/H] (where $\alpha$ elements considered are Mg, Si, O) during the transition between the two disc phases. This observation strongly supports the hypothesis that a hiatus in star formation occurred during this evolutionary phase. Notably, the most pronounced growth in the [Fe/$\alpha$] versus [$\alpha$/H] relation is observed for oxygen, as this element is exclusively synthesised in core-collapse supernovae. A chemical model predicting a stop in the star formation of a duration of roughly 3.5 Gyr, and where the high-$\alpha$ disc starts forming from pre-enriched gas by a previous encounter with a dwarf galaxy can well explain the observations.


(1661)Insights into the broadband emission of the TeV blazar Mrk 501 during the first X-ray polarization measurements
  • MAGIC Collaboration,
  • S. Abe,
  • J. Abhir,
  • V. A. Acciari,
  • A. Aguasca-Cabot
  • +206
  • I. Agudo,
  • T. Aniello,
  • S. Ansoldi,
  • L. A. Antonelli,
  • A. Arbet Engels,
  • C. Arcaro,
  • K. Asano,
  • A. Babić,
  • A. Baquero,
  • U. Barres de Almeida,
  • J. A. Barrio,
  • I. Batković,
  • A. Bautista,
  • J. Baxter,
  • J. Becerra González,
  • W. Bednarek,
  • E. Bernardini,
  • M. Bernardos,
  • J. Bernete,
  • A. Berti,
  • J. Besenrieder,
  • C. Bigongiari,
  • A. Biland,
  • O. Blanch,
  • G. Bonnoli,
  • Ž. Bošnjak,
  • I. Burelli,
  • G. Busetto,
  • A. Campoy-Ordaz,
  • A. Carosi,
  • R. Carosi,
  • M. Carretero-Castrillo,
  • A. J. Castro-Tirado,
  • G. Ceribella,
  • Y. Chai,
  • A. Cifuentes,
  • E. Colombo,
  • J. L. Contreras,
  • J. Cortina,
  • S. Covino,
  • G. D'Amico,
  • V. D'Elia,
  • P. da Vela,
  • F. Dazzi,
  • A. de Angelis,
  • B. de Lotto,
  • R. de Menezes,
  • A. Del Popolo,
  • M. Delfino,
  • J. Delgado,
  • C. Delgado Mendez,
  • F. di Pierro,
  • L. di Venere,
  • D. Dominis Prester,
  • A. Donini,
  • D. Dorner,
  • M. Doro,
  • D. Elsaesser,
  • G. Emery,
  • J. Escudero,
  • L. Fariña,
  • A. Fattorini,
  • L. Foffano,
  • L. Font,
  • S. Fröse,
  • Y. Fukazawa,
  • R. J. García López,
  • M. Garczarczyk,
  • S. Gasparyan,
  • M. Gaug,
  • J. G. Giesbrecht Paiva,
  • N. Giglietto,
  • F. Giordano,
  • P. Gliwny,
  • N. Godinović,
  • T. Gradetzke,
  • R. Grau,
  • D. Green,
  • J. G. Green,
  • P. Günther,
  • D. Hadasch,
  • A. Hahn,
  • T. Hassan,
  • L. Heckmann,
  • J. Herrera,
  • D. Hrupec,
  • M. Hütten,
  • R. Imazawa,
  • K. Ishio,
  • I. Jiménez Martínez,
  • T. Kayanoki,
  • D. Kerszberg,
  • G. W. Kluge,
  • Y. Kobayashi,
  • P. M. Kouch,
  • H. Kubo,
  • J. Kushida,
  • M. Láinez Lezáun,
  • A. Lamastra,
  • F. Leone,
  • E. Lindfors,
  • L. Linhoff,
  • S. Lombardi,
  • F. Longo,
  • R. López-Coto,
  • M. López-Moya,
  • A. López-Oramas,
  • S. Loporchio,
  • A. Lorini,
  • E. Lyard,
  • B. Machado de Oliveira Fraga,
  • P. Majumdar,
  • M. Makariev,
  • G. Maneva,
  • N. Mang,
  • M. Manganaro,
  • S. Mangano,
  • K. Mannheim,
  • M. Mariotti,
  • M. Martínez,
  • M. Martínez-Chicharro,
  • A. Mas-Aguilar,
  • D. Mazin,
  • S. Menchiari,
  • S. Mender,
  • D. Miceli,
  • T. Miener,
  • J. M. Miranda,
  • R. Mirzoyan,
  • M. Molero González,
  • E. Molina,
  • H. A. Mondal,
  • A. Moralejo,
  • D. Morcuende,
  • T. Nakamori,
  • C. Nanci,
  • V. Neustroev,
  • C. Nigro,
  • L. Nikolić,
  • K. Nilsson,
  • K. Nishijima,
  • T. Njoh Ekoume,
  • K. Noda,
  • S. Nozaki,
  • Y. Ohtani,
  • A. Okumura,
  • J. Otero-Santos,
  • S. Paiano,
  • M. Palatiello,
  • D. Paneque,
  • R. Paoletti,
  • J. M. Paredes,
  • M. Peresano,
  • M. Persic,
  • M. Pihet,
  • G. Pirola,
  • F. Podobnik,
  • P. G. Prada Moroni,
  • E. Prandini,
  • G. Principe,
  • C. Priyadarshi,
  • W. Rhode,
  • M. Ribó,
  • J. Rico,
  • C. Righi,
  • N. Sahakyan,
  • T. Saito,
  • K. Satalecka,
  • F. G. Saturni,
  • B. Schleicher,
  • K. Schmidt,
  • F. Schmuckermaier,
  • J. L. Schubert,
  • T. Schweizer,
  • A. Sciaccaluga,
  • G. Silvestri,
  • J. Sitarek,
  • D. Sobczynska,
  • A. Spolon,
  • A. Stamerra,
  • J. Strišković,
  • D. Strom,
  • Y. Suda,
  • S. Suutarinen,
  • H. Tajima,
  • M. Takahashi,
  • R. Takeishi,
  • F. Tavecchio,
  • P. Temnikov,
  • K. Terauchi,
  • T. Terzić,
  • M. Teshima,
  • L. Tosti,
  • S. Truzzi,
  • A. Tutone,
  • S. Ubach,
  • J. van Scherpenberg,
  • S. Ventura,
  • I. Viale,
  • C. F. Vigorito,
  • V. Vitale,
  • I. Vovk,
  • R. Walter,
  • M. Will,
  • C. Wunderlich,
  • T. Yamamoto
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202348709
abstract + abstract -


Aims: We present the first multiwavelength study of Mrk 501 that contains simultaneous very-high-energy (VHE) γ-ray observations and X-ray polarization measurements from the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE).
Methods: We used radio-to-VHE data from a multiwavelength campaign carried out between March 1, 2022, and July 19, 2022 (MJD 59639 to MJD 59779). The observations were performed by MAGIC, Fermi-LAT, NuSTAR, Swift (XRT and UVOT), and several other instruments that cover the optical and radio bands to complement the IXPE pointings. We characterized the dynamics of the broadband emission around the X-ray polarization measurements through its multiband fractional variability and correlations, and compared changes observed in the polarization degree to changes seen in the broadband emission using a multi-zone leptonic scenario.
Results: During the IXPE pointings, the VHE state is close to the average behavior, with a 0.2-1 TeV flux of 20%-50% of the emission of the Crab Nebula. Additionally, it shows low variability and a hint of correlation between VHE γ-rays and X-rays. Despite the average VHE activity, an extreme X-ray behavior is measured for the first two IXPE pointings, taken in March 2022 (MJD 59646 to 59648 and MJD 59665 to 59667), with a synchrotron peak frequency > 1 keV. For the third IXPE pointing, in July 2022 (MJD 59769 to 59772), the synchrotron peak shifts toward lower energies and the optical/X-ray polarization degrees drop. All three IXPE epochs show an atypically low Compton dominance in the γ-rays. The X-ray polarization is systematically higher than at lower energies, suggesting an energy stratification of the jet. While during the IXPE epochs the polarization angles in the X-ray, optical, and radio bands align well, we find a clear discrepancy in the optical and radio polarization angles in the middle of the campaign. Such results further support the hypothesis of an energy-stratified jet. We modeled broadband spectra taken simultaneous to the IXPE pointings, assuming a compact zone that dominates in the X-rays and the VHE band, and an extended zone stretching farther downstream in the jet that dominates the emission at lower energies. NuSTAR data allow us to precisely constrain the synchrotron peak and therefore the underlying electron distribution. The change between the different states observed in the three IXPE pointings can be explained by a change in the magnetization and/or the emission region size, which directly connects the shift in the synchrotron peak to lower energies with the drop in the polarization degree.

The MWL data are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via https://cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/685/A117


(1660)Chemical evolution of the Galactic bulge with different stellar populations
  • M. Molero,
  • F. Matteucci,
  • E. Spitoni,
  • A. Rojas-Arriagada,
  • R. M. Rich
abstract + abstract -

The metallicity distribution function (MDF) of the Galactic bulge features a multi-peak shape, with a metal-poor peak at [Fe/H]=-0.3 dex and a metal-rich peak at [Fe/H]=+0.3 dex. This bimodality is also seen in [alpha/Fe] versus [Fe/H] ratios, indicating different stellar populations in the bulge. We aim to replicate the observed MDF by proposing a scenario where the metal-poor bulge stars formed in situ during an intense star formation burst, while the metal-rich stars formed during a second burst and/or were accreted from the inner Galactic disk due to a growing bar. We used a chemical evolution model that tracks various chemical species with detailed nucleosynthesis, focusing on Fe production from both Type Ia supernovae and massive stars, including rotating massive stars with varying velocities. Our model also accounts for gas infall, outflow, and the effect of stellar migration. Results are compared to 13,000 stars from the SDSS/APOGEE survey within 3.5 kpc of the Galactic center. Our model successfully reproduces the double-peak shape of the bulge MDF and the alpha-element abundance trends relative to Fe by assuming (i) a multi-burst star formation history with a 250 Myr quenching of the first burst and (ii) stellar migration from the inner disk due to a growing bar. We estimate that about 40% of the bulge-bar's stellar mass originates from the inner disk. Nucleosynthesis models that assume either no rotation for massive stars or a rotational velocity distribution favoring slow rotation at high metallicities best match the observed MDF and [alpha/Fe] and [Ce/Fe] versus [Fe/H] abundance patterns.


(1659)Population Synthesis Models Indicate a Need for Early and Ubiquitous Disk Substructures
  • Luca Delussu,
  • Tilman Birnstiel,
  • Anna Miotello,
  • Paola Pinilla,
  • Giovanni Rosotti
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

Large mm surveys of star forming regions enable the study of entire populations of planet-forming disks and reveal correlations between their observable properties. Population studies of disks have shown that the correlation between disk size and millimeter flux could be explained either through disks with strong substructure, or alternatively by the effects of radial inward drift of growing dust particles. This study aims to constrain the parameters and initial conditions of planet-forming disks and address the question of the need for the presence of substructures in disks and, if needed, their predicted characteristics, based on the large samples of disk sizes, millimeter fluxes, and spectral indices available. We performed a population synthesis of the continuum emission of disks, exploiting a two-population model (two-pop-py), considering the influence of viscous evolution, dust growth, fragmentation, and transport varying the initial conditions of the disk and substructure to find the best match to the observed distributions. We show that the observed distributions of spectral indices, sizes, and luminosities together can be best reproduced by disks with significant substructure, namely a perturbation strong enough to be able to trap particles, and that is formed early in the evolution of the disk, that is within 0.4Myr. Agreement is reached by relatively high initial disk masses ($10^{-2.3}M_{\star}\leqslant M_{disk}\leqslant10^{-0.5}M_{\star}$) and moderate levels of turbulence ($10^{-3.5}\leqslant\alpha\leqslant 10^{-2.5}$). Other disk parameters play a weaker role. Only opacities with high absorption efficiency can reproduce the observed spectral indices. Our results extend to the whole population that substructure is likely ubiquitous, so far assessed only in individual disks and implies that most "smooth" disks hide unresolved substructure.


(1658)JWST Photometric Time-delay and Magnification Measurements for the Triply Imaged Type Ia "SN H0pe" at z = 1.78
  • J. D. R. Pierel,
  • B. L. Frye,
  • M. Pascale,
  • G. B. Caminha,
  • W. Chen
  • +58
  • S. Dhawan,
  • D. Gilman,
  • M. Grayling,
  • S. Huber,
  • P. Kelly,
  • S. Thorp,
  • N. Arendse,
  • S. Birrer,
  • M. Bronikowski,
  • R. Cañameras,
  • D. Coe,
  • S. H. Cohen,
  • C. J. Conselice,
  • S. P. Driver,
  • J. C. J. DŚilva,
  • M. Engesser,
  • N. Foo,
  • C. Gall,
  • N. Garuda,
  • C. Grillo,
  • N. A. Grogin,
  • J. Henderson,
  • J. Hjorth,
  • R. A. Jansen,
  • J. Johansson,
  • P. S. Kamieneski,
  • A. M. Koekemoer,
  • C. Larison,
  • M. A. Marshall,
  • L. A. Moustakas,
  • M. Nonino,
  • R. Ortiz,
  • T. Petrushevska,
  • N. Pirzkal,
  • A. Robotham,
  • R. E. Ryan,
  • S. Schuldt,
  • L. G. Strolger,
  • J. Summers,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • T. Treu,
  • C. N. A. Willmer,
  • R. A. Windhorst,
  • H. Yan,
  • A. Zitrin,
  • A. Acebron,
  • S. Chakrabarti,
  • D. A. Coulter,
  • O. D. Fox,
  • X. Huang,
  • S. W. Jha,
  • G. Li,
  • P. A. Mazzali,
  • A. K. Meena,
  • I. Pérez-Fournon,
  • F. Poidevin,
  • A. Rest,
  • A. G. Riess
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (05/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad3c43
abstract + abstract -

Supernova (SN) SN H0pe is a gravitationally lensed, triply imaged, Type Ia SN (SN Ia) discovered in James Webb Space Telescope imaging of the PLCK G165.7+67.0 cluster of galaxies. Well-observed multiply imaged SNe provide a rare opportunity to constrain the Hubble constant (H 0), by measuring the relative time delay between the images and modeling the foreground mass distribution. SN H0pe is located at z = 1.783 and is the first SN Ia with sufficient light-curve sampling and long enough time delays for an H 0 inference. Here we present photometric time-delay measurements and SN properties of SN H0pe. Using JWST/NIRCam photometry, we measure time delays of Δt ab = <inline-formula> <tex-math> $-{116.6}_{-9.3}^{+10.8}$ </tex-math> </inline-formula> observer-frame days and Δt cb = <inline-formula> <tex-math> $-{48.6}_{-4.0}^{+3.6}$ </tex-math> </inline-formula> observer-frame days relative to the last image to arrive (image 2b; all uncertainties are 1σ), which corresponds to a ∼5.6% uncertainty contribution for H 0 assuming 70 km s‑1 Mpc‑1. We also constrain the absolute magnification of each image to μ a = <inline-formula> <tex-math> ${4.3}_{-1.8}^{+1.6}$ </tex-math> </inline-formula>, μ b = <inline-formula> <tex-math> ${7.6}_{-2.6}^{+3.6}$ </tex-math> </inline-formula>, μ c = <inline-formula> <tex-math> ${6.4}_{-1.5}^{+1.6}$ </tex-math> </inline-formula> by comparing the observed peak near-IR magnitude of SN H0pe to the nonlensed population of SNe Ia.


(1657)A Bayesian approach to strong lens finding in the era of wide-area surveys
  • Philip Holloway,
  • Philip J. Marshall,
  • Aprajita Verma,
  • Anupreeta More,
  • Raoul Cañameras
  • +3
  • Anton T. Jaelani,
  • Yuichiro Ishida,
  • Kenneth C. Wong
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (05/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae875
abstract + abstract -

The arrival of the Vera C. Rubin Observatory's Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST), Euclid-Wide and Roman wide-area sensitive surveys will herald a new era in strong lens science in which the number of strong lenses known is expected to rise from $\mathcal {O}(10^3)$ to $\mathcal {O}(10^5)$. However, current lens-finding methods still require time-consuming follow-up visual inspection by strong lens experts to remove false positives which is only set to increase with these surveys. In this work, we demonstrate a range of methods to produce calibrated probabilities to help determine the veracity of any given lens candidate. To do this we use the classifications from citizen science and multiple neural networks for galaxies selected from the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey. Our methodology is not restricted to particular classifier types and could be applied to any strong lens classifier which produces quantitative scores. Using these calibrated probabilities, we generate an ensemble classifier, combining citizen science, and neural network lens finders. We find such an ensemble can provide improved classification over the individual classifiers. We find a false-positive rate of 10-3 can be achieved with a completeness of 46 per cent, compared to 34 per cent for the best individual classifier. Given the large number of galaxy-galaxy strong lenses anticipated in LSST, such improvement would still produce significant numbers of false positives, in which case using calibrated probabilities will be essential for population analysis of large populations of lenses and to help prioritize candidates for follow-up.


(1656)First observation of single photons in a CRESST detector and new dark matter exclusion limits
  • CRESST Collaboration,
  • G. Angloher,
  • S. Banik,
  • G. Benato,
  • A. Bento
  • +54
  • A. Bertolini,
  • R. Breier,
  • C. Bucci,
  • J. Burkhart,
  • L. Canonica,
  • A. D'Addabbo,
  • S. Di Lorenzo,
  • L. Einfalt,
  • A. Erb,
  • F. v. Feilitzsch,
  • S. Fichtinger,
  • D. Fuchs,
  • A. Garai,
  • V. M. Ghete,
  • P. Gorla,
  • P. V. Guillaumon,
  • S. Gupta,
  • D. Hauff,
  • M. Ješkovský,
  • J. Jochum,
  • M. Kaznacheeva,
  • A. Kinast,
  • H. Kluck,
  • H. Kraus,
  • S. Kuckuk,
  • A. Langenkämper,
  • M. Mancuso,
  • L. Marini,
  • B. Mauri,
  • L. Meyer,
  • V. Mokina,
  • M. Olmi,
  • T. Ortmann,
  • C. Pagliarone,
  • L. Pattavina,
  • F. Petricca,
  • W. Potzel,
  • P. Povinec,
  • F. Pröbst,
  • F. Pucci,
  • F. Reindl,
  • J. Rothe,
  • K. Schäffner,
  • J. Schieck,
  • S. Schönert,
  • C. Schwertner,
  • M. Stahlberg,
  • L. Stodolsky,
  • C. Strandhagen,
  • R. Strauss,
  • I. Usherov,
  • F. Wagner,
  • V. Wagner,
  • V. Zema
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The main goal of the CRESST-III experiment is the direct detection of dark matter particles via their scattering off target nuclei in cryogenic detectors. In this work we present the results of a Silicon-On-Sapphire (SOS) detector with a mass of 0.6$\,$g and an energy threshold of (6.7$\, \pm \,$0.2)$\,$eV with a baseline energy resolution of (1.0$\, \pm \,$0.2)$\,$eV. This allowed for a calibration via the detection of single luminescence photons in the eV-range, which could be observed in CRESST for the first time. We present new exclusion limits on the spin-independent and spin-dependent dark matter-nucleon cross section that extend to dark matter particle masses of less than 100$\,$MeV/c$^{2}$.


(1655)Development of a Bi-solvent Liquid Scintillator with Slow Light Emission
  • Hans Th. J. Steiger,
  • Matthias Raphael Stock,
  • Manuel Böhles,
  • Sarah Braun,
  • Edward J. Callaghan
  • +12
  • David Dörflinger,
  • Ulrike Fahrendholz,
  • Jonas Firsching,
  • Elias Fischer,
  • Tanner Kaptanoglu,
  • Lennard Kayser,
  • Meishu Lu,
  • Lothar Oberauer,
  • Gabriel D. Orebi Gann,
  • Korbinian Stangler,
  • Michael Wurm,
  • Dorina Zundel
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

One of the most promising approaches for the next generation of neutrino experiments is the realization of large hybrid Cherenkov/scintillation detectors made possible by recent innovations in photodetection technology and liquid scintillator chemistry. The development of a potentially suitable future detector liquid with particularly slow light emission is discussed in the present publication. This cocktail is compared with respect to its fundamental characteristics (scintillation efficiency, transparency, and time profile of light emission) with liquid scintillators currently used in large-scale neutrino detectors. In addition, the optimization of the admixture of wavelength shifters for a scintillator with particularly high light emission is presented. Furthermore, the pulse-shape discrimination capabilities of the novel medium was studied using a pulsed particle accelerator driven neutron source. Beyond that, purification methods based on column chromatography and fractional vacuum distillation for the co-solvent DIN (Diisopropylnaphthalene) are discussed.


(1654)The missing quasar image in the gravitationally lensed quasar HE0230−2130: Implications for the cored lens mass distribution and dark satellites
  • S. Ertl,
  • S. Schuldt,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • P. L. Schechter,
  • A. Halkola
  • +1
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347689
abstract + abstract -

Strongly lensed systems with peculiar configurations allow us to probe the local properties of the deflecting lens mass while simultaneously testing general profile assumptions. The quasar HE0230−2130 is lensed by two galaxies at similar redshifts (Δz ∼ 0.003) into four observed images. Using modeled quasar positions from fitting the brightness of the quasar images in ground-based imaging data from the Magellan telescope, we find that lens-mass models where each of these two galaxies is parametrized with a singular power-law (PL) profile predict five quasar images. One of the predicted images is unobserved despite it being distinctively offset from the lensing galaxies and likely bright enough to be observable. This missing image gives rise to new opportunities to study the mass distribution of these galaxies. To interpret the quad configuration of the system, we tested 12 different profile assumptions with the aim of obtaining lens-mass models that correctly predict only four observed images. We tested the effects of adopting: cored profiles for the lensing galaxies; external shear; and additional profiles to represent a dark matter clump. We find that half of our model classes can produce the correct image multiplicity. By comparing the Bayesian evidence of different model parametrizations, we favor two model classes: (i) one that incorporates two singular PL profiles for the lensing galaxies and a cored isothermal sphere in the region of the previously predicted fifth image (rNIS profile), and (ii) one with a bigger lensing galaxy parametrized by a singular PL profile and the smaller galaxy by a cored PL profile with external shear. We estimated the mass of the rNIS clump for each candidate model of our final Markov chain Monte Carlo sample, and find that only 2% are in the range of 106 M ≤ MrNIS ≤ 109 M, which is the predicted mass range of dark matter subhalos in cold dark matter simulations, or the mass of dark-matter-dominated and low-surface-brightness galaxies. We therefore favor the models with a cored mass distribution for the lens galaxy close to the predicted fifth image. Our study further demonstrates that lensed quasar images are sensitive to the dark matter structure in the gravitational lens. We are able to describe this exotic lensing configuration with relatively simple models, which demonstrates the power of strong lensing for studying galaxies and lens substructure.


(1653)Tracing the rise of supermassive black holes. A panchromatic search for faint, unobscured quasars at z ≳ 6 with COSMOS-Web and other surveys
  • Irham T. Andika,
  • Knud Jahnke,
  • Masafusa Onoue,
  • John D. Silverman,
  • Itsna K. Fitriana
  • +18
  • Angela Bongiorno,
  • Malte Brinch,
  • Caitlin M. Casey,
  • Andreas Faisst,
  • Steven Gillman,
  • Ghassem Gozaliasl,
  • Christopher C. Hayward,
  • Michaela Hirschmann,
  • Dale Kocevski,
  • Anton M. Koekemoer,
  • Vasily Kokorev,
  • Erini Lambrides,
  • Minju M. Lee,
  • Robert Michael Rich,
  • Benny Trakhtenbrot,
  • Claudia Megan Urry,
  • Stephen M. Wilkins,
  • Aswin P. Vijayan
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202349025
abstract + abstract -

We report the identification of 64 new candidates of compact galaxies, potentially hosting faint quasars with bolometric luminosities of Lbol = 1043-1046 erg s−1, residing in the reionization epoch within the redshift range of 6 ≲ z ≲ 8. These candidates were selected by harnessing the rich multiband datasets provided by the emerging JWST-driven extragalactic surveys, focusing on COSMOS-Web, as well as JADES, UNCOVER, CEERS, and PRIMER. Our search strategy includes two stages: applying stringent photometric cuts to catalog-level data and detailed spectral energy distribution fitting. These techniques effectively isolate the quasar candidates while mitigating contamination from low-redshift interlopers, such as brown dwarfs and nearby galaxies. The selected candidates indicate physical traits compatible with low-luminosity active galactic nuclei, likely hosting ≈105-107 M supermassive black holes (SMBHs) living in galaxies with stellar masses of ≈108-1010 M. The SMBHs selected in this study, on average, exhibit an elevated mass compared to their hosts, with the mass ratio distribution slightly higher than those of galaxies in the local Universe. As with other high-z studies, this is at least in part due to the selection method for these quasars. An extensive Monte Carlo analysis provides compelling evidence that heavy black hole seeds from the direct collapse scenario appear to be the preferred pathway to mature this specific subset of SMBHs by z ≈ 7. Notably, most of the selected candidates might have emerged from seeds with masses of ∼105 M, assuming a thin disk accretion with an average Eddington ratio of fEdd = 0.6 ± 0.3 and a radiative efficiency of ϵ = 0.2 ± 0.1. This work underscores the significance of further spectroscopic observations, as the quasar candidates presented here offer exceptional opportunities to delve into the nature of the earliest galaxies and SMBHs that formed during cosmic infancy.

FITS files and full Table B.1 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via https://cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/685/A25


(1652)Interacting supernovae from wide massive binary systems
  • A. Ercolino,
  • H. Jin,
  • N. Langer,
  • L. Dessart
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347646
abstract + abstract -

Context. The features in the light curves and spectra of many Type I and Type II supernovae (SNe) can be understood by assuming an interaction of the SN ejecta with circumstellar matter (CSM) surrounding the progenitor star. This suggests that many massive stars may undergo various degrees of envelope stripping shortly before exploding, and may therefore produce a considerable diversity in their pre-explosion CSM properties.
Aims: We explore a generic set of about 100 detailed massive binary evolution models in order to characterize the amount of envelope stripping and the expected CSM configurations.
Methods: Our binary models were computed with the MESA stellar evolution code, considering an initial primary star mass of 12.6 M and secondaries with initial masses of between ∼12 M and ∼1.3 M, and focus on initial orbital periods above ∼500 d. We compute these models up to the time of iron core collapse in the primary.
Results: Our models exhibit varying degrees of stripping due to mass transfer, resulting in SN progenitor models ranging from fully stripped helium stars to stars that have not been stripped at all. We find that Roche lobe overflow often leads to incomplete stripping of the mass donor, resulting in a large variety of pre-SN envelope masses. In many of our models, the red supergiant (RSG) donor stars undergo core collapse during Roche lobe overflow, with mass transfer and therefore system mass-loss rates of up to 0.01 M yr−1 at that time. The corresponding CSM densities are similar to those inferred for Type IIn SNe, such as <ASTROBJ>SN 1998S</ASTROBJ>. In other cases, the mass transfer becomes unstable, leading to a common-envelope phase at such late time that the mass donor explodes before the common envelope is fully ejected or the system has merged. We argue that this may cause significant pre-SN variability, as witnessed for example in <ASTROBJ>SN 2020tlf</ASTROBJ>. Other models suggest a common-envelope ejection just centuries before core collapse, which may lead to the strongest interactions, as observed in superluminous Type IIn SNe, such as <ASTROBJ>SN 1994W</ASTROBJ> and <ASTROBJ>SN 2006gy</ASTROBJ>.
Conclusions: Wide massive binaries exhibit properties that may not only explain the diverse envelope stripping inferred in Type Ib, IIb, IIL, and IIP SNe, but also offer a natural framework to understand a broad range of hydrogen-rich interacting SNe. On the other hand, the flash features observed in many Type IIP SNe, such as <ASTROBJ>SN 2013fs</ASTROBJ>, may indicate that RSG atmospheres are more extended than currently assumed; this could enhance the parameter space for wide binary interaction.


(1651)Optimization Using Pathwise Algorithmic Derivatives of Electromagnetic Shower Simulations
  • Max Aehle,
  • Mihály Novák,
  • Vassil Vassilev,
  • Nicolas R. Gauger,
  • Lukas Heinrich
  • +2
abstract + abstract -

Among the well-known methods to approximate derivatives of expectancies computed by Monte-Carlo simulations, averages of pathwise derivatives are often the easiest one to apply. Computing them via algorithmic differentiation typically does not require major manual analysis and rewriting of the code, even for very complex programs like simulations of particle-detector interactions in high-energy physics. However, the pathwise derivative estimator can be biased if there are discontinuities in the program, which may diminish its value for applications. This work integrates algorithmic differentiation into the electromagnetic shower simulation code HepEmShow based on G4HepEm, allowing us to study how well pathwise derivatives approximate derivatives of energy depositions in a sampling calorimeter with respect to parameters of the beam and geometry. We found that when multiple scattering is disabled in the simulation, means of pathwise derivatives converge quickly to their expected values, and these are close to the actual derivatives of the energy deposition. Additionally, we demonstrate the applicability of this novel gradient estimator for stochastic gradient-based optimization in a model example.


(1650)FAUST. XIV. Probing the Flared Disk in L1527 with Sulfur-bearing Molecules
  • Ziwei E. Zhang,
  • Nami Sakai,
  • Satoshi Ohashi,
  • Nadia M. Murillo,
  • Claire J. Chandler
  • +19
  • Brian Svoboda,
  • Cecilia Ceccarelli,
  • Claudio Codella,
  • Luca Cacciapuoti,
  • Ross O'Donoghue,
  • Serena Viti,
  • Yuri Aikawa,
  • Eleonora Bianchi,
  • Paola Caselli,
  • Steven Charnley,
  • Tomoyuki Hanawa,
  • Izaskun Jímenez-Serra,
  • Hauyu Baobab Liu,
  • Laurent Loinard,
  • Yoko Oya,
  • Linda Podio,
  • Giovanni Sabatini,
  • Charlotte Vastel,
  • Satoshi Yamamoto
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (05/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad3921
abstract + abstract -

IRAS04368+2557 in L1527 is a Class 0/I protostar with a clear disk-envelope system revealed by previous Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations. In this paper, we discuss the flared structure of this source with observed sulfur-bearing molecules included in the FAUST ALMA large program. The analyses of molecular distributions and kinematics have shown that CS, SO, and OCS trace different regions of the disk-envelope system. To evaluate the temperature across the disk, we derive rotation temperature with the two observed SO lines. The temperature profile shows a clear, flared "butterfly" structure with the higher temperature being ∼50 K and the central lower temperature region (<30 K) coinciding with the continuum peak, suggesting dynamically originated heating rather than radiation heating from the central protostar. Other physical properties, including column densities, are also estimated and further used to demonstrate the vertical structure of the disk-envelope system. The "warped" disk structure of L1527 is confirmed with our analyses, showing that sulfur-bearing molecules are not only effective material probes but also sufficient for structural studies of protostellar systems.


(1649)How non-thermal pressure impacts the modelling of star formation in galaxy formation simulations
  • Eirini Batziou,
  • Ulrich P. Steinwandel,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Milena Valentini
abstract + abstract -

In cosmological simulations of large-scale structure star formation and feedback in galaxies are modelled by so-called sub-grid models, that represent a physically motivated approximation of processes occurring below the resolution limit. However, when additional physical processes are considered in these simulations, for instance, magnetic fields or cosmic rays, they are often not consistently coupled within the descriptions of the underlying sub-grid star formation models. Here, we present a careful study on how one of the most commonly used sub-grid models for star formation in current large-scale cosmological simulations can be modified to self consistently include the effects of non-thermal components (e.g., magnetic fields) within the fluid. We demonstrate that our new modelling approach, that includes the magnetic pressure as an additional regulation on star formation, can reproduce global properties of the magnetic field within galaxies in a setup of an isolated Milky Way-like galaxy simulation, but is also successful in reproducing local properties such as the anti-correlation between the local magnetic field strength with the local star formation rate as observed in galaxies (i.e. NGC 1097). This reveals how crucial a consistent treatment of different physical processes is within cosmological simulations and gives guidance for future simulations.


(1648)Disentangling new physics in $K\rightarrow\pi\bar{\nu}\nu$ and $B\rightarrow K(K^*)\bar{\nu}\nu$ observables
  • Andrzej J. Buras,
  • Julia Harz,
  • Martin A. Mojahed
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the possibility of disentangling different new physics contributions to the rare meson decays $K\rightarrow\pi+\displaystyle{\not}E$ and $B\rightarrow K(K^*)+\displaystyle{\not}E$ through kinematic distributions in the missing energy $\displaystyle{\not}E$. We employ dimension-$6$ operators within the Low-Energy Effective Field Theory (LEFT), identifying the invisible part of the final state as either active or sterile neutrinos. Special emphasis is given to lepton-number violating (LNV) operators with scalar and tensor currents. We show analytically that contributions from scalar, vector, and tensor quark currents can be uniquely determined from experimental data of kinematic distributions. In addition, we present new correlations of branching ratios for $K$ and $B$-decays involving scalar and tensor currents. As there could a priori also be new invisible particles in the final states, we include dark-sector operators giving rise to two dark scalars, fermions, or vectors in the final state. In this context, we present new calculations of the inclusive decay rate $B\rightarrow X_s+\displaystyle{\not}E$ for dark operators. We show that careful measurements of kinematic distributions make it theoretically possible to disentangle the contribution from LEFT operators from most of the dark-sector operators, even when multiple operators are contributing. We revisit sum rules for vector currents in LEFT and show that the latter are also satisfied in some new dark-physics scenarios that could mimic LEFT. Finally, we point out that an excess in rare meson decays consistent with a LNV hypothesis would point towards highly flavor non-democratic physics in the UV, and could put high-scale leptogenesis under tension.


(1647)Star clusters forming in a low-metallicity starburst - rapid self-enrichment by (very) massive stars
  • Natalia Lahén,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Dorottya Szécsi
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (05/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae904
abstract + abstract -

Stellar winds of massive ($\gtrsim 9\, \mathrm{M_\odot }$) and very massive ($\gtrsim 100\, \mathrm{M_\odot }$) stars may play an important role in the metal-enrichment during the formation of star clusters. With novel high-resolution hydrodynamical GRIFFIN-project simulations, we investigate the rapid recycling of stellar wind-material during the formation of massive star clusters up to $M_\mathrm{cluster}\sim 2\times 10^5\, \mathrm{M_\odot }$ in a low-metallicity dwarf galaxy starburst. The simulation realizes new stars from a stellar initial mass function (IMF) between $0.08$ and $\sim 400\, \mathrm{M_\odot }$ and follows stellar winds, radiation and supernova-feedback of single massive stars with evolution tracks. Star clusters form on time-scales less than ~5 Myr, and their supernova-material is very inefficiently recycled. Stellar wind-material, however, is trapped in massive clusters resulting in the formation of stars self-enriched in Na, Al, and N within only a few Myr. Wind-enriched (second population, 2P) stars can be centrally concentrated in the most massive clusters ($\gtrsim 10^4\, \mathrm{M_\odot }$) and the locked wind-material increases approximately as $M_\mathrm{cluster}^{2}$. These trends resemble the characteristics of observed 2P stars in globular clusters (GCs). We fit scaling relations to the lognormal distributed wind-mass fractions and extrapolate to possible GC progenitors of $M_\mathrm{cluster}=10^7\, \mathrm{M_\odot }$ to investigate whether a dominant 2P could form. This can only happen if the IMF is well-sampled, single massive stars produce at least a factor of a few more enriched winds, for example, through a top-heavy IMF, and a significant fraction of the first population (unenriched) stars is lost during cluster evolution.


(1646)The impact of stellar population synthesis choices on forward-modelling-based redshift distribution estimates
  • Luca Tortorelli,
  • Jamie McCullough,
  • Daniel Gruen
abstract + abstract -

The forward-modelling of galaxy surveys has recently gathered interest as one of the primary methods to achieve the precision on the estimate of the redshift distributions required by stage IV surveys. One of the key aspects of forward-modelling is the connection between the physical properties of galaxies and their intrinsic spectral energy distributions (SEDs), achieved through stellar population synthesis (SPS) codes, e.g. FSPS. However, SPS requires many detailed assumptions about the galaxy constituents, for which the model choice or parameters are currently uncertain. In this work, we perform a sensitivity study of the impact that the SED modelling choices variations have on the mean and scatter of the tomographic galaxy redshift distributions. We use the Prospector-$\beta$ model and its SPS parameters to build observed magnitudes of a fiducial sample of galaxies. We then build new samples by varying one SED modelling choice at a time. We model the colour-redshift relation of these galaxy samples using the KiDS-VIKING remapped version (McCullough et al. 2023) of the Masters et al. (2015) SOM. We place galaxies in the SOM cells according to the simulated galaxy colours. We then build color-selected tomographic bins and compare each variant's binned redshift distributions against the estimates obtained for the fiducial model. We find that the SED components related to the IMF, AGN, gas physics, and attenuation law substantially bias the mean and the scatter of the tomographic redshift distributions with respect to those estimated with the fiducial model. For the uncertainty of these choices currently present in the literature, and regardless of any stellar mass function based reweighting strategy applied, the bias in the mean and the scatter of the tomographic redshift distributions is larger than the precision requirements set by Stage IV galaxy surveys, e.g. LSST and Euclid.


RU-D
(1645)Disk Evolution Study Through Imaging of Nearby Young Stars (DESTINYS): The SPHERE view of the Orion star-forming region
  • P. -G. Valegård,
  • C. Ginski,
  • A. Derkink,
  • A. Garufi,
  • C. Dominik
  • +15
  • Á. Ribas,
  • J. P. Williams,
  • M. Benisty,
  • T. Birnstiel,
  • S. Facchini,
  • G. Columba,
  • M. Hogerheijde,
  • R. G. van Holstein,
  • J. Huang,
  • M. Kenworthy,
  • C. F. Manara,
  • P. Pinilla,
  • Ch. Rab,
  • R. Sulaiman,
  • A. Zurlo
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347452
abstract + abstract -

Context. Resolved observations at near-infrared (near-IR) and millimeter wavelengths have revealed a diverse population of planet-forming disks. In particular, near-IR scattered light observations usually target close-by, low-mass star-forming regions. However, disk evolution in high-mass star-forming regions is likely affected by the different environment. Orion is the closest high-mass star-forming region, enabling resolved observations to be undertaken in the near-IR.
Aims: We seek to examine planet-forming disks, in scattered light, within the high-mass star-forming region of Orion in order to study the impact of the environment in a higher-mass star-forming region on disk evolution.
Methods: We present SPHERE/IRDIS H-band data for a sample of 23 stars in the Orion star-forming region observed within the DESTINYS (Disk Evolution Study Through Imaging of Nearby Young Stars) program. We used polarization differential imaging in order to detect scattered light from circumstellar dust. From the scattered light observations we characterized the disk orientation, radius, and contrast. We analysed the disks in the context of the stellar parameters and the environment of the Orion star-forming region. We used ancillary X-shooter spectroscopic observations to characterize the central stars in the systems. We furthermore used a combination of new and archival ALMA mm-continuum photometry to characterize the dust masses present in the circumstellar disks.
Results: Within our sample, we detect extended circumstellar disks in ten of 23 systems. Of these, three are exceptionally extended (V351 Ori, V599 Ori, and V1012 Ori) and show scattered light asymmetries that may indicate perturbations by embedded planets or (in the case of V599 Ori) by an outer stellar companion. Our high-resolution imaging observations are also sensitive to close (sub)stellar companions and we detect nine such objects in our sample, of which six were previously unknown. We find in particular a possible substellar companion (either a very low-mass star or a high-mass brown dwarf) 137 au from the star RY Ori. We find a strong anticorrelation between disk detection and multiplicity, with only two of our ten disk detections located in stellar multiple systems. We also find a correlation between scattered light contrast and the millimeter flux. This trend is not captured by previous studies of a more diversified sample and is due to the absence of extended, self-shadowed disks in our Orion sample. Conversely, we do not find significant correlations between the scattered light contrast of the disks and the stellar mass or age. We investigate the radial extent of the disks and compare this to the estimated far-ultraviolet (FUV) field strength at the system location. While we do not find a direct correlation, we notice that no extended disks are detected above an FUV field strength of ~300 G0.


(1644)An Empirical Calibration of the Tip of the Red Giant Branch Distance Method in the Near Infrared. I. Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/IR F110W and F160W Filters
  • Max J. B. Newman,
  • Kristen B. W. McQuinn,
  • Evan D. Skillman,
  • Martha L. Boyer,
  • Roger E. Cohen
  • +2
  • Andrew E. Dolphin,
  • O. Grace Telford
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (05/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad306d
abstract + abstract -

The tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) based distance method in the I band is one of the most efficient and precise techniques for measuring distances to nearby galaxies (D ≲ 15 Mpc). The TRGB in the near-infrared (NIR) is 1–2 mag brighter relative to the I band, and has the potential to expand the range over which distance measurements to nearby galaxies are feasible. Using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of 12 fields in eight nearby galaxies, we determine color-based corrections and zero-points of the TRGB in the Wide Field Camera 3 IR (WFC3/IR) F110W and F160W filters. First, we measure TRGB distances in the I band equivalent Advanced Camera System (ACS) F814W filter from resolved stellar populations with the HST. The TRGB in the ACS F814W filter is used for our distance anchor and to place the WFC3/IR magnitudes on an absolute scale. We then determine the color dependence (a proxy for metallicity/age) and zero-point of the NIR TRGB from photometry of WFC3/IR fields that overlap with the ACS fields. The new calibration is accurate to ∼1% in distance relative to the F814W TRGB. Validating the accuracy of the calibrations, we find that the distance modulus for each field using the NIR TRGB calibration agrees with the distance modulus of the same field as determined from the F814W TRGB. This is a JWST preparatory program, and the work done here will directly inform our approach to calibrating the TRGB in JWST NIRCam and NIRISS photometric filters.


(1643)Comparing bulge RR Lyrae stars with bulge giants -- Insight from 3D kinematics
  • J. Olivares Carvajal,
  • M. Zoccali,
  • M. De Leo,
  • R. Contreras Ramos,
  • C. Quezada
  • +4
  • Á. Rojas-Arriagada,
  • E. Valenti,
  • R. Albarracín,
  • Á. Valenzuela Navarro
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The structure and kinematics of the old component of the Galactic bulge are still a matter of debate. The bulk of the bulge as traced by red clump stars includes two main components, which are usually identified as the metal-rich and metal-poor components. They have different shapes, kinematics, mean metallicities, and alpha-element abundances. It is our current understanding that they are associated with a bar and a spheroid, respectively. On the other hand, RR Lyrae variables trace the oldest population of the bulge. While it would be natural to think that they follow the structure and kinematics of the metal-poor component, the data analysed in the literature show conflicting results. We aim to derive a rotation curve for bulge RR Lyrae stars in order to determine that the old component traced by these stars is distinct from the two main components observed in the Galactic bulge. This paper combines APOGEE-2S spectra with OGLE-IV light curves, near-IR photometry, and proper motions from the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea survey for 4197 RR Lyrae stars. Six-dimensional phase-space coordinates were used to calculate orbits within an updated Galactic potential and to isolate the stars. The stars that stay confined within the bulge represent 57% of our sample. Our results show that bulge RR Lyrae variables rotate more slowly than metal-rich red clump stars and have a lower velocity dispersion. Their kinematics is compatible with them being the low-metallicity tail of the metal-poor component. We confirm that a rather large fraction of halo RR Lyrae stars pass by the bulge within their orbits, increasing the velocity dispersion. A proper orbital analysis is therefore critical to isolate bona fide bulge variables. Finally, bulge RR Lyrae seem to trace a spheroidal component, although the current data do now allow us to reach a firm conclusion about the spatial distribution.


(1642)Confronting sparse Gaia DR3 photometry with TESS for a sample of about 60,000 hot massive non-radial pulsators
  • Daniel Hey,
  • Conny Aerts
abstract + abstract -

The Gaia mission has delivered hundreds of thousands of variable star light curves in multiple wavelengths. Recent work demonstrates that these light curves can be used to identify (non-)radial pulsations in the OBAF-type stars, despite the irregular cadence and low light curve precision of order a few mmag. With the considerably more precise TESS photometry, we revisit these candidate pulsators to conclusively ascertain the nature of their variability. We seek to re-classify the Gaia light curves with the first two years of TESS photometry for a sample of 58,970 p- and g- mode pulsators, encompassing gamma Dor, delta Scuti, SPB, and beta Cep variables. We also supply four new catalogues containing the confirmed pulsators, along with their dominant and secondary pulsation frequencies, the number of independent mode frequencies, and a ranking according to their usefulness for future asteroseismic ensemble analysis. We find that the Gaia photometry is exceptionally accurate for detecting the dominant and secondary frequencies, reaching approximately 80% accuracy in frequency for p- and g-mode pulsators. The majority of Gaia classifications are consistent with the classifications from the TESS data, illustrating the power of the low-cadence Gaia photometry for pulsation studies. We find that the sample of g-mode pulsators forms a continuous group of variable stars along the main sequence across B, A, and F spectral types, implying that the mode excitation mechanisms for all these pulsators need to be updated with improved physics. Finally, we provide a rank-ordered table of pulsators according to their asteroseismic potential for follow-up studies. Our catalogue offers a major increase in the number of confirmed gravity-mode pulsators with an identified dominant mode suitable for follow-up TESS ensemble asteroseismology of such stars.


(1641)Simple fits for the neutrino luminosities from protoneutron star cooling
  • Giuseppe Lucente,
  • Malte Heinlein,
  • H. -Thomas Janka,
  • Alessandro Mirizzi
abstract + abstract -

We propose a simple fit function, $L_{\nu_i}(t) = C\, t^{-\alpha}\, e^{-(t/\tau)^{n}}$, to parametrize the luminosities of neutrinos and antineutrinos of all flavors during the protoneutron star (PNS) cooling phase at post-bounce times $t \gtrsim 1$ s. This fit is based on results from a set of neutrino-hydrodynamics simulations of core-collapse supernovae in spherical symmetry. The simulations were performed with an energy-dependent transport for six neutrino species and took into account the effects of convection and muons in the dense and hot PNS interior. We provide values of the fit parameters $C$, $\alpha$, $\tau$, and $n$ for different neutron star masses and equations of state as well as correlations between these fit parameters. Our functional description is useful for analytic supernova modeling, for characterizing the neutrino light curves in large underground neutrino detectors, and as a tool to extract information from measured signals on the mass and equation of state of the PNS and on secondary signal components on top of the PNS's neutrino emission.


(1640)Development, Characterization and Production of a novel Water-based Liquid Scintillator based on the Surfactant TRITON X-100
  • Hans Th. J. Steiger,
  • Manuel Böhles,
  • Matthias Raphael Stock,
  • Michael Wurm,
  • David Dörflinger
  • +5
  • Ulrike Fahrendholz,
  • Anastasia Mpoukouvalas,
  • Lothar Oberauer,
  • Andreas Steiger,
  • Dorina Zundel
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Water-based Liquid Scintillator (WbLS) is a novel detector medium for particle physics experiments. Applications range from the use as hybrid Cherenkov/scintillation target in low-energy and accelerator neutrino experiments to large-volume neutron vetoes for dark matter detectors. Here, we present a novel WbLS featuring new components (the surfactant Triton-X and vitamin C for long-term stability), a new production recipe, and a thorough characterization of its properties. Moreover, based on neutron scattering data we are able to demonstrate that the pulse shape discrimination capabilities of this particular LS are comparable to fully-organic LAB based scintillators.


CN-2
RU-C
(1639)Acyl phosphates as chemically fueled building blocks for self-sustaining protocells
  • Oleksii Zozulia ,
  • Kriebisch Kriebisch,
  • Brigitte Kriebisch,
  • Héctor Soria Carrera,
  • Kingu Rici Ryadi
  • +2
abstract + abstract -

Lipids can spontaneously assemble into vesicle-forming membranes. Such vesicles serve as compartments for even the simplest living systems. Vesicles have been extensively studied for constructing synthetic cells or as models for protocells—the cells hypothesized to have existed before life. These compartments exist almost always close to equilibrium. Life, however, exists out of equilibrium. In this work, we studied vesicle-based compartments regulated by a non-equilibrium chemical reaction network that converts activating agents. Specifically, we use activating agents to condense carboxylates and phosphate esters into acylphosphate-based lipids that form vesicles. These vesicles can only be sustained when condensing agents are present, and without them, they decay. We demonstrate that the chemical reaction network can operate on prebiotic activating agents, opening the door to prebiotically plausible, self-sustainable protocells that compete for resources. In future work, such protocells should be endowed with a genotype, for example, based on self-replicating RNA structures that affect the protocell behavior to enable Darwinian evolution in a prebiotically plausible chemical system.


IDSL
RU-E
(1638)Heat flows enrich prebiotic building blocks and enhance their reactivity
  • Thomas Matreux,
  • Paula Aikkila,
  • Bettina Scheu,
  • Dieter Braun,
  • Christof B. Mast
abstract + abstract -

The emergence of biopolymer building blocks is a crucial step during the origins of life. However, all known formation pathways rely on rare pure feedstocks and demand successive purification and mixing steps to suppress unwanted side reactions and enable high product yields. Here we show that heat flows through thin, crack-like geo-compartments could have provided a widely available yet selective mechanism that separates more than 50 prebiotically relevant building blocks from complex mixtures of amino acids, nucleobases, nucleotides, polyphosphates and 2-aminoazoles. Using measured thermophoretic properties, we numerically model and experimentally prove the advantageous effect of geological networks of interconnected cracks that purify the previously mixed compounds, boosting their concentration ratios by up to three orders of magnitude. The importance for prebiotic chemistry is shown by the dimerization of glycine, in which the selective purification of trimetaphosphate (TMP) increased reaction yields by five orders of magnitude. The observed effect is robust under various crack sizes, pH values, solvents and temperatures. Our results demonstrate how geologically driven non-equilibria could have explored highly parallelized reaction conditions to foster prebiotic chemistry.


CN-4
MIAPbP
(1637)Towards early-type eclipsing binaries as extragalactic milestones: III. Physical properties of the O-type eclipsing binary OGLE LMC-ECL-21568 in a quadruple system
  • Mónica Taormina,
  • R. -P. Kudritzki,
  • B. Pilecki,
  • G. Pietrzyński,
  • I. B. Thompson
  • +6
  • J. Puls,
  • M. Górski,
  • B. Zgirski,
  • D. Graczyk,
  • W. Gieren,
  • G. Hajdu
  • (less)
arXiv e-prints (04/2024) e-Print:2404.02970
abstract + abstract -

We present the results from a complex study of an eclipsing O-type binary (Aa+Ab) with the orbital period $P_{A}=3.2254367$ days, that forms part of a higher-order multiple system in a configuration (A+B)+C. We derived masses of the Aa+Ab binary $M_{1}= 19.02 \pm 0.12 \,M_\odot$, $M_{2}= 17.50 \pm 0.13 \,M_\odot$, radii $R_{1}= 7.70 \pm 0.05 \,R_\odot$, $R_{2}= 6.64 \pm 0.06 \,R_\odot$, and temperatures $T_1 = 34250 \pm 500 $ K, $T_2 = 33750 \pm 500 $ K. From the analysis of radial velocities, we found a spectroscopic orbit of A in the outer A+B system with $P_{A+B}=195.8$ days ($P_{A+B}/P_{A}\approx 61$). In the O-C analysis, we confirmed this orbit and found another component orbiting the A+B system with $P_{AB+C}=2550$ days ($P_{AB+C}\,/P_{A+B}\approx 13$). From the total mass of the inner binary and its outer orbit, we estimated the mass of the third object, $M_B \gtrsim 10.7 M_\odot$. From the light-travel time effect fit to the O-C data, we obtained the limit for the mass of the fourth component, $M_C \gtrsim 7.3 M_\odot$. These extra components contribute to about 20% to 30% (increasing with wavelength) of the total system light. From the comparison of model spectra with the multiband photometry, we derived a distance modulus of 18.59 $\pm$ 0.06 mag, a reddening of 0.16 $\pm$ 0.02 mag, and an $R_V$ of $3.2$. This work is part of our ongoing project, which aims to calibrate the surface brightness-color relation for early-type stars.


(1636)DoubleTES detectors to investigate the CRESST low energy background: results from above-ground prototypes
  • G. Angloher,
  • S. Banik,
  • G. Benato,
  • A. Bento,
  • A. Bertolini
  • +53
  • R. Breier,
  • C. Bucci,
  • J. Burkhart,
  • L. Canonica,
  • A. D'Addabbo,
  • S. Di Lorenzo,
  • L. Einfalt,
  • A. Erb,
  • F. v. Feilitzsch,
  • S. Fichtinger,
  • D. Fuchs,
  • A. Garai,
  • V. M. Ghete,
  • P. Gorla,
  • P. V. Guillaumon,
  • S. Gupta,
  • D. Hauff,
  • M. Ješkovský,
  • J. Jochum,
  • M. Kaznacheeva,
  • A. Kinast,
  • H. Kluck,
  • H. Kraus,
  • S. Kuckuk,
  • A. Langenkämper,
  • M. Mancuso,
  • L. Marini,
  • B. Mauri,
  • L. Meyer,
  • V. Mokina,
  • M. Olmi,
  • T. Ortmann,
  • C. Pagliarone,
  • L. Pattavina,
  • F. Petricca,
  • W. Potzel,
  • P. Povinec,
  • F. Pröbst,
  • F. Pucci,
  • F. Reindl,
  • J. Rothe,
  • K. Schäffner,
  • J. Schieck,
  • S. Schönert,
  • C. Schwertner,
  • M. Stahlberg,
  • L. Stodolsky,
  • C. Strandhagen,
  • R. Strauss,
  • I. Usherov,
  • F. Wagner,
  • V. Wagner,
  • V. Zema
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

In recent times, the sensitivity of low-mass direct dark matter searches has been limited by unknown low energy backgrounds close to the energy threshold of the experiments known as the low energy excess (LEE). The CRESST experiment utilises advanced cryogenic detectors constructed with different types of crystals equipped with Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) to measure signals of nuclear recoils induced by the scattering of dark matter particles in the detector. In CRESST, this low energy background manifests itself as a steeply rising population of events below 200 eV. A novel detector design named doubleTES using two identical TESs on the target crystal was studied to investigate the hypothesis that the events are sensor-related. We present the first results from two such modules, demonstrating their ability to differentiate between events originating from the crystal's bulk and those occurring in the sensor or in its close proximity.


(1635)A novel strategy to prove chiral symmetry breaking in QCD-like theories
  • Luca Ciambriello,
  • Roberto Contino,
  • Andrea Luzio,
  • Marcello Romano,
  • Ling-Xiao Xu
arXiv e-prints (04/2024) e-Print:2404.02967
abstract + abstract -

We demonstrate that chiral symmetry breaking occurs in the confining phase of QCD-like theories with $N_c$ colors and $N_f$ flavors. Our proof is based on a novel strategy, called `downlifting', by which solutions of the 't Hooft anomaly matching and persistent mass conditions for a theory with $N_f-1$ flavors are constructed from those of a theory with $N_f$ flavors, while $N_c$ is fixed. By induction, chiral symmetry breaking is proven for any $N_f\geq p_{min}$, where $p_{min}$ is the smallest prime factor of $N_c$. The proof can be extended to $N_f <p_{min}$ under the additional assumption on the absence of phase transitions when quark masses are sent to infinity. Our results do not rely on ad-hoc assumptions on the spectrum of massless bound states.


(1634)Dianoga SIDM: galaxy cluster self-interacting dark matter simulations
  • Antonio Ragagnin,
  • Massimo Meneghetti,
  • Francesco Calura,
  • Giulia Despali,
  • Klaus Dolag
  • +3
  • Moritz S. Fischer,
  • Carlo Giocoli,
  • Lauro Moscardini
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

This work aims at assessing the impact of DM self-interactions on the properties of galaxy clusters. In particular, the goal is to study the angular dependence of the cross section by testing rare (large angle scattering) and frequent (small angle scattering) SIDM models with velocity-dependent cross sections. We re-simulate six galaxy cluster zoom-in initial conditions with a dark matter only run and with a full-physics setup simulations that includes a self-consistent treatment of baryon physics. We test the dark matter only setup and the full physics setup with either collisionless cold dark matter, rare self-interacting dark matter, and frequent self-interacting dark matter models. We then study their matter density profiles as well as their subhalo population. Our dark matter only SIDM simlations agree with theoretical models, and when baryons are included in simulations, our SIDM models substantially increase the central density of galaxy cluster cores compared to full-physics simulations using collisionless dark matter. SIDM subhalo suppression in full-physics simulations is milder compared to the one found in dark matter only simulations, because of the cuspier baryionic potential that prevent subhalo disruption. Moreover SIDM with small-angle scattering significantly suppress a larger number of subhaloes compared to large angle scattering SIDM models. Additionally, SIDM models generate a broader range of subhalo concentration values, including a tail of more diffuse subhaloes in the outskirts of galaxy clusters and a population of more compact subhaloes in the cluster cores.


(1633)Diagnostics of 3D explosion asymmetries of stripped-envelope supernovae by nebular line profiles
  • Bart van Baal,
  • Anders Jerkstrand,
  • Annop Wongwathanarat,
  • Thomas Janka
abstract + abstract -

Understanding the explosion mechanism and hydrodynamic evolution of core-collapse supernovae is a long-standing quest in astronomy. The asymmetries caused by the explosion are encoded into the line profiles which appear in the nebular phase of the SN evolution -- with particularly clean imprints in He star explosions. Here, we carry out nine different supernova simulations of He-core progenitors, exploding them in 3D with parametrically varied neutrino luminosities using the $\texttt{Prometheus-HotB}$ code, hydrodynamically evolving the models to the homologeous phase. We then compute nebular phase spectra with the 3D NLTE spectral synthesis code $\texttt{ExTraSS}$ (EXplosive TRAnsient Spectral Simulator). We study how line widths and shifts depend on progenitor mass, explosion energy, and viewing angle. We compare the predicted line profile properties against a large set of Type Ib observations, and discuss the degree to which current neutrino-driven explosions can match observationally inferred asymmetries. With self-consistent 3D modelling -- circumventing the difficulties of representing $^{56}$Ni mixing and clumping accurately in 1D models -- we find that neither low-mass He cores exploding with high energies nor high-mass cores exploding with low energies contribute to the Type Ib SN population. Models which have line profile widths in agreement with this population give sufficiently large centroid shifts for calcium emission lines. Calcium is more strongly affected by explosion asymmetries connected to the neutron star kicks than oxygen and magnesium. Lastly, we turn to the NIR spectra from our models to investigate the potential of using this regime to look for the presence of He in the nebular phase.


CN-3
RU-C
(1632)Simulations of galaxy cluster mergers with velocity-dependent, rare, and frequent self-interactions
  • V. M. Sabarish,
  • Marcus Brüggen,
  • Kai Schmidt-Hoberg,
  • Moritz S. Fischer,
  • Felix Kahlhoefer
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (04/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae664
abstract + abstract -

Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) has been proposed to solve small-scale problems in $\rm {\Lambda CDM}$ cosmology. In previous work, constraints on the self-interaction cross-section of dark matter have been derived assuming that the self-interaction cross-section is independent of velocity. However, a velocity-dependent cross-section is more natural in most theories of SIDM. Using idealized N-body simulations without baryons, we study merging clusters with velocity-dependent SIDM. In addition to the usual rare scattering in the isotropic limit, we also simulate these systems with anisotropic, small-angle (frequent) scatterings. We find that the collisionless brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) has an offset from the DM peak that grows at later stages. Finally, we also extend the existing upper bounds on the velocity-independent, isotropic self-interaction cross-section to the parameter space of rare and frequent velocity-dependent self-interactions by studying the central densities of dark matter-only isolated haloes. For these upper-bound parameters, the DM-BCG offsets just after the first pericentre in the dark matter-only simulations are found to be ≲10 kpc. On the other hand, because of BCG oscillations, we speculate that the distribution of BCG offsets in a relaxed cluster is a statistically viable probe. Therefore, this motivates further studies of BCG off-centring in hydrodynamic cosmological simulations.


CN-3
RU-C
(1631)Cosmological and idealized simulations of dark matter haloes with velocity-dependent, rare and frequent self-interactions
  • Moritz S. Fischer,
  • Lenard Kasselmann,
  • Marcus Brüggen,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Felix Kahlhoefer
  • +3
  • Antonio Ragagnin,
  • Andrew Robertson,
  • Kai Schmidt-Hoberg
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (04/2024) doi:10.1093/mnras/stae699
abstract + abstract -

Dark matter self-interactions may have the capability to solve or at least mitigate small-scale problems of the cosmological standard model, Lambda cold dark matter. There are a variety of self-interacting dark matter models that lead to distinguishable astrophysical predictions and hence varying success in explaining observations. Studies of dark matter (DM) density cores on various mass scales suggest a velocity-dependent scattering cross-section. In this work, we investigate how a velocity dependence alters the evolution of the DM distribution for frequent DM scatterings and compare to the velocity-independent case. We demonstrate that these cases are qualitatively different using a test problem. Moreover, we study the evolution of the density profile of idealized DM haloes and find that a velocity dependence can lead to larger core sizes and different time-scales of core formation and core collapse. In cosmological simulations, we investigate the effect of velocity-dependent self-interaction on haloes and satellites in the mass range of ≈1011-$10^{14} \, \mathrm{M_\odot }$. We study the abundance of satellites, density, and shape profiles and try to infer qualitative differences between velocity-dependent and velocity-independent scatterings as well as between frequent and rare self-interactions. We find that a strongly velocity-dependent cross-section can significantly amplify the diversity of rotation curves, independent of the angular dependence of the differential cross-section. We further find that the abundance of satellites in general depends on both the velocity dependence and the scattering angle, although the latter is less important for strongly velocity-dependent cross-sections.


(1630)Galaxy shapes in Magneticum. I. Connecting stellar and dark matter shapes to dynamical and morphological galaxy properties and the large-scale structure
  • Lucas M. Valenzuela,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Benjamin A. Seidel
abstract + abstract -

Despite being a fundamental property of galaxies that dictates the form of the potential, the 3D shape is intrinsically difficult to determine from observations. The improving quality of triaxial modeling methods in recent years has made it possible to measure these shapes more accurately. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the stellar and dark matter (DM) shapes of galaxies and the connections between them as well as with other galaxy properties. Using the hydrodynamical cosmological simulation Magneticum Box4, we computed the stellar and DM shapes of galaxies at different radii. We determined their morphologies, their projected morphological and kinematic parameters, and their fractions of in-situ formed stars. The DM follows the stellar component in shape and orientation at $3R_{1/2}$, indicating that DM is heavily influenced by the baryonic potential in the inner parts of the halo. The outer DM halo is independent of the inner properties such as morphology, however, and is more closely related to the large-scale anisotropy of the gas inflow. The stellar shapes of galaxies are correlated with morphology: ellipticals feature more spherical and prolate shapes than disk galaxies. Galaxies with more rotational support are flatter, and the stellar shapes are connected to the mass distribution. In particular, more extended elliptical galaxies have larger triaxialities. Finally, the shapes can be used to constrain the in-situ fraction of stars when combined with the stellar mass. The found relations show that shapes depend on the details of the accretion history. The similarities between the inner DM and stellar shapes signal the importance of baryonic matter for DM in galaxies and will help improve dynamical models in the future. At large radii the DM shape is completely decoupled from the central galaxy and is coupled more to the large-scale inflow.


(1629)Data availability and requirements relevant for the Ariel space mission and other exoplanet atmosphere applications
  • Katy L. Chubb,
  • Séverine Robert,
  • Clara Sousa-Silva,
  • Sergei N. Yurchenko,
  • Nicole F. Allard
  • +50
  • Vincent Boudon,
  • Jeanna Buldyreva,
  • Benjamin Bultel,
  • Athena Coustenis,
  • Aleksandra Foltynowicz,
  • Iouli E. Gordon,
  • Robert J. Hargreaves,
  • Christiane Helling,
  • Christian Hill,
  • Helgi Rafn Hrodmarsson,
  • Tijs Karman,
  • Helena Lecoq-Molinos,
  • Alessandra Migliorini,
  • Michaël Rey,
  • Cyril Richard,
  • Ibrahim Sadiek,
  • Frédéric Schmidt,
  • Andrei Sokolov,
  • Stefania Stefani,
  • Jonathan Tennyson,
  • Olivia Venot,
  • Sam O. M. Wright,
  • Rosa Arenales-Lope,
  • Joanna K. Barstow,
  • Andrea Bocchieri,
  • Nathalie Carrasco,
  • Dwaipayan Dubey,
  • Oleg Egorov,
  • Antonio García Muñoz,
  • Ehsan,
  • Gharib-Nezhad,
  • Leonardos Gkouvelis,
  • Fabian Grübel,
  • Patrick Gerard Joseph Irwin,
  • Antonín Knížek,
  • David A. Lewis,
  • Matt G. Lodge,
  • Sushuang Ma,
  • Zita Martins,
  • Karan Molaverdikhani,
  • Giuseppe Morello,
  • Andrei Nikitin,
  • Emilie Panek,
  • Miriam Rengel,
  • Giovanna Rinaldi,
  • Jack W. Skinner,
  • Giovanna Tinetti,
  • Tim A. van Kempen,
  • Jingxuan Yang,
  • Tiziano Zingales
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The goal of this white paper is to provide a snapshot of the data availability and data needs primarily for the Ariel space mission, but also for related atmospheric studies of exoplanets and brown dwarfs. It covers the following data-related topics: molecular and atomic line lists, line profiles, computed cross-sections and opacities, collision-induced absorption and other continuum data, optical properties of aerosols and surfaces, atmospheric chemistry, UV photodissociation and photoabsorption cross-sections, and standards in the description and format of such data. These data aspects are discussed by addressing the following questions for each topic, based on the experience of the "data-provider" and "data-user" communities: (1) what are the types and sources of currently available data, (2) what work is currently in progress, and (3) what are the current and anticipated data needs. We present a GitHub platform for Ariel-related data, with the goal to provide a go-to place for both data-users and data-providers, for the users to make requests for their data needs and for the data-providers to link to their available data. Our aim throughout the paper is to provide practical information on existing sources of data whether in databases, theoretical, or literature sources.


MIAPbP
(1628)Stellar Variability and Distance Indicators in the Near-infrared in Nearby Galaxies. I. RR Lyrae and Anomalous Cepheids in Draco dwarf spheroidal
  • Anupam Bhardwaj,
  • Marina Rejkuba,
  • Chow-Choong Ngeow,
  • Marcella Marconi,
  • Vincenzo Ripepi
  • +2
  • Abhinna Sundar Samantaray,
  • Harinder P. Singh
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Draco dwarf Spheroidal galaxy (dSph) is one of the nearest and the most dark matter dominated satellites of the Milky Way. We obtained multi-epoch near-infrared (NIR, $JHK_s$) observations of the central region of Draco dSph covering a sky area of $\sim 21'\times21'$ using the WIRCam instrument at the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Homogeneous $JHK_s$ time-series photometry for 212 RR Lyrae (173 fundamental-mode, 24 first-overtone, and 15 mixed-mode variables) and 5 Anomalous Cepheids in Draco dSph is presented and used to derive their period-luminosity relations at NIR wavelengths for the first-time. The small scatter of $\sim 0.05$~mag in these empirical relations for RR Lyrae stars is consistent with those in globular clusters and suggests a very small metallicity spread, up to $\sim0.2$~dex, among these centrally located variables. Based on empirically calibrated NIR period-luminosity-metallicity relations for RR Lyrae in globular clusters, we determined a distance modulus to Draco dSph of $\mu_\textrm{RRL} = 19.557 \pm 0.026$ mag. The calibrated $K_s$-band period-luminosity relations for Anomalous Cepheids in the Draco dSph and the Large Magellanic Cloud exhibit statistically consistent slopes but systematically different zero-points, hinting at possible metallicity dependence of $\sim-0.3$ mag~dex$^{-1}$. Finally, the apparent magnitudes of the tip of the red giant branch in $I$ and $J$ bands also agree well with their absolute calibrations with the adopted RR Lyrae distance to Draco. Our recommended $\sim1.5\%$ precise RR Lyrae distance, $D_\textrm{Draco} = 81.55 \pm 0.98 \textrm{(statistical)} \pm 1.17 \textrm{(systematic)}$~kpc, is the most accurate and precise distance to Draco dSph galaxy.


LRSM
(1627)Position-dependent light yield in short, coated SCSF-78 scintillating fibers
  • Martin J. Losekamm,
  • Stephan Paul,
  • Thomas Pöschl
Radiation Measurements (04/2024) doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2024.107116
abstract + abstract -

In fibers made from organic plastic scintillators, a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic effects results in the attenuation of light and thus in a position-dependent light yield. The trapping of photons can further be affected if fibers are coated with or wrapped in a light-absorbing or reflecting material to suppress optical cross-talk. These effects have frequently been studied for long (> 0.5 m) fibers, yet little data is available for shorter ones. We experimentally studied the position-dependent light yield of single-cladded Kuraray SCSF-78 fibers with lengths of < 10 cm and tested the effect of different cross-talk-preventing materials. Contrary to the often acceptable simplification that light is transmitted in the fiber core alone, we found that photons trapped by the protective cladding significantly contribute to the light transmission in short fibers. In this paper, we perform an in-depth characterization of the position-dependent light yield of fibers sputter-coated with aluminum and wrapped in aluminum foil using a double-exponential attenuation function. Finally, we compare our findings to a simple photon transport model.

 


(1626)Detecting unresolved lensed SNe Ia in LSST using blended light curves
  • Satadru Bag,
  • Simon Huber,
  • Sherry H. Suyu,
  • Nikki Arendse,
  • Irham Taufik Andika
  • +8
  • Raoul Canameras,
  • Alex Kim,
  • Eric Linder,
  • Kushal Lodha,
  • Alejandra Melo,
  • Anupreeta More,
  • Stefan Schuldt,
  • Arman Shafieloo
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Strong-gravitationally lensed supernovae (LSNe) are promising probes for providing absolute distance measurements using gravitational lens time delays. Spatially unresolved LSNe offer an opportunity to enhance the sample size for precision cosmology. We predict that there will be approximately $3$ times more unresolved than resolved LSNe Ia in the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) by the Rubin Observatory. In this article, we explore the feasibility of detecting unresolved LSNe Ia from the shape of the observed blended light curves using deep learning techniques, and we find that $\sim 30\%$ can be detected with a simple 1D CNN using well-sampled $rizy$-band light curves (with a false-positive rate of $\sim 3\%$). Even when the light curve is well-observed in only a single band among $r$, $i$, and $z$, detection is still possible with false-positive rates ranging from $\sim 4-7\%$, depending on the band. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these unresolved cases can be detected at an early stage using light curves up to $\sim20$ days from the first observation, with well-controlled false-positive rates, providing ample opportunities for triggering follow-up observations. Additionally, we demonstrate the feasibility of time-delay estimations using solely LSST-like data of unresolved light curves, particularly for doubles, when excluding systems with low time delay and magnification ratio. However, the abundance of such systems among those unresolved in LSST poses a significant challenge. This approach holds potential utility for upcoming wide-field surveys, and overall results could significantly improve with enhanced cadence and depth in the future surveys.


CN-4
RU-C
(1625)1991T-Like Type Ia Supernovae as an Extension of the Normal Population
  • John T. O'Brien,
  • Wolfgang E. Kerzendorf,
  • Andrew Fullard,
  • Rüdiger Pakmor,
  • Johannes Buchner
  • +5
  • Christian Vogl,
  • Nutan Chen,
  • Patrick van der Smagt,
  • Marc Williamson,
  • Jaladh Singhal
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (04/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad2358
abstract + abstract -

Type Ia supernovae (SNe) remain poorly understood despite decades of investigation. Massive computationally intensive hydrodynamic simulations have been developed and run to model an ever-growing number of proposed progenitor channels. Further complicating the matter, a large number of subtypes of Type Ia SNe have been identified in recent decades. Due to the massive computational load required, inference of the internal structure of Type Ia SNe ejecta directly from observations using simulations has previously been computationally intractable. However, deep-learning emulators for radiation transport simulations have alleviated such barriers. We perform abundance tomography on 40 Type Ia SNe from optical spectra using the radiative transfer code TARDIS accelerated by the probabilistic DALEK deep-learning emulator. We apply a parametric model of potential outer ejecta structures to comparatively investigate abundance distributions and internal ionization fractions of intermediate-mass elements (IMEs) between normal and 1991T-like Type Ia SNe in the early phases. Our inference shows that the outer ejecta of 1991T-like Type Ia SNe is underabundant in the typical intermediate mass elements that heavily contribute to the spectral line formation seen in normal Type Ia SNe at early times. Additionally, we find that the IMEs present in 1991T-like Type Ia SNe are highly ionized compared to those in the normal Type Ia population. Finally, we conclude that the transition between normal and 1991T-like Type Ia SNe appears to be continuous observationally and that the observed differences come out of a combination of both abundance and ionization fractions in these SNe populations.


(1624)Observed kinematics of the Milky Way nuclear stellar disk region
  • M. Zoccali,
  • A. Rojas-Arriagada,
  • E. Valenti,
  • R. Contreras Ramos,
  • A. Valenzuela-Navarro
  • +1
Astronomy and Astrophysics (04/2024) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347923
abstract + abstract -

Context. The nuclear region of the Milky Way, within approximately −1° < l < +1° and −0.3° < b < +0.3° (i.e., |l|< 150 pc, |b|< 45 pc), is believed to host a nuclear stellar disk, co-spatial with the gaseous central molecular zone. Previous kinematical studies detected faster rotation for the stars belonging to the nuclear stellar disk, compared to the surrounding regions.
Aims: We analyze the rotation velocity of stars at the nuclear stellar disk, and compare them with its analog in a few control fields just outside this region. We limit our analysis to stars in the red clump of the color magnitude diagram, in order to be able to relate their mean de-reddened luminosity with distance along the line of sight.
Methods: We used a proper motion catalog, obtained from point spread function photometry on VISTA variables in the Vía Láctea images, to construct maps of the transverse velocity for these stars. We complemented our analysis with radial velocities from the 17th data release of the APOGEE survey.
Results: We find that the main difference between the nuclear stellar disk region and its surroundings is that at the former we see only stars moving eastward, which we believe are located in front of the Galactic center. On the contrary, in every other direction, we see the brightest red clump stars moving eastward, and the faintest ones moving westward, as expected for a rotating disk. We interpret these observations as being produced by the central molecular zone, hiding stars behind itself. What we observe is compatible with being produced by just the absence of the component at the back, without requiring the presence of a cold, fast rotating disk. This component is also not clearly detected in the newest release of the APOGEE catalog. In other words, we find no clear signature of the nuclear stellar disk as a distinct kinematical component.
Conclusions: This work highlights the need for nearby control fields when attempting to characterize the properties of the nuclear stellar disk, as the different systematics affecting this region, compared to nearby ones, might introduce spurious results. Deep, wide field and high resolution photometry of the inner 4 deg of the Milky Way is needed in order to understand the structure and kinematics of this very unique region of our Galaxy.

Full Table 1 is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via https://cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/684/A214

Based on observations taken within the ESO VISTA Public Survey VVV, Program ID 179.B-2002.


CN-5
RU-D
(1623)A JWST Survey of the Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A
  • Dan Milisavljevic,
  • Tea Temim,
  • Ilse De Looze,
  • Danielle Dickinson,
  • J. Martin Laming
  • +42
  • Robert Fesen,
  • John C. Raymond,
  • Richard G. Arendt,
  • Jacco Vink,
  • Bettina Posselt,
  • George G. Pavlov,
  • Ori D. Fox,
  • Ethan Pinarski,
  • Bhagya Subrayan,
  • Judy Schmidt,
  • William P. Blair,
  • Armin Rest,
  • Daniel Patnaude,
  • Bon-Chul Koo,
  • Jeonghee Rho,
  • Salvatore Orlando,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka,
  • Moira Andrews,
  • Michael J. Barlow,
  • Adam Burrows,
  • Roger Chevalier,
  • Geoffrey Clayton,
  • Claes Fransson,
  • Christopher Fryer,
  • Haley L. Gomez,
  • Florian Kirchschlager,
  • Jae-Joon Lee,
  • Mikako Matsuura,
  • Maria Niculescu-Duvaz,
  • Justin D. R. Pierel,
  • Paul P. Plucinsky,
  • Felix D. Priestley,
  • Aravind P. Ravi,
  • Nina S. Sartorio,
  • Franziska Schmidt,
  • Melissa Shahbandeh,
  • Patrick Slane,
  • Nathan Smith,
  • Niharika Sravan,
  • Kathryn Weil,
  • Roger Wesson,
  • J. Craig Wheeler
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (04/2024) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ad324b
abstract + abstract -

We present initial results from a James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) survey of the youngest Galactic core-collapse supernova remnant, Cassiopeia A (Cas A), made up of NIRCam and MIRI imaging mosaics that map emission from the main shell, interior, and surrounding circumstellar/interstellar material (CSM/ISM). We also present four exploratory positions of MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrograph integral field unit spectroscopy that sample ejecta, CSM, and associated dust from representative shocked and unshocked regions. Surprising discoveries include (1) a weblike network of unshocked ejecta filaments resolved to ∼0.01 pc scales exhibiting an overall morphology consistent with turbulent mixing of cool, low-entropy matter from the progenitor's oxygen layer with hot, high-entropy matter heated by neutrino interactions and radioactivity; (2) a thick sheet of dust-dominated emission from shocked CSM seen in projection toward the remnant's interior pockmarked with small (∼1″) round holes formed by ≲0.″1 knots of high-velocity ejecta that have pierced through the CSM and driven expanding tangential shocks; and (3) dozens of light echoes with angular sizes between ∼0.″1 and 1' reflecting previously unseen fine-scale structure in the ISM. NIRCam observations place new upper limits on infrared emission (≲20 nJy at 3 μm) from the neutron star in Cas A's center and tightly constrain scenarios involving a possible fallback disk. These JWST survey data and initial findings help address unresolved questions about massive star explosions that have broad implications for the formation and evolution of stellar populations, the metal and dust enrichment of galaxies, and the origin of compact remnant objects.


(1622)The Physalis system: Discovery of ORC-like radio shells around a massive pair of interacting early-type galaxies with offset X-ray emission
  • Bärbel S. Koribalski,
  • Ildar Khabibullin,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Eugene Churazov,
  • Ray P. Norris
  • +5
  • Ettore Carretti,
  • Andrew M. Hopkins,
  • Tessa Vernstrom,
  • Stanislav S. Shabala,
  • Nikhel Gupta
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present the discovery of large radio shells around a massive pair of interacting galaxies and extended diffuse X-ray emission within the shells. The radio data were obtained with the Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in two frequency bands centred at 944 MHz and 1.4 GHz, respectively, while the X-ray data are from the XMM-Newton observatory. The host galaxy pair, which consists of the early-type galaxies ESO 184-G042 and LEDA 418116, is part of a loose group at a distance of only 75 Mpc (redshift z = 0.017). The observed outer radio shells (diameter ~ 145 kpc) and ridge-like central emission of the system, ASKAP J1914-5433 (Physalis), are likely associated with merger shocks during the formation of the central galaxy (ESO 184-G042) and resemble the new class of odd radio circles (ORCs). This is supported by the brightest X-ray emission found offset from the centre of the Physalis system, instead centered at the less massive galaxy, LEDA 418116. The host galaxy pair is embedded in an irregular envelope of diffuse light, highlighting on-going interactions. We complement our combined radio and X-ray study with high-resolution simulations of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) around galaxy mergers from the Magneticum project to analyse the evolutionary state of the Physalis system. We argue that ORCs / radio shells could be produced by a combination of energy release from the central AGN and subsequent lightening up in radio emission by merger shocks traveling through the CGM of these systems.


(1621)Simulating nearby disc galaxies on the main star formation sequence I. Bar formation and the building of the central gas reservoir
  • Pierrick Verwilghen,
  • Eric Emsellem,
  • Florent Renaud,
  • Milena Valentini,
  • Jiayi Sun
  • +12
  • Sarah Jeffreson,
  • Ralf S. Klessen,
  • Mattia C. Sormani,
  • Ashley. T. Barnes,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Kathryn Grasha,
  • Fu-Heng Liang,
  • Sharon Meidt,
  • Justus Neumann,
  • Miguel Querejeta,
  • Eva Schinnerer,
  • Thomas G. Williams
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Past studies have long emphasised the key role played by galactic stellar bars in the context of disc secular evolution, via the redistribution of gas and stars, the triggering of star formation, and the formation of prominent structures such as rings and central mass concentrations. However, the exact physical processes acting on those structures, as well as the timescales associated with the building and consumption of central gas reservoirs are still not well understood. We are building a suite of hydro-dynamical RAMSES simulations of isolated, low-redshift galaxies that mimic the properties of the PHANGS sample. The initial conditions of the models reproduce the observed stellar mass, disc scale length, or gas fraction, and this paper presents a first subset of these models. Most of our simulated galaxies develop a prominent bar structure, which itself triggers central gas fuelling and the building of an over-density with a typical scale of 100-1000 pc. We confirm that if the host galaxy features an ellipsoidal component, the formation of the bar and gas fuelling are delayed. We show that most of our simulations follow a common time evolution, when accounting for mass scaling and the bar formation time. In our simulations, the stellar mass of $10^{10}$~M$_{\odot}$ seems to mark a change in the phases describing the time evolution of the bar and its impact on the interstellar medium. In massive discs (M$_{\star} \geq 10^{10}$~M$_{\odot}$), we observe the formation of a central gas reservoir with star formation mostly occurring within a restricted starburst region, leading to a gas depletion phase. Lower-mass systems (M$_{\star} < 10^{10}$~M$_{\odot}$) do not exhibit such a depletion phase, and show a more homogeneous spread of star-forming regions along the bar structure, and do not appear to host inner bar-driven discs or rings.


CN-8
RU-E
(1620)Design Principles for Fast and Efficient Self-Assembly Processes
  • Florian M. Gartner,
  • Erwin Frey
Physical Review X (04/2024) doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.14.021004
abstract + abstract -

Self-assembly is a fundamental concept in biology and of significant interest to nanotechnology. Significant progress has been made in characterizing and controlling the properties of the resulting structures, both experimentally and theoretically. However, much less is known about kinetic constraints and determinants of dynamical properties like time efficiency, although these constraints can become severe limiting factors of self-assembly processes. Here, we investigate how the time efficiency and other dynamical properties of reversible self-assembly depend on the morphology (shape) of the building blocks for systems in which the binding energy between the constituents is large. As paradigmatic examples, we stochastically simulate the self-assembly of constituents with triangular, square, and hexagonal morphology into two-dimensional structures of a specified size. We find that the constituents' morphology critically determines the assembly time and how it scales with the size of the target structure. Our analysis reveals three key structural parameters defined by the morphology: the nucleation size and attachment order, which describe the effective order of the chemical reactions by which clusters nucleate and grow, respectively, and the growth exponent, which determines how the growth rate of an emerging structure scales with its size. Using this characterization, we formulate an effective theory of the self-assembly kinetics, which we show exhibits an inherent scale invariance. This allows us to identify general scaling laws that describe the minimal assembly time as a function of the size of the target structure. We show how these insights on the kinetics of self-assembly processes can be used to design assembly schemes that could significantly increase the time efficiency and robustness of artificial self-assembly processes.


(1619)Hot New Early Dark Energy bridging cosmic gaps: Supercooled phase transition reconciles (stepped) dark radiation solutions to the Hubble tension with BBN
  • Mathias Garny,
  • Florian Niedermann,
  • Henrique Rubira,
  • Martin S. Sloth
abstract + abstract -

We propose a simple model that can alleviate the $H_0$ tension while remaining consistent with big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). It is based on a dark sector described by a standard Lagrangian featuring a $SU(N)$ gauge symmetry with $N\geq3$ and a massive scalar field with a quartic coupling. The scalar acts as dark Higgs leading to spontaneous symmetry breaking $SU(N)\to SU(N\!-\!1)$ via a first-order phase transition à la Coleman-Weinberg. This set-up naturally realizes previously proposed scenarios featuring strongly interacting dark radiation (SIDR) with a mass threshold within hot new early dark energy (NEDE). For a wide range of reasonable model parameters, the phase transition occurs between the BBN and recombination epochs and releases a sufficient amount of latent heat such that the model easily respects bounds on extra radiation during BBN while featuring a sufficient SIDR density around recombination for increasing the value of $H_0$ inferred from the cosmic microwave background. Our model can be summarized as a natural mechanism providing two successive increases in the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom after BBN but before recombination $\Delta N_\mathrm{BBN} \to \Delta N_\mathrm{NEDE} \to \Delta N_\mathrm{IR}$ alleviating the Hubble tension. The first step is related to the phase transition and the second to the dark Higgs becoming non-relativistic. This set-up predicts further signatures, including a stochastic gravitational wave background and features in the matter power spectrum that can be searched for with future pulsar timing and Lyman-$\alpha$ forest measurements.


(1618)Cracking the Relation between Mass and 1P Star Fraction of Globular Clusters. I. Present-day Cluster Masses as a First Tool
  • Geneviève Parmentier
The Astrophysical Journal (04/2024) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ad27db
abstract + abstract -

The phenomenon of multiple stellar populations is exacerbated in massive globular clusters, with the fraction of first-population (1P) stars a decreasing function of the cluster present-day mass. We decipher this relation in far greater detail than has been done so far. We assume (i) a fixed stellar mass threshold for the formation of second-population (2P) stars, (ii) a power-law scaling ${F}_{1{\rm{P}}}\propto {m}_{\mathrm{ecl}}^{-1}$ between the mass m ecl of newly formed clusters and their 1P star fraction F 1P, and (iii) a constant F 1P over time. The F 1P(m ecl) relation is then evolved up to an age of 12 Gyr for tidal field strengths representative of the entire Galactic halo. The 12 Gyr old model tracks cover the present-day distribution of Galactic globular clusters in the (mass, F 1P) space extremely well. The distribution is curtailed on its top right side by the scarcity of clusters at large Galactocentric distances and on its bottom left side by the initial scarcity of very high-mass clusters and dynamical friction. Given their distinct dissolution rates, "inner" and "outer" model clusters are offset from each other, as observed. The locus of Magellanic Clouds clusters in the (mass, F 1P) space is as expected for intermediate-age clusters evolving in a gentle tidal field. Given the assumed constancy of F 1P, we conclude that 2P stars do not necessarily form centrally concentrated. We infer a minimum mass of 4 · 105 M for multiple-population clusters at secular evolution onset. This high-mass threshold severely limits the number of 2P stars lost from evolving clusters, thereby fitting the low 2P star fraction of the Galactic halo field.


(1617)The Nature of X-Rays from Young Stellar Objects in the Orion Nebula Cluster -- A Chandra HETGS Legacy Project
  • Norbert S. Schulz,
  • David P. Huenemoerder,
  • David A. Principe,
  • Marc Gagne,
  • Hans Moritz Günther
  • +8
  • Joel Kastner,
  • Joy Nichols,
  • Andrew Pollock,
  • Thomas Preibisch,
  • Paola Testa,
  • Fabio Reale,
  • Fabio Favata,
  • Claude R. Canizares
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) is the closest site of very young ($\sim$ 1 Myrs) massive star formation. The ONC hosts more than 1600 young and X-ray bright stars with masses ranging from $\sim$ 0.1 to 35 $M_\odot$. The Chandra HETGS Orion Legacy Project observed the ONC with the Chandra high energy transmission grating spectrometer (HETGS) for $2.1\,$Ms. We describe the spectral extraction and cleaning processes necessary to separate overlapping spectra. We obtained 36 high resolution spectra which includes a high brilliance X-ray spectrum of $\theta^1$ Ori C with over 100 highly significant X-ray lines. The lines show Doppler broadening between 300 and $400\;\mathrm{km}\;\mathrm{s}^{-1}$. Higher spectral diffraction orders allow us to resolve line components of high Z He-like triplets in $\theta^1$ Ori C with unprecedented spectral resolution. Long term light curves spanning $\sim$20 years show all stars to be highly variable, including the massive stars. Spectral fitting with thermal coronal emission line models reveals that most sources show column densities of up to a few times $10^{22}\,$cm$^{-2}$ and high coronal temperatures of 10 to 90 MK. We observe a bifurcation of the high temperature component where some stars show a high component of 40 MK, while others show above 60 MK indicating heavy flaring activity. Some lines are resolved with Doppler broadening above our threshold of $\sim200\;\mathrm{km}\;\mathrm{s}^{-1}$, up to $500\;\mathrm{km}\;\mathrm{s}^{-1}$. This data set represents the largest collection of HETGS high resolution X-ray spectra from young pre-MS stars in a single star-forming region to date.