page 15 of 17
RU-C
(271)Cosmology dependence of halo masses and concentrations in hydrodynamic simulations
  • Antonio Ragagnin,
  • Alexandro Saro,
  • Priyanka Singh,
  • Klaus Dolag
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (01/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/staa3523
abstract + abstract -

We employ a set of Magneticum cosmological hydrodynamic simulations that span over 15 different cosmologies, and extract masses and concentrations of all well-resolved haloes between z = 0 and 1 for critical overdensities $\Delta _\textrm {vir}, \Delta _{200c}, \Delta _{500c}, \Delta _{2500c}$ and mean overdensity Δ200m. We provide the first mass-concentration (Mc) relation and sparsity relation (i.e. MΔ1 - MΔ2 mass conversion) of hydrodynamic simulations that is modelled by mass, redshift, and cosmological parameters Ωm, Ωb, σ8, h0 as a tool for observational studies. We also quantify the impact that the Mc relation scatter and the assumption of Navarro-Frank-White (NFW) density profiles have on the uncertainty of the sparsity relation. We find that converting masses with the aid of an Mc relation carries an additional fractional scatter ( $\approx 4{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ ) originated from deviations from the assumed NFW density profile. For this reason, we provide a direct mass-mass conversion relation fit that depends on redshift and cosmological parameters. We release the package HYDRO_MC, a PYTHON tool that perform all kind of conversions presented in this paper.


MIAPbP
(270)Determining the systemic redshift of Lyman α emitters with neural networks and improving the measured large-scale clustering
  • Siddhartha Gurung-López,
  • Shun Saito,
  • Carlton M. Baugh,
  • Silvia Bonoli,
  • Cedric G. Lacey
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (01/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/staa3269
abstract + abstract -

We explore how to mitigate the clustering distortions in Lyman α emitter (LAE) samples caused by the misidentification of the Lyman α ( $\rm {Ly}\,\alpha$ ) wavelength in their $\rm {Ly}\,\alpha$ line profiles. We use the $\rm {Ly}\,\alpha$ line profiles from our previous LAE theoretical model that includes radiative transfer in the interstellar and intergalactic mediums. We introduce a novel approach to measure the systemic redshift of LAEs from their $\rm {Ly}\,\alpha$ line using neural networks. In detail, we assume that for a fraction of the whole LAE population their systemic redshift is determined precisely through other spectral features. We then use this subset to train a neural network that predicts the $\rm {Ly}\,\alpha$ wavelength given an $\rm {Ly}\,\alpha$ line profile. We test two different training sets: (i) the LAEs are selected homogeneously and (ii) only the brightest LAE is selected. In comparison with previous approaches in the literature, our methodology improves significantly the accuracy in determining the $\rm {Ly}\,\alpha$ wavelength. In fact, after applying our algorithm in ideal $\rm {Ly}\,\alpha$ line profiles, we recover the clustering unperturbed down to $1\, {\rm cMpc}\, h^{-1}$ . Then, we test the performance of our methodology in realistic $\rm {Ly}\,\alpha$ line profiles by downgrading their quality. The machine learning technique using the uniform sampling works well even if the $\rm {Ly}\,\alpha$ line profile quality is decreased considerably. We conclude that LAE surveys such as HETDEX would benefit from determining with high accuracy the systemic redshift of a subpopulation and applying our methodology to estimate the systemic redshift of the rest of the galaxy sample.


MIAPbP
(269)Evidence for galaxy quenching in the green valley caused by a lack of a circumgalactic medium
  • Glenn G. Kacprzak,
  • Nikole M. Nielsen,
  • Hasti Nateghi,
  • Christopher W. Churchill,
  • Stephanie K. Pointon
  • +3
  • Themiya Nanayakkara,
  • Sowgat Muzahid,
  • Jane C. Charlton
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (01/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/staa3461
abstract + abstract -

The relationship between a galaxy's properties and its circumgalactic medium (CGM) provides a unique view of how galaxies evolve. We present an interesting edge-on (i = 86°) disc galaxy (G1547) where the CGM is probed by a background quasar at a distance of 84 kpc and within 10° of the galaxy major axis. G1547 does not have any detectable CGM absorption down to stringent limits, covering H I (EWr <0.02 Å, log(N(H I)/cm-2) < 12.6) and a range of low and high ionization absorption lines (O I, C II, N II, Si II, C III, N III, Si III, C IV, Si IV, N V, and O VI). This system is rare, given the covering fraction of $1.00_{-0.04}^{+0.00}$ for sub-L* galaxies within 50-100 kpc of quasar sightlines. G1547 has a low star formation rate (SFR, 1.1 M yr-1), specific SFR (sSFR, 1.5 × 10-10 yr-1), and ΣSFR (0.06 M yr-1 kpc-2) and does not exhibit active galactic nucleus or star-formation-driven outflows. Compared to the general population of galaxies, G1547 is in the green valley and has an above average metallicity with a negative gradient. When compared to other H I absorption-selected galaxies, we find that quiescent galaxies with log(sSFR/yr-1) < -11 have a low probability (4/12) of possessing detectable H I in their CGM, while all galaxies (40/40) with log(sSFR/yr-1) > -11 have H I absorption. We conclude that sSFR is a good indicator of the presence of H I CGM. Interestingly however, G1547 is the only galaxy with log(sSFR/yr-1) > -11 that has no detectable CGM. Given the properties of G1547, and its absent CGM, it is plausible that G1547 is undergoing quenching due to a lack of accreting fuel for star formation, with an estimated quenching time-scale of 4 ± 1 Gyr. G1547 provides a unique perspective into the external mechanisms that could explain the migration of galaxies into the green valley.


(268)Blind H I and OH Absorption Line Search: First Results with MALS and uGMRT Processed Using ARTIP
  • N. Gupta,
  • P. Jagannathan,
  • R. Srianand,
  • S. Bhatnagar,
  • P. Noterdaeme
  • +30
  • F. Combes,
  • P. Petitjean,
  • J. Jose,
  • S. Pandey,
  • C. Kaski,
  • A. J. Baker,
  • S. A. Balashev,
  • E. Boettcher,
  • H. -W. Chen,
  • C. Cress,
  • R. Dutta,
  • S. Goedhart,
  • G. Heald,
  • G. I. G. Józsa,
  • E. Kamau,
  • P. Kamphuis,
  • J. Kerp,
  • H. -R. Klöckner,
  • K. Knowles,
  • V. Krishnan,
  • J. -. K. Krogager,
  • V. P. Kulkarni,
  • E. Momjian,
  • K. Moodley,
  • S. Passmoor,
  • A. Schröeder,
  • S. Sekhar,
  • S. Sikhosana,
  • J. Wagenveld,
  • O. I. Wong
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (01/2021) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abcb85
abstract + abstract -

We present details of the Automated Radio Telescope Imaging Pipeline (ARTIP) and the results of a sensitive blind search for H I and OH absorbers at z < 0.4 and z < 0.7, respectively. ARTIP is written in Python 3.6, extensively uses the Common Astronomy Software Application tools and tasks, and is designed to enable the geographically distributed MeerKAT Absorption Line Survey (MALS) team to collaboratively process large volumes of radio interferometric data. We apply it to the first MALS data set obtained using the 64-dish MeerKAT radio telescope and 32 K channel mode of the correlator. With merely 40 minutes on target, we present the most sensitive spectrum of PKS 1830-211 ever obtained and characterize the known H I (z = 0.19) and OH (z = 0.89) absorbers. We further demonstrate ARTIP's capabilities to handle realistic observing scenarios by applying it to a sample of 72 bright radio sources observed with the upgraded Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (uGMRT) to blindly search for H I and OH absorbers. We estimate the numbers of H I and OH absorbers per unit redshift to be n21(z ∼ 0.18) < 0.14 and nOH(z ∼ 0.40) < 0.12, respectively, and constrain the cold gas covering factor of galaxies at large impact parameters (50 kpc < ρ < 150 kpc) to be less than 0.022. Due to the small redshift path, Δz ∼ 13 for H I with column density >5.4 × 1019 cm-2, the survey has probed only the outskirts of star-forming galaxies at ρ > 30 kpc. MALS with the expected Δz ∼ 103-4 will overcome this limitation and provide stringent constraints on the cold gas fraction of galaxies in diverse environments over 0 < z < 1.5.


(267)The diffuse interstellar band around 8620 Å. I. Methods and application to the GIBS data set
  • H. Zhao,
  • M. Schultheis,
  • A. Recio-Blanco,
  • G. Kordopatis,
  • P. de Laverny
  • +4
  • A. Rojas-Arriagada,
  • M. Zoccali,
  • F. Surot,
  • E. Valenti
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (01/2021) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202039736
abstract + abstract -

Context. Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are interstellar absorption features that widely exist in the optical and near-infrared wavelength range. DIBs play an important role in the lifecycle of the interstellar medium and can also be used to trace the Galactic structure.
Aims: We developed a set of procedures to automatically detect and measure the DIB around 8620 Å (the Gaia DIB) for a wide range of temperatures. The method was tested on ~5000 spectra from the Giraffe Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS) that has a spectral window similar to that of the Gaia-RVS spectra. Based on this sample, we studied the correlation between the equivalent width (EW) of the Gaia DIB and the interstellar reddening E(J - KS) toward the inner Galaxy, as well as the DIB intrinsic properties.
Methods: Our procedure automatically checks and eliminates invalid cases, and then applies a specific local normalization. The DIB profile is fit with a Gaussian function. Specifically, the DIB feature is extracted from the spectra of late-type stars by subtracting the corresponding synthetic spectra. For early-type stars we applied a specific model based on the Gaussian process that needs no prior knowledge of the stellar parameters. In addition, we provide the errors contributed by the synthetic spectra and from the random noise.
Results: After validation, we obtained 4194 reasonable fitting results from the GIBS database. An EW versus E(J - KS) relation is derived as E(J - KS) = 1.875 (±0.152) × EW - 0.011 (±0.048), according to E(B - V)/EW = 2.721, which is highly consistent with previous results toward similar sightlines. After a correction based on the Vista Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) database for both EW and reddening, the coefficient derived from individual GIBS fields, E(J - KS)/EW = 1.884 ± 0.225, is also in perfect agreement with literature values. Based on a subsample of 1015 stars toward the Galactic center within - 3° < b < 3° and - 6° < l < 3°, we determined a rest-frame wavelength of the Gaia DIB as 8620.55 Å.
Conclusions: The procedures for automatic detection and measurement of the Gaia DIB are successfully developed and have been applied to the GIBS spectra. A Gaussian profile is proved to be a proper and stable assumption for the Gaia DIB as no intrinsic asymmetry is found. A tight linearity of its correlation with the reddening is derived toward the inner Milky Way, which is consistent with previous results.

The catalog is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/645/A14


MIAPbP
(266)Covariance of the matter power spectrum including the survey window function effect: N -body simulations versus fifth-order perturbation theory on grids
  • Atsushi Taruya,
  • Takahiro Nishimichi,
  • Donghui Jeong
Physical Review D (01/2021) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.103.023501
abstract + abstract -

We present a next-to-next-to-leading (fifth or NNLO) order calculation for the covariance matrix of the matter power spectrum, taking into account the effect of survey window functions. Using the grid-based calculation scheme for the standard perturbation theory, GridSPT, we quickly generate multiple realizations of the nonlinear density fields to fifth order in perturbation theory, then estimate the power spectrum and the covariance matrix from the sample. To the end, we have obtained the non-Gaussian covariance originated from the one-loop trispectrum without explicitly computing the trispectrum. By comparing the GridSPT calculations with the N -body results, we show that NNLO GridSPT result reproduces the N -body results on quasilinear scales, where SPT accurately models nonlinear matter power spectrum. Incorporating the survey window function effect to GridSPT is rather straightforward, and the resulting NNLO covariance matrix also matches well with the N -body results.


RU-D
(265)A new view of observed galaxies through 3D modelling and visualisation
  • T. Dykes,
  • C. Gheller,
  • B. S. Koribalski,
  • K. Dolag,
  • M. Krokos
Astronomy and Computing (01/2021) doi:10.1016/j.ascom.2021.100448
abstract + abstract -

Observational astronomers survey the sky in great detail to gain a better understanding of many types of astronomical phenomena. In particular, the formation and evolution of galaxies, including our own, are a wide field of research. Three dimensional (spatial 3D) scientific visualisation is typically limited to simulated galaxies, due to the inherently two dimensional spatial resolution of Earth-based observations. However, with appropriate means of reconstruction, such visualisation can also be used to bring out the inherent 3D structure that exists in 2D observations of known galaxies, providing new views of these galaxies and visually illustrating the spatial relationships within galaxy groups that are not obvious in 2D. We present a novel approach to reconstruct and visualise 3D representations of nearby galaxies based on observational data using the scientific visualisation software Splotch. We apply our approach to a case study of the nearby barred spiral galaxy known as M83, presenting a new perspective of the M83 local group and highlighting the similarities between our reconstructed views of M83 and other known galaxies of similar inclinations.


(264)A new class of fossil fragments from the hierarchical assembly of the Galactic bulge
  • F. R. Ferraro,
  • C. Pallanca,
  • B. Lanzoni,
  • C. Crociati,
  • E. Dalessandro
  • +10
  • L. Origlia,
  • R. M. Rich,
  • S. Saracino,
  • A. Mucciarelli,
  • E. Valenti,
  • D. Geisler,
  • F. Mauro,
  • S. Villanova,
  • C. Moni Bidin,
  • G. Beccari
  • (less)
Nature Astronomy (01/2021) doi:10.1038/s41550-020-01267-y
abstract + abstract -

The formation and evolutionary processes of galaxy bulges are still unclear, and the presence of young stars in the bulge of the Milky Way is largely debated. We recently demonstrated that Terzan 5, in the Galactic bulge, is a complex stellar system hosting stars with very different ages and a striking chemical similarity to the field population. This indicates that its progenitor was probably one of the giant structures that are thought to generate bulges through coalescence. Here we show that another globular cluster-like system in the bulge (Liller 1) hosts two distinct stellar populations with remarkably different ages: only 1-3 Gyr for the youngest, and 12 Gyr for the oldest, which is impressively similar to the old component of Terzan 5. This discovery classifies Liller 1 and Terzan 5 as sites of recent star formation in the Galactic bulge and provides clear observational proof that the hierarchical assembly of primordial massive structures contributed to the formation of the Milky Way spheroid.


(263)The Connection between Mergers and AGN Activity in Simulated and Observed Massive Galaxies
  • Ray S. Sharma,
  • Ena Choi,
  • Rachel S. Somerville,
  • Gregory F. Snyder,
  • Dale D. Kocevski
  • +6
  • Michaela Hirschmann,
  • Benjamin P. Moster,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Desika Narayanan,
  • Jeremiah P. Ostriker,
  • David J. Rosario
  • (less)
arXiv e-prints (01/2021) e-Print:2101.01729
abstract + abstract -

We analyze a suite of $30$ high resolution zoom-in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of massive galaxies with stellar masses $M_{\ast} > 10^{10.9} M_\odot$, with the goal of better understanding merger activity in AGN, AGN activity in merging systems, SMBH growth during mergers, and the role of gas content. Using the radiative transfer code \textsc{Powderday}, we generate HST-WFC3 F160W synthetic observations of redshift $0.5 < z < 3$ central galaxies, add noise properties similar to the CANDELS survey, and measure morphological properties from the synthetic images using commonly adopted non-parametric statistics. We compare the distributions of morphological properties measured from the synthetic images with a sample of inactive galaxies and X-ray selected AGN hosts from CANDELS. We study the connection between mergers and AGN activity in the simulations, the synthetic images, and the observed CANDELS sample. We find that, in both the simulations and CANDELS, even the most luminous $(L_{\rm bol} > 10^{45}$ erg s$^{-1})$ AGN in our sample are no more likely than inactive galaxies $(L_{\rm bol} < 10^{43}$ erg s$^{-1})$ to be found in merging systems. We also find that AGN activity is not overall enhanced by mergers, nor enhanced at any specific time in the $1$ Gyr preceding and following a merger. Even gas rich major mergers (stellar mass ratio $>$1:4) do not necessarily enhance AGN activity or significantly grow the central SMBH. We conclude that in the simulated massive galaxies studied here, mergers are not the primary drivers of AGN.


CN-5
RU-D
(262)The fully developed remnant of a neutrino-driven supernova. Evolution of ejecta structure and asymmetries in SNR Cassiopeia A
  • S. Orlando,
  • A. Wongwathanarat,
  • H. -T. Janka,
  • M. Miceli,
  • M. Ono
  • +3
  • S. Nagataki,
  • F. Bocchino,
  • G. Peres
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (01/2021) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202039335
abstract + abstract -

Context. The remnants of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) are probes of the physical processes associated with their parent SNe.
Aims: Here we aim to explore to which extent the remnant keeps memory of the asymmetries that develop stochastically in the neutrino-heating layer due to hydrodynamic instabilities (e.g., convective overturn and the standing accretion shock instability; SASI) during the first second after core bounce.
Methods: We coupled a three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic model of a neutrino-driven SN explosion, which has the potential to reproduce the observed morphology of the Cassiopeia A (Cas A) remnant, with 3D (magneto)-hydrodynamic simulations of the remnant formation. The simulations cover ≈2000 yr of expansion and include all physical processes relevant to describe the complexities in the SN evolution and the subsequent interaction of the stellar debris with the wind of the progenitor star.
Results: The interaction of large-scale asymmetries left from the earliest phases of the explosion with the reverse shock produces, at the age of ≈350 yr, an ejecta structure and a remnant morphology which are remarkably similar to those observed in Cas A. Small-scale structures in the large-scale Fe-rich plumes that were created during the initial stages of the SN, combined with hydrodynamic instabilities that develop after the passage of the reverse shock, naturally produce a pattern of ring- and crown-like structures of shocked ejecta. The consequence is a spatial inversion of the ejecta layers with Si-rich ejecta being physically interior to Fe-rich ejecta. The full-fledged remnant shows voids and cavities in the innermost unshocked ejecta, which are physically connected with ring-like features of shocked ejecta in the main shell in most cases, resulting from the expansion of Fe-rich plumes and their inflation due to the decay of radioactive species. The asymmetric distributions of 44Ti and 56Fe, which are mostly concentrated in the northern hemisphere, and pointing opposite to the kick velocity of the neutron star, as well as their abundance ratio are both compatible with those inferred from high-energy observations of Chandra and NuSTAR. Finally, the simulations show that the fingerprints of the SN can still be visible ≈2000 yr after the explosion.
Conclusions: The main asymmetries and features observed in the ejecta distribution of Cas A can be explained by the interaction of the reverse shock with the initial large-scale asymmetries that developed from stochastic processes (e.g., convective overturn and SASI activity) that originate during the first seconds of the SN blast.

Movies associated to Figs. 7, 8, 12, 15 are available at https://www.aanda.org


RU-D
(261)The kinematics and dark matter fractions of TNG50 galaxies at z = 2 from an observational perspective
  • Hannah Übler,
  • Shy Genel,
  • Amiel Sternberg,
  • Reinhard Genzel,
  • Sedona H. Price
  • +11
  • Natascha M. Förster Schreiber,
  • Taro T. Shimizu,
  • Annalisa Pillepich,
  • Dylan Nelson,
  • Andreas Burkert,
  • Ric Davies,
  • Lars Hernquist,
  • Philipp Lang,
  • Dieter Lutz,
  • Rüdiger Pakmor,
  • Linda J. Tacconi
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (01/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/staa3464
abstract + abstract -

We contrast the gas kinematics and dark matter contents of z = 2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from state-of-the-art cosmological simulations within the ΛCDM framework to observations. To this end, we create realistic mock observations of massive SFGs ( $M_*\gt 4\times 10^{10} \, \mathrm{M}_{\odot}$ , SFR >50 M yr-1) from the TNG50 simulation of the IllustrisTNG suite, resembling near-infrared, adaptive-optics assisted integral-field observations from the ground. Using observational line fitting and modelling techniques, we analyse in detail the kinematics of seven TNG50 galaxies from five different projections per galaxy, and compare them to observations of twelve massive SFGs by Genzel et al. (2020). The simulated galaxies show clear signs of disc rotation but mostly exhibit more asymmetric rotation curves, partly due to large intrinsic radial and vertical velocity components. At identical inclination angle, their 1D velocity profiles can vary along different lines of sight by up to Δv = 200 km s-1. From dynamical modelling we infer rotation speeds and velocity dispersions that are broadly consistent with observational results. We find low central dark matter fractions compatible with observations ( $f_{\rm DM}^v(\lt R_e)=v_{\rm DM}^2(R_e)/v_{\rm circ}^2(R_e)\sim 0.32\pm 0.10$ ), however for disc effective radii Re that are mostly too small: at fixed Re the TNG50 dark matter fractions are too high by a factor of ∼2. We speculate that the differences in gas kinematics and dark matter content compared to the observations may be due to physical processes that are not resolved in sufficient detail with the numerical resolution available in current cosmological simulations.


IDSL
RU-E
(260)Structured sequences emerge from random pool when replicated by templated ligation
  • Patrick Kudella,
  • Alexei Tkachenko,
  • Annalena Salditt,
  • Sergei Maslov and Dieter Braun
abstract + abstract -

The central question in the origin of life is to understand how structure can emerge from randomness. The Eigen theory of replication states, for sequences that are copied one base at a time, that the replication fidelity has to surpass an error threshold to avoid that replicated specific sequences become random because of the incorporated replication errors [M. Eigen, Naturwissenschaften 58 (10), 465–523 (1971)]. Here, we showed that linking short oligomers from a random sequence pool in a templated ligation reaction reduced the sequence space of product strands. We started from 12-mer oligonucleotides with two bases in all possible combinations and triggered enzymatic ligation under temperature cycles. Surprisingly, we found the robust creation of long, highly structured sequences with low entropy. At the ligation site, complementary and alternating sequence patterns developed. However, between the ligation sites, we found either an A-rich or a T-rich sequence within a single oligonucleotide. Our modeling suggests that avoidance of hairpins was the likely cause for these two complementary sequence pools. What emerged was a network of complementary sequences that acted both as templates and substrates of the reaction. This self-selecting ligation reaction could be restarted by only a few majority sequences. The findings showed that replication by random templated ligation from a random sequence input will lead to a highly structured, long, and nonrandom sequence pool. This is a favorable starting point for a subsequent Darwinian evolution searching for higher catalytic functions in an RNA world scenario.


(259)A diffusiophoretic mechanism for ATP-driven transport without motor proteins
  • Beatrice Ramm,
  • Andriy Goychuk,
  • Alena Khmelinskaia,
  • Philipp Blumhardt,
  • Hiromune Eto
  • +3
  • Kristina A. Ganzinger,
  • Erwin Frey,
  • Petra Schwille
  • (less)
Nature Physics (2021) doi:10.1038/s41567-021-01213-3
abstract + abstract -

The healthy growth and maintenance of a biological system depends on the precise spatial organization of molecules within the cell through the dissipation of energy. Reaction-diffusion mechanisms can facilitate this organization, as can directional cargo transport orchestrated by motor proteins, by relying on specific protein interactions. However, transport of material through the cell can also be achieved by active processes based on non-specific, purely physical mechanisms, a phenomenon that remains poorly explored. Here, using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we discover and describe a hidden function of the Escherichia coli MinDE protein system: in addition to forming dynamic patterns, this system accomplishes the directional active transport of functionally unrelated cargo on membranes. Remarkably, this mechanism enables the sorting of diffusive objects according to their effective size, as evidenced using modular DNA origami-streptavidin nanostructures. We show that the diffusive fluxes of MinDE and non-specific cargo couple via density-dependent friction. This non-specific process constitutes a diffusiophoretic mechanism, as yet unknown in a cell biology setting. This nonlinear coupling between diffusive fluxes could represent a generic physical mechanism for establishing intracellular organization.


RU-A
(258)Searching for New Physics with (\bar {\mathcal {B}}(B_{s,d}\to \mu \bar \mu )/\Delta M_{s,d})
  • C. Bobeth,
  • A. J. Buras
Acta Physica Polonica B (2021) doi:10.5506/APhysPolB.52.1189
abstract + abstract -

We reemphasize that the ratio $R_{s\mu} \equiv \overline{\mathcal{B}}(B_s\to\mu\bar\mu)/\Delta M_s$ is a measure of the tension of the Standard Model (SM) with latest measurements of $\overline{\mathcal{B}}(B_s\to\mu\bar\mu)$ that does not suffer from the persistent puzzle on the $|V_{cb}|$ determinations from inclusive versus exclusive $b\to c\ell\bar\nu$ decays and which affects the value of the CKM element $|V_{ts}|$ that is crucial for the SM predictions of both $\overline{\mathcal{B}}(B_s\to\mu\bar\mu)$ and $\Delta M_s$, but cancels out in the ratio $R_{s\mu}$. In our analysis we include higher order electroweak and QED corrections und adapt the latest hadronic input to find a tension of about $2\sigma$ for $R_{s\mu}$ measurements with the SM independently of $|V_{ts}|$. We also discuss the ratio $R_{d\mu}$ which could turn out, in particular in correlation with $R_{s\mu}$, to be useful for the search for New Physics, when the data on both ratios improves. Also $R_{d\mu}$ is independent of $|V_{cb}|$ or more precisely $|V_{td}|$.


RU-A
(257)The (\varepsilon '/\varepsilon )-story: 1976–2021
  • A. J. Buras
Acta Physica Polonica B (2021) doi:10.5506/APhysPolB.52.7
abstract + abstract -

The ratio $\epsilon'/\epsilon$ measures the size of the direct CP violation in $K_L\to\pi\pi$ decays $(\epsilon^\prime)$ relative to the indirect one described by $\epsilon$ and is very sensitive to new sources of CP violation. As such it played a prominent role in particle physics already for 45 years. Due to the smallness of $\epsilon'/\epsilon$ its measurement required heroic efforts in the 1980s and the 1990s on both sides of the Atlantic with final results presented by NA48 and KTeV collaborations 20 years ago. Unfortunately, even 45 years after the first calculation of $\epsilon'/\epsilon$ we do not know to which degree the Standard Model agrees with this data and how large is the room left for new physics contributions to this ratio. This is due to significant non-perturbative (hadronic) uncertainties accompanied by partial cancellation between the QCD penguin contributions and electroweak penguin contributions. While the significant control over the short distance perturbative effects has been achieved already in the early 1990s, with several improvements since then, different views on the non-perturbative contributions to $\epsilon'/\epsilon$ have been expressed by different authors over last thirty years. In fact even today the uncertainty in the room left for NP contributions to $\epsilon'/\epsilon$ is very significant. My own work on $\epsilon'/\epsilon$ started in 1983 and involved both perturbative and non-perturbative calculations. This writing is a non-technical recollection of the steps which led to the present status of $\epsilon'/\epsilon$ including several historical remarks not known to everybody. The present status of the $\Delta I=1/2$ rule is also summarized. This story is dedicated to Jean-Marc Gerard on the occasion of the 35th anniversary of our collaboration and his 64th birthday.


(256)The two phases of core formation – orbital evolution in the centres of ellipticals with supermassive black hole binaries
  • M. Frigo,
  • T. Naab,
  • A. Rantala,
  • P.H. Johansson,
  • B. Neureiter
  • +2
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (2021) e-Print:2109.09996 doi:10.1093/mnras/stab2754
abstract + abstract -

The flat stellar density cores of massive elliptical galaxies form rapidly due to sinking supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in gas-poor galaxy mergers. After the SMBHs form a bound binary, gravitational slingshot interactions with nearby stars drive the core regions towards a tangentially biased stellar velocity distribution. We use collisionless galaxy merger simulations with accurate collisional orbit integration around the central SMBHs to demonstrate that the removal of stars from the centre by slingshot kicks accounts for the entire change in velocity anisotropy. The rate of strong (unbinding) kicks is constant over several hundred Myr at |$\sim 3 \ \mathrm{ M}_\odot\, \rm yr^{-1}$| for our most massive SMBH binary (M_BH = 1.7 × 10^10 M_⊙). Using a frequency-based orbit classification scheme (box, x-tube, z-tube, rosette), we demonstrate that slingshot kicks mostly affect box orbits with small pericentre distances, leading to a velocity anisotropy of β ≲ −0.6 within several hundred Myr as observed in massive ellipticals with large cores. We show how different SMBH masses affect the orbital structure of the merger remnants and present a kinematic tomography connecting orbit families to integral field kinematic features. Our direct orbit classification agrees remarkably well with a modern triaxial Schwarzschild analysis applied to simulated mock kinematic maps.


CN-4
PhD Thesis
RU-C
(255)Cosmological distances of type II supernovae from radiative transfer modeling
  • Christian Vogl - Advisor: Wolfgang Hillebrandt
(7/2020) link
abstract + abstract -

There is a great need for independent accurate measurements of the Hubble constant (H0). We establish a new one-step method to determine H0 based on radiative transfer modeling of type II supernovae and demonstrate its utility in a proof-of-principle measurement. In this first-ever application of the tailored-expanding-photosphere method in the Hubble flow, we find H0=72.3 ± 2.9 km s-1 Mpc-1 in good agreement with state-of-the-art results.


CN-7
RU-A
(254)Strangeness in nuclei and neutron stars
  • L. Tolos,
  • L. Fabbietti
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics (5/2020) doi:10.1016/j.ppnp.2020.103770
abstract + abstract -

We review the present status of the experimental and theoretical developments in the field of strangeness in nuclei and neutron stars. We start by discussing the K ¯ N interaction, that is governed by the presence of the Λ(1405) . We continue by showing the two-pole nature of the Λ(1405) , and the production mechanisms in photon-, pion-, kaon-induced reactions as well as proton-proton collisions, while discussing the formation of K ¯ NN bound states. We then move to the theoretical and experimental analysis of the properties of kaons and antikaons in dense nuclear matter, paying a special attention to kaonic atoms and the analysis of strangeness creation and propagation in nuclear collisions. Next, we examine the ϕ meson and the advances in photoproduction, proton-induced and pion-induced reactions, so as to understand its properties in dense matter. Finally, we address the dynamics of hyperons with nucleons and nuclear matter, and the connection to the phases of dense matter with strangeness in the interior of neutron stars.


CN-8
PhD Thesis
RU-E
(253)Self-organization and molecular transport by a biological reaction-diffusion system
  • Beatrice Ramm - Advisor: Petra Schwille
abstract + abstract -

Spatiotemporal organization is key to transforming a “bag of molecules” into a functional cell capable of exerting complex tasks, such as chromosome segregation and cell division. In bacteria, molecular transport and positioning relies on protein systems centered around ParA-type ATPases, which serve as nucleotide-dependent molecular switches. Of these systems, the Escherichia coli MinCDE system, which self-organizes by a reaction-diffusion mechanism, has been studied the most extensively. Based on the ATPase MinD, its ATPase-activating protein MinE, the passenger protein MinC and the membrane as a reaction matrix, this minimal oscillator defines the midcell position in E. coli. In this thesis, I set out to further refine the understanding of the MinDE self-organization mechanism and to decipher additional roles of the MinDE system, by taking advantage of the established in vitro reconstitution assay of Min(C)DE self-organization. [...]


RU-D
(252)Planet migration, resonant locking, and accretion streams in PDS 70: comparing models and data
  • Claudia Toci,
  • Giuseppe Lodato,
  • Valentin Christiaens,
  • Davide Fedele,
  • Christophe Pinte
  • +2
  • Daniel J. Price,
  • Leonardo Testi
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (12/2020) doi:10.1093/mnras/staa2933
abstract + abstract -

The disc surrounding PDS 70, with two directly imaged embedded giant planets, is an ideal laboratory to study planet-disc interaction. We present 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the system. In our simulations, planets, which are free to migrate and accrete mass, end up in a locked resonant configuration that is dynamically stable. We show that features observed at infrared (scattered light) and millimetre (thermal continuum) wavelengths are naturally explained by the accretion stream on to the outer planet, without requiring a circumplanetary disc around Planet c. We post-processed our near-infrared synthetic images in order to account for observational biases known to affect high-contrast images. Our successful reproduction of the observations indicates that planet-disc dynamical interactions alone are sufficient to explain the observations of PDS 70.


(251)Deep learning Blazar classification based on multifrequency spectral energy distribution data
  • Bernardo M.O. Fraga,
  • Ulisses Barres de Almeida,
  • Clecio R. Bom,
  • Carlos H. Brandt,
  • Paolo Giommi
  • +2
  • Patrick Schubert,
  • Marcio P. de Albuquerque
  • (less)
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (12/2020) e-Print:2012.15340 doi:10.1093/mnras/stab1349
abstract + abstract -

Blazars are among the most studied sources in high-energy astrophysics as they form the largest fraction of extragalactic gamma-ray sources and are considered prime candidates for being the counterparts of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. Their reliable identification amid the many faint radio sources is a crucial step for multimessenger counterpart associations. As the astronomical community prepares for the coming of a number of new facilities able to survey the non-thermal sky at unprecedented depths, from radio to gamma-rays, machine-learning techniques for fast and reliable source identification are ever more relevant. The purpose of this work was to develop a deep learning architecture to identify Blazar within a population of active galactic nucleus (AGN) based solely on non-contemporaneous spectral energy distribution information, collected from publicly available multifrequency catalogues. This study uses an unprecedented amount of data, with spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for ≈14 000 sources collected with the Open Universe VOU-Blazars tool. It uses a convolutional long short-term memory neural network purposefully built for the problem of SED classification, which we describe in detail and validate. The network was able to distinguish Blazars from other types of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to a satisfying degree (achieving a receiver operating characteristic area under curve of 0.98), even when trained on a reduced subset of the whole sample. This initial study does not attempt to classify Blazars among their different sub-classes, or quantify the likelihood of any multifrequency or multimessenger association, but is presented as a step towards these more practically oriented applications.


RU-C
(250)Responses of Halo Occupation Distributions: a new ingredient in the halo model & the impact on galaxy bias
  • Rodrigo Voivodic,
  • Alexandre Barreira
abstract + abstract -

Halo occupation distribution (HOD) models describe the number of galaxies that reside in different haloes, and are widely used in galaxy-halo connection studies using the halo model (HM). Here, we introduce and study HOD response functions R


(249)Higgs-mass predictions in the MSSM and beyond
  • P. Slavich,
  • S. Heinemeyer,
  • E. Bagnaschi,
  • H. Bahl,
  • M. Goodsell
  • +34
  • H.E. Haber,
  • T. Hahn,
  • R. Harlander,
  • W. Hollik,
  • G. Lee,
  • M. Mühlleitner,
  • S. Paßehr,
  • H. Rzehak,
  • D. Stöckinger,
  • A. Voigt,
  • C.E.M. Wagner,
  • G. Weiglein,
  • B.C. Allanach,
  • T. Biekötter,
  • S. Borowka,
  • J. Braathen,
  • M. Carena,
  • T.N. Dao,
  • G. Degrassi,
  • F. Domingo,
  • P. Drechsel,
  • U. Ellwanger,
  • M. Gabelmann,
  • R. Gröber,
  • J. Klappert,
  • T. Kwasnitza,
  • D. Meuser,
  • L. Mihaila,
  • N. Murphy,
  • K. Nickel,
  • W. Porod,
  • E.A. Reyes Rojas,
  • I. Sobolev,
  • F. Staub
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Predictions for the Higgs masses are a distinctive feature of supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, where they play a crucial role in constraining the parameter space. The discovery of a Higgs boson and the remarkably precise measurement of its mass at the LHC have spurred new efforts aimed at improving the accuracy of the theoretical predictions for the Higgs masses in supersymmetric models. The “Precision SUSY Higgs Mass Calculation Initiative” (KUTS) was launched in 2014 to provide a forum for discussions between the different groups involved in these efforts. This report aims to present a comprehensive overview of the current status of Higgs-mass calculations in supersymmetric models, to document the many advances that were achieved in recent years and were discussed during the KUTS meetings, and to outline the prospects for future improvements in these calculations.


(248)On the characteristics of fast neutrino flavor instabilities in three-dimensional core-collapse supernova models
  • Sajad Abbar,
  • Francesco Capozzi,
  • Robert Glas,
  • H.-Thomas Janka,
  • Irene Tamborra
abstract + abstract -

We assess the occurrence of fast neutrino flavor instabilities in two three-dimensional state-of-the-art core-collapse supernova simulations performed using a two-moment three-species neutrino transport scheme: one with an exploding 9M⊙ and one with a nonexploding 20M⊙ model. Apart from confirming the presence of fast instabilities occurring within the neutrino decoupling and the supernova pre-shock regions, we detect flavor instabilities in the post-shock region for the exploding model. These instabilities are likely to be scattering-induced. In addition, the failure in achieving a successful explosion in the heavier supernova model seems to seriously hinder the occurrence of fast instabilities in the post-shock region. This is a consequence of the large matter densities behind the stalled or retreating shock, which implies high neutrino scattering rates and thus more isotropic distributions of neutrinos and antineutrinos. Our findings suggest that the supernova model properties and the fate of the explosion can remarkably affect the occurrence of fast instabilities. Hence, a larger set of realistic hydrodynamical simulations of the stellar collapse is needed in order to make reliable predictions on the flavor conversion physics.


(247)Mu-Tau Neutrinos: Influencing Fast Flavor Conversions in Supernovae
  • Francesco Capozzi,
  • Madhurima Chakraborty,
  • Sovan Chakraborty,
  • Manibrata Sen
Physical Review Letters (12/2020) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.251801
abstract + abstract -

Neutrinos in a core-collapse supernova can undergo fast flavor conversions with a possible impact on the explosion mechanism and nucleosynthesis. We perform the first nonlinear simulations of fast conversions in the presence of three neutrino flavors. The recent supernova simulations with muon production call for such an analysis, as they relax the standard νμ ,τ¯ μ ,τ (two-flavor) assumption. Our results show the significance of muon and tau lepton number angular distributions, together with the traditional electron lepton number ones. Indeed, our three-flavor results are potentially very different from two-flavor ones. These results strengthen the need to further investigate the occurrence of fast conversions in supernova simulation data, including the degeneracy breaking of mu and tau neutrinos.


(246)Polarization angle measurement of LiteBIRD low frequency telescope scaled model
  • Hayato Takakura,
  • Yutaro Sekimoto,
  • Junji Inatani,
  • Shingo Kashima,
  • Masahiro Sugimoto
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (12/2020) doi:10.1117/12.2560419
abstract + abstract -

LiteBIRD is JAXA Strategic Large Mission for the late 2020s that aims to observe the large-scale B-mode polarization pattern of the cosmic microwave background. One of its telescopes, the Low Frequency Telescope (LFT), has a crossed-Dragone design and observes at 34-161 GHz with a field of view of 18° x 9°. Because a miscalibration of the polarization angles mixes E- and B-mode polarization, we have measured the variation of the polarization angles in the field of view of a 1/4-scaled LFT antenna at 140-220 GHz, which corresponds to 35-55 GHz for the full-scale LFT, considering a scaling of the wavelength. We placed a collimated-wave source near the scaled-LFT aperture and rotated the polarization angle of the LFT feed. The measurements were explained well with a simple Jones matrix calculation, and the fitting errors of the polarization angles were less than 0.1'. We also measured the polarization angles by rotating the polarization direction in the scaled-LFT aperture, and the results were consistent with the angles measured by rotating the feed polarization at the +/-10" level, except at the lowest frequencies. The polarization angle at the edges of the focal plane varied from that at the center by up to around a degree, with larger variation at lower frequencies. We evaluated the polarization angles for both Pol-X and Pol-Y feeds, and the results with Pol-Y showed a trend consistent with ray-tracing simulations. The results for Pol-X showed the opposite trend of the polarization rotation direction and larger angle variations.


(245)Five New Post-main-sequence Debris Disks with Gaseous Emission
  • Erik Dennihy,
  • Siyi Xu,
  • Samuel Lai,
  • Amy Bonsor,
  • J. C. Clemens
  • +11
  • Patrick Dufour,
  • Boris T. Gaensicke,
  • Nicola Pietro Gentile Fusillo,
  • Francois Hardy,
  • R. J. Hegedus,
  • J. J. Hermes,
  • B. C. Kaiser,
  • Markus Kissler-Patig,
  • Beth Klein,
  • Christopher J. Manser,
  • Joshua S. Reding
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Observations of debris disks, the products of the collisional evolution of rocky planetesimals, can be used to trace planetary activity across a wide range of stellar types. The most common end points of stellar evolution are no exception as debris disks have been observed around several dozen white dwarf stars. But instead of planetary formation, post-main-sequence debris disks are a signpost of planetary destruction, resulting in compact debris disks from the tidal disruption of remnant planetesimals. In this work, we present the discovery of five new debris disks around white dwarf stars with gaseous debris in emission. All five systems exhibit excess infrared radiation from dusty debris, emission lines from gaseous debris, and atmospheric absorption features indicating on-going accretion of metal-rich debris. In four of the systems, we detect multiple metal species in emission, some of which occur at strengths and transitions previously unseen in debris disks around white dwarf stars. Our first year of spectroscopic follow-up hints at strong variability in the emission lines that can be studied in the future, expanding the range of phenomena these post-main-sequence debris disks exhibit.


(244)Simulation of the cosmic ray effects for the LiteBIRD satellite observing the CMB B-mode polarization
  • Mayu Tominaga,
  • Masahiro Tsujimoto,
  • Samantha Lynn Stever,
  • Tommaso Ghigna,
  • HIrokazu Ishino
  • +1
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (12/2020) doi:10.1117/12.2576127
abstract + abstract -

The LiteBIRD satellite is planned to be launched by JAXA in the late 2020s. Its main purpose is to observe the large-scale B-mode polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anticipated from the Inflation theory. LiteBIRD will observe the sky for three years at the second Lagrangian point (L2) of the Sun-Earth system. Planck was the predecessor for observing the CMB at L2, and the onboard High Frequency Instrument (HFI) suffered contamination by glitches caused by the cosmic-ray (CR) hits. We consider the CR hits can also be a serious source of the systematic uncertainty for LiteBIRD. Thus, we have started a comprehensive end-to-end simulation study to assess impact of the CR hits for the LiteBIRD detectors. Here, we describe procedures to make maps and power spectra from the simulated time-ordered data, and present initial results. Our initial estimate is that ClBB by CR is ~ 2 ×10-6 μK2CMB in a one-year observation with 12 detectors assuming that the noise is 1 aW/ √ Hz for the differential mode of two detectors constituting a polarization pair.


MIAPbP
(243)Biasing Relation, Environmental Dependencies, and Estimation of the Growth Rate from Star-forming Galaxies
  • Adi Nusser,
  • Gustavo Yepes,
  • Enzo Branchini
The Astrophysical Journal (12/2020) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abc42f
abstract + abstract -

The connection between galaxy star formation rate (SFR) and dark matter (DM) is of paramount importance for the extraction of cosmological information from next-generation spectroscopic surveys that will target emission line star-forming galaxies. Using publicly available mock galaxy catalogs obtained from various semianalytic models (SAMs), we explore the SFR-DM connection in relation to the speed-from-light method for inferring the growth rate, f, from luminosity/SFR shifts. Emphasis is given to the dependence of the SFR distribution on the environmental density on scales of 10-100 s Mpc. We show that the application of the speed-from-light method to a Euclid-like survey is not biased by environmental effects. In all models, the precision on the measured β = f/b parameter is σβ ≲ 0.17 at z = 1. This translates into errors of σf ∼ 0.22 and ${\sigma }_{(f{\sigma }_{8})}\sim 0.1$ without invoking assumptions on the mass power spectrum. These errors are in the same ballpark as recent analyses of the redshift space distortions in galaxy clustering. In agreement with previous studies, the bias factor, b, is roughly a scale-independent, constant function of the SFR for star-forming galaxies. Its value at z = 1 ranges from 1.2 to 1.5 depending on the SAM recipe. Although in all SAMs, denser environments host galaxies with higher stellar masses, the dependence of the SFR on the environment is more involved. In most models, the SFR probability distribution is skewed to larger values in denser regions. One model exhibits an inverted trend, where high SFR is suppressed in dense environments.


(242)Detector fabrication development for the LiteBIRD satellite mission
  • B. Westbrook,
  • C. Raum,
  • S. Beckman,
  • A. T. Lee,
  • N. Farias
  • +21
  • T. Sasse,
  • A. Suzuki,
  • E. Kane,
  • J. E. Austermann,
  • J. A. Beall,
  • S. M. Duff,
  • J. Hubmayr,
  • G. C. Hilton,
  • J. Van Lanen,
  • M. R. Vissers,
  • M. R. Link,
  • N. Halverson,
  • G. Jaehnig,
  • T. Ghinga,
  • S. Stever,
  • Y. Minami,
  • K. L. Thompson,
  • M. Russell,
  • K. Arnold,
  • J. Seibert,
  • M. Silva-Feaver
  • (less)
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (12/2020) doi:10.1117/12.2562978
abstract + abstract -

LiteBIRD is a JAXA-led strategic Large-Class satellite mission designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background and cosmic foregrounds from 34 to 448 GHz across the entire sky from L2 in the late 2020's. The primary focus of the mission is to measure primordially generated B-mode polarization at large angular scales. Beyond its primary scientific objective LiteBIRD will generate a data-set capable of probing a number of scientific inquiries including the sum of neutrino masses. The primary responsibility of United States will be to fabricate the three flight model focal plane units for the mission. The design and fabrication of these focal plane units is driven by heritage from ground based experiments and will include both lenslet-coupled sinuous antenna pixels and horn-coupled orthomode transducer pixels. The experiment will have three optical telescopes called the low frequency telescope, mid frequency telescope, and high frequency telescope each of which covers a portion of the mission's frequency range. JAXA is responsible for the construction of the low frequency telescope and the European Consortium is responsible for the mid- and high- frequency telescopes. The broad frequency coverage and low optical loading conditions, made possible by the space environment, require development and adaptation of detector technology recently deployed by other cosmic microwave background experiments. This design, fabrication, and characterization will take place at UC Berkeley, NIST, Stanford, and Colorado University, Boulder. We present the current status of the US deliverables to the LiteBIRD mission.


RU-B
(241)New constraints on supersymmetry using neutrino telescopes
  • S. Meighen-Berger,
  • M. Agostini,
  • A. Ibarra,
  • K. Krings,
  • H. Niederhausen
  • +3
  • A. Rappelt,
  • E. Resconi,
  • A. Turcati
  • (less)
Physics Letters B (12/2020) doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2020.135929
abstract + abstract -

We demonstrate that megaton-mass neutrino telescopes are able to observe the signal from long-lived particles beyond the Standard Model, in particular the stau, the supersymmetric partner of the tau lepton. Its signature is an excess of charged particle tracks with horizontal arrival directions and energy deposits between 0.1 and 1 TeV inside the detector. We exploit this previously-overlooked signature to search for stau particles in the publicly available IceCube data. The data shows no evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. We derive a new lower limit on the stau mass of 320 GeV (95% C.L.) and estimate that this new approach, when applied to the full data set available to the IceCube collaboration, will reach word-leading sensitivity to the stau mass (mτ∼ = 450 GeV).


RU-C
(240)Concept design of low frequency telescope for CMB B-mode polarization satellite LiteBIRD
  • Y. Sekimoto,
  • P. A. R. Ade,
  • A. Adler,
  • E. Allys,
  • K. Arnold
  • +232
  • D. Auguste,
  • J. Aumont,
  • R. Aurlien,
  • J. Austermann,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. Banerji,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • S. Basak,
  • J. Beall,
  • D. Beck,
  • S. Beckman,
  • J. Bermejo,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • J. Bonis,
  • J. Borrill,
  • F. Boulanger,
  • S. Bounissou,
  • M. Brilenkov,
  • M. Brown,
  • M. Bucher,
  • E. Calabrese,
  • P. Campeti,
  • A. Carones,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • A. Challinor,
  • V. Chan,
  • K. Cheung,
  • Y. Chinone,
  • J. F. Cliche,
  • L. Colombo,
  • F. Columbro,
  • J. Cubas,
  • A. Cukierman,
  • D. Curtis,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • N. Dachlythra,
  • M. De Petris,
  • C. Dickinson,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • M. Dobbs,
  • T. Dotani,
  • L. Duband,
  • S. Duff,
  • J. M. Duval,
  • K. Ebisawa,
  • T. Elleflot,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • J. Errard,
  • T. Essinger-Hileman,
  • F. Finelli,
  • R. Flauger,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • M. Galloway,
  • K. Ganga,
  • J. R. Gao,
  • R. Genova-Santos,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • T. Ghigna,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • M. L. Gradziel,
  • J. Grain,
  • F. Grupp,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • J. E. Gudmundsson,
  • T. de Haan,
  • N. W. Halverson,
  • P. Hargrave,
  • T. Hasebe,
  • M. Hasegawa,
  • M. Hattori,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • D. Herman,
  • D. Herranz,
  • C. A. Hill,
  • G. Hilton,
  • Y. Hirota,
  • E. Hivon,
  • R. A. Hlozek,
  • Y. Hoshino,
  • E. de la Hoz,
  • J. Hubmayr,
  • K. Ichiki,
  • T. iida,
  • H. Imada,
  • K. Ishimura,
  • H. Ishino,
  • G. Jaehnig,
  • T. Kaga,
  • S. Kashima,
  • N. Katayama,
  • A. Kato,
  • T. Kawasaki,
  • R. Keskitalo,
  • T. Kisner,
  • Y. Kobayashi,
  • N. Kogiso,
  • A. Kogut,
  • K. Kohri,
  • E. Komatsu,
  • K. Komatsu,
  • K. Konishi,
  • N. Krachmalnicoff,
  • I. Kreykenbohm,
  • C. L. Kuo,
  • A. Kushino,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • J. V. Lanen,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • A. T. Lee,
  • C. Leloup,
  • F. Levrier,
  • E. Linder,
  • T. Louis,
  • G. Luzzi,
  • T. Maciaszek,
  • B. Maffei,
  • D. Maino,
  • M. Maki,
  • S. Mandelli,
  • E. Martinez-Gonzalez,
  • S. Masi,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • A. Mennella,
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • Y. Minanmi,
  • K. Mitsuda,
  • J. Montgomery,
  • L. Montier,
  • G. Morgante,
  • B. Mot,
  • Y. Murata,
  • J. A. Murphy,
  • M. Nagai,
  • Y. Nagano,
  • T. Nagasaki,
  • R. Nagata,
  • S. Nakamura,
  • T. Namikawa,
  • P. Natoli,
  • S. Nerval,
  • T. Nishibori,
  • H. Nishino,
  • C. O'Sullivan,
  • H. Ogawa,
  • H. Ogawa,
  • S. Oguri,
  • H. Ohsaki,
  • I. S. Ohta,
  • N. Okada,
  • N. Okada,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • G. Patanchon,
  • J. Peloton,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • G. Pisano,
  • G. Polenta,
  • D. Poletti,
  • T. Prouvé,
  • G. Puglisi,
  • D. Rambaud,
  • C. Raum,
  • S. Realini,
  • M. Reinecke,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • G. Roudil,
  • J. A. Rubino-Martin,
  • M. Russell,
  • H. Sakurai,
  • Y. Sakurai,
  • M. Sandri,
  • M. Sasaki,
  • G. Savini,
  • D. Scott,
  • J. Seibert,
  • B. Sherwin,
  • K. Shinozaki,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • P. Shirron,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • G. Smecher,
  • S. Stever,
  • R. Stompor,
  • H. Sugai,
  • S. Sugiyama,
  • A. Suzuki,
  • J. Suzuki,
  • T. L. Svalheim,
  • E. Switzer,
  • R. Takaku,
  • H. Takakura,
  • S. Takakura,
  • Y. Takase,
  • Y. Takeda,
  • A. Tartari,
  • E. Taylor,
  • Y. Terao,
  • H. Thommesen,
  • K. L. Thompson,
  • B. Thorne,
  • T. Toda,
  • M. Tomasi,
  • M. Tominaga,
  • N. Trappe,
  • M. Tristram,
  • M. Tsuji,
  • M. Tsujimoto,
  • C. Tucker,
  • J. Ullom,
  • G. Vermeulen,
  • P. Vielva,
  • F. Villa,
  • M. Vissers,
  • N. Vittorio,
  • I. Wehus,
  • J. Weller,
  • B. Westbrook,
  • J. Wilms,
  • B. Winter,
  • E. J. Wollack,
  • N. Y. Yamasaki,
  • T. Yoshida,
  • J. Yumoto,
  • M. Zannoni,
  • A. Zonca
  • (less)
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (12/2020) doi:10.1117/12.2561841
abstract + abstract -

LiteBIRD has been selected as JAXA's strategic large mission in the 2020s, to observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization over the full sky at large angular scales. The challenges of LiteBIRD are the wide field-of-view (FoV) and broadband capabilities of millimeter-wave polarization measurements, which are derived from the system requirements. The possible paths of stray light increase with a wider FoV and the far sidelobe knowledge of -56 dB is a challenging optical requirement. A crossed-Dragone configuration was chosen for the low frequency telescope (LFT : 34-161 GHz), one of LiteBIRD's onboard telescopes. It has a wide field-of-view (18° x 9°) with an aperture of 400 mm in diameter, corresponding to an angular resolution of about 30 arcminutes around 100 GHz. The focal ratio f/3.0 and the crossing angle of the optical axes of 90° are chosen after an extensive study of the stray light. The primary and secondary reflectors have rectangular shapes with serrations to reduce the diffraction pattern from the edges of the mirrors. The reflectors and structure are made of aluminum to proportionally contract from warm down to the operating temperature at 5 K. A 1/4 scaled model of the LFT has been developed to validate the wide field-of-view design and to demonstrate the reduced far sidelobes. A polarization modulation unit (PMU), realized with a half-wave plate (HWP) is placed in front of the aperture stop, the entrance pupil of this system. A large focal plane with approximately 1000 AlMn TES detectors and frequency multiplexing SQUID amplifiers is cooled to 100 mK. The lens and sinuous antennas have broadband capability. Performance specifications of the LFT and an outline of the proposed verification plan are presented.


(239)[N II] Fine-structure Emission at 122 and 205 μm in a Galaxy at z = 2.6: A Globally Dense Star-forming Interstellar Medium
  • M. J. Doherty,
  • J. E. Geach,
  • R. J. Ivison,
  • S. Dye
The Astrophysical Journal (12/2020) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abc5b9
abstract + abstract -

We present new observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array of the 122 and 205 μm fine-structure line emission of singly ionized nitrogen in a strongly lensed starburst galaxy at z = 2.6. The 122/205 μm [N II] line ratio is sensitive to electron density, ${n}_{{\rm{e}}}$, in the ionized interstellar medium, and we use this to measure ne ≍ 300 cm-3, averaged across the galaxy. This is over an order of magnitude higher than the Milky Way average, comparable to localized Galactic star-forming regions. Combined with observations of the atomic carbon (C I) and carbon monoxide (CO J = 4-3) in the same system, we reveal the conditions in this intensely star-forming system. The majority of the molecular interstellar medium has been driven to high density, and the resultant conflagration of star formation produces a correspondingly dense ionized phase, presumably colocated with myriad H II regions that litter the gas-rich disk.


RU-C
(238)Breadboard model of the polarization modulator unit based on a continuously rotating half-wave plate for the low-frequency telescope of the LiteBIRD space mission
  • Yuki Sakurai,
  • Tomotake Matsumura,
  • Nobuhiko Katayama,
  • Kunimoto Komatsu,
  • Ryota Takaku
  • +21
  • Shinya Sugiyama,
  • Yoshiki Nomura,
  • Takayuki Toda,
  • Tommaso Ghigna,
  • Teruhito Iida,
  • Hajime Sugai,
  • Hiroaki Imada,
  • Masashi Hazumi,
  • Hirokazu Ishino,
  • Hiroyuki Ohsaki,
  • Yutaka Terao,
  • Hisashi Enokida,
  • Yusuke Ishida,
  • Yosuke Iwata,
  • Doa Ahmad,
  • Kuniaki Konishi,
  • Haruyuki Sakurai,
  • Junji Yumoto,
  • Makoto Kuwata-Gonokami,
  • Akito Kusaka,
  • Charles Hill
  • (less)
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (12/2020) doi:10.1117/12.2560289
abstract + abstract -

We present a breadboard model development status of the polarization modulator unit (PMU) for a low-frequency telescope (LFT) of the LiteBIRD space mission. LiteBIRD is a next-generation cosmic microwave background polarization satellite to measure the primordial B-mode with the science goal of σr < 0.001. The baseline design of LiteBIRD consists of reflective low-frequency and refractive medium-and-high-frequency telescopes. Each telescope employs the PMU based on a continuous rotating half-wave plate (HWP) at the aperture. The PMU is a critical instrument for the LiteBIRD to achieve the science goal because it significantly suppresses 1/f noise and mitigates systematic uncertainties. The LiteBIRD LFT PMU consists of a broadband achromatic HWP and a cryogenic rotation mechanism. In this presentation, we discuss requirements, design and systematic studies of the PMU, and we report the development status of the broadband HWP and the space-compatible cryogenic rotation mechanism.


(237)A polarization modulator unit for the mid- and high-frequency telescopes of the LiteBIRD mission
  • Fabio Columbro,
  • Paolo de Bernardis,
  • Luca Lamagna,
  • Silvia Masi,
  • Alessandro Paiella
  • +2
  • Francesco Piacentini,
  • Giampaolo Pisano
  • (less)
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (12/2020) doi:10.1117/12.2577818
abstract + abstract -

The LiteBIRD mission is a JAXA strategic L-class mission for all sky CMB surveys which will be launched in the 2020s. The main target of the mission is the detection of primordial gravitational waves with a sensitivity of the tensor-to-scalar ratio δr<0.001. The polarization modulator unit (PMU) represents a critical and powerful component to suppress 1/f noise contribution and mitigate systematic uncertainties induced by detector gain drift, both for the high-frequency telescope (HFT) and for the mid-frequency telescope (MFT). Each PMU is based on a continuously-rotating transmissive half-wave plate (HWP) held by a superconducting magnetic bearing in a 5K environment. In this contribution we will present the design and expected performance of the LiteBIRD PMUs and testing performed on every PMU subsystem with a room-temperature rotating disk used as a stand-in for the cryogenic HWP rotor.


(236)Simulating electromagnetic transfer function from the transmission antennae to the sensors vicinity in LiteBIRD
  • M. Tsuji,
  • M. Tsujimoto,
  • Y. Sekimoto,
  • T. Dotani,
  • M. Shiraishi
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (12/2020) doi:10.1117/12.2560899
abstract + abstract -

The electromagnetic interference (EMI) is becoming an increasingly important factor in the spacecraft design equipped with highly sensitive detectors. This is particularly the case for LiteBIRD, in which the TES bolometers are exposed to space through the optical path. A particular concern is radiative interference caused by the X-band transmission during the ground communication. As the end-to-end verification test will be conducted in a later phase of the development, we need to derisk the concern early using simulation. In this report, we present the result of the EMI effects in the 1-GHz frequency range based on the electromagnetic simulation using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) solver. We modeled the dominant large structures of the spacecraft, calculated the spatial transmission of the antenna power, and estimated the electric field strength at the detector focal plane. The simulation results helped constrain aspects of the LiteBIRD satellite, such as the forward/backward ratio of the transmission antenna, to reduce the coupling between the antenna and the detectors.


(235)The optical design of the Litebird middle and high frequency telescope
  • L. Lamagna,
  • J. E. Gudmundsson,
  • H. Imada,
  • P. Hargrave,
  • C. Franceschet
  • +24
  • M. De Petris,
  • J. Austermann,
  • S. Bounissou,
  • F. Columbro,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • J. Hubmayr,
  • G. Jaehnig,
  • R. Keskitalo,
  • B. Maffei,
  • S. Masi,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • L. Montier,
  • B. Mot,
  • F. Noviello,
  • C. O'Sullivan,
  • A. Paiella,
  • G. Pisano,
  • S. Realini,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • G. Savini,
  • A. Suzuki,
  • N. Trappe,
  • B. Winter
  • (less)
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (12/2020) doi:10.1117/12.2579233
abstract + abstract -

LiteBIRD is a JAXA strategic L-class mission devoted to the measurement of polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background, searching for the signature of primordial gravitational waves in the B-modes pattern of the polarization. The onboard instrumentation includes a Middle and High Frequency Telescope (MHFT), based on a pair of cryogenically cooled refractive telescopes covering, respectively, the 89-224 GHz and the 166-448 GHz bands. Given the high target sensitivity and the careful systematics control needed to achieve the scientific goals of the mission, optical modeling and characterization are performed with the aim to capture most of the physical effects potentially affecting the real performance of the two refractors. We describe the main features of the MHFT, its design drivers and the major challenges in system optimization and characterization. We provide the current status of the development of the optical system and we describe the current plan of activities related to optical performance simulation and validation.


(234)HOLISMOKES. I. Highly Optimised Lensing Investigations of Supernovae, Microlensing Objects, and Kinematics of Ellipticals and Spirals
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • S. Huber,
  • R. Cañameras,
  • M. Kromer,
  • S. Schuldt
  • +8
  • S. Taubenberger,
  • A. Yıldırım,
  • V. Bonvin,
  • J. H. H. Chan,
  • F. Courbin,
  • U. Nöbauer,
  • S. A. Sim,
  • D. Sluse
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (12/2020) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202037757
abstract + abstract -

We present the HOLISMOKES programme on strong gravitational lensing of supernovae (SNe) as a probe of SN physics and cosmology. We investigate the effects of microlensing on early-phase SN Ia spectra using four different SN explosion models. We find that distortions of SN Ia spectra due to microlensing are typically negligible within ten rest-frame days after a SN explosion (< 1% distortion within the 1σ spread and ≲10% distortion within the 2σ spread). This shows the great prospects of using lensed SNe Ia to obtain intrinsic early-phase SN spectra for deciphering SN Ia progenitors. As a demonstration of the usefulness of lensed SNe Ia for cosmology, we simulate a sample of mock lensed SN Ia systems that are expected to have accurate and precise time-delay measurements in the era of the Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST). Adopting realistic yet conservative uncertainties on their time-delay distances and lens angular diameter distances, of 6.6% and 5%, respectively, we find that a sample of 20 lensed SNe Ia would allow us to constrain the Hubble constant (H0) with 1.3% uncertainty in the flat ΛCDM cosmology. We find a similar constraint on H0 in an open ΛCDM cosmology, while the constraint degrades to 3% in a flat wCDM cosmology. We anticipate lensed SNe to be an independent and powerful probe of SN physics and cosmology in the upcoming LSST era.


RU-A
(233)Another SMEFT story: Z' facing new results on ɛ'/ɛ, ΔM<SUB>K</SUB> and K → πν ν ¯
  • Jason Aebischer,
  • Andrzej J. Buras,
  • Jacky Kumar
Journal of High Energy Physics (12/2020) doi:10.1007/JHEP12(2020)097
abstract + abstract -

Recently the RBC-UKQCD lattice QCD collaboration presented new results for the hadronic matrix elements relevant for the ratio ɛ'/ɛ in the Standard Model (SM) albeit with significant uncertainties. With the present knowledge of the Wilson coefficients and isospin breaking effects there is still a sizable room left for new physics (NP) contributions to ɛ'/ɛ which could both enhance or suppress this ratio to agree with the data. The new SM value for the K0 - K¯0 mass difference ΔMK from RBC-UKQCD is on the other hand by 2σ above the data hinting for NP required to suppress ΔMK. Simultaneously the most recent results for K+ → π+ν ν ¯ from NA62 and for KL → π0ν ν ¯ from KOTO still allow for significant NP contributions. We point out that the suppression of ΔMK by NP requires the presence of new CP-violating phases with interesting implications for K → πν ν ¯, KS → μ+μ- and KL → π0+- decays. Considering a Z'-scenario within the SMEFT we analyze the dependence of all these observables on the size of NP still allowed by the data on ɛ'/ɛ. The hinted ΔMK anomaly together with the ɛK constraint implies in the presence of only left-handed (LH) or right-handed (RH) flavour-violating Z' couplings strict correlation between K+ → π+ν ν ¯ and KL → π0ν ν ¯ branching ratios so that they are either simultaneously enhanced or suppressed relative to SM predictions. An anticorrelation can only be obtained in the presence of both LH and RH couplings. Interestingly, the NP QCD penguin scenario for ɛ'/ɛ is excluded by SMEFT renormalization group effects in ɛK so that NP effects in ɛ'/ɛ are governed by electroweak penguins. We also investigate for the first time whether the presence of a heavy Z' with flavour violating couplings could generate through top Yukawa renormalization group effects FCNCs mediated by the SM Z-boson. The outcome turns out to be very interesting.


MIAPbP
(232)Classical Yang-Mills observables from amplitudes
  • Leonardo de la Cruz,
  • Ben Maybee,
  • Donal O'Connell,
  • Alasdair Ross
Journal of High Energy Physics (12/2020) doi:10.1007/JHEP12(2020)076
abstract + abstract -

The double copy suggests that the basis of the dynamics of general relativity is Yang-Mills theory. Motivated by the importance of the relativistic two-body problem, we study the classical dynamics of colour-charged particle scattering from the perspective of amplitudes, rather than equations of motion. We explain how to compute the change of colour, and the radiation of colour, during a classical collision. We apply our formalism at next-to-leading order for the colour change and at leading order for colour radiation.


(231)Topological Phase Transition in Coupled Rock-Paper-Scissors Cycles
  • Johannes Knebel,
  • Philipp M. Geiger,
  • Erwin Frey
Physical Review Letters (12/2020) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.258301
abstract + abstract -

A hallmark of topological phases is the occurrence of topologically protected modes at the system's boundary. Here, we find topological phases in the antisymmetric Lotka-Volterra equation (ALVE). The ALVE is a nonlinear dynamical system and describes, for example, the evolutionary dynamics of a rock-paper-scissors cycle. On a one-dimensional chain of rock-paper-scissor cycles, topological phases become manifest as robust polarization states. At the transition point between left and right polarization, solitary waves are observed. This topological phase transition lies in symmetry class D within the "tenfold way" classification as also realized by 1D topological superconductors.


MIAPbP
(230)Broadband electrical action sensing techniques with conducting wires for low-mass dark matter axion detection
  • Michael E. Tobar,
  • Ben T. McAllister,
  • Maxim Goryachev
Physics of the Dark Universe (12/2020) doi:10.1016/j.dark.2020.100624
abstract + abstract -

Due to the inverse Primakoff effect, it has been shown that when axions mix with a DC B →-field, the resulting electrical action will produce an AC electromotive force, which oscillates at the Compton frequency of the axion. As in standard electrodynamics, this electromotive force may be modelled as an oscillating effective impressed magnetic current boundary source. We use this result to calculate the sensitivity of new experiments to low-mass axions using the quasi-static technique, defined as when the Compton wavelength of the axion is greater than the dimensions of the experiment. First, we calculate the current induced in a straight conducting wire (electric dipole antenna) in the limit where the DC B →-field can be considered as spatially constant and show that it has a sensitivity proportional to the axion mass. Following this we extend the topology by making use of the full extent of the spatially varying DC B →-field of the electromagnet. This is achieved by transforming the 1D conducting wire to a 2D winding with inductance, to fully link the effective magnetic current boundary source and hence couple to the full axion induced electrical action (or electromotive force). We investigate two different topologies: The first uses a single winding, and couples to the effective short circuit current generated in the winding, which is optimally read out using a sensitive low impedance SQUID amplifier: The second technique uses multiple windings, with every turn effectively increasing the induced voltage, which is proportional to the winding number. The read out of this configuration is optimised by implementing a cryogenic low-noise high input impedance voltage amplifier. The end result is the realisation of new Broadband Electrical Action Sensing Techniques with orders of magnitude improved sensitivity over current low-mass axion experiments, with a sensitivity linearly proportional to the axion-photon coupling and capable of detecting QCD dark matter axions in the mass range of 10-12 - 10-8 eV and below.


CN-4
MIAPbP
RU-C
(229)Precision cosmology with voids in the final BOSS data
  • Nico Hamaus,
  • Alice Pisani,
  • Jin-Ah Choi,
  • Guilhem Lavaux,
  • Benjamin D. Wandelt
  • +1
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (12/2020) doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2020/12/023
abstract + abstract -

We report novel cosmological constraints obtained from cosmic voids in the final BOSS DR12 dataset. They arise from the joint analysis of geometric and dynamic distortions of average void shapes (i.e., the stacked void-galaxy cross-correlation function) in redshift space. Our model uses tomographic deprojection to infer real-space void profiles and self-consistently accounts for the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) effect and redshift-space distortions (RSD) without any prior assumptions on cosmology or structure formation. It is derived from first physical principles and provides an extremely good description of the data at linear perturbation order. We validate this model with the help of mock catalogs and apply it to the final BOSS data to constrain the RSD and AP parameters f/b and DA H/c, where f is the linear growth rate, b the linear galaxy bias, DA the comoving angular diameter distance, H the Hubble rate, and c the speed of light. In addition, we include two nuisance parameters in our analysis to marginalize over potential systematics. We obtain f/b=0.540±0.091 and DA H/c=0.588±0.004 from the full void sample at a mean redshift of z=0.51. In a flat ΛCDM cosmology, this implies Ωm=0.312±0.020 for the present-day matter density parameter. When we use additional information from the survey mocks to calibrate our model, these constraints improve to f/b=0.347±0.023, DA H/c=0.588±0.003, and Ωm = 0.310 ± 0.017. However, we emphasize that the calibration depends on the specific model of cosmology and structure formation assumed in the mocks, so the calibrated results should be considered less robust. Nevertheless, our calibration-independent constraints are among the tightest of their kind to date, demonstrating the immense potential of using cosmic voids for cosmology in current and future data.


(228)Mapping the stellar age of the Milky Way bulge with the VVV. III. High-resolution reddening map
  • F. Surot,
  • E. Valenti,
  • O. A. Gonzalez,
  • M. Zoccali,
  • E. Sökmen
  • +2
Astronomy and Astrophysics (12/2020) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202038346
abstract + abstract -

Context. A detailed study of the Galactic bulge stellar population necessarily requires an accurate representation of the interstellar extinction, particularly toward the Galactic plane and center, where severe and differential reddening is expected to vary on sub-arcmin scales. Although recent infrared surveys have addressed this problem by providing extinction maps across the whole Galactic bulge area, dereddened color-magnitude diagrams near the plane and center appear systematically undercorrected, prompting the need for higher resolution. These undercorrections affect any stellar study sensitive to color (e.g., star formation history analyses via color-magnitude diagram fitting), either making them inaccurate or limiting them to small and relatively stable extinction windows where this value is low and better constrained.
Aims: This study is aimed at providing a high-resolution (2 arcmin to ∼10 arcsec) color excess map for the VVV bulge area in J - Ks color.
Methods: We used the MW-BULGE-PSFPHOT catalogs, sampling ∼300 deg2 across the Galactic bulge (|l| < 10° and -10° < b < 5°) to isolate a sample of red clump and red giant branch stars, for which we calculated the average J - Ks color in a fine spatial grid in (l, b) space.
Results: We obtained an E(J - Ks) map spanning the VVV bulge area of roughly 300 deg2, with the equivalent of a resolution between ∼1 arcmin for bulge outskirts (l < 6°) to below 20 arcsec within the central |l| < 1°, and below 10 arcsec for the innermost area (|l| < 1° and |b| < 3°).

The map is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/644/A140

Based on observations taken within the ESO VISTA Public Survey VVV, Program ID 179.B-2002 (PI: Minniti, Lucas).

The result is publicly available at http://basti-iac.oa-teramo.inaf.it/vvvexmap/


RU-A
(227)SMEFT atlas of ΔF = 2 transitions
  • Jason Aebischer,
  • Christoph Bobeth,
  • Andrzej J. Buras,
  • Jacky Kumar
Journal of High Energy Physics (12/2020) doi:10.1007/JHEP12(2020)187
abstract + abstract -

We present a model-independent anatomy of the ΔF = 2 transitions K0-K¯0, Bs,d-B¯s ,d and D0-D¯0 in the context of the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT). We present two master formulae for the mixing amplitude [M12]BSM. One in terms of the Wilson coefficients (WCs) of the Low-Energy Effective Theory (LEFT) operators evaluated at the electroweak scale μew and one in terms of the WCs of the SMEFT operators evaluated at the BSM scale Λ. The coefficients Paij entering these formulae contain all the information below the scales μew and Λ, respectively. Renormalization group effects from the top-quark Yukawa coupling play the most important role. The collection of the individual contributions of the SMEFT operators to [M12]BSM can be considered as the SMEFT atlas of ΔF = 2 transitions and constitutes a travel guide to such transitions far beyond the scales explored by the LHC. We emphasize that this atlas depends on whether the down-basis or the up-basis for SMEFT operators is considered. We illustrate this technology with tree-level exchanges of heavy gauge bosons (Z', G') and corresponding heavy scalars.


RU-C
(226)LiteBIRD satellite: JAXA's new strategic L-class mission for all-sky surveys of cosmic microwave background polarization
  • M. Hazumi,
  • P. A. R. Ade,
  • A. Adler,
  • E. Allys,
  • K. Arnold
  • +233
  • D. Auguste,
  • J. Aumont,
  • R. Aurlien,
  • J. Austermann,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. Banjeri,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • S. Basak,
  • J. Beall,
  • D. Beck,
  • S. Beckman,
  • J. Bermejo,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • J. Bonis,
  • J. Borrill,
  • F. Boulanger,
  • S. Bounissou,
  • M. Brilenkov,
  • M. Brown,
  • M. Bucher,
  • E. Calabrese,
  • P. Campeti,
  • A. Carones,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • A. Challinor,
  • V. Chan,
  • K. Cheung,
  • Y. Chinone,
  • J. F. Cliche,
  • L. Colombo,
  • F. Columbro,
  • J. Cubas,
  • A. Cukierman,
  • D. Curtis,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • N. Dachlythra,
  • M. De Petris,
  • C. Dickinson,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • M. Dobbs,
  • T. Dotani,
  • L. Duband,
  • S. Duff,
  • J. M. Duval,
  • K. Ebisawa,
  • T. Elleflot,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • J. Errard,
  • T. Essinger-Hileman,
  • F. Finelli,
  • R. Flauger,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • M. Galloway,
  • K. Ganga,
  • J. R. Gao,
  • R. Genova-Santos,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • T. Ghigna,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • M. L. Gradziel,
  • J. Grain,
  • F. Grupp,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • J. E. Gudmundsson,
  • T. de Haan,
  • N. W. Halverson,
  • P. Hargrave,
  • T. Hasebe,
  • M. Hasegawa,
  • M. Hattori,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • D. Herman,
  • D. Herranz,
  • C. A. Hill,
  • G. Hilton,
  • Y. Hirota,
  • E. Hivon,
  • R. A. Hlozek,
  • Y. Hoshino,
  • E. de la Hoz,
  • J. Hubmayr,
  • K. Ichiki,
  • T. Iida,
  • H. Imada,
  • K. Ishimura,
  • H. Ishino,
  • G. Jaehnig,
  • T. Kaga,
  • S. Kashima,
  • N. Katayama,
  • A. Kato,
  • T. Kawasaki,
  • R. Keskitalo,
  • T. Kisner,
  • Y. Kobayashi,
  • N. Kogiso,
  • A. Kogut,
  • K. Kohri,
  • E. Komatsu,
  • K. Komatsu,
  • K. Konishi,
  • N. Krachmalnicoff,
  • I. Kreykenbohm,
  • C. L. Kuo,
  • A. Kushino,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • J. V. Lanen,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • A. T. Lee,
  • C. Leloup,
  • F. Levrier,
  • E. Linder,
  • T. Louis,
  • G. Luzzi,
  • T. Maciaszek,
  • B. Maffei,
  • D. Maino,
  • M. Maki,
  • S. Mandelli,
  • E. Martinez-Gonzalez,
  • S. Masi,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • A. Mennella,
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • Y. Minami,
  • K. Mitsuda,
  • J. Montgomery,
  • L. Montier,
  • G. Morgante,
  • B. Mot,
  • Y. Murata,
  • J. A. Murphy,
  • M. Nagai,
  • Y. Nagano,
  • T. Nagasaki,
  • R. Nagata,
  • S. Nakamura,
  • T. Namikawa,
  • P. Natoli,
  • S. Nerval,
  • T. Nishibori,
  • H. Nishino,
  • F. Noviello,
  • C. O'Sullivan,
  • H. Ogawa,
  • H. Ogawa,
  • S. Oguri,
  • H. Ohsaki,
  • I. S. Ohta,
  • N. Okada,
  • N. Okada,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • G. Patanchon,
  • J. Peloton,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • G. Pisano,
  • G. Polenta,
  • D. Poletti,
  • T. Prouvé,
  • G. Puglisi,
  • D. Rambaud,
  • C. Raum,
  • S. Realini,
  • M. Reinecke,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • G. Roudil,
  • J. A. Rubino-Martin,
  • M. Russell,
  • H. Sakurai,
  • Y. Sakurai,
  • M. Sandri,
  • M. Sasaki,
  • G. Savini,
  • D. Scott,
  • J. Seibert,
  • Y. Sekimoto,
  • B. Sherwin,
  • K. Shinozaki,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • P. Shirron,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • G. Smecher,
  • S. Stever,
  • R. Stompor,
  • H. Sugai,
  • S. Sugiyama,
  • A. Suzuki,
  • J. Suzuki,
  • T. L. Svalheim,
  • E. Switzer,
  • R. Takaku,
  • H. Takakura,
  • S. Takakura,
  • Y. Takase,
  • Y. Takeda,
  • A. Tartari,
  • E. Taylor,
  • Y. Terao,
  • H. Thommesen,
  • K. L. Thompson,
  • B. Thorne,
  • T. Toda,
  • M. Tomasi,
  • M. Tominaga,
  • N. Trappe,
  • M. Tristram,
  • M. Tsuji,
  • M. Tsujimoto,
  • C. Tucker,
  • J. Ullom,
  • G. Vermeulen,
  • P. Vielva,
  • F. Villa,
  • M. Vissers,
  • N. Vittorio,
  • I. Wehus,
  • J. Weller,
  • B. Westbrook,
  • J. Wilms,
  • B. Winter,
  • E. J. Wollack,
  • N. Y. Yamasaki,
  • T. Yoshida,
  • J. Yumoto,
  • M. Zannoni,
  • A. Zonca
  • (less)
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (12/2020) doi:10.1117/12.2563050
abstract + abstract -

LiteBIRD, the Lite (Light) satellite for the study of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection, is a space mission for primordial cosmology and fundamental physics. JAXA selected LiteBIRD in May 2019 as a strategic large-class (L-class) mission, with its expected launch in the late 2020s using JAXA's H3 rocket. LiteBIRD plans to map the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization over the full sky with unprecedented precision. Its main scientific objective is to carry out a definitive search for the signal from cosmic inflation, either making a discovery or ruling out well-motivated inflationary models. The measurements of LiteBIRD will also provide us with an insight into the quantum nature of gravity and other new physics beyond the standard models of particle physics and cosmology. To this end, LiteBIRD will perform full-sky surveys for three years at the Sun-Earth Lagrangian point L2 for 15 frequency bands between 34 and 448 GHz with three telescopes, to achieve a total sensitivity of 2.16 μK-arcmin with a typical angular resolution of 0.5° at 100 GHz. We provide an overview of the LiteBIRD project, including scientific objectives, mission requirements, top-level system requirements, operation concept, and expected scientific outcomes.


(225)Arguments against using h<SUP>-1</SUP> Mpc units in observational cosmology
  • Ariel G. Sánchez
Physical Review D (12/2020) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.102.123511
abstract + abstract -

It is common to express cosmological measurements in units of h-1 Mpc . Here, we review some of the complications that originate from this practice. A crucial problem caused by these units is related to the normalization of the matter power spectrum, which is commonly characterized in terms of the linear-theory rms mass fluctuation in spheres of radius 8 h-1 Mpc , σ8. This parameter does not correctly capture the impact of h on the amplitude of density fluctuations. We show that the use of σ8 has caused critical misconceptions for both the so-called σ8 tension regarding the consistency between low-redshift probes and cosmic microwave background data and the way in which growth-rate estimates inferred from redshift-space distortions are commonly expressed. We propose to abandon the use of h-1 Mpc units in cosmology and to characterize the amplitude of the matter power spectrum in terms of σ12, defined as the mass fluctuation in spheres of radius 12 Mpc, whose value is similar to the standard σ8 for h ∼0.67 .


RU-C
(224)Overview of the medium and high frequency telescopes of the LiteBIRD space mission
  • L. Montier,
  • B. Mot,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • B. Maffei,
  • G. Pisano
  • +232
  • F. Columbro,
  • J. E. Gudmundsson,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • J. Montgomery,
  • T. Prouvé,
  • M. Russell,
  • G. Savini,
  • S. Stever,
  • K. L. Thompson,
  • M. Tsujimoto,
  • C. Tucker,
  • B. Westbrook,
  • P. A. R. Ade,
  • A. Adler,
  • E. Allys,
  • K. Arnold,
  • D. Auguste,
  • J. Aumont,
  • R. Aurlien,
  • J. Austermann,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. Banerji,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • S. Basak,
  • J. Beall,
  • D. Beck,
  • S. Beckman,
  • J. Bermejo,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • J. Bonis,
  • J. Borrill,
  • F. Boulanger,
  • S. Bounissou,
  • M. Brilenkov,
  • M. Brown,
  • M. Bucher,
  • E. Calabrese,
  • P. Campeti,
  • A. Carones,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • A. Challinor,
  • V. Chan,
  • K. Cheung,
  • Y. Chinone,
  • J. F. Cliche,
  • L. Colombo,
  • J. Cubas,
  • A. Cukierman,
  • D. Curtis,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • N. Dachlythra,
  • M. De Petris,
  • C. Dickinson,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • M. Dobbs,
  • T. Dotani,
  • L. Duband,
  • S. Duff,
  • J. M. Duval,
  • K. Ebisawa,
  • T. Elleflot,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • J. Errard,
  • T. Essinger-Hileman,
  • F. Finelli,
  • R. Flauger,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • M. Galloway,
  • K. Ganga,
  • J. R. Gao,
  • R. Genova-Santos,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • T. Ghigna,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • M. L. Gradziel,
  • J. Grain,
  • F. Grupp,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • T. de Haan,
  • N. W. Halverson,
  • P. Hargrave,
  • T. Hasebe,
  • M. Hasegawa,
  • M. Hattori,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • D. Herman,
  • D. Herranz,
  • C. A. Hill,
  • G. Hilton,
  • Y. Hirota,
  • E. Hivon,
  • R. A. Hlozek,
  • Y. Hoshino,
  • E. de la Hoz,
  • J. Hubmayr,
  • K. Ichiki,
  • T. Iida,
  • H. Imada,
  • K. Ishimura,
  • H. Ishino,
  • G. Jaehnig,
  • T. Kaga,
  • S. Kashima,
  • N. Katayama,
  • A. Kato,
  • T. Kawasaki,
  • R. Keskitalo,
  • T. Kisner,
  • Y. Kobayashi,
  • N. Kogiso,
  • A. Kogut,
  • K. Kohri,
  • E. Komatsu,
  • K. Komatsu,
  • K. Konishi,
  • N. Krachmalnicoff,
  • I. Kreykenbohm,
  • C. L. Kuo,
  • A. Kushino,
  • J. V. Lanen,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • A. T. Lee,
  • C. Leloup,
  • F. Levrier,
  • E. Linder,
  • T. Louis,
  • G. Luzzi,
  • T. Maciaszek,
  • D. Maino,
  • M. Maki,
  • S. Mandelli,
  • E. Martinez-Gonzalez,
  • S. Masi,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • A. Mennella,
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • Y. Minami,
  • K. Mitsuda,
  • G. Morgante,
  • Y. Murata,
  • J. A. Murphy,
  • M. Nagai,
  • Y. Nagano,
  • T. Nagasaki,
  • R. Nagata,
  • S. Nakamura,
  • T. Namikawa,
  • P. Natoli,
  • S. Nerval,
  • T. Nishibori,
  • H. Nishino,
  • C. O'Sullivan,
  • H. Ogawa,
  • H. Ogawa,
  • S. Oguri,
  • H. Ohsaki,
  • I. S. Ohta,
  • N. Okada,
  • N. Okada,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • G. Patanchon,
  • J. Peloton,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • G. Polenta,
  • D. Poletti,
  • G. Puglisi,
  • D. Rambaud,
  • C. Raum,
  • S. Realini,
  • M. Reinecke,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • G. Roudil,
  • J. A. Rubino-Martin,
  • H. Sakurai,
  • Y. Sakurai,
  • M. Sandri,
  • M. Sasaki,
  • D. Scott,
  • J. Seibert,
  • Y. Sekimoto,
  • B. Sherwin,
  • K. Shinozaki,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • P. Shirron,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • G. Smecher,
  • R. Stompor,
  • H. Sugai,
  • S. Sugiyama,
  • A. Suzuki,
  • J. Suzuki,
  • T. L. Svalheim,
  • E. Switzer,
  • R. Takaku,
  • H. Takakura,
  • S. Takakura,
  • Y. Takase,
  • Y. Takeda,
  • A. Tartari,
  • E. Taylor,
  • Y. Terao,
  • H. Thommesen,
  • B. Thorne,
  • T. Toda,
  • M. Tomasi,
  • M. Tominaga,
  • N. Trappe,
  • M. Tristram,
  • M. Tsuji,
  • J. Ullom,
  • G. Vermeulen,
  • P. Vielva,
  • F. Villa,
  • M. Vissers,
  • N. Vittorio,
  • I. Wehus,
  • J. Weller,
  • J. Wilms,
  • B. Winter,
  • E. J. Wollack,
  • N. Y. Yamasaki,
  • T. Yoshida,
  • J. Yumoto,
  • M. Zannoni,
  • A. Zonca
  • (less)
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (12/2020) doi:10.1117/12.2562243
abstract + abstract -

LiteBIRD is a JAXA-led Strategic Large-Class mission designed to search for the existence of the primordial gravitational waves produced during the inflationary phase of the Universe, through the measurements of their imprint onto the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These measurements, requiring unprecedented sensitivity, will be performed over the full sky, at large angular scales, and over 15 frequency bands from 34 GHz to 448 GHz. The LiteBIRD instruments consist of three telescopes, namely the Low-, Medium-and High-Frequency Telescope (respectively LFT, MFT and HFT). We present in this paper an overview of the design of the Medium-Frequency Telescope (89{224 GHz) and the High-Frequency Telescope (166{448 GHz), the so-called MHFT, under European responsibility, which are two cryogenic refractive telescopes cooled down to 5 K. They include a continuous rotating half-wave plate as the first optical element, two high-density polyethylene (HDPE) lenses and more than three thousand transition-edge sensor (TES) detectors cooled to 100 mK. We provide an overview of the concept design and the remaining specific challenges that we have to face in order to achieve the scientific goals of LiteBIRD.


RU-D
(223)Fuzzy Dark Matter and Dark Matter Halo Cores
  • A. Burkert
The Astrophysical Journal (12/2020) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abb242
abstract + abstract -

Whereas cold dark matter (CDM) simulations predict central dark matter cusps with densities that diverge as ρ(r) ∼ 1/r, observations often indicate constant-density cores with finite central densities ρ0 and a flat density distribution within a core radius r0. This paper investigates whether this core-cusp problem can be solved by fuzzy dark matter (FDM), a hypothetical particle with a mass of the order of m ≍ 10-22 eV and a corresponding de Broglie wavelength on astrophysical scales. We show that galaxies with CDM halo virial masses Mvir ≤ 1011M follow two core-scaling relations. In addition to the well-known universal core column density Σ0 ≡ ρ0 × r0 = 75 ${M}_{\odot }$ pc-2, core radii increase with virial masses as r0 ∼ ${M}_{\mathrm{vir}}^{\gamma }$ with γ of order unity. Using the simulations by Schive et al. we demonstrate that FDM can explain the r0-Mvir scaling relation if the virial masses of the observed galaxy sample scale with the formation redshift z as Mvir ∼ (1 + z)-0.4. The observed constant Σ0 is however in complete disagreement with FDM cores which are characterized by a steep dependence Σ0 ∼ r ${}_{0}^{-3}$ , independent of z. More high-resolution simulations are now required to confirm the simulations of Schive et al. and explore the transition region between the soliton core and the surrounding halo. If these results hold, FDM can be ruled out as the origin of observed dark matter cores and other physical processes are required to account for their formation.


(222)Measuring Dark Matter in Galaxies: The Mass Fraction within Five Effective Radii
  • William E. Harris,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus,
  • Gretchen L. H. Harris,
  • Iu. V. Babyk
The Astrophysical Journal (12/2020) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abc429
abstract + abstract -

Large galaxies may contain an "atmosphere" of hot interstellar X-ray gas, and the temperature and radial density profile of this gas can be used to measure the total mass of the galaxy contained within a given radius r. We use this technique for 102 early-type galaxies with stellar masses M > 1010M, to evaluate the mass fraction of dark matter (DM) within the fiducial radius r = 5re, denoted f5 = fDM(5re). On average, these systems have a median $\overline{{f}_{5}}\simeq 0.8\mbox{--}0.9$ with a typical galaxy-to-galaxy scatter ±0.15. Comparisons with mass estimates made through the alternative techniques of satellite dynamics (e.g., velocity distributions of globular clusters, planetary nebulae, satellite dwarfs) as well as strong lensing show encouraging consistency over the same range of stellar mass. We find that many of the disk galaxies (S0/SA0/SB0) have a significantly higher mean f5 than do the pure ellipticals, by Δf5 ≃ 0.1. We suggest that this higher level may be a consequence of sparse stellar haloes and quieter histories with fewer major episodes of feedback or mergers. Comparisons are made with the Magneticum Pathfinder suite of simulations for both normal and centrally dominant "Brightest Cluster" galaxies. Though the observed data exhibit somewhat larger scatter at a given galaxy mass than do the simulations, the mean level of DM mass fraction for all classes of galaxies is in good first-order agreement with the simulations. Finally, we find that the group galaxies with stellar masses near M ∼ 1011M have relatively more outliers at low f5 than in other mass ranges, possibly the result of especially effective AGN feedback in that mass range leading to expansion of their DM halos.


(221)Galaxy power spectrum multipoles covariance in perturbation theory
  • Digvijay Wadekar,
  • Román Scoccimarro
Physical Review D (12/2020) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.102.123517
abstract + abstract -

We compute the covariance of the galaxy power spectrum multipoles in perturbation theory, including the effects of nonlinear evolution, nonlinear and nonlocal bias, radial redshift-space distortions, arbitrary survey window, and shot noise. We rewrite the power spectrum FKP estimator in terms of the usual windowed galaxy fluctuations and the fluctuations in the number of galaxies inside the survey volume. We show that this leads to a stronger supersample covariance than assumed in the literature and causes a substantial leakage of Gaussian information. We decompose the covariance matrix into several contributions that provide an insight into its behavior for different biased tracers. We show that for realistic surveys, the covariance of power spectrum multipoles is already dominated by shot noise and super survey mode coupling in the weakly nonlinear regime. Both these effects can be accurately modeled analytically, making a perturbative treatment of the covariance very compelling. Our method allows for the covariance to be varied as a function of cosmology and bias parameters very efficiently, with survey geometry entering as fixed kernels that can be computed separately using fast fourier transforms (FFTs). We find excellent agreement between our analytic covariance and that estimated from BOSS DR12 Patchy mock catalogs in the whole range we tested, up to k =0.6 h /Mpc . This bodes well for application to future surveys such as DESI and Euclid.


(220)EMERGE - empirical constraints on the formation of passive galaxies
  • Benjamin P. Moster,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Simon D. M. White
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (12/2020) doi:10.1093/mnras/staa3019
abstract + abstract -

We present constraints on the emergence and evolution of passive galaxies with the empirical model EMERGE, which reproduces the evolution of stellar mass functions (SMFs), specific and cosmic star formation rates since $z$ ≍ 10, 'quenched' galaxy fractions, and correlation functions. At fixed halo mass, present-day passive galaxies are more massive than active galaxies, whereas at fixed stellar mass passive galaxies populate more massive haloes in agreement with observations. This effect naturally results from the shape and scatter of the stellar-to-halo mass relation. The stellar mass assembly of present-day passive galaxies is dominated by 'in situ' star formation below ∼3 × 1011 M and by merging and accretion of 'ex situ' formed stars at higher mass. The mass dependence is in tension with current cosmological simulations. Lower mass passive galaxies show extended star formation towards low redshift in agreement with IFU surveys. All passive galaxies have main progenitors on the 'main sequence of star formation' with the 'red sequence' appearing at $z$ ≍ 2. Above this redshift, over 95 per cent of the progenitors of passive galaxies are active. More than 90 per cent of $z$ ≍ 2 'main sequence' galaxies with m* > 1010 M evolve into present-day passive galaxies. Above redshift 6, more than 80 per cent of the observed SMFs above 109 M can be accounted for by progenitors of passive galaxies with m* > 1010 M. This implies that high-redshift observations mainly probe the birth of present-day passive galaxies. EMERGE is available at github.com/bmoster/emerge.


CN-2
RU-D
(219)Environmental stability achieved for the Manfred Hirt Planet Spectrograph
  • Vanessa Fahrenschon,
  • Hanna Kellermann,
  • Liang Wang,
  • Frank Grupp,
  • Claus Gössl
  • +7
  • Ulrich Hopp,
  • Wolfgang Mitsch,
  • Michael Schmidt,
  • Christoph Ries,
  • Jana Steuer,
  • Roberto Saglia,
  • Ralf Bender
  • (less)
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (12/2020) doi:10.1117/12.2560944
abstract + abstract -

The Manfred Hirt Planet Spectrograph (MaHPS) — formerly also referred to as FOCES — is a high-resolution echelle spectrograph at the 2m telescope of the Wendelstein Observatory. One of its main scientific goals is the detection of planets at the few m/s level. To achieve such high precisions on a long-term scale, environmental stabilization of the instrument is required. The currently used temperature and pressure control systems are introduced and we present two different temperature control setups, with two and three actively controlled layers respectively. A series of measurements with an Astro Frequency Comb (AFC) as calibrator is shown to illustrate the system performance.


(218)Verification observations of the Manfred Hirt Planet Spectrograph
  • Hanna Kellermann,
  • Liang Wang,
  • Vanessa Fahrenschon,
  • Jana Steuer,
  • Fei Zhao
  • +7
  • Frank Grupp,
  • Michael Schmidt,
  • Christoph Ries,
  • Claus Goessel,
  • Wolfgang Mitsch,
  • Ulrich Hopp,
  • Ralf Bender
  • (less)
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (12/2020) doi:10.1117/12.2562495
abstract + abstract -

The Manfred Hirt Planet Spectrograph - formerly operated under the name FOCES - started its regular scientific observation program in fall 2019 at the 2m telescope of the Wendelstein Observatory, operated by the University Observatory of the LMU Munich. We present the first radial velocity stability measurements of an astronomical target, the 51 Pegasi b exoplanet system, utilizing our Astro Frequency Comb (ACF) for wavelength calibration. For computing RV shifts from orderwisely extracted Echelle spectra we have developed a new software pipeline. In this proceeding we will introduce the most important features of our pipeline: wavelength calibration with simultaneously recorded spectra of the AFC, generation of spectral templates, and an optional fit or cross- correlation function (CCF) for the calculation of the relative RV signals. Finally, the performance of the pipeline real data is demonstrated.


(217)The strange case of the transient HBL blazar 4FGL J1544.3-0649
  • N. Sahakyan,
  • P. Giommi
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (11/2020) e-Print:2011.10237 doi:10.1093/mnras/stab011
abstract + abstract -

We present a multifrequency study of the transient γ-ray source 4FGL J1544.3−0649, a blazar that exhibited a remarkable behaviour raising from the state of an anonymous mid-intensity radio source, never detected at high energies, to that of one of the brightest extreme blazars in the X-ray and γ-ray sky. Our analysis shows that the averaged γ-ray spectrum is well described by a power law with a photon index of 1.87 ± 0.04, while the flux above 100 MeV is (8.0 ± 0.9) × 10^−9 photon cm^−2 s^−1, which increases during the active state of the source. The X-ray flux and spectral slope are both highly variable, with the highest 2–10 keV flux reaching (1.28 ± 0.05) × 10^−10 erg cm^−2 s^−1. On several observations, the X-ray spectrum hardened to the point implying as SED peak moving to energies larger than 10 keV. As in many extreme blazars the broad-band spectral energy distribution can be described by a homogeneous one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton leptonic model. We briefly discuss the potential implications for high-energy multimessenger astrophysics in case the dual behaviour shown by 4FGL J1544.3−0649 does not represent an isolated case, but rather a manifestation of a so far unnoticed relatively common phenomenon.


CN-2
RU-E
(216)Prebiotic Nucleoside Synthesis: The Selectivity of Simplicity
  • F. M. Kruse,
  • J. S. Teichert,
  • O. Trapp
Chem. Eur. J. (11/2020) doi:10.1002/chem.202001513
abstract + abstract -

Ever since the discovery of nucleic acids 150 years ago,[1] major achievements have been made in understanding and decrypting the fascinating scientific questions of the genetic code.[2] However, the most fundamental question about the origin and the evolution of the genetic code remains a mystery. How did nature manage to build up such intriguingly complex molecules able to encode structure and function from simple building blocks? What conditions were required? How could the precursors survive the unhostile environment of early Earth? Over the past decades, promising synthetic concepts were proposed providing clarity in the field of prebiotic nucleic acid research. In this Minireview, we show the current status and various approaches to answer these fascinating questions.


(215)Gravitational-wave signals from 3D supernova simulations with different neutrino-transport methods
  • H. Andresen,
  • R. Glas,
  • H.Th. Janka
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (11/2020) e-Print:2011.10499 doi:10.1093/mnras/stab675
abstract + abstract -

We compare gravitational-wave (GW) signals from eight 3D simulations of core-collapse supernovae, using two different progenitors with zero-age main-sequence masses of 9 and 20 solar masses (M_⊙). The collapse of each progenitor was simulated four times, at two different grid resolutions and with two different neutrino transport methods, using the aenus-alcar code. The main goal of this study is to assess the validity of recent concerns that the so-called ‘Ray-by-Ray+’ (RbR+) approximation is problematic in core-collapse simulations and can adversely affect theoretical GW predictions. Therefore, signals from simulations using RbR+ are compared to signals from corresponding simulations using a fully multidimensional (FMD) transport scheme. The 9 M_⊙ progenitor successfully explodes, whereas the 20 M_⊙ model does not. Both the standing accretion shock instability and hot-bubble convection develop in the post-shock layer of the non-exploding models. In the exploding models, neutrino-driven convection in the post-shock flow is established around 100 ms after core bounce and lasts until the onset of shock revival. We can, therefore, judge the impact of the numerical resolution and neutrino transport under all conditions typically seen in non-rotating core-collapse simulations. We find excellent qualitative agreement in all GW features. We find minor quantitative differences between simulations, but find no systematic differences between simulations using different transport schemes. Resolution-dependent differences in the hydrodynamic behaviour of low-resolution and high-resolution models have a greater impact on the GW signals than consequences of the different transport methods. Furthermore, increasing the resolution decreases the discrepancies between models with different neutrino transport.


CN-6
(214)First all-flavor search for transient neutrino emission using 3-years of IceCube DeepCore data
  • R. Abbasi,
  • M. Ackermann,
  • J. Adams,
  • J.A. Aguilar,
  • M. Ahlers
  • +361
  • M. Ahrens,
  • C. Alispach,
  • A.A.,
  • Jr. Alves,
  • N.M. Amin,
  • K. Andeen,
  • T. Anderson,
  • I. Ansseau,
  • G. Anton,
  • C. Argüelles,
  • S. Axani,
  • X. Bai,
  • A.,
  • V. Balagopal,
  • A. Barbano,
  • S.W. Barwick,
  • B. Bastian,
  • V. Basu,
  • V. Baum,
  • S. Baur,
  • R. Bay,
  • J.J. Beatty,
  • K.-H. Becker,
  • J. Becker Tjus,
  • C. Bellenghi,
  • S. BenZvi,
  • D. Berley,
  • E. Bernardini,
  • D.Z. Besson,
  • G. Binder,
  • D. Bindig,
  • E. Blaufuss,
  • S. Blot,
  • S. Böser,
  • O. Botner,
  • J. Böttcher,
  • E. Bourbeau,
  • J. Bourbeau,
  • F. Bradascio,
  • J. Braun,
  • S. Bron,
  • J. Brostean-Kaiser,
  • A. Burgman,
  • R.S. Busse,
  • M.A. Campana,
  • C. Chen,
  • D. Chirkin,
  • S. Choi,
  • B.A. Clark,
  • K. Clark,
  • L. Classen,
  • A. Coleman,
  • G.H. Collin,
  • J.M. Conrad,
  • P. Coppin,
  • P. Correa,
  • D.F. Cowen,
  • R. Cross,
  • P. Dave,
  • C. De Clercq,
  • J.J. DeLaunay,
  • H. Dembinski,
  • K. Deoskar,
  • S. De Ridder,
  • A. Desai,
  • P. Desiati,
  • K.D. de Vries,
  • G. de Wasseige,
  • M. de With,
  • T. DeYoung,
  • S. Dharani,
  • A. Diaz,
  • J.C. Díaz-Vélez,
  • H. Dujmovic,
  • M. Dunkman,
  • M.A. DuVernois,
  • E. Dvorak,
  • T. Ehrhardt,
  • P. Eller,
  • R. Engel,
  • J. Evans,
  • P.A. Evenson,
  • S. Fahey,
  • A.R. Fazely,
  • S. Fiedlschuster,
  • A.T. Fienberg,
  • K. Filimonov,
  • C. Finley,
  • L. Fischer,
  • D. Fox,
  • A. Franckowiak,
  • E. Friedman,
  • A. Fritz,
  • P. Fürst,
  • T.K. Gaisser,
  • J. Gallagher,
  • E. Ganster,
  • S. Garrappa,
  • L. Gerhardt,
  • A. Ghadimi,
  • T. Glauch,
  • T. Glüsenkamp,
  • A. Goldschmidt,
  • J.G. Gonzalez,
  • S. Goswami,
  • D. Grant,
  • T. Grégoire,
  • Z. Griffith,
  • S. Griswold,
  • M. Gündüz,
  • C. Haack,
  • A. Hallgren,
  • R. Halliday,
  • L. Halve,
  • F. Halzen,
  • M. Ha Minh,
  • K. Hanson,
  • J. Hardin,
  • A. Haungs,
  • S. Hauser,
  • D. Hebecker,
  • K. Helbing,
  • F. Henningsen,
  • S. Hickford,
  • J. Hignight,
  • C. Hill,
  • G.C. Hill,
  • K.D. Hoffman,
  • R. Hoffmann,
  • T. Hoinka,
  • B. Hokanson-Fasig,
  • K. Hoshina,
  • F. Huang,
  • M. Huber,
  • T. Huber,
  • K. Hultqvist,
  • M. Hünnefeld,
  • R. Hussain,
  • S. In,
  • N. Iovine,
  • A. Ishihara,
  • M. Jansson,
  • G.S. Japaridze,
  • M. Jeong,
  • B.J.P. Jones,
  • R. Joppe,
  • D. Kang,
  • W. Kang,
  • X. Kang,
  • A. Kappes,
  • D. Kappesser,
  • T. Karg,
  • M. Karl,
  • A. Karle,
  • U. Katz,
  • M. Kauer,
  • M. Kellermann,
  • J.L. Kelley,
  • A. Kheirandish,
  • J. Kim,
  • K. Kin,
  • T. Kintscher,
  • J. Kiryluk,
  • S.R. Klein,
  • R. Koirala,
  • H. Kolanoski,
  • L. Köpke,
  • C. Kopper,
  • S. Kopper,
  • D.J. Koskinen,
  • P. Koundal,
  • M. Kovacevich,
  • M. Kowalski,
  • K. Krings,
  • G. Krückl,
  • N. Kurahashi,
  • A. Kyriacou,
  • C. Lagunas Gualda,
  • J.L. Lanfranchi,
  • M.J. Larson,
  • F. Lauber,
  • J.P. Lazar,
  • K. Leonard,
  • A. Leszczyńska,
  • Y. Li,
  • Q.R. Liu,
  • E. Lohfink,
  • C.J. Lozano Mariscal,
  • L. Lu,
  • F. Lucarelli,
  • A. Ludwig,
  • W. Luszczak,
  • Y. Lyu,
  • W.Y. Ma,
  • J. Madsen,
  • K.B.M. Mahn,
  • Y. Makino,
  • P. Mallik,
  • S. Mancina,
  • I.C. Mariş,
  • R. Maruyama,
  • K. Mase,
  • F. McNally,
  • K. Meagher,
  • M. Medici,
  • A. Medina,
  • M. Meier,
  • S. Meighen-Berger,
  • J. Merz,
  • J. Micallef,
  • D. Mockler,
  • G. Momenté,
  • T. Montaruli,
  • R.W. Moore,
  • R. Morse,
  • M. Moulai,
  • R. Naab,
  • R. Nagai,
  • U. Naumann,
  • J. Necker,
  • G. Neer,
  • L.V. Nguyễn,
  • L.V. Nguỹ̂{{e}}}}n,
  • H. Niederhausen,
  • M.L. Nielsen,
  • M.U. Nisa,
  • S.C. Nowicki,
  • D.R. Nygren,
  • A. Obertacke Pollmann,
  • M. Oehler,
  • A. Olivas,
  • E. O'Sullivan,
  • H. Pandya,
  • D.V. Pankova,
  • N. Park,
  • G.K. Parker,
  • E.N. Paudel,
  • P. Peiffer,
  • C. Pérez de los Heros,
  • S. Philippen,
  • D. Pieloth,
  • S. Pieper,
  • A. Pizzuto,
  • M. Plum,
  • Y. Popovych,
  • A. Porcelli,
  • M. Prado Rodriguez,
  • P.B. Price,
  • G.T. Przybylski,
  • C. Raab,
  • A. Raissi,
  • M. Rameez,
  • K. Rawlins,
  • I.C. Rea,
  • A. Rehman,
  • R. Reimann,
  • M. Renschler,
  • G. Renzi,
  • E. Resconi,
  • S. Reusch,
  • W. Rhode,
  • M. Richman,
  • B. Riedel,
  • S. Robertson,
  • G. Roellinghoff,
  • M. Rongen,
  • C. Rott,
  • T. Ruhe,
  • D. Ryckbosch,
  • D. Rysewyk Cantu,
  • I. Safa,
  • S.E. Sanchez Herrera,
  • A. Sandrock,
  • J. Sandroos,
  • M. Santander,
  • Subir Sarkar,
  • Sourav Sarkar,
  • K. Satalecka,
  • M. Scharf,
  • M. Schaufel,
  • H. Schieler,
  • P. Schlunder,
  • T. Schmidt,
  • A. Schneider,
  • J. Schneider,
  • F.G. Schröder,
  • L. Schumacher,
  • S. Sclafani,
  • D. Seckel,
  • S. Seunarine,
  • S. Shefali,
  • M. Silva,
  • B. Smithers,
  • R. Snihur,
  • J. Soedingrekso,
  • D. Soldin,
  • G.M. Spiczak,
  • C. Spiering,
  • J. Stachurska,
  • M. Stamatikos,
  • T. Stanev,
  • R. Stein,
  • J. Stettner,
  • A. Steuer,
  • T. Stezelberger,
  • R.G. Stokstad,
  • N.L. Strotjohann,
  • T. Stuttard,
  • G.W. Sullivan,
  • I. Taboada,
  • F. Tenholt,
  • S. Ter-Antonyan,
  • S. Tilav,
  • F. Tischbein,
  • K. Tollefson,
  • L. Tomankova,
  • C. Tönnis,
  • S. Toscano,
  • D. Tosi,
  • A. Trettin,
  • M. Tselengidou,
  • C.F. Tung,
  • A. Turcati,
  • R. Turcotte,
  • C.F. Turley,
  • J.P. Twagirayezu,
  • B. Ty,
  • E. Unger,
  • M.A. Unland Elorrieta,
  • J. Vandenbroucke,
  • D. van Eijk,
  • N. van Eijndhoven,
  • D. Vannerom,
  • J. van Santen,
  • S. Verpoest,
  • M. Vraeghe,
  • C. Walck,
  • A. Wallace,
  • T.B. Watson,
  • C. Weaver,
  • A. Weindl,
  • M.J. Weiss,
  • J. Weldert,
  • C. Wendt,
  • J. Werthebach,
  • M. Weyrauch,
  • B.J. Whelan,
  • N. Whitehorn,
  • K. Wiebe,
  • C.H. Wiebusch,
  • D.R. Williams,
  • M. Wolf,
  • K. Woschnagg,
  • G. Wrede,
  • J. Wulff,
  • X.W. Xu,
  • Y. Xu,
  • J.P. Yanez,
  • S. Yoshida,
  • T. Yuan,
  • Z. Zhang
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Since the discovery of a flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, searches for their origins have focused primarily at TeV-PeV energies. Compared to sub-TeV searches, high-energy searches benefit from an increase in the neutrino cross section, improved angular resolution on the neutrino direction, and a reduced background from atmospheric neutrinos and muons. However, the focus on high energy does not preclude the existence of sub-TeV neutrino emission where IceCube retains sensitivity. Here we present the first all-flavor search from IceCube for transient emission of low-energy neutrinos, focusing on the energy region of 5.6-100 GeV using three years of data obtained with the IceCube-DeepCore detector. We find no evidence of transient neutrino emission in the data, thus leading to a constraint on the volumetric rate of astrophysical transient sources in the range of ∼ 705-2301 Gpc$^{-3}$ yr$^{-1}$ for sources following a subphotospheric energy spectrum with a mean energy of 100 GeV and a bolometric energy of 10$^{52}$ erg.


LRSM
RU-B
(213)Measurement of ionization quenching in plastic scintillators
  • Thomas Pöschl,
  • Daniel Greenwald,
  • Martin J. Losekamm,
  • Stephan Paul
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (11/2020) doi:10.1016/j.nima.2020.164865
abstract + abstract -

Plastic scintillators are widely used in high-energy and medical physics, often for measuring the energy of ionizing radiation. Their main disadvantage is their non-linear response to highly ionizing radiation, called ionization quenching. This nonlinearity must be modeled and corrected for in applications where an accurate energy measurement is required. We present a new experimental technique to granularly measure the dependence of quenching on energy-deposition density. Based on this method, we determine the parameters for four commonly used quenching models for two commonly used plastic scintillators using protons with energies of 30 MeV to 100 MeV; and compare the models using a Bayesian approach. We also report the first model-independent measurement of the dependence of ionization quenching on energy-deposition density, providing a purely empirical view into quenching.


RU-C
(212)New Extraction of the Cosmic Birefringence from the Planck 2018 Polarization Data
  • Yuto Minami,
  • Eiichiro Komatsu
Physical Review Letters (11/2020) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.221301
abstract + abstract -

We search for evidence of parity-violating physics in the Planck 2018 polarization data and report on a new measurement of the cosmic birefringence angle β . The previous measurements are limited by the systematic uncertainty in the absolute polarization angles of the Planck detectors. We mitigate this systematic uncertainty completely by simultaneously determining β and the angle miscalibration using the observed cross-correlation of the E - and B -mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background and the Galactic foreground emission. We show that the systematic errors are effectively mitigated and achieve a factor-of-2 smaller uncertainty than the previous measurement, finding β =0.35 ±0.14 deg (68% C.L.), which excludes β =0 at 99.2% C.L. This corresponds to the statistical significance of 2.4 σ .


MIAPbP
(211)Classical gravitational self-energy from double copy
  • Gabriel Luz Almeida,
  • Stefano Foffa,
  • Riccardo Sturani
Journal of High Energy Physics (11/2020) doi:10.1007/JHEP11(2020)165
abstract + abstract -

We apply the classical double copy to the calculation of self-energy of composite systems with multipolar coupling to gravitational field, obtaining next-to-leading order results in the gravitational coupling GN by generalizing color to kinematics replacement rules known in literature. When applied to the multipolar description of the two-body system, the self-energy diagrams studied in this work correspond to tail processes, whose physical interpretation is of radiation being emitted by the non-relativistic source, scattered by the curvature generated by the binary system and then re-absorbed by the same source. These processes contribute to the conservative two-body dynamics and the present work represents a decisive step towards the systematic use of double copy within the multipolar post-Minkowskian expansion.


(210)Structure and Rotation of Young Massive Star Clusters in a Simulated Dwarf Starburst
  • Natalia Lahén,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Peter H. Johansson,
  • Bruce Elmegreen,
  • Chia-Yu Hu
  • +1
The Astrophysical Journal (11/2020) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abc001
abstract + abstract -

We analyze the three-dimensional shapes and kinematics of the young star cluster population forming in a high-resolution GRIFFIN project simulation of a metal-poor dwarf galaxy starburst. The star clusters, which follow a power-law mass distribution, form from the cold phase interstellar medium with an initial mass function sampled with individual stars down to four solar masses at sub-parsec spatial resolution. Massive stars and their important feedback mechanisms are modeled in detail. The simulated clusters follow a surprisingly tight relation between the specific angular momentum and mass with indications of two sub-populations. Massive clusters (Mcl ≳ 3 × 104 M) have the highest specific angular momenta at low ellipticities (ɛ ∼ 0.2) and show alignment between their shapes and rotation. Lower mass clusters have lower specific angular momenta with larger scatter, show a broader range of elongations, and are typically misaligned indicating that they are not shaped by rotation. The most massive clusters (M ≳ 105 M) accrete gas and protoclusters from a ≲100 pc scale local galactic environment on a t ≲ 10 Myr timescale, inheriting the ambient angular momentum properties. Their two-dimensional kinematic maps show ordered rotation at formation, up to v ∼ 8.5 km s-1, consistent with observed young massive clusters and old globular clusters, which they might evolve into. The massive clusters have angular momentum parameters λR ≲ 0.5 and show Gauss-Hermite coefficients h3 that are anti-correlated with the velocity, indicating asymmetric line-of-sight velocity distributions as a signature of a dissipative formation process.


(209)A Distance Determination to the Small Magellanic Cloud with an Accuracy of Better than Two Percent Based on Late-type Eclipsing Binary Stars
  • Dariusz Graczyk,
  • Grzegorz Pietrzyński,
  • Ian B. Thompson,
  • Wolfgang Gieren,
  • Bartłomiej Zgirski
  • +15
  • Sandro Villanova,
  • Marek Górski,
  • Piotr Wielgórski,
  • Paulina Karczmarek,
  • Weronika Narloch,
  • Bogumił Pilecki,
  • Monica Taormina,
  • Radosław Smolec,
  • Ksenia Suchomska,
  • Alexandre Gallenne,
  • Nicolas Nardetto,
  • Jesper Storm,
  • Rolf-Peter Kudritzki,
  • Mikołaj Kałuszyński,
  • Wojciech Pych
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (11/2020) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abbb2b
abstract + abstract -

We present a new study of late-type eclipsing binary stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) undertaken with the aim of improving the distance determination to this important galaxy. A sample of 10 new detached, double-lined eclipsing binaries identified from the OGLE variable star catalogs and consisting of F- and G-type giant components has been analyzed. The absolute physical parameters of the individual components have been measured with a typical accuracy of better than 3%. All but one of the systems consist of young and intermediate population stars with masses in the range of 1.4 to 3.8 M. This new sample has been combined with five SMC eclipsing binaries previously published by our team. Distances to the binary systems were calculated using a surface brightness—color calibration. The targets form an elongated structure, highly inclined to the plane of the sky. The distance difference between the nearest and most-distant system amounts to 10 kpc with the line-of-sight depth reaching 7 kpc. We find tentative evidence of the existence of a spherical stellar substructure (core) in the SMC coinciding with its stellar center, containing about 40% of the young and intermediate age stars in the galaxy. The radial extension of this substructure is ∼1.5 kpc. We derive a distance to the SMC center of DSMC = 62.44 ± 0.47 (stat.) ± 0.81 (syst.) kpc corresponding to a distance modulus (m - M)SMC = 18.977 ± 0.016 ± 0.028 mag, representing an accuracy of better than 2%.


(208)Testing one-loop galaxy bias: Power spectrum
  • Alexander Eggemeier,
  • Román Scoccimarro,
  • Martin Crocce,
  • Andrea Pezzotta,
  • Ariel G. Sánchez
Physical Review D (11/2020) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.102.103530
abstract + abstract -

We test the regime of validity of the one-loop galaxy bias for a wide variety of biased tracers. Our most stringent test asks the bias model to simultaneously match the galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-mass spectrum, using the measured nonlinear matter spectrum from the simulations to test the one-loop effects from the bias expansion alone. In addition, we investigate the relevance of short-range nonlocality and halo exclusion through higher-derivative and scale-dependent noise terms, as well as the impact of using coevolution relations to reduce the number of free fitting parameters. From comparing the validity and merit of these assumptions, we find that a four-parameter model (linear, quadratic, cubic nonlocal bias, and constant shot noise) with a fixed quadratic tidal bias provides a robust modeling choice for the auto power spectrum of the less massive halos in our set of samples and their galaxy populations [up to kmax=0.35 h /Mpc for a sample volume of 6 (Gpc /h )3 ]. For the more biased tracers, it is most beneficial to include scale-dependent noise. This is also the preferred option when considering combinations of the auto and cross power spectrum, which might be relevant in joint studies of galaxy clustering and weak lensing. We also test the use of perturbation theory to account for matter loops through gRPT, EFT, and the hybrid approach RESPRESSO. While all these have similar performance, we find the latter to be the best in terms of validity and recovered mean posterior values, in accordance with it being based partially on simulations.


(207)FeynOnium: using FeynCalc for automatic calculations in Nonrelativistic Effective Field Theories
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Hee Sok Chung,
  • Vladyslav Shtabovenko,
  • Antonio Vairo
Journal of High Energy Physics (11/2020) doi:10.1007/JHEP11(2020)130
abstract + abstract -

We present new results on FEYNONIUM, an ongoing project to develop a general purpose software toolkit for semi-automatic symbolic calculations in nonrelativistic Effective Field Theories (EFTs). Building upon FEYNCALC, an existing MATHEMATICA package for symbolic evaluation of Feynman diagrams, we have created a powerful framework for automatizing calculations in nonrelativistic EFTs (NREFTs) at tree- and 1-loop level. This is achieved by exploiting the novel features of FEYNCALC that support manipulations of Cartesian tensors, Pauli matrices and nonstandard loop integrals. Additional operations that are common in nonrelativistic EFT calculations are implemented in a dedicated add-on called FEYNONIUM. While our current focus is on EFTs for strong interactions of heavy quarks, extensions to other systems that admit a nonrelativistic EFT description are planned for the future. All our codes are open-source and publicly available. Furthermore, we provide several example calculations that demonstrate how FEYNONIUM can be employed to reproduce known results from the literature.


(206)Fast neutrino flavor conversion, ejecta properties, and nucleosynthesis in newly-formed hypermassive remnants of neutron-star mergers
  • Manu George,
  • Meng-Ru Wu,
  • Irene Tamborra,
  • Ricard Ardevol-Pulpillo,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka
Physical Review D (11/2020) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.102.103015
abstract + abstract -

Neutrinos emitted in the coalescence of two neutron stars affect the dynamics of the outflow ejecta and the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements. In this work, we analyze the neutrino emission properties and the conditions leading to the growth of flavor instabilities in merger remnants consisting of a hypermassive neutron star and an accretion disk during the first 10 ms after the merger. The analyses are based on hydrodynamical simulations that include a modeling of neutrino emission and absorption effects via the "improved leakage-equilibration-absorption scheme" (ILEAS). We also examine the nucleosynthesis of the heavy elements via the rapid neutron-capture process (r -process) inside the material ejected during this phase. The dominant emission of ν¯e over νe from the merger remnant leads to favorable conditions for the occurrence of fast pairwise flavor conversions of neutrinos, independent of the chosen equation of state or the mass ratio of the binary. The nucleosynthesis outcome is very robust, ranging from the first to the third r -process peaks. In particular, more than 10-5 M of strontium are produced in these early ejecta that may account for the GW170817 kilonova observation. We find that the amount of ejecta containing free neutrons after the r -process freeze-out, which may power early-time UV emission, is reduced by roughly a factor of 10 when compared to simulations that do not include weak interactions. Finally, the potential flavor equipartition between all neutrino flavors is mainly found to affect the nucleosynthesis outcome in the polar ejecta within ≲3 0 ° , by changing the amount of the produced iron-peak and first-peak nuclei, but it does not alter the lanthanide mass fraction therein.


RU-D
(205)How much H and He is 'hidden' in SNe Ib/c? - II. Intermediate-mass objects: a 22-=M<SUB>⊙</SUB> progenitor case study
  • Jacob Teffs,
  • Thomas Ertl,
  • Paolo Mazzali,
  • Stephan Hachinger,
  • H. -Thomas Janka
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (11/2020) doi:10.1093/mnras/staa2549
abstract + abstract -

Stripped envelope supernovae are a sub-class of core-collapse supernovae showing several stages of H/He shell stripping that determines the type: H-free/He-poor SNe are classified as Type Ic, H-poor/He-rich are Type Ib, and H/He-rich are Type IIb. Stripping H/He with only stellar wind requires significantly higher mass-loss rates than observed while binary-involved mass transfer may usually not strip enough to produce H/He free SNe. Type Ib/c SNe are sometimes found to include weak H/He transient lines as a product of a trace amount of H/He left over from stripping processes. The extent and mass of the H/He required to produce these lines is not well known. In this work, a 22 M progenitor model is stripped of the H/He shells in five steps prior to collapse and then exploded at four explosion energies. Requiring both optical and near-infrared He-=I lines for helium identification does not allow much He mass to be hidden in SE-SNE. Increasing the mass of He above the CO core delays the visibility of O-=I-=7774 in early spectra. Our SN-=Ib-like models are capable of reproducing the spectral evolution of a set of observed SNe with reasonable estimated Ek accuracy. Our SN-=IIb-like models can partially reproduce low energy observed SN-=IIb, but we find no observed comparison for the SN-=IIb-like models with high Ek.


MIAPbP
(204)The molecular mass function of the local Universe
  • P. Andreani,
  • Y. Miyamoto,
  • H. Kaneko,
  • A. Boselli,
  • K. Tatematsu
  • +2
Astronomy and Astrophysics (11/2020) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202038675
abstract + abstract -


Aims: We construct the molecular mass function using the bivariate K-band-mass function (BMF) of the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), which is a volume-limited sample that has already been widely studied at the entire electromagnetic spectrum.
Methods: The molecular mass function was derived from the K-band and the gas mass cumulative distribution using a copula method, which is described in detail in our previous papers.
Results: The H2 mass is relatively strongly correlated with the K-band luminosity because of the tight relation between the stellar mass and the molecular gas mass within the sample with a scatter, which is likely due to those galaxies which have lost their molecular content because of environmental effects or because of a larger gas consumption due to past star formation processes. The derived H2 MF samples the molecular mass range from ∼4 × 106 M to ∼1010 M, and when compared with theoretical models, it agrees well with the theoretical predictions at the lower end of the mass values; whereas at masses larger than 1010 M, the HRS sample may miss galaxies with a large content of molecular hydrogen and the outcomes are not conclusive. The value of the local density of the molecular gas mass inferred from our analysis is ∼1.5 × 107 M Mpc-3, and it is compared with the results at larger redshifts, confirming the lack of strong evolution for the molecular mass density between z = 0 and z = 4.
Conclusions: This is the first molecular mass function that has been derived on a complete sample in the local Universe, which can be used as a reliable calibration at redshift z = 0 for models aiming to predict the evolution of the molecular mass density.


CN-2
RU-D
RU-E
(203)ALMA chemical survey of disk-outflow sources in Taurus (ALMA-DOT). II. Vertical stratification of CO, CS, CN, H<SUB>2</SUB>CO, and CH<SUB>3</SUB>OH in a Class I disk
  • L. Podio,
  • A. Garufi,
  • C. Codella,
  • D. Fedele,
  • E. Bianchi
  • +6
  • F. Bacciotti,
  • C. Ceccarelli,
  • C. Favre,
  • S. Mercimek,
  • K. Rygl,
  • L. Testi
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (10/2020) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202038952
abstract + abstract -

The chemical composition of planets is inherited from that of the natal protoplanetary disk at the time of planet formation. Increasing observational evidence suggests that planet formation occurs in less than 1-2 Myr. This motivates the need for spatially resolved spectral observations of young Class I disks, as carried out by the ALMA chemical survey of Disk-Outflow sources in Taurus (ALMA-DOT). In the context of ALMA-DOT, we observe the edge-on disk around the Class I source IRAS 04302+2247 (the butterfly star) in the 1.3 mm continuum and five molecular lines. We report the first tentative detection of methanol (CH3OH) in a Class I disk and resolve, for the first time, the vertical structure of a disk with multiple molecular tracers. The bulk of the emission in the CO 2-1, CS 5-4, and o-H2CO 31, 2 - 21, 1 lines originates from the warm molecular layer, with the line intensity peaking at increasing disk heights, z, for increasing radial distances, r. Molecular emission is vertically stratified, with CO observed at larger disk heights (aperture z/r ∼ 0.41-0.45) compared to both CS and H2CO, which are nearly cospatial (z/r ∼ 0.21-0.28). In the outer midplane, the line emission decreases due to molecular freeze-out onto dust grains (freeze-out layer) by a factor of > 100 (CO) and 15 (CS). The H2CO emission decreases by a factor of only about 2, which is possibly due to H2CO formation on icy grains, followed by a nonthermal release into the gas phase. The inferred [CH3OH]/[H2CO] abundance ratio is 0.5-0.6, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than for Class 0 hot corinos, and a factor ∼2.5 lower than the only other value inferred for a protoplanetary disk (in TW Hya, 1.3-1.7). Additionally, it is at the lower edge but still consistent with the values in comets. This may indicate that some chemical reprocessing occurs in disks before the formation of planets and comets.

The reduced images and datacubes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/642/L7


(202)The impact of modified gravity on the Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect
  • Myles A. Mitchell,
  • Christian Arnold,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Baojiu Li
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (10/2020) e-Print:2011.00013 doi:10.1093/mnras/staa3941
abstract + abstract -

We study the effects of two popular modified gravity theories, which incorporate very different screening mechanisms, on the angular power spectra of the thermal (tSZ) and kinematic (kSZ) components of the Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect. Using the first cosmological simulations that simultaneously incorporate both screened modified gravity and a complete galaxy formation model, we find that the tSZ and kSZ power spectra are significantly enhanced by the strengthened gravitational forces in Hu-Sawicki f(R) gravity and the normal-branch Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model. Employing a combination of non-radiative and full-physics simulations, we find that the extra baryonic physics present in the latter acts to suppress the tSZ power on angular scales l ≳ 3000 and the kSZ power on all tested scales, and this is found to have a substantial effect on the model differences. Our results indicate that the tSZ and kSZ power can be used as powerful probes of gravity on large scales, using data from current and upcoming surveys, provided sufficient work is conducted to understand the sensitivity of the constraints to baryonic processes that are currently not fully understood.


MIAPbP
(201)How to suppress exponential growth—on the parametric resonance of photons in an axion background
  • Ariel Arza,
  • Thomas Schwetz,
  • Elisa Todarello
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (10/2020) doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2020/10/013
abstract + abstract -

Axion-photon interactions can lead to an enhancement of the electromagnetic field by parametric resonance in the presence of a cold axion background, for modes with a frequency close to half the axion mass. In this paper, we study the role of the axion momentum dispersion as well as the effects of a background gravitational potential, which can detune the resonance due to gravitational redshift. We show, by analytical as well as numerical calculations, that the resonance leads to an exponential growth of the photon field only if (a) the axion momentum spread is smaller than the inverse resonance length, and (b) the gravitational detuning distance is longer than the resonance length. For realistic parameter values, both effects strongly suppress the resonance and prevent the exponential growth of the photon field. In particular, the redshift due to the gravitational potential of our galaxy prevents the resonance from developing for photons in the observable frequency range, even assuming that all the dark matter consists of a perfectly cold axion condensate. For axion clumps with masses below ~ 10-13 Msolar, the momentum spread condition is more restrictive, whereas, for more massive clumps, the redshift condition dominates.


CN-2
RU-E
(200)Mineral-mediated carbohydrate synthesis by mechanical forces in a primordial geochemical setting
  • M. Haas,
  • S. Lamour,
  • S. B. Christ,
  • O. Trapp
Communications Chemistry (10/2020) doi:10.1038/s42004-020-00387-wr
abstract + abstract -

The formation of carbohydrates represents an essential step to provide building blocks and a source of chemical energy in several models for the emergence of life. Formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde and a basic catalyst are the initial components forming a variety of sugar molecules in the cascade-type multi-step formose reaction. While numerous side reactions and even deterioration can be observed in aqueous media, selective prebiotic sugar formation is feasible in solid-state, mechanochemical reactions and might have occurred in early geochemistry. However, the precise role of different basic catalysts and the influence of the atmospheric conditions in the solid-state formose reaction remain unknown. Here we show, that in a primordial scenario the mechanochemical formose reaction is capable to form monosaccharides with a broad variety of mineral classes as catalysts with only minute amounts of side products such as lactic acid or methanol, independent of the atmospheric conditions. The results give insight into recent findings of formose sugars on meteorites and offer a water-free and robust pathway for monosaccharides independent of the external conditions both for the early Earth or an extra-terrestrial setting.


CN-3
PhD Thesis
(199)On outflow mechanisms in galaxies
  • Ulrich Steinwandel - Advisor: Klaus Dolag
Thesis (10/2020) doi:10.5282/edoc.27355
abstract + abstract -

In this thesis I investigate the origin of galactic outflow channels, driven by various feedback processes. To do so, I not only look at commonly accepted feedback processes like the feedback of supernovae but also develop an outflow mechanism based on magnetic fields. Thus, this thesis fundamentally contributes to the understanding of how galaxies can drive outflows from dwarf galaxies to Milky Way-like galaxies in our Universe. To achieve a deeper understanding of the already mentioned outflow processes I employ numerical (magneto-) hydrodynamical simulations from large Milky Way-like galaxies to small isolated SN-remnants. I use my Milky Way models to describe a process that drives outflows with the magnetic pressure in massive galaxies. This has the potential to contribute to the galactic baryon cycle. In these simulations I find a fully developed α2-Ω dynamo. Based on the results of my numerical simulations I have been able to derive the details of the launching process of a magnetic tower outflow in barred spiral galaxies, that is driven by mass-inflow over a bar.


CN-5
RU-D
(198)Self-consistent 3D Supernova Models From −7 Minutes to +7 s: A 1-bethe Explosion of a ∼19 $M_\odot$ Progenitor
  • Robert Bollig,
  • Naveen Yadav,
  • Daniel Kresse,
  • H.-Th. Janka,
  • Bernhard Müller
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

To date, modern three-dimensional (3D) supernova (SN) simulations have not demonstrated that explosion energies of 1051 erg (=1 bethe=1 B) or more are possible for neutrino-driven SNe of non/slow-rotating M < 20 M ⊙ progenitors. We present the first such model, considering a nonrotating, solar-metallicity 18.88 M ⊙ progenitor, whose final 7 minutes of convective oxygen-shell burning were simulated in 3D and showed a violent oxygen–neon shell merger prior to collapse. A large set of 3D SN models was computed with the Prometheus-Vertex code, whose improved convergence of the two-moment equations with Boltzmann closure allows now to fully exploit the implicit neutrino-transport treatment. Nuclear burning is treated with a 23-species network. We vary the angular grid resolution and consider different nuclear equations of state and muon formation in the proto-neutron star (PNS), which requires six-species transport with coupling of all neutrino flavors across all energy–momentum groups. Elaborate neutrino transport was applied until ∼2 s after bounce. In one case, the simulation was continued to >7 s with an approximate treatment of neutrino effects that allows for seamless continuation without transients. A spherically symmetric neutrino-driven wind does not develop. Instead, accretion downflows to the PNS and outflows of neutrino-heated matter establish a monotonic rise of the explosion energy until ∼7 s post-bounce, when the outgoing shock reaches ∼50,000 km and enters the He layer. The converged value of the explosion energy at infinity (with overburden subtracted) is ∼1 B and the ejected 56Ni mass ≲0.087 M ⊙, both within a few 10% of the SN 1987A values. The final NS mass and kick are ∼1.65 M ⊙ and >450 km s−1, respectively.


CN-8
RU-E
(197)Toward Bayesian Data Compression
  • Johannes Harth‐Kitzerow,
  • Reimar H. Leike,
  • Philipp Arras,
  • Torsten A. Enßlin
abstract + abstract -

In order to handle large datasets omnipresent in modern science, efficient compression algorithms are necessary. Here, a Bayesian data compression (BDC) algorithm that adapts to the specific measurement situation is derived in the context of signal reconstruction. BDC compresses a dataset under conservation of its posterior structure with minimal information loss given the prior knowledge on the signal, the quantity of interest. Its basic form is valid for Gaussian priors and likelihoods. For constant noise standard deviation, basic BDC becomes equivalent to a Bayesian analog of principal component analysis. Using metric Gaussian variational inference, BDC generalizes to non‐linear settings. In its current form, BDC requires the storage of effective instrument response functions for the compressed data and corresponding noise encoding the posterior covariance structure. Their memory demand counteract the compression gain. In order to improve this, sparsity of the compressed responses can be obtained by separating the data into patches and compressing them separately. The applicability of BDC is demonstrated by applying it to synthetic data and radio astronomical data. Still the algorithm needs further improvement as the computation time of the compression and subsequent inference exceeds the time of the inference with the original data.


CN-7
(196)Axion and neutrino bounds improved with new calibrations of the tip of the red-giant branch using geometric distance determinations
  • Francesco Capozzi,
  • Georg Raffelt
abstract + abstract -

The brightness of the tip of the red-giant branch (TRGB) allows one to constrain novel energy losses that would lead to a larger core mass at helium ignition and, thus, to a brighter TRGB than expected by standard stellar models. The required absolute TRGB calibrations strongly improve with reliable geometric distances that have become available for the galaxy NGC 4258 that hosts a water megamaser and to the Large Magellanic Cloud based on 20 detached eclipsing binaries. Moreover, we revise a previous TRGB calibration in the globular cluster ω Centauri with a recent kinematical distance determination based on Gaia data release 2. All of these calibrations have similar uncertainties, and they agree with each other and with recent dedicated stellar models. Using NGC 4258 as the cleanest extragalactic case, we thus find an updated constraint on the axion-electron coupling of $g_{ae} < 1.6 \times 10^{−13}$ and $\mu_{\nu} < 1.5 \times 10^{−12} \mu_B$ (95% C.L.) on a possible neutrino dipole moment, whereas ω Centauri as the best galactic target provides instead $g_{ae} < 1.3 \times 10^{-13}$ and $\mu_{\nu} <1.2 \times 10^{−12}\mu_B$. The reduced observational errors imply that stellar evolution theory and bolometric corrections begin to dominate the overall uncertainties.


CN-7
RU-A
(195)How to interpret observations of neutron-star mergers?
  • Oliver Just,
  • Andreas Bauswein,
  • Stephane Goriely,
  • Hirotaka Ito,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka
  • +1
Journal of Physics Conference Series (10/2020) doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1667/1/012018
abstract + abstract -

The recent first multi-messenger observation of a neutron-star merger, GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterparts, has sparked tremendous excitement particularly because long-standing questions related to heavy-element nucleosynthesis and the nuclear equation of state could finally be tested with unprecedented capabilities. This proceedings article briefly reviews the main observation channels of neutron-star mergers and how those can be used to obtain insight about questions related to nucleosynthesis and the nuclear equation of state.


(194)Learning the non-equilibrium dynamics of Brownian movies
  • Federico S. Gnesotto,
  • Grzegorz Gradziuk,
  • Pierre Ronceray,
  • Chase P. Broedersz
Nature Communications (10/2020) doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18796-9
abstract + abstract -

Time-lapse microscopy imaging provides direct access to the dynamics of soft and living systems. At mesoscopic scales, such microscopy experiments reveal intrinsic thermal and non-equilibrium fluctuations. These fluctuations, together with measurement noise, pose a challenge for the dynamical analysis of these Brownian movies. Traditionally, methods to analyze such experimental data rely on tracking embedded or endogenous probes. However, it is in general unclear, especially in complex many-body systems, which degrees of freedom are the most informative about their non-equilibrium nature. Here, we introduce an alternative, tracking-free approach that overcomes these difficulties via an unsupervised analysis of the Brownian movie. We develop a dimensional reduction scheme selecting a basis of modes based on dissipation. Subsequently, we learn the non-equilibrium dynamics, thereby estimating the entropy production rate and time-resolved force maps. After benchmarking our method against a minimal model, we illustrate its broader applicability with an example inspired by active biopolymer gels.


RU-C
(193)Simultaneous determination of the cosmic birefringence and miscalibrated polarization angles II: Including cross-frequency spectra
  • Yuto Minami,
  • Eiichiro Komatsu
Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (10/2020) doi:10.1093/ptep/ptaa130
abstract + abstract -

We develop a strategy to determine the cosmic birefringence and miscalibrated polarization angles simultaneously using the observed $EB$ polarization power spectra of the cosmic microwave background and the Galactic foreground emission. We extend the methodology of Y. Minami et al. (Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2019, 083E02, 2019), which was developed for auto-frequency power spectra, by including cross-frequency spectra. By fitting one global birefringence angle and independent miscalibration angles at different frequency bands, we determine both angles with significantly smaller uncertainties (by more than a factor of two) compared to the auto spectra.


MIAPbP
(192)Anomalous Dimensions of Effective Theories from Partial Waves
  • Pietro Baratella,
  • Clara Fernandez,
  • Benedict von Harling,
  • Alex Pomarol
arXiv e-prints (10/2020) e-Print:2010.13809
abstract + abstract -

On-shell amplitude methods have proven to be extremely efficient for calculating anomalous dimensions. We further elaborate on these methods to show that, by the use of an angular momentum decomposition, the one-loop anomalous dimensions can be reduced to essentially a sum of products of partial waves. We apply this to the SM EFT, and show how certain classes of anomalous dimensions have their origin in the same partial-wave coefficients. We also use our result to obtain a generic formula for the one-loop anomalous dimensions of nonlinear sigma models at any order in the energy expansion, and apply our method to gravity, where it proves to be very advantageous even in the presence of IR divergencies.


(191)Constraining the origin and models of chemical enrichment in galaxy clusters using the Athena X-IFU
  • F. Mernier,
  • E. Cucchetti,
  • L. Tornatore,
  • V. Biffi,
  • E. Pointecouteau
  • +13
  • N. Clerc,
  • P. Peille,
  • E. Rasia,
  • D. Barret,
  • S. Borgani,
  • E. Bulbul,
  • T. Dauser,
  • K. Dolag,
  • S. Ettori,
  • M. Gaspari,
  • F. Pajot,
  • M. Roncarelli,
  • J. Wilms
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (10/2020) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202038638
abstract + abstract -

Chemical enrichment of the Universe at all scales is related to stellar winds and explosive supernovae phenomena. Metals produced by stars and later spread throughout the intracluster medium (ICM) at the megaparsec scale become a fossil record of the chemical enrichment of the Universe and of the dynamical and feedback mechanisms determining their circulation. As demonstrated by the results of the soft X-ray spectrometer onboard Hitomi, high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy is the path to differentiating among the models that consider different metal-production mechanisms, predict the outcoming yields, and are a function of the nature, mass, and/or initial metallicity of their stellar progenitor. Transformational results shall be achieved through improvements in the energy resolution and effective area of X-ray observatories, allowing them to detect rarer metals (e.g. Na, Al) and constrain yet-uncertain abundances (e.g. C, Ne, Ca, Ni). The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) instrument onboard the next-generation European X-ray observatory Athena is expected to deliver such breakthroughs. Starting from 100 ks of synthetic observations of 12 abundance ratios in the ICM of four simulated clusters, we demonstrate that the X-IFU will be capable of recovering the input chemical enrichment models at both low (z = 0.1) and high (z = 1) redshifts, while statistically excluding more than 99.5% of all the other tested combinations of models. By fixing the enrichment models which provide the best fit to the simulated data, we also show that the X-IFU will constrain the slope of the stellar initial mass function within ∼12%. These constraints will be key ingredients in our understanding of the chemical enrichment of the Universe and its evolution.


CN-3
RU-B
(190)Direct detection of vector dark matter through electromagnetic multipoles
  • Junji Hisano,
  • Alejandro Ibarra,
  • Ryo Nagai
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (10/2020) doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2020/10/015
abstract + abstract -

Dark matter particles, even if they are electrically neutral, could interact with the Standard Model particles via their electromagnetic multipole moments. In this paper, we focus on the electromagnetic properties of the complex vector dark matter candidate, which can be described by means of seven form factors. We calculate the differential scattering cross-section with nuclei due to the interactions of the dark matter and nuclear multipole moments, and we derive upper limits on the former from the non-observation of dark matter signals in direct detection experiments. We also present a model where the dark matter particle is a gauge boson of a dark SU(2) symmetry, and which contains heavy new fermions, charged both under the dark SU(2) symmetry and under the electromagnetic U(1) symmetry. The new fermions induce at the one loop level electromagnetic multipole moments, which could lead to detectable signals in direct detection experiments.


MIAPbP
(189)Systematizing the effective theory of self-interacting dark matter
  • Prateek Agrawal,
  • Aditya Parikh,
  • Matthew Reece
Journal of High Energy Physics (10/2020) doi:10.1007/JHEP10(2020)191
abstract + abstract -

If dark matter has strong self-interactions, future astrophysical and cosmological observations, together with a clearer understanding of baryonic feedback effects, might be used to extract the velocity dependence of the dark matter scattering rate. To interpret such data, we should understand what predictions for this quantity are made by various models of the underlying particle nature of dark matter. In this paper, we systematically compute this function for fermionic dark matter with light bosonic mediators of vector, scalar, axial vector, and pseudoscalar type. We do this by matching to the nonrelativistic effective theory of self-interacting dark matter and then computing the spin-averaged viscosity cross section nonperturbatively by solving the Schrödinger equation, thus accounting for any possible Sommerfeld enhancement of the low-velocity cross section. In the pseudoscalar case, this requires a coupled-channel analysis of different angular momentum modes. We find, contrary to some earlier analyses, that nonrelativistic effects only provide a significant enhancement for the cases of light scalar and vector mediators. Scattering from light pseudoscalar and axial vector mediators is well described by tree-level quantum field theory.


CN-5
RU-D
(188)Collision of merger and accretion shocks: formation of Mpc-scale contact discontinuity in the Perseus cluster
  • Congyao Zhang,
  • Eugene Churazov,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • William R. Forman,
  • Irina Zhuravleva
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (10/2020) doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slaa147
abstract + abstract -

Two Mpc-size contact discontinuities have recently been identified in the XMM-Newton and Suzaku X-ray observations in the outskirts of the Perseus cluster (Walker et al.). These structures have been tentatively interpreted as 'sloshing cold fronts', which are customarily associated with differential motions of the cluster gas, perturbed by a merger. In this study, we consider an alternative scenario, namely, that the most prominent discontinuity, near the cluster virial radius, is the result of the collision between the accretion shock and a 'runaway' merger shock. We also discuss the possible origin of the second discontinuity at ${\sim}1.2{\rm \, Mpc}$.


RU-C
(187)The Cosmic Thermal History Probed by Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Tomography
  • Yi-Kuan Chiang,
  • Ryu Makiya,
  • Brice Ménard,
  • Eiichiro Komatsu
The Astrophysical Journal (10/2020) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abb403
abstract + abstract -

The cosmic thermal history, quantified by the evolution of the mean thermal energy density in the universe, is driven by the growth of structures as baryons get shock heated in collapsing dark matter halos. This process can be probed by redshift-dependent amplitudes of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect background. To do so, we cross-correlate eight sky intensity maps in the Planck and Infrared Astronomical Satellite missions with two million spectroscopic redshift references in the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys. This delivers snapshot spectra for the far-infrared to microwave background light as a function of redshift up to z ∼ 3. We decompose them into the SZ and thermal dust components. Our SZ measurements directly constrain $\langle {{bP}}_{{\rm{e}}}\rangle $ , the halo bias-weighted mean electron pressure, up to z ∼ 1. This is the highest redshift achieved to date, with uncorrelated redshift bins thanks to the spectroscopic references. We detect a threefold increase in the density-weighted mean electron temperature ${\overline{T}}_{{\rm{e}}}$ from 7 × 105 K at z = 1 to 2 × 106 K today. Over z = 1-0, we witness the build-up of nearly 70% of the present-day mean thermal energy density ρth, with the corresponding density parameter Ωth reaching 1.5 × 10-8. We find the mass bias parameter of Planck's universal pressure profile of B = 1.27 (or 1 - b = 1/B = 0.79), consistent with the magnitude of nonthermal pressure in gas motion and turbulence from mass assembly. We estimate the redshift-integrated mean Compton parameter y ∼ 1.2 × 10-6, which will be tested by future spectral distortion experiments. More than half originates from the large-scale structure at z < 1, which we detect directly.


MIAPbP
(186)Green Bank and Effelsberg Radio Telescope Searches for Axion Dark Matter Conversion in Neutron Star Magnetospheres
  • Joshua W. Foster,
  • Yonatan Kahn,
  • Oscar Macias,
  • Zhiquan Sun,
  • Ralph P. Eatough
  • +4
  • Vladislav I. Kondratiev,
  • Wendy M. Peters,
  • Christoph Weniger,
  • Benjamin R. Safdi
  • (less)
Physical Review Letters (10/2020) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.171301
abstract + abstract -

Axion dark matter (DM) may convert to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation in the strong magnetic fields around neutron stars. The radio signature of such a process would be an ultranarrow spectral peak at a frequency determined by the mass of the axion particle. We analyze data we collected from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in the L band and the Effelsberg 100-m Telescope in the L band and S band from a number of sources expected to produce bright signals of axion-photon conversion, including the Galactic center of the Milky Way and the nearby isolated neutron stars RX J0720.4-3125 and RX J0806.4-4123. We find no evidence for axion DM and are able to set constraints on the existence of axion DM in the highly motivated mass range between ∼5 and 11 μ eV with the strongest constraints to date on axions in the ∼10 - 11 μ eV range.


RU-A
(185)A puzzle in B<SUB>¯</SUB><SUP>(s ) 0</SUP>→D<SUB>(s</SUB><SUP>) (∗)+</SUP>{π<SUP>-</SUP>,K<SUP>-</SUP>} decays and extraction of the f<SUB>s</SUB>/f<SUB>d</SUB> fragmentation fraction
  • Marzia Bordone,
  • Nico Gubernari,
  • Tobias Huber,
  • Martin Jung,
  • Danny van Dyk
European Physical Journal C (10/2020) doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-020-08512-8
abstract + abstract -

We provide updated predictions for the hadronic decays B¯s 0→Ds(∗)+π- and B¯ 0→D(∗)+K- . They are based on O (αs2) results for the QCD factorization amplitudes at leading power and on recent results for the B¯ (s )→D(s) (∗) form factors up to order O (ΛQCD2/mc2) in the heavy-quark expansion. We give quantitative estimates of the matrix elements entering the hadronic decay amplitudes at order O (ΛQCD/mb) for the first time. Our results are very precise, and uncover a substantial discrepancy between the theory predictions and the experimental measurements. We explore two possibilities for this discrepancy: non-factorizable contributions larger than predicted by the QCD factorization power counting, and contributions beyond the Standard Model. We determine the fs/fd fragmentation fraction for the CDF, D0 and LHCb experiments for both scenarios.


RU-D
(184)Disk Evolution Study Through Imaging of Nearby Young Stars (DESTINYS): A close low-mass companion to ET Cha
  • C. Ginski,
  • F. Ménard,
  • Ch. Rab,
  • E. E. Mamajek,
  • R. G. van Holstein
  • +23
  • M. Benisty,
  • C. F. Manara,
  • R. Asensio Torres,
  • A. Bohn,
  • T. Birnstiel,
  • P. Delorme,
  • S. Facchini,
  • A. Garufi,
  • R. Gratton,
  • M. Hogerheijde,
  • J. Huang,
  • M. Kenworthy,
  • M. Langlois,
  • P. Pinilla,
  • C. Pinte,
  • Á. Ribas,
  • G. Rosotti,
  • T. O. B. Schmidt,
  • M. van den Ancker,
  • Z. Wahhaj,
  • L. B. F. M. Waters,
  • J. Williams,
  • A. Zurlo
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (10/2020) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202038383
abstract + abstract -

Context. To understand the formation of planetary systems, it is important to understand the initial conditions of planet formation, that is, the young gas-rich planet forming disks. Spatially resolved, high-contrast observations are of particular interest since substructures in disks that are linked to planet formation can be detected. In addition, we have the opportunity to reveal close companions or even planets in formation that are embedded in the disk.
Aims: In this study, we present the first results of the Disk Evolution Study Through Imaging of Nearby Young Stars (DESTINYS), an ESO/SPHERE large program that is aimed at studying disk evolution in scattered light, mainly focusing on a sample of low-mass stars (< 1 M) in nearby (∼200 pc) star-forming regions. In this particular study, we present observations of the ET Cha (RECX 15) system, a nearby "old" classical T Tauri star (5-8 Myr, ∼100 pc), which is still strongly accreting.
Methods: We used SPHERE/IRDIS in the H-band polarimetric imaging mode to obtain high spatial resolution and high-contrast images of the ET Cha system to search for scattered light from the circumstellar disk as well as thermal emission from close companions. We additionally employed VLT/NACO total intensity archival data of the system taken in 2003.
Results: Here, we report the discovery, using SPHERE/IRDIS, of a low-mass (sub)stellar companion to the η Cha cluster member ET Cha. We estimate the mass of this new companion based on photometry. Depending on the system age, it is either a 5 Myr, 50 MJup brown dwarf or an 8 Myr, 0.10 M M-type, pre-main-sequence star. We explore possible orbital solutions and discuss the recent dynamic history of the system.
Conclusions: Independent of the precise companion mass, we find that the presence of the companion likely explains the small size of the disk around ET Cha. The small separation of the binary pair indicates that the disk around the primary component is likely clearing from the outside in, which explains the high accretion rate of the system.

Based on data obtained in ESO programs 1104.C-0415(E) and 70.C-0286(A).


CN-7
(183)Lattice QCD constraints on the heavy quark diffusion coefficient
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Viljami Leino,
  • Peter Petreczky,
  • Antonio Vairo,
  • Tumqcd Collaboration
Physical Review D (10/2020) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.102.074503
abstract + abstract -

We report progress toward computing the heavy quark momentum diffusion coefficient from the correlator of two chromoelectric fields attached to a Polyakov loop in pure SU(3) gauge theory. Using a multilevel algorithm and tree-level improvement, we study the behavior of the diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature in the wide range 1.1 <T /Tc<104 in order to compare it to perturbative expansions at high temperature. We find that within errors, the lattice results are remarkably compatible with the next-to-leading-order perturbative result.


MIAPbP
(182)Renormalization of higher-dimensional operators from on-shell amplitudes
  • Pietro Baratella,
  • Clara Fernandez,
  • Alex Pomarol
Nuclear Physics B (10/2020) doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2020.115155
abstract + abstract -

On-shell amplitude methods allow to derive one-loop renormalization effects from just tree-level amplitudes, with no need of loop calculations. We derive a simple formula to obtain the anomalous dimensions of higher-dimensional operators from a product of tree-level amplitudes. We show how this works for dimension-6 operators of the Standard Model, providing explicit examples of the simplicity, elegance and efficiency of the method. Many anomalous dimensions can be calculated from the same Standard Model tree-level amplitude, displaying the attractive recycling aspect of the on-shell method. With this method, it is possible to relate anomalous dimensions that in the Feynman approach arise from very different diagrams, and obtain non-trivial checks of their relative coefficients. We compare our results to those in the literature, where ordinary methods have been applied.


(181)Phase-Space Geometry of Mass-Conserving Reaction-Diffusion Dynamics
  • Fridtjof Brauns,
  • Jacob Halatek,
  • Erwin Frey
Physical Review X (10/2020) doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.10.041036
abstract + abstract -

Experimental studies of protein-pattern formation have stimulated new interest in the dynamics of reaction-diffusion systems. However, a comprehensive theoretical understanding of the dynamics of such highly nonlinear, spatially extended systems is still missing. Here, we show how a description in phase space, which has proven invaluable in shaping our intuition about the dynamics of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, can be generalized to mass-conserving reaction-diffusion (MCRD) systems. We present a comprehensive analysis of two-component MCRD systems, which serve as paradigmatic minimal systems that encapsulate the core principles and concepts of the local equilibria theory introduced in the paper. The key insight underlying this theory is that shifting local (reactive) equilibria—controlled by the local total density—give rise to concentration gradients that drive diffusive redistribution of total density. We show how this dynamic interplay can be embedded in the phase plane of the reaction kinetics in terms of simple geometric objects: the reactive nullcline (line of reactive equilibria) and the diffusive flux-balance subspace. On this phase-space level, physical insight can be gained from geometric criteria and graphical constructions. The effects of nonlinearities on the global dynamics are simply encoded in the curved shape of the reactive nullcline. In particular, we show that the pattern-forming "Turing instability" in MCRD systems is a mass-redistribution instability and that the features and bifurcations of patterns can be characterized based on regional dispersion relations, associated to distinct spatial regions (plateaus and interfaces) of the patterns. In an extensive outlook section, we detail concrete approaches to generalize local equilibria theory in several directions, including systems with more than two components, weakly broken mass conservation, and active matter systems.


CN-7
RU-A
(180)Two-quasiparticle K-isomers within the covariant density functional theory
  • Konstantinos E. Karakatsanis,
  • G. A. Lalazissis,
  • V. Prassa,
  • Peter Ring
Physical Review C (09/2020) doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.102.034311
abstract + abstract -

Two-quasiparticle excitations of medium mass nuclei with well-defined axial deformation are studied within the covariant density functional framework. The evolution of high-K isomers is analyzed in a self-consistent axially symmetric relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov calculation using the blocking approximation. The occurrence of the 6+ and 8− low-energy high-K isomers in the region from Er to Pb (68≤Z≤82,98≤N≤112) is evaluated and compared to available data. The importance of the quasiparticle spectrum in the energy evolution of the high-K states is discussed in detail.


PhD Thesis
RU-B
(179)Towards the Detection of the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background in the Large Volume Scintillator Experiment JUNO
  • Julia Sawatzki - Advisor: Lothar Oberauer
Thesis (09/2020) link
abstract + abstract -

The potential to detect the diffuse supernova neutrino background flux was studied for the Chinese 20kt liquid scintillator neutrino experiment JUNO. The amount of expected signal and background events was estimated. Techniques to identify background: pulse shape discrimination and triple coincidence, were evaluated. A discovery strategy was proposed, and the detection significance was calculated. Lastly, existing and future neutrino experiments were compared.


(178)Mass calibration of distant SPT galaxy clusters through expanded weak-lensing follow-up observations with HST, VLT, & Gemini-South
  • T. Schrabback,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • M. Sommer,
  • H. Zohren,
  • J.L. van den Busch
  • +16
  • B. Hernández-Martín,
  • H. Hoekstra,
  • S.F. Raihan,
  • M. Schirmer,
  • D. Applegate,
  • M. Bayliss,
  • B.A. Benson,
  • L.E. Bleem,
  • J.P. Dietrich,
  • B. Floyd,
  • S. Hilbert,
  • J. Hlavacek-Larrondo,
  • M. McDonald,
  • A. Saro,
  • A.A. Stark,
  • N. Weissgerber
  • (less)
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (09/2020) e-Print:2009.07591 doi:10.1093/mnras/stab1386
abstract + abstract -

Expanding from previous work, we present weak-lensing (WL) measurements for a total sample of 30 distant (z_median = 0.93) massive galaxy clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SPT-SZ) Survey, measuring galaxy shapes in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys images. We remove cluster members and preferentially select z ≳ 1.4 background galaxies via V − I colour, employing deep photometry from VLT/FORS2 and Gemini-South/GMOS. We apply revised calibrations for the WL shape measurements and the source redshift distribution to estimate the cluster masses. In combination with earlier Magellan/Megacam results for lower-redshifts clusters, we infer refined constraints on the scaling relation between the SZ detection significance and the cluster mass, in particular regarding its redshift evolution. The mass scale inferred from the WL data is lower by a factor |$0.76^{+0.10}_{-0.14}$| (at our pivot redshift z = 0.6) compared to what would be needed to reconcile a flat Planck νΛCDM cosmology (in which the sum of the neutrino masses is a free parameter) with the observed SPT-SZ cluster counts. In order to sensitively test the level of (dis-)agreement between SPT clusters and Planck, further expanded WL follow-up samples are needed.


RU-A
(177)User documentation and training at Belle II
  • Sam Cunliffe,
  • Ilya Komarov,
  • Thomas Kuhr,
  • Martin Ritter,
  • Francesco Tenchini
abstract + abstract -

Belle II is a rapidly growing collaboration with members from one hundred and nineteen institutes spread around the globe. The software development team of the experiment, as well as the software users, are very much decentralised. Together with the active development of the software, such decentralisation makes the adoption of the latest software releases by users an essential, but quite challenging task. To ensure the relevance of the documentation, we adopted the policy of in-code documentation and configured a website that allows us to tie the documentation to given releases. To prevent tutorials from becoming outdated, we covered them by unit-tests. For the user support, we use a question and answer service that not only reduces repetition of the same questions but also turned out to be a place for discussions among the experts. A prototype of a metasearch engine for the different sources of documentation has been developed. For training of the new users, we organise centralised StarterKit workshops attached to the collaboration meetings. The materials of the workshops are later used for self-education and organisation of local training sessions.


(176)Mapping reactor neutrino spectra from TAO to JUNO
  • Francesco Capozzi,
  • Eligio Lisi,
  • Antonio Marrone
Physical Review D (09/2020) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.102.056001
abstract + abstract -

The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) project aims at probing, at the same time, the two main frequencies of three-flavor neutrino oscillations, as well as their interference related to the mass ordering (normal or inverted), at a distance of ∼53 km from two powerful reactor complexes in China, at Yangjiang and Taishan. In the latter complex, the unoscillated spectrum from one reactor core is planned to be closely monitored by the Taishan Antineutrino Observatory (TAO), expected to have better resolution (×1 /2 ) and higher statistics (×30 ) than JUNO. In the context of ν energy spectra endowed with fine-structure features from summation calculations, we analyze in detail the effects of energy resolution and nucleon recoil on observable event spectra. We show that a model spectrum in TAO can be mapped into a corresponding spectrum in JUNO through appropriate convolutions. The mapping is exact in the hypothetical case without oscillations and holds to a very good accuracy in the real case with oscillations. We then analyze the sensitivity to mass ordering of JUNO (and its precision oscillometry capabilities) assuming a single reference spectrum, as well as bundles of variant spectra, as obtained by changing nuclear input uncertainties in summation calculations from a publicly available toolkit. We show through an χ2 analysis that variant spectra induce little reduction of the sensitivity in JUNO, especially when TAO constraints are included. Subtle aspects of the statistical analysis of variant spectra are also discussed.


RU-B
(175)Small-scale Cosmic Signatures of Feebly Interacting Massive Particles
  • Patrick Hager,
  • Alexis Kassiteridis
abstract + abstract -

Feebly Interacting Massive Particles (FIMPs), if they exist, should be notoriously difficult to detect even indirectly. In order to constrain them, we derive bounds for feeble theories sourced via Standard Model fields by investigating their predicted signatures regarding small-scale structure formation. To achieve this, we obtain an analytic approximation for the phase-space distribution function for a generic dimension ℓ scattering operator. As a proof of concept, realizations of such theories are discussed, which provide a viable thermal evolution and are able to solidly solve the enduring small-scale structure challenges appearing in ΛCDM cosmology.


(174)Galaxy cold gas contents in modern cosmological hydrodynamic simulations
  • Romeel Davé,
  • Robert A. Crain,
  • Adam R. H. Stevens,
  • Desika Narayanan,
  • Amelie Saintonge
  • +2
  • Barbara Catinella,
  • Luca Cortese
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (09/2020) doi:10.1093/mnras/staa1894
abstract + abstract -

We present a comparison of galaxy atomic and molecular gas properties in three recent cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, namely SIMBA, EAGLE, and IllustrisTNG, versus observations from z ~ 0 to 2. These simulations all rely on similar subresolution prescriptions to model cold interstellar gas that they cannot represent directly, and qualitatively reproduce the observed z ≍ 0 H I and H2 mass functions (HIMFs and H2MFs, respectively), CO(1-0) luminosity functions (COLFs), and gas scaling relations versus stellar mass, specific star formation rate, and stellar surface density μ*, with some quantitative differences. To compare to the COLF, we apply an H2-to-CO conversion factor to the simulated galaxies based on their average molecular surface density and metallicity, yielding substantial variations in αCO and significant differences between models. Using this, predicted z = 0 COLFs agree better with data than predicted H2MFs. Out to z ~ 2, EAGLE's and SIMBA's HIMFs and COLFs strongly increase, while IllustrisTNG's HIMF declines and COLF evolves slowly. EAGLE and SIMBA reproduce high-LCO(1-0) galaxies at z ~ 1-2 as observed, owing partly to a median αCO(z = 2) ~ 1 versus αCO(z = 0) ~ 3. Examining H I, H2, and CO scaling relations, their trends with M* are broadly reproduced in all models, but EAGLE yields too little H I in green valley galaxies, IllustrisTNG and SIMBA overproduce cold gas in massive galaxies, and SIMBA overproduces molecular gas in small systems. Using SIMBA variants that exclude individual active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback modules, we find that SIMBA's AGN jet feedback is primarily responsible by lowering cold gas contents from z ~ 1 → 0 by suppressing cold gas in $M_*\gtrsim 10^{10}{\rm \,M}_\odot$ galaxies, while X-ray feedback suppresses the formation of high-μ* systems.


(173)Neutrino observatory based on archaeological lead
  • Luca Pattavina,
  • Nahuel Ferreiro Iachellini,
  • Irene Tamborra
Physical Review D (09/2020) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.102.063001
abstract + abstract -

We propose the RES-NOVA project, which will hunt neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae (SN) via coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE ν NS ) using an array of archaeological lead (Pb) based cryogenic detectors. The high CE ν NS cross section on Pb and the ultrahigh radiopurity of archaeological Pb enable the operation of a high statistics experiment equally sensitive to all neutrino flavors with reduced detector dimensions in comparison with existing neutrino observatories and easy scalability to larger detector volumes. RES-NOVA is planned to operate according to three phases with increasing detector volumes: (60 cm )3 , (140 cm )3 , and ultimately 15 × (140 cm )3 . It will be sensitive to SN bursts up to Andromeda with 5 σ sensitivity with already existing technologies and will have excellent energy resolution with a 1 keV threshold. Within our Galaxy, it will be possible to discriminate core-collapse SN from black-hole-forming collapses with no ambiguity even in the first phase of RES-NOVA. The average neutrino energy of all flavors, the SN neutrino light curve, and the total energy emitted in neutrinos can potentially be constrained with a precision of a few percent in the final detector phase. RES-NOVA will be sensitive to flavor-blind neutrinos from the diffuse SN neutrino background with an exposure of 620 ton .y . The proposed RES-NOVA project has the potential to lay down the foundations for a new generation of neutrino telescopes while relying on a very simple technological setup.


RU-D
(172)Dwarfs in the Milky Way halo outer rim: first infall or backsplash satellites?
  • Matías Blaña,
  • Andreas Burkert,
  • Michael Fellhauer,
  • Marc Schartmann,
  • Christian Alig
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (09/2020) doi:10.1093/mnras/staa2153
abstract + abstract -

Leo T is a gas-rich dwarf located at $414\, {\rm kpc}$ (1.4Rvir) distance from the Milky Way (MW) and it is currently assumed to be on its first approach. Here, we present an analysis of orbits calculated backwards in time for the dwarf with our new code DELOREAN, exploring a range of systematic uncertainties, e.g. MW virial mass and accretion, M31 potential, and cosmic expansion. We discover that orbits with tangential velocities in the Galactic standard-of-rest frame lower than $| \vec{u}_{\rm t}^{\rm GSR}| \le 63^{+47}_{-39}\, {\rm km}\, {\rm s}^{\rm -1}$ result in backsplash solutions, i.e. orbits that entered and left the MW dark matter halo in the past, and that velocities above $| \vec{u}_{\rm t}^{\rm GSR}| \ge 21^{+33}_{-21}\, {\rm km}\, {\rm s}^{\rm -1}$ result in wide-orbit backsplash solutions with a minimum pericentre range of $D_{\rm min} \ge 38^{+26}_{-16}\, {\rm kpc}$ , which would allow this satellite to survive gas stripping and tidal disruption. Moreover, new proper motion estimates overlap with our orbital solution regions. We applied our method to other distant MW satellites, finding a range of gas stripped backsplash solutions for the gasless Cetus and Eridanus II, providing a possible explanation for their lack of cold gas, while only first infall solutions are found for the H I-rich Phoenix I. We also find that the cosmic expansion can delay their first pericentre passage when compared to the non-expanding scenario. This study explores the provenance of these distant dwarfs and provides constraints on the environmental and internal processes that shaped their evolution and current properties.