page 6 of 17
PhD Thesis
(1171)Specification of Distributed Computing for Small Satellite Control
  • Sebastian Rückerl - Advisor: Ulrich Walter
Thesis (07/2023) link
abstract + abstract -

A distributed system increases flexibility and enables the reuse of components between different CubeSat missions. Within this thesis, we present a suitable distributed system and evaluate its performance regarding distributed real-time applications with a major focus on time synchronization and timed execution capabilities. Additionally, we evaluate the radiation tolerance of a target microcontroller to assure reliable operation in the South Atlantic Anomaly.

(1170)Modelling supernova nebular lines in 3D with EXTRASS
  • Bart F. A. van Baal,
  • Anders Jerkstrand,
  • Annop Wongwathanarat,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1488
abstract + abstract -

We present EXplosive TRAnsient Spectral Simulator (EXTRASS), a newly developed code aimed at generating 3D spectra for supernovae in the nebular phase by using modern multidimensional explosion models as input. It is well established that supernovae are asymmetric by nature, and that the morphology is encoded in the line profiles during the nebular phase, months after the explosion. In this work, we use EXTRASS to study one such simulation of a $3.3\, \mathrm{ M}_\odot$ He-core explosion ($M_\text{ejecta}=1.3\, M_\odot$, $E_\text{kin}=1.05\times 10^{51}\,$erg) modelled with the Prometheus-HotB code and evolved to the homologous phase. Our code calculates the energy deposition from the radioactive decay of 56Ni → 56Co → 56Fe and uses this to determine the Non-Local-Thermodynamic-Equilibrium temperature, excitation, and ionization structure across the nebula. From the physical condition solutions we generate the emissivities to construct spectra depending on viewing angles. Our results show large variations in the line profiles with viewing angles, as diagnosed by the first three moments of the line profiles; shifts, widths, and skewness. We compare line profiles from different elements, and study the morphology of line-of-sight slices that determine the flux at each part of a line profile. We find that excitation conditions can sometimes make the momentum vector of the ejecta emitting in the excited states significantly different from that of the bulk of the ejecta of the respective element, thus giving blueshifted lines for bulk receding material, and vice versa. We compare the 3.3 M He-core model to observations of the Type Ib supernova SN 2007Y.

(1169)THE THREE HUNDRED Project: the evolution of physical baryon profiles
  • Qingyang Li,
  • Weiguang Cui,
  • Xiaohu Yang,
  • Romeel Davé,
  • Elena Rasia
  • +5
  • Stefano Borgani,
  • Meneghetti Massimo,
  • Alexander Knebe,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Jack Sayers
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1521
abstract + abstract -

The distribution of baryons provides a significant way to understand the formation of galaxy clusters by revealing the details of its internal structure and changes over time. In this paper, we present theoretical studies on the scaled profiles of physical properties associated with the baryonic components, including gas density, temperature, metallicity, pressure and entropy as well as stellar mass, metallicity and satellite galaxy number density in galaxy clusters from z = 4 to z = 0 by tracking their progenitors. These mass-complete simulated galaxy clusters are coming from THE THREE HUNDRED with two runs: GIZMO-SIMBA and GADGET-X. Through comparisons between the two simulations, and with observed profiles that are generally available at low redshift, we find that (1) the agreements between the two runs and observations are mostly at outer radii r ≳ 0.3r500, in line with the self-similarity assumption. While GADGET-X shows better agreements with the observed gas profiles in the central regions compared to GIZMO-SIMBA; (2) the evolution trends are generally consistent between the two simulations with slightly better consistency at outer radii. In detail, the gas density profile shows less discrepancy than the temperature and entropy profiles at high redshift. The differences in the cluster centre and gas properties imply different behaviours of the AGN models between GADGET-X and GIZMO-SIMBA, with the latter, maybe too strong for this cluster simulation. The high-redshift difference may be caused by the star formation and feedback models or hydrodynamics treatment, which requires observation constraints and understanding.

(1168)Prospects of detecting soft X-ray emission from typical WHIM filaments around massive clusters and the coma cluster soft excess
  • E. Churazov,
  • I. I. Khabibullin,
  • K. Dolag,
  • N. Lyskova,
  • R. A. Sunyaev
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1514
abstract + abstract -

While hot ICM in galaxy clusters makes these objects powerful X-ray sources, the cluster's outskirts and overdense gaseous filaments might give rise to much fainter sub-keV emission. Cosmological simulations show a prominent 'focusing' effect of rich clusters on the space density of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) filaments up to a distance of $\sim 10\, {\rm Mpc}$ (~ turnaround radius, rta) and beyond. Here, we use Magneticum simulations to characterize their properties in terms of integrated emission measure for a given temperature and overdensity cut and the level of contamination by the more dense gas. We suggest that the annuli $(\sim 0.5-1)\times \, r_{ta}$ around massive clusters might be the most promising sites for the search of the gas with overdensity ≲ 50. We model spectral signatures of the WHIM in the X-ray band and identify two distinct regimes for the gas at temperatures below and above $\sim 10^6\, {\rm K}$. Using this model, we estimate the sensitivity of X-ray telescopes to the WHIM spectral signatures. We found that the WHIM structures are within reach of future high spectral resolution missions, provided that the low-density gas is not extremely metal-poor. We then consider the Coma cluster observed by SRG/eROSITA during the CalPV phase as an example of a nearby massive object. We found that beyond the central r ~ 40 arcmin ($\sim 1100\, {\rm kpc}$) circle, where calibration uncertainties preclude clean separation of the extremely bright cluster emission from a possible softer component, the conservative upper limits are about an order of magnitude larger than the levels expected from simulations.

(1167)The $D^+_s \to K^+ \pi^+ \pi^-$ reaction and the scalar $f_0(500)$, $f_0(980)$ and $K^*_0 (700)$ resonances
  • L. R. Dai,
  • E. Oset
abstract + abstract -

We develop a model to reproduce the mass distributions of pairs of mesons in the Cabibbo-suppressed $D^+_s \to K^+ \pi^+ \pi^-$ decay. The largest contributions to the process comes from the $D^+_s \to K^+ \rho^0$ and $D^+_s \to K^{*0} \pi^+$ decay modes, but the $D^+_s \to K^*_0(1430) \pi^+$ and $D^+_s \to K^+ f_0(1370)$ modes also play a moderate role and all of them are introduced empirically. Instead, the contribution of the $f_0(500)$, $f_0(980)$ and $K^*_0(700)$ resonances is introduced dynamically by looking at the decay modes at the quark level, hadronizing $q \bar{q}$ pairs to give two mesons, and allowing these mesons to interact to finally produce the $K^+ \pi^+ \pi^-$ final state. These last three modes are correlated by means of only one parameter. We obtain a fair reproduction of the experimental data for the three mass distributions as well as the relative weight of the three light scalar mesons, which we see as further support for the nature of these states as dynamically generated from the interaction of pseudoscalar mesons.

(1166)Probing z ≳ six massive black holes with gravitational waves
  • Srija Chakraborty,
  • Simona Gallerani,
  • Tommaso Zana,
  • Alberto Sesana,
  • Milena Valentini
  • +4
  • David Izquierdo-Villalba,
  • Fabio Di Mascia,
  • Fabio Vito,
  • Paramita Barai
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1493
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the coalescence of massive black hole ($M_{\rm BH}\gtrsim 10^{6}~\rm {\rm M}_{\odot }$) binaries (MBHBs) at 6 < z < 10 by adopting a suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation, zoomed-in on biased (>3σ) overdense regions (Mh ~ 1012 M dark matter haloes at z = 6) of the Universe. We first analyse the impact of different resolutions and AGN feedback prescriptions on the merger rate, assuming instantaneous mergers. Then, we compute the halo bias correction factor due to the overdense simulated region. Our simulations predict merger rates that range between 3 and 15 $\rm yr^{-1}$ at z ~6, depending on the run considered, and after correcting for a bias factor of ~20-30. For our fiducial model, we further consider the effect of delay in the MBHB coalescence due to dynamical friction. We find that 83 per cent of MBHBs will merge within the Hubble time, and 21 per cent within 1 Gyr, namely the age of the Universe at z > 6. We finally compute the expected properties of the gravitational wave (GW) signals and find the fraction of LISA detectable events with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR > 5) to range between 66 per cent and 69 per cent. However, identifying the electro-magnetic counterpart of these events remains challenging due to the poor LISA sky localization that, for the loudest signals ($\mathcal {M}_c\sim 10^6~{{\rm M}_{\odot }}$ at z = 6), is around 10 $\rm deg^2$.

(1165)First Evidence of Multi-iron Subpopulations in the Bulge Fossil Fragment Candidate Liller 1
  • Chiara Crociati,
  • Elena Valenti,
  • Francesco R. Ferraro,
  • Cristina Pallanca,
  • Barbara Lanzoni
  • +7
  • Mario Cadelano,
  • Cristiano Fanelli,
  • Livia Origlia,
  • Silvia Leanza,
  • Emanuele Dalessandro,
  • Alessio Mucciarelli,
  • R. Michael Rich
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (07/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acd382
abstract + abstract -

In the context of a project aimed at characterizing the properties of the so-called Bulge Fossil Fragments (the fossil remnants of the bulge formation epoch), here we present the first determination of the metallicity distribution of Liller 1. For a sample of 64 individual member stars we used ESO-MUSE spectra to measure the equivalent width of the Ca II triplet and then derive the iron abundance. To test the validity of the adopted calibration in the metal-rich regime, the procedure was first applied to three reference bulge globular clusters (NGC 6569, NGC 6440, and NGC 6528). In all the three cases, we found single-component iron distributions, with abundance values fully in agreement with those reported in the literature. The application of the same methodology to Liller 1 yielded, instead, a clear bimodal iron distribution, with a subsolar component at [Fe/H] = -0.48 dex (σ = 0.22) and a supersolar component at [Fe/H] = +0.26 dex (σ = 0.17). The latter is found to be significantly more centrally concentrated than the metal-poor population, as expected in a self-enrichment scenario and in agreement with that found in another bulge system, Terzan 5. The obtained metallicity distribution is astonishingly similar to that predicted by the reconstructed star formation history of Liller 1, which is characterized by three main bursts and a low, but constant, activity of star formation over the entire lifetime. These findings provide further support to the possibility that, similar to Terzan 5, Liller 1 is also a Bulge Fossil Fragment. * Based on observations collected at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal (Chile), under the ESO-VLT Multi-Instrument Kinematic Survey (MIKiS survey) programs 106.21N5 and 105.20B9 (PI: Ferraro) and under MUSE science verification programs: 60.A-9489;60.A-9343.

(1164)TDCOSMO. XIII. Cosmological distance measurements in light of the mass-sheet degeneracy: Forecasts from strong lensing and integral field unit stellar kinematics
  • A. Yıldırım,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • G. C. -F. Chen,
  • E. Komatsu
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202142318
abstract + abstract -

Time-delay distance measurements of strongly lensed quasars have provided a powerful and independent probe of the current expansion rate of the Universe (H0). However, in light of the discrepancies between early- and late-time cosmological studies, current efforts revolve around the characterisation of systematic uncertainties in the methods. In this work we focus on the mass-sheet degeneracy (MSD), which is commonly considered a significant source of systematics in time-delay strong lensing studies, and aim to assess the constraining power provided by integral field unit (IFU) stellar kinematics. To this end, we approximated the MSD with a cored, two-parameter extension to the adopted lensing mass profiles (with core radius rc and mass-sheet parameter λint), which introduces a full degeneracy between λint and H0 from lensing data alone. In addition, we utilised spatially resolved mock IFU stellar kinematics of time-delay strong lenses, given the prospects of obtaining such high-quality data with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in the near future. We constructed joint strong lensing and generalised two-integral axisymmetric Jeans models, where the time delays, mock imaging, and IFU observations are used as input to constrain the mass profile of lens galaxies at the individual galaxy level and consequently yield joint constraints on the time-delay distance (DΔt) and the angular diameter distance (Dd) to the lens. We find that mock JWST-like stellar kinematics constrain the amount of internal mass sheet that is physically associated with the lens galaxy and limit its contribution to the uncertainties of DΔt and Dd, each at the ≤4% level, without assumptions on the background cosmological model. Incorporating additional uncertainties due to external mass sheets associated with mass structures along the lens line of sight, these distance constraints would translate to a ≲4% precision measurement on H0 in flat Λ cold dark matter cosmology for a single lens. Our study shows that future IFU stellar kinematics of time-delay lenses will be key in lifting the MSD on a per lens basis, assuming reasonable and physically motivated core sizes. However, even in the limit of infinite rc, where DΔt is fully degenerate with λint and is thus not constrained, stellar kinematics of the deflector, time delays, and imaging data will provide powerful constraints on Dd, which becomes the dominant source of information in the cosmological inference.

(1163)The optimized point-coupling interaction for the relativistic energy density functional of Hartree-Bogoliubov approach quantifying the nuclear bulk properties
  • Zi Xin Liu,
  • Yi Hua Lam,
  • Ning Lu,
  • Peter Ring
Physics Letters B (07/2023) doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2023.137946
abstract + abstract -

We propose a newly optimized nonlinear point-coupling parameterized interaction, PC-L3R, for the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov framework with a further optimized separable pairing force by fitting to observables, i.e., the binding energies of 91 spherical nuclei, charge radii of 63 nuclei, and 12 sets of mean pairing gaps consisting of 54 nuclei in total. The separable pairing force strengths of proton and neutron are optimized together with the point-coupling constants, and are justified in satisfactory reproducing the empirical pairing gaps. The comparison of experimental binding energies compiled in AME2020 for 91 nuclei with the ones generated from the present and other commonly used point-coupling interactions indicates that the implementation of PC-L3R in relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov yields the lowest root-mean-square deviation. The charge radii satisfactory agree with experiment. Meanwhile, PC-L3R is capable of estimating the saturation properties of the symmetric nuclear matter and of appropriately predicting the isospin and mass dependence of binding energy. The experimental odd-even staggering of single nucleon separation energies is well reproduced. The comparison of the estimated binding energies for 7,373 nuclei based on the PC-L3R and other point-coupling interactions is also presented.

(1162)Establishing the impact of luminous AGN with multi-wavelength observations and simulations
  • C. M. Harrison,
  • A. Girdhar,
  • S. R. Ward
abstract + abstract -

Cosmological simulations fail to reproduce realistic galaxy populations without energy injection from active galactic nuclei (AGN) into the interstellar medium (ISM) and circumgalactic medium (CGM); a process called `AGN feedback'. Consequently, observational work searches for evidence that luminous AGN impact their host galaxies. Here, we review some of this work. Multi-phase AGN outflows are common, some with potential for significant impact. Additionally, multiple feedback channels can be observed simultaneously; e.g., radio jets from `radio quiet' quasars can inject turbulence on ISM scales, and displace CGM-scale molecular gas. However, caution must be taken comparing outflows to simulations (e.g., kinetic coupling efficiencies) to infer feedback potential, due to a lack of comparable predictions. Furthermore, some work claims limited evidence for feedback because AGN live in gas-rich, star-forming galaxies. However, simulations do not predict instantaneous, global impact on molecular gas or star formation. The impact is expected to be cumulative, over multiple episodes.

(1161)Effective field theories for dark matter pairs in the early universe: cross sections and widths
  • S. Biondini,
  • N. Brambilla,
  • G. Qerimi,
  • A. Vairo
Journal of High Energy Physics (07/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP07(2023)006
abstract + abstract -

In order to predict the cosmological abundance of dark matter, an estimation of particle rates in an expanding thermal environment is needed. For thermal dark matter, the non-relativistic regime sets the stage for the freeze-out of the dark matter energy density. We compute transition widths and annihilation, bound-state formation, and dissociation cross sections of dark matter fermion pairs in the unifying framework of non-relativistic effective field theories at finite temperature, with the thermal bath modeling the thermodynamical behaviour of the early universe. We reproduce and extend some known results for the paradigmatic case of a dark fermion species coupled to dark gauge bosons. The effective field theory framework allows to highlight their range of validity and consistency, and to identify some possible improvements.

(1160)On a procedure to derive ϵ-factorised differential equations beyond polylogarithms
  • Lennard Görges,
  • Christoph Nega,
  • Lorenzo Tancredi,
  • Fabian J. Wagner
Journal of High Energy Physics (07/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP07(2023)206
abstract + abstract -

In this manuscript, we elaborate on a procedure to derive ϵ-factorised differential equations for multi-scale, multi-loop classes of Feynman integrals that evaluate to special functions beyond multiple polylogarithms. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach to diverse classes of problems, by working out ϵ-factorised differential equations for single- and multi-scale problems of increasing complexity. To start we are reconsidering the well-studied equal-mass two-loop sunrise case, and move then to study other elliptic two-, three- and four-point problems depending on multiple different scales. Finally, we showcase how the same approach allows us to obtain ϵ-factorised differential equations also for Feynman integrals that involve geometries beyond a single elliptic curve.

(1159)Multipole vector dark matter below the GeV scale
  • Xiaoyong Chu,
  • Junji Hisano,
  • Alejandro Ibarra,
  • Jui-Lin Kuo,
  • Josef Pradler
Physical Review D (07/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.108.015029
abstract + abstract -

We consider electrically neutral complex-vector particles V below the GeV mass scale that, from a low-energy perspective, couple to the photon via higher-dimensional form factor interactions. We derive ensuing astrophysical constraints by considering the anomalous energy loss from the Sun, Horizontal Branch, and Red Giant stars as well as from SN1987A that arise from vector pair production in these environments. Under the assumption that the dark states V constitute dark matter, the bounds are then complemented by direct and indirect detection as well as cosmological limits. The relic density from freeze-out and freeze-in mechanisms is also computed. On the basis of a UV-complete model that realizes the considered effective couplings, we also discuss the naturalness of the constrained parameter space, and provide an analysis of the zero mass limit of V .

(1158)Machine learning Post-Minkowskian integrals
  • Ryusuke Jinno,
  • Gregor Kälin,
  • Zhengwen Liu,
  • Henrique Rubira
Journal of High Energy Physics (07/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP07(2023)181
abstract + abstract -

We study a neural network framework for the numerical evaluation of Feynman loop integrals that are fundamental building blocks for perturbative computations of physical observables in gauge and gravity theories. We show that such a machine learning approach improves the convergence of the Monte Carlo algorithm for high-precision evaluation of multi-dimensional integrals compared to traditional algorithms. In particular, we use a neural network to improve the importance sampling. For a set of representative integrals appearing in the computation of the conservative dynamics for a compact binary system in General Relativity, we perform a quantitative comparison between the Monte Carlo integrators VEGAS and i-flow, an integrator based on neural network sampling.

(1157)Regeneration of bottomonia in an open quantum systems approach
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Miguel Ángel Escobedo,
  • Ajaharul Islam,
  • Michael Strickland,
  • Anurag Tiwari
  • +2
  • Antonio Vairo,
  • Peter Vander Griend
  • (less)
Physical Review D (07/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.108.L011502
abstract + abstract -

We demonstrate the importance of quantum jumps in the nonequilibrium evolution of bottomonium states in the quark-gluon plasma. Based on nonrelativistic effective field theory and the open quantum system framework, we evolve the density matrix of color singlet and octet pairs. We show that quantum regeneration of singlet states from octet configurations is necessary to understand experimental results for the suppression of both bottomonium ground and excited states. The values of the heavy-quarkonium transport coefficients used are consistent with recent lattice QCD determinations.

(1156)The cosmic web around the Coma cluster from constrained cosmological simulations. I. Filaments connected to Coma at z = 0
  • Nicola Malavasi,
  • Jenny G. Sorce,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Nabila Aghanim
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245777
abstract + abstract -

Galaxy clusters in the Universe occupy the important position of nodes of the cosmic web. They are connected among them by filaments, elongated structures composed of dark matter, galaxies, and gas. The connection of galaxy clusters to filaments is important, as it is related to the process of matter accretion onto the former. For this reason, investigating the connections to the cosmic web of massive clusters, especially well-known ones for which a lot of information is available, is a hot topic in astrophysics. In a previous work, we performed an analysis of the filament connections of the Coma cluster of galaxies, as detected from the observed galaxy distribution. In this work we resort to a numerical simulation whose initial conditions are constrained to reproduce the local Universe, including the region of the Coma cluster to interpret our observations in an evolutionary context. We detect the filaments connected to the simulated Coma cluster and perform an accurate comparison with the cosmic web configuration we detect in observations. We perform an analysis of the halos' spatial and velocity distributions close to the filaments in the cluster outskirts. We conclude that, although not significantly larger than the average, the flux of accreting matter on the simulated Coma cluster is significantly more collimated close to the filaments with respect to the general isotropic accretion flux. This paper is the first example of such a result and the first installment in a series of publications which will explore the build-up of the Coma cluster system in connection to the filaments of the cosmic web as a function of redshift.

(1155)Cosmic Ray Processes in Galactic Ecosystems
  • Ellis R. Owen,
  • Kinwah Wu,
  • Yoshiyuki Inoue,
  • H. -Y. Karen Yang,
  • Alison M. W. Mitchell
Galaxies (07/2023) doi:10.3390/galaxies11040086
abstract + abstract -

Galaxy evolution is an important topic, and our physical understanding must be complete to establish a correct picture. This includes a thorough treatment of feedback. The effects of thermal–mechanical and radiative feedback have been widely considered; however, cosmic rays (CRs) are also powerful energy carriers in galactic ecosystems. Resolving the capability of CRs to operate as a feedback agent is therefore essential to advance our understanding of the processes regulating galaxies. The effects of CRs are yet to be fully understood, and their complex multi-channel feedback mechanisms operating across the hierarchy of galaxy structures pose a significant technical challenge. This review examines the role of CRs in galaxies, from the scale of molecular clouds to the circumgalactic medium. An overview of their interaction processes, their implications for galaxy evolution, and their observable signatures is provided and their capability to modify the thermal and hydrodynamic configuration of galactic ecosystems is discussed. We present recent advancements in our understanding of CR processes and interpretation of their signatures, and highlight where technical challenges and unresolved questions persist. We discuss how these may be addressed with upcoming opportunities.

(1154)Effects of multiphase gas and projection on X-ray observables in simulated galaxy clusters as seen by eROSITA
  • J. ZuHone,
  • Y. E. Bahar,
  • V. Biffi,
  • K. Dolag,
  • J. Sanders
  • +6
  • E. Bulbul,
  • T. Liu,
  • T. Dauser,
  • O. König,
  • X. Zhang,
  • V. Ghirardini
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245749
abstract + abstract -

Context. Galaxy clusters are the most massive bound objects in the recent history of the universe; the number density of galaxy clusters as a function of mass and redshift is a sensitive function of the cosmological parameters. To use clusters for cosmological parameter studies, it is necessary to determine their masses as accurately as possible, which is typically done via scaling relations between mass and observables.
Aims: X-ray observables can be biased by a number of effects, including multiphase gas and projection effects, especially in the case where cluster temperatures and luminosities are estimated from single-model fits to all of the emission with an overdensity radius such as r500c. Using simulated galaxy clusters from a realistic cosmological simulation, our aim is to determine the importance of these biases in the context of Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma/eROSITA observations of clusters.
Methods: We extracted clusters from the Box2_hr simulation from the Magneticum suite, and simulated synthetic eROSITA observations of these clusters using PHOX to generate the photons and the end-to-end simulator SIXTE to trace them through the optics and simulate the detection process. We fitted the spectra from these observations and compared the fitted temperatures and luminosities to the quantities derived from the simulations. We fitted an intrinsically scattered LX − T scaling relation to these measurements following a Bayesian approach with which we fully took into account the selection effects and the mass function.
Results: The largest biases on the estimated temperature and luminosities of the clusters come from the inadequacy of single-temperature model fits to represent emission from multiphase gas, and from a bias arising from cluster emission within the projected r500c along the line of sight but outside of the spherical r500c. We find that the biases on temperature and luminosity due to the projection of emission from other clusters within r500c is comparatively small. We find eROSITA-like measurements of Magneticum clusters following a LX − T scaling relation that has a broadly consistent but slightly shallower slope compared to the literature values. We also find that the intrinsic scatter of LX at given T is lower compared to the recent observational results where the selection effects are fully considered.

(1153)Dependency of high-mass satellite galaxy abundance on cosmology in Magneticum simulations
  • A. Ragagnin,
  • A. Fumagalli,
  • T. Castro,
  • K. Dolag,
  • A. Saro
  • +2
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202142392
abstract + abstract -

Context. Observational studies carried out to calibrate the masses of galaxy clusters often use mass-richness relations to interpret galaxy number counts.
Aims: Here, we aim to study the impact of the richness-mass relation modelled with cosmological parameters on mock mass calibrations.
Methods: We build a Gaussian process regression emulator of high-mass satellite abundance normalisation and log-slope based on cosmological parameters Ωm, Ωb, σ8, h0, and redshift z. We train our emulator using Magneticum hydrodynamic simulations that span different cosmologies for a given set of feedback scheme parameters.
Results: We find that the normalisation depends, albeit weakly, on cosmological parameters, especially on Ωm and Ωb, and that their inclusion in mock observations increases the constraining power of these latter by 10%. On the other hand, the log-slope is ≈1 in every setup, and the emulator does not predict it with significant accuracy. We also show that satellite abundance cosmology dependency differs between full-physics simulations, dark-matter only, and non-radiative simulations.
Conclusions: Mass-calibration studies would benefit from modelling of the mass-richness relations with cosmological parameters, especially if the satellite abundance cosmology dependency.

(1152)End-to-end Kilonova Models of Neutron Star Mergers with Delayed Black Hole Formation
  • O. Just,
  • V. Vijayan,
  • Z. Xiong,
  • S. Goriely,
  • T. Soultanis
  • +4
  • A. Bauswein,
  • J. Guilet,
  • H. -Th. Janka,
  • G. Martínez-Pinedo
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (07/2023) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/acdad2
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the nucleosynthesis and kilonova properties of binary neutron star (NS) merger models that lead to intermediate remnant lifetimes of ~0.1-1 s until black hole (BH) formation and describe all components of the material ejected during the dynamical merger phase, NS remnant evolution, and final viscous disintegration of the BH torus after gravitational collapse. To this end, we employ a combination of hydrodynamics, nucleosynthesis, and radiative transfer tools to achieve a consistent end-to-end modeling of the system and its observables. We adopt a novel version of the Shakura-Sunyaev scheme allowing the approximate turbulent viscosity inside the NS remnant to vary independently of the surrounding disk. We find that asymmetric progenitors lead to shorter remnant lifetimes and enhanced ejecta masses, although the viscosity affects the absolute values of these characteristics. The integrated production of lanthanides and heavier elements in such binary systems is subsolar, suggesting that the considered scenarios contribute in a subdominant fashion to r-process enrichment. One reason is that BH tori formed after delayed collapse exhibit less neutron-rich conditions than typically found, and often assumed in previous BH torus models, for early BH formation. The outflows in our models feature strong anisotropy as a result of the lanthanide-poor polar neutrino-driven wind pushing aside lanthanide-rich dynamical ejecta. Considering the complexity of the models, the estimated kilonova light curves show promising agreement with AT 2017gfo after times of several days, while the remaining inconsistencies at early times could possibly be overcome in binary configurations with a more dominant neutrino-driven wind relative to the dynamical ejecta.

(1151)Strong Supernova 1987A Constraints on Bosons Decaying to Neutrinos
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Georg G. Raffelt,
  • Edoardo Vitagliano
Physical Review Letters (07/2023) e-Print:2209.11773 doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.131.021001
abstract + abstract -

Majoron-like bosons would emerge from a supernova (SN) core by neutrino coalescence of the form ν ν →ϕ and ν ¯ν ¯→ϕ with 100-MeV-range energies. Subsequent decays to (anti)neutrinos of all flavors provide a flux component with energies much larger than the usual flux from the "neutrino sphere." The absence of 100-MeV-range events in the Kamiokande-II and Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven signal of SN 1987A implies that less than 1% of the total energy was thus emitted and provides the strongest constraint on the Majoron-neutrino coupling of g ≲10-9 MeV /mϕ for 100 eV ≲mϕ≲100 MeV . It is straightforward to extend our new argument to other hypothetical feebly interacting particles.

(1150)Power counting in the standard model effective field theory with applications to $gg \to t \bar t$ and $h \to gg$
  • C. Müller-Salditt - Advisor: G. Buchalla
Thesis (07/2023) doi: doi:10.5282/edoc.32397
abstract + abstract -

A consistent power-counting prescription for the Standard Model Effective Field Theory requires more than the canonical dimension of operators, as they contain no informa tion about the perturbative expansion of the underlying Quantum Field Theory at highenergies. Although this has been noted in the literature for many years, a consistent quantitative approach remains to be completed. In this work, we present a solution for operators of canonical dimension six based on the notion of chiral dimensions. Our results are illustrated by explicit analytic calculations for two major examples at hadron colliders. These are the fusion of two gluons associated with the production of a top-quark pair, and the decay of a Higgs boson into two gluons or photons. We provide numerical studies for both processes to estimate hypothetical deviations from the Standard Model.

(1149)Three-loop master integrals for H+jet production at N$^3$LO: Towards the non-planar topologies
  • Dhimiter D. Canko,
  • Nikolaos Syrrakos
abstract + abstract -

We discuss the recent progress that has been made towards the computation of three-loop non-planar master integrals relevant to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N$^3$LO) corrections to processes such as H+jet production at the LHC. We describe the analytic structure of these integrals, as well as several technical issues regarding their analytic computation using canonical differential equations. Finally, we comment on the remaining steps towards the computation of all relevant three-loop topologies and their application to amplitude calculations.

(1148)Galaxy bias renormalization group
  • Henrique Rubira,
  • Fabian Schmidt
abstract + abstract -

The effective field theory of large-scale structure allows for a consistent perturbative bias expansion of the rest-frame galaxy density field. In this work, we present a systematic approach to renormalize galaxy bias and stochastic parameters using a finite cutoff scale $\Lambda$. We derive the differential equations of the Wilson-Polchinski renormalization group that describe the evolution of the finite-scale bias parameters with $\Lambda$, analogous to the $\beta$-function running in QFT. We further provide the connection between the finite-cutoff scheme and the renormalization procedure for $n$-point functions that has been used as standard in the literature so far; some inconsistencies in the treatment of renormalized bias in current EFT analyses are pointed out as well. The fixed-cutoff scheme allows us to predict, in a principled way, the finite part of loop contributions which is due to perturbative modes and which, in the standard renormalization approach, is absorbed into counterterms. We expect that this will allow for the robust extraction of (a yet-to-be-determined amount of) additional cosmological information from galaxy clustering, both when using field-level techniques and $n$-point functions.

(1147)Observation of a low energy nuclear recoil peak in the neutron calibration data of the CRESST-III experiment
  • G. Angloher,
  • S. Banik,
  • G. Benato,
  • A. Bento,
  • A. Bertolini
  • +56
  • R. Breier,
  • C. Bucci,
  • J. Burkhart,
  • L. Canonica,
  • A. D'Addabbo,
  • S. di Lorenzo,
  • L. Einfalt,
  • A. Erb,
  • F. V. Feilitzsch,
  • S. Fichtinger,
  • D. Fuchs,
  • A. Fuss,
  • A. Garai,
  • V. M. Ghete,
  • S. Gerster,
  • P. Gorla,
  • P. V. Guillaumon,
  • S. Gupta,
  • D. Hauff,
  • M. Ješkovský,
  • J. Jochum,
  • M. Kaznacheeva,
  • A. Kinast,
  • H. Kluck,
  • H. Kraus,
  • A. Langenkämper,
  • M. Mancuso,
  • L. Marini,
  • L. Meyer,
  • V. Mokina,
  • A. Nilima,
  • M. Olmi,
  • T. Ortmann,
  • C. Pagliarone,
  • L. Pattavina,
  • F. Petricca,
  • W. Potzel,
  • P. Povinec,
  • F. Pröbst,
  • F. Pucci,
  • F. Reindl,
  • J. Rothe,
  • K. Schäffner,
  • J. Schieck,
  • D. Schmiedmayer,
  • S. Schönert,
  • C. Schwertner,
  • M. Stahlberg,
  • L. Stodolsky,
  • C. Strandhagen,
  • R. Strauss,
  • I. Usherov,
  • F. Wagner,
  • M. Willers,
  • V. Zema,
  • CRESST Collaboration
  • (less)
Physical Review D (07/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.108.022005
abstract + abstract -

New-generation direct searches for low mass dark matter feature detection thresholds at energies well below 100 eV, much lower than the energies of commonly used x-ray calibration sources. This requires new calibration sources with sub-keV energies. When searching for nuclear recoil signals, the calibration source should ideally cause monoenergetic nuclear recoils in the relevant energy range. Recently, a new calibration method based on the radiative neutron capture on 182W with subsequent deexcitation via single γ -emission leading to a nuclear recoil peak at 112 eV was proposed. The CRESST-III dark matter search operated several CaWO4-based detector modules with detection thresholds below 100 eV in the past years. We report the observation of a peak around the expected energy of 112 eV in the data of three different detector modules recorded while irradiated with neutrons from different AmBe calibration sources. We compare the properties of the observed peaks with GEANT-4 simulations and assess the prospects of using this for the energy calibration of CRESST-III detectors.

(1146)Reconstructing particles in jets using set transformer and hypergraph prediction networks
  • Francesco Armando Di Bello,
  • Etienne Dreyer,
  • Sanmay Ganguly,
  • Eilam Gross,
  • Lukas Heinrich
  • +6
  • Anna Ivina,
  • Marumi Kado,
  • Nilotpal Kakati,
  • Lorenzo Santi,
  • Jonathan Shlomi,
  • Matteo Tusoni
  • (less)
European Physical Journal C (07/2023) doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-023-11677-7
abstract + abstract -

The task of reconstructing particles from low-level detector response data to predict the set of final state particles in collision events represents a set-to-set prediction task requiring the use of multiple features and their correlations in the input data. We deploy three separate set-to-set neural network architectures to reconstruct particles in events containing a single jet in a fully-simulated calorimeter. Performance is evaluated in terms of particle reconstruction quality, properties regression, and jet-level metrics. The results demonstrate that such a high-dimensional end-to-end approach succeeds in surpassing basic parametric approaches in disentangling individual neutral particles inside of jets and optimizing the use of complementary detector information. In particular, the performance comparison favors a novel architecture based on learning hypergraph structure, HGPflow, which benefits from a physically-interpretable approach to particle reconstruction.

(1145)Bulk Landau pole and unitarity of dual conformal field theory
  • Ivo Sachs,
  • Pierre Vanhove
Journal of High Energy Physics (07/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP07(2023)106
abstract + abstract -

The singlet sector of the O(N) ϕ4-model in AdS4 at large-N, gives rise to a dual conformal field theory on the conformal boundary of AdS4, which is a deformation of the generalized free field. We identify and compute an AdS4 three-point one-loop fish diagram that controls the exact large-N dimensions and operator product coefficients (OPE) for all "double trace" operators as a function of the renormalized ϕ4-couplings. We find that the space of ϕ4-coupling is compact with a boundary at the bulk Landau pole. The dual CFT is unitary only in an interval of negative couplings bounded by the Landau pole where the lowest OPE coefficient diverges.

(1144)Semileptonic decays of spin-entangled baryon-antibaryon pairs
  • Varvara Batozskaya,
  • Andrzej Kupsc,
  • Nora Salone,
  • Jakub Wiechnik
Physical Review D (07/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.108.016011
abstract + abstract -

A modular representation for the semileptonic decays of baryons originating from spin-polarized and correlated baryon-antibaryon pairs is derived. The complete spin information of the decaying baryon is propagated to the daughter baryon via a real-valued matrix. It allows us to obtain joint differential distributions in sequential processes involving the semileptonic decay in a straightforward way. The formalism is suitable for extraction of the semileptonic form factors in experiments where strange baryon-antibaryon pairs are produced in electron-positron annihilation or in charmonia decays. We give examples such as the complete angular distributions in the e+e-→Λ Λ ¯ process, where Λ →p e-ν¯e and Λ ¯→p ¯π+. The formalism can also be used to describe the distributions in semileptonic decays of charm and bottom baryons. Using the same principles, the modules to describe electromagnetic and neutral current weak baryon decay processes involving a charged lepton-antilepton pair can be obtained. As an example, we provide the decay matrix for the Dalitz transition between two spin-1 /2 baryons.

(1143)A Comprehensive Study on the Relation between the Metal Enrichment of Ionized and Atomic Gas in Star-forming Galaxies
  • M. Arabsalmani,
  • L. Garratt-Smithson,
  • N. Wijers,
  • J. Schaye,
  • A. Burkert
  • +5
  • C. D. P. Lagos,
  • E. Le Floc'h,
  • D. Obreschkow,
  • C. Peroux,
  • B. Schneider
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (07/2023) e-Print:2301.07738 doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acd4b7
abstract + abstract -

We study the relation between the metallicities of ionized and atomic gas in star-forming galaxies at z = 0-3 using the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations. This is done by constructing a dense grid of sight lines through the simulated galaxies and obtaining the star formation rate- and H I column density-weighted metallicities, Z SFR and Z H I, for each sightline as proxies for the metallicities of ionized and atomic gas, respectively. We find Z SFR ≳ Z H I for almost all sight lines, with their difference generally increasing with decreasing metallicity. The stellar masses of galaxies do not have a significant effect on this trend, but the positions of the sight lines with respect to the galaxy centers play an important role: the difference between the two metallicities decreases when moving toward the galaxy centers, and saturates to a minimum value in the central regions of galaxies, irrespective of redshift and stellar mass. This implies that the mixing of the two gas phases is most efficient in the central regions of galaxies where sight lines generally have high column densities of H I. However, a high H I column density alone does not guarantee a small difference between the two metallicities. In galaxy outskirts, the inefficiency of the mixing of star-forming gas with H I seems to dominate over the dilution of heavy elements in H I through mixing with the pristine gas. We find good agreement between the available observational data and the Z SFR-Z H I relation predicted by the EAGLE simulations. Though, observed regions with a nuclear starburst mode of star formation appear not to follow the same relation.

(1142)Geometry-induced patterns through mechanochemical coupling
  • Laeschkir Würthner,
  • Andriy Goychuk,
  • Erwin Frey
Physical Review E (07/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.108.014404
abstract + abstract -

Intracellular protein patterns regulate a variety of vital cellular processes such as cell division and motility, which often involve dynamic cell-shape changes. These changes in cell shape may in turn affect the dynamics of pattern-forming proteins, hence leading to an intricate feedback loop between cell shape and chemical dynamics. While several computational studies have examined the rich resulting dynamics, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. To elucidate some of these mechanisms, we explore a conceptual model for cell polarity on a dynamic one-dimensional manifold. Using concepts from differential geometry, we derive the equations governing mass-conserving reaction-diffusion systems on time-evolving manifolds. Analyzing these equations mathematically, we show that dynamic shape changes of the membrane can induce pattern-forming instabilities in parts of the membrane, which we refer to as regional instabilities. Deformations of the local membrane geometry can also (regionally) suppress pattern formation and spatially shift already existing patterns. We explain our findings by applying and generalizing the local equilibria theory of mass-conserving reaction-diffusion systems. This allows us to determine a simple onset criterion for geometry-induced pattern-forming instabilities, which is linked to the phase-space structure of the reaction-diffusion system. The feedback loop between membrane shape deformations and reaction-diffusion dynamics then leads to a surprisingly rich phenomenology of patterns, including oscillations, traveling waves, and standing waves, even if these patterns do not occur in systems with a fixed membrane shape. Our paper reveals that the local conformation of the membrane geometry acts as an important dynamical control parameter for pattern formation in mass-conserving reaction-diffusion systems.

(1141)ALMACAL. XI. Over-densities as signposts for proto-clusters? A cautionary tale
  • Jianhang Chen,
  • R. J. Ivison,
  • Martin A. Zwaan,
  • Anne Klitsch,
  • Céline Péroux
  • +4
  • Christopher C. Lovell,
  • Claudia del P. Lagos,
  • Andrew D. Biggs,
  • Victoria Bollo
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347107
abstract + abstract -

It may be unsurprising that the most common approach to finding proto-clusters is to search for over-densities of galaxies. Upgrades to submillimetre (submm) interferometers and the advent of the James Webb Space Telescope will soon offer the opportunity to find more distant candidate proto-clusters in deep sky surveys without any spectroscopic confirmation. In this Letter, we report the serendipitous discovery of an extremely dense region centred on the blazar, J0217−0820, at z = 0.6 in the ALMACAL sky survey. Its density is eight times higher than that predicted by blind submm surveys. Among the seven submm-bright galaxies, three are as bright as conventional single-dish submm galaxies, with S870 μm > 3 mJy. The over-density is thus comparable to the densest known and confirmed proto-cluster cores. However, their spectra betray a wide range of redshifts. We investigate the likelihood of line-of-sight projection effects using light cones from cosmological simulations, finding that the deeper we search, the higher the chance that we will suffer from such projection effects. The extreme over-density around J0217−0820 demonstrates the strong cosmic variance we may encounter in the deep submm surveys. Thus, we should also question the fidelity of galaxy proto-cluster candidates selected via over-densities of galaxies, where the negative K correction eases the detection of dusty galaxies along an extraordinarily extended line of sight.

(1140)Beyond - ΛCDM constraints from the full shape clustering measurements from BOSS and eBOSS
  • Agne Semenaite,
  • Ariel G. Sánchez,
  • Andrea Pezzotta,
  • Jiamin Hou,
  • Alexander Eggemeier
  • +5
  • Martin Crocce,
  • Cheng Zhao,
  • Joel R. Brownstein,
  • Graziano Rossi,
  • Donald P. Schneider
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad849
abstract + abstract -

We analyse the full shape of anisotropic clustering measurements from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey quasar sample together with the combined galaxy sample from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We obtain constraints on the cosmological parameters independent of the Hubble parameter h for the extensions of the Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) models, focusing on cosmologies with free dark energy equation of state parameter w. We combine the clustering constraints with those from the latest cosmic microwave background data from Planck to obtain joint constraints for these cosmologies for w and the additional extension parameters - its time evolution wa, the physical curvature density ωK and the neutrino mass sum ∑mν. Our joint constraints are consistent with a flat ΛCDM cosmological model within 68 per cent confidence limits. We demonstrate that the Planck data are able to place tight constraints on the clustering amplitude today, σ12, in cosmologies with varying w and present the first constraints for the clustering amplitude for such cosmologies, which is found to be slightly higher than the ΛCDM value. Additionally, we show that when we vary w and allow for non-flat cosmologies and the physical curvature density is used, Planck prefers a curved universe at 4σ significance, which is ~2σ higher than when using the relative curvature density ΩK. Finally, when w is varied freely, clustering provides only a modest improvement (of 0.021 eV) on the upper limit of ∑mν.

(1139)Climbing NLO and NNLO summits of weak decays: 1988-2023
  • Andrzej J. Buras
Physics Reports (06/2023) doi:10.1016/j.physrep.2023.07.002
abstract + abstract -

I describe the history of the calculations of NLO and NNLO QCD corrections to weak decays of mesons, particle-antiparticle mixing and electric dipole moments (EDMs) in the period 1988-2023. Also existing calculations of electroweak and QED corrections to these processes are included in this presentation. These efforts bear some analogies to the climbing of Himalayas and various expeditions by several teams of strongly motivated "climbers" allowed to move this field from the LO through the NLO to the NNLO level. We also summarize the most recent calculations within the Standard Model Effective Field Theory. The material is meant to be an up to date review of this very advanced field in non-technical terms as much as possible and a guide to the rich literature on NLO and NNLO corrections in question. In particular we stress for which processes these calculations are crucial for the tests of the Standard Model and to be able to differentiate between numerous New Physics models. It includes also several anecdotes related to the climbs that I was involved in. I hope that some of the comments made in the course of the presentation could turn out to be not only amusing but also instructive.

(1138)Mapping gas around massive galaxies: cross-correlation of DES Y3 galaxies and Compton-y maps from SPT and Planck
  • J. Sánchez,
  • Y. Omori,
  • C. Chang,
  • L. E. Bleem,
  • T. Crawford
  • +124
  • A. Drlica-Wagner,
  • S. Raghunathan,
  • G. Zacharegkas,
  • T. M. C. Abbott,
  • M. Aguena,
  • A. Alarcon,
  • S. Allam,
  • O. Alves,
  • A. Amon,
  • S. Avila,
  • E. Baxter,
  • K. Bechtol,
  • B. A. Benson,
  • G. M. Bernstein,
  • E. Bertin,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D. L. Burke,
  • A. Campos,
  • J. E. Carlstrom,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • F. J. Castander,
  • R. Cawthon,
  • C. L. Chang,
  • A. Chen,
  • A. Choi,
  • R. Chown,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • A. T. Crites,
  • M. Crocce,
  • L. N. da Costa,
  • M. E. S. Pereira,
  • T. de Haan,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • J. DeRose,
  • S. Desai,
  • H. T. Diehl,
  • M. A. Dobbs,
  • S. Dodelson,
  • P. Doel,
  • J. Elvin-Poole,
  • W. Everett,
  • S. Everett,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • M. Gatti,
  • E. M. George,
  • D. W. Gerdes,
  • G. Giannini,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R. A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • N. W. Halverson,
  • S. R. Hinton,
  • G. P. Holder,
  • D. L. Hollowood,
  • W. L. Holzapfel,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • J. D. Hrubes,
  • D. J. James,
  • L. Knox,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • O. Lahav,
  • A. T. Lee,
  • D. Luong-Van,
  • N. MacCrann,
  • J. L. Marshall,
  • J. McCullough,
  • J. J. McMahon,
  • P. Melchior,
  • J. Mena-Fernández,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • L. Mocanu,
  • J. J. Mohr,
  • J. Muir,
  • J. Myles,
  • T. Natoli,
  • S. Padin,
  • A. Palmese,
  • S. Pandey,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A. Pieres,
  • A. A. Plazas Malagón,
  • A. Porredon,
  • C. Pryke,
  • M. Raveri,
  • C. L. Reichardt,
  • M. Rodriguez-Monroy,
  • A. J. Ross,
  • J. E. Ruhl,
  • E. Rykoff,
  • C. Sánchez,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • K. K. Schaffer,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • E. Sheldon,
  • E. Shirokoff,
  • M. Smith,
  • M. Soares-Santos,
  • Z. Staniszewski,
  • A. A. Stark,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M. E. C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • M. A. Troxel,
  • D. L. Tucker,
  • J. D. Vieira,
  • M. Vincenzi,
  • N. Weaverdyck,
  • R. Williamson,
  • B. Yanny,
  • B. Yin,
  • DES Collaboration,
  • SPT Collaboration
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1167
abstract + abstract -

We cross-correlate positions of galaxies measured in data from the first three years of the Dark Energy Survey with Compton-y maps generated using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the Planck mission. We model this cross-correlation measurement together with the galaxy autocorrelation to constrain the distribution of gas in the Universe. We measure the hydrostatic mass bias or, equivalently, the mean halo bias-weighted electron pressure <bhPe >, using large-scale information. We find <bhPe > to be $[0.16^{+0.03}_{-0.04},0.28^{+0.04}_{-0.05},0.45^{+0.06}_{-0.10},0.54^{+0.08}_{-0.07},0.61^{+0.08}_{-0.06},0.63^{+0.07}_{-0.08}]$ meV cm-3 at redshifts z ~ [0.30, 0.46, 0.62, 0.77, 0.89, 0.97]. These values are consistent with previous work where measurements exist in the redshift range. We also constrain the mean gas profile using small-scale information, enabled by the high-resolution of the SPT data. We compare our measurements to different parametrized profiles based on the cosmo-OWLS hydrodynamical simulations. We find that our data are consistent with the simulation that assumes an AGN heating temperature of 108.5 K but are incompatible with the model that assumes an AGN heating temperature of 108.0 K. These comparisons indicate that the data prefer a higher value of electron pressure than the simulations within r500c of the galaxies' haloes.

(1137)Filament collapse: a two phase process
  • Elena Hoemann,
  • Stefan Heigl,
  • Andreas Burkert
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad852
abstract + abstract -

Using numerical simulations, we investigate the gravitational evolution of filamentary molecular cloud structures and their condensation into dense protostellar cores. One possible process is the so-called edge effect, the pile-up of matter at the end of the filament due to self-gravity. This effect is predicted by theory but only rarely observed. To get a better understanding of the underlying processes we used a simple analytic approach to describe the collapse and the corresponding collapse time. We identify a model of two distinct phases. The first phase is free fall dominated, due to the self-gravity of the filament. In the second phase, after the turning point, the collapse is balanced by the ram pressure, produced by the inside material of the filament, which leads to a constant collapse velocity. This approach reproduces the established collapse time of uniform density filaments and agrees well with our hydrodynamic simulations. In addition, we investigate the influence of different radial density profiles on the collapse. We find that the deviations compared to the uniform filament are less than 10 per cent. Therefore, the analytic collapse model of the uniform density filament is an excellent general approach.

(1136)Opportunistic CP violation
  • Quentin Bonnefoy,
  • Emanuele Gendy,
  • Christophe Grojean,
  • Joshua T. Ruderman
Journal of High Energy Physics (06/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP06(2023)141
abstract + abstract -

In the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, CP violation arises through a very particular interplay between the three quark generations, as described by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mechanism and the single Jarlskog invariant J4. Once generalized to the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT), this peculiar pattern gets modified by higher-dimensional operators, whose associated Wilson coefficients are usually split into CP-even and odd parts. However, CP violation at dimension four, i.e., at the lowest order in the EFT expansion, blurs this distinction: any Wilson coefficient can interfere with J4 and mediate CP violation. In this paper, we study such interferences at first order in the SMEFT expansion,

(1135)Formation of star clusters and enrichment by massive stars in simulations of low-metallicity galaxies with a fully sampled initial stellar mass function
  • Natalia Lahén,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Guinevere Kauffmann,
  • Dorottya Szécsi,
  • Jessica May Hislop
  • +4
  • Antti Rantala,
  • Alexandra Kozyreva,
  • Stefanie Walch,
  • Chia-Yu Hu
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1147
abstract + abstract -

We present new GRIFFIN project hydrodynamical simulations that model the formation of galactic star cluster populations in low-metallicity (Z = 0.00021) dwarf galaxies, including radiation, supernova, and stellar wind feedback of individual massive stars. In the simulations, stars are sampled from the stellar initial mass function (IMF) down to the hydrogen-burning limit of 0.08 M. Mass conservation is enforced within a radius of 1 pc for the formation of massive stars. We find that massive stars are preferentially found in star clusters and follow a correlation set at birth between the highest initial stellar mass and the star cluster mass that differs from pure stochastic IMF sampling. With a fully sampled IMF, star clusters lose mass in the galactic tidal field according to mass-loss rates observed in nearby galaxies. Of the released stellar feedback, 60 per cent of the supernova material and up to 35 per cent of the wind material reside either in the hot interstellar medium (ISM) or in gaseous, metal-enriched outflows. While stellar winds (instantaneously) and supernovae (delayed) start enriching the ISM right after the first massive stars form, the formation of supernova-enriched stars and star clusters is significantly delayed (by >50 Myr) compared to the formation of stars and star clusters enriched by stellar winds. Overall, supernova ejecta dominate the enrichment by mass, while the number of enriched stars is determined by continuous stellar winds. These results present a concept for the formation of chemically distinct populations of stars in bound star clusters, reminiscent of multiple populations in globular clusters.

(1134)Cosmological Probes of Structure Growth and Tests of Gravity
  • Jiamin Hou,
  • Julian Bautista,
  • Maria Berti,
  • Carolina Cuesta-Lazaro,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo
  • +2
Universe (06/2023) doi:10.3390/universe9070302
abstract + abstract -

The current standard cosmological model is constructed within the framework of general relativity with a cosmological constant Λ, which is often associated with dark energy, and phenomenologically explains the accelerated cosmic expansion. Understanding the nature of dark energy is one of the most appealing questions in achieving a self-consistent physical model at cosmological scales. Modification of general relativity could potentially provide a more natural and physical solution to the accelerated expansion. The growth of the cosmic structure is sensitive in constraining gravity models. In this paper, we aim to provide a concise introductory review of modified gravity models from an observational point of view. We will discuss various mainstream cosmological observables, and their potential advantages and limitations as probes of gravity models.

(1133)SILCC - VII. Gas kinematics and multiphase outflows of the simulated ISM at high gas surface densities
  • Tim-Eric Rathjen,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Stefanie Walch,
  • Daniel Seifried,
  • Philipp Girichidis
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1104
abstract + abstract -

We present magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the star-forming multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) in stratified galactic patches with gas surface densities Σgas = 10, 30, 50, and 100 $\mathrm{M_\odot \, pc^{-2}}$. The SILCC project simulation framework accounts for non-equilibrium thermal and chemical processes in the warm and cold ISM. The sink-based star formation and feedback model includes stellar winds, hydrogen-ionizing UV radiation, core-collapse supernovae, and cosmic ray (CR) injection and diffusion. The simulations follow the observed relation between Σgas and the star formation rate surface density ΣSFR. CRs qualitatively change the outflow phase structure. Without CRs, the outflows transition from a two-phase (warm and hot at 1 kpc) to a single-phase (hot at 2 kpc) structure. With CRs, the outflow always has three phases (cold, warm, and hot), dominated in mass by the warm phase. The impact of CRs on mass loading decreases for higher Σgas and the mass loading factors of the CR-supported outflows are of order unity independent of ΣSFR. Similar to observations, vertical velocity dispersions of the warm ionized medium (WIM) and the cold neutral medium (CNM) correlate with the star formation rate as $\sigma _\mathrm{z} \propto \Sigma _\mathrm{SFR}^a$, with a ~ 0.20. In the absence of stellar feedback, we find no correlation. The velocity dispersion of the WIM is a factor ~2.2 higher than that of the CNM, in agreement with local observations. For $\Sigma _\mathrm{SFR} \gtrsim 1.5 \times 10^{-2}\, \mathrm{M}_\odot \, \mathrm{yr}^{-1}\, \mathrm{kpc}^{-2}$ the WIM motions become supersonic.

(1132)FAUST - VIII. The protostellar disc of VLA 1623-2417W and its streamers imaged by ALMA
  • S. Mercimek,
  • L. Podio,
  • C. Codella,
  • L. Chahine,
  • A. López-Sepulcre
  • +23
  • S. Ohashi,
  • L. Loinard,
  • D. Johnstone,
  • F. Menard,
  • N. Cuello,
  • P. Caselli,
  • J. Zamponi,
  • Y. Aikawa,
  • E. Bianchi,
  • G. Busquet,
  • J. E. Pineda,
  • M. Bouvier,
  • M. De Simone,
  • Y. Zhang,
  • N. Sakai,
  • C. J. Chandler,
  • C. Ceccarelli,
  • F. Alves,
  • A. Durán,
  • D. Fedele,
  • N. Murillo,
  • I. Jiménez-Serra,
  • S. Yamamoto
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2023) e-Print:2303.16257 doi:10.1093/mnras/stad964
abstract + abstract -

More than 50 per cent of solar-mass stars form in multiple systems. It is therefore crucial to investigate how multiplicity affects the star and planet formation processes at the protostellar stage. We report continuum and C18O (2-1) observations of the VLA 1623-2417 protostellar system at 50 au angular resolution as part of the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) Large Program FAUST. The 1.3 mm continuum probes the discs of VLA 1623A, B, and W, and the circumbinary disc of the A1 + A2 binary. The C18O emission reveals, for the first time, the gas in the disc envelope of VLA 1623W. We estimate the dynamical mass of VLA 1623W, Mdyn = 0.45 ± 0.08 M, and the mass of its disc, Mdisc ~ 6 × 10-3 M. C18O also reveals streamers that extend up to 1000 au, spatially and kinematically connecting the envelope and outflow cavities of the A1 + A2 + B system with the disc of VLA 1623W. The presence of the streamers, as well as the spatial (~1300 au) and velocity (~2.2 km s-1) offsets of VLA 1623W, suggests that either sources W and A + B formed in different cores, interacting between them, or source W has been ejected from the VLA 1623 multiple system during its formation. In the latter case, the streamers may funnel material from the envelope and cavities of VLA 1623AB on to VLA 1623W, thus concurring to set its final mass and chemical content.

(1131)Toward the end-to-end optimization of particle physics instruments with differentiable programming
  • Tommaso Dorigo,
  • Andrea Giammanco,
  • Pietro Vischia,
  • Max Aehle,
  • Mateusz Bawaj
  • +31
  • Alexey Boldyrev,
  • Pablo de Castro Manzano,
  • Denis Derkach,
  • Julien Donini,
  • Auralee Edelen,
  • Federica Fanzago,
  • Nicolas R. Gauger,
  • Christian Glaser,
  • Atılım G. Baydin,
  • Lukas Heinrich,
  • Ralf Keidel,
  • Jan Kieseler,
  • Claudius Krause,
  • Maxime Lagrange,
  • Max Lamparth,
  • Lukas Layer,
  • Gernot Maier,
  • Federico Nardi,
  • Helge E. S. Pettersen,
  • Alberto Ramos,
  • Fedor Ratnikov,
  • Dieter Röhrich,
  • Roberto Ruiz de Austri,
  • Pablo Martínez Ruiz del Árbol,
  • Oleg Savchenko,
  • Nathan Simpson,
  • Giles C. Strong,
  • Angela Taliercio,
  • Mia Tosi,
  • Andrey Ustyuzhanin,
  • Haitham Zaraket
  • (less)
Reviews in Physics (06/2023) doi:10.1016/j.revip.2023.100085
abstract + abstract -

The full optimization of the design and operation of instruments whose functioning relies on the interaction of radiation with matter is a super-human task, due to the large dimensionality of the space of possible choices for geometry, detection technology, materials, data-acquisition, and information-extraction techniques, and the interdependence of the related parameters. On the other hand, massive potential gains in performance over standard, "experience-driven" layouts are in principle within our reach if an objective function fully aligned with the final goals of the instrument is maximized through a systematic search of the configuration space. The stochastic nature of the involved quantum processes make the modeling of these systems an intractable problem from a classical statistics point of view, yet the construction of a fully differentiable pipeline and the use of deep learning techniques may allow the simultaneous optimization of all design parameters.

In this white paper, we lay down our plans for the design of a modular and versatile modeling tool for the end-to-end optimization of complex instruments for particle physics experiments as well as industrial and medical applications that share the detection of radiation as their basic ingredient. We consider a selected set of use cases to highlight the specific needs of different applications.

(1130)Flavor solitons in dense neutrino gases
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Georg G. Raffelt
abstract + abstract -

We consider a dense neutrino gas in the "fast-flavor limit" (vanishing neutrino masses). For the first time, we identify exact solutions of the nonlinear wave equation in the form of solitons. They can propagate with both subluminal or superluminal speed, the latter not violating causality. The soliton with infinite speed is a homogeneous solution and coincides with the usual fast-flavor pendulum except that it swings only once instead of being periodic. The subluminal soliton in the static limit corresponds to a one-swing "spatial pendulum." A necessary condition for such solutions to exist is a "crossed" neutrino angle distribution. Based on the Nyquist criterion, we derive a new sufficient condition without solving the dispersion relation. The solitons are very fragile; they are as unstable as the homogeneous neutrino gas alone. Moreover, in the presence of matter, only the solution survives that is homogeneous in a frame comoving with the matter current. Generally, the matter effect cannot be eliminated by transformations in flavor space, but has real physical impact.

(1129)Anomalous Ward identities for on-shell amplitudes at the conformal fixed point
  • Dmitry Chicherin,
  • Johannes Henn,
  • Simone Zoia
Journal of High Energy Physics (06/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP06(2023)110
abstract + abstract -

Conformal symmetry underlies many massless quantum field theories, but little is known about the consequences of this powerful symmetry for on-shell scattering amplitudes. Working in a dimensionally-regularised ϕ3 model at the conformal fixed point, we show that the on-shell renormalised amplitudes satisfy anomalous conformal Ward identities. Each external on-shell state contributes two terms to the anomaly. The first term is proportional to the elementary field anomalous dimension, and thus involves only lower-loop information. We show that the second term can be given as the convolution of a universal collinear function and lower-order amplitudes. The computation of the conformal anomaly is therefore simpler than that of the amplitude at the same perturbative order, which gives our anomalous conformal Ward identities a strong predictive power in perturbation theory. Finally, we show that our result is also of practical importance for dimensionally-regularised amplitudes away from the conformal fixed point.

(1128)Analysis of rescattering effects in 3 π final states
  • Dominik Stamen,
  • Tobias Isken,
  • Bastian Kubis,
  • Mikhail Mikhasenko,
  • Malwin Niehus
European Physical Journal C (06/2023) doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-023-11665-x
abstract + abstract -

Decays into three particles are often described in terms of two-body resonances and a non-interacting spectator particle. To go beyond this simplest isobar model, crossed-channel rescattering effects need to be accounted for. We quantify the importance of these rescattering effects in three-pion systems for different decay masses and angular-momentum quantum numbers. We provide amplitude decompositions for four decay processes with total JPC=0-- , 1--, 1-+, and 2++, all of which decay predominantly as ρ π states. Two-pion rescattering is described in terms of an Omnès function, which incorporates the ρ resonance. Inclusion of crossed-channel effects is achieved by solving the Khuri-Treiman integral equations. The unbinned log-likelihood estimator is used to determine the significance of the rescattering effects beyond two-body resonances; we compute the minimum number of events necessary to unambiguously find these in future Dalitz-plot analyses. Kinematic effects that enhance or dilute the rescattering are identified for the selected set of quantum numbers and various masses.

(1127)pyhf: a pure-Python implementation of HistFactory with tensors and automatic differentiation
  • M. Feickert,
  • L. Heinrich,
  • G. Stark
41st International Conference on High Energy physics (06/2023) doi:10.48550/arXiv.2211.15838
abstract + abstract -

The HistFactory p.d.f. template is per-se independent of its implementation in ROOT and it is useful to be able to run statistical analysis outside of the ROOT, RooFit, RooStats framework. pyhf is a pure-Python implementation of that statistical model for multi-bin histogram-based analysis and its interval estimation is based on the asymptotic formulas of "Asymptotic formulae for likelihood-based tests of new physics". pyhf supports modern computational graph libraries such as TensorFlow, PyTorch, and JAX in order to make use of features such as auto-differentiation and GPU acceleration. In addition, pyhf's JSON serialization specification for HistFactory models has been used to publish 23 full probability models from published ATLAS collaboration analyses to HEPData.

(1126)Mass-Metallicity Relationship of SDSS Star-forming Galaxies: Population Synthesis Analysis and Effects of Star Burst Length, Extinction Law, Initial Mass Function, and Star Formation Rate
  • Eva Sextl,
  • Rolf-Peter Kudritzki,
  • H. Jabran Zahid,
  • I. -Ting Ho
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acc579
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the mass-metallicity relationship of star-forming galaxies by analyzing the absorption line spectra of ~200,000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The galaxy spectra are stacked in bins of stellar mass, and a population synthesis technique is applied yielding the metallicities, ages, and star formation history of the young and old stellar population together with interstellar reddening and extinction. We adopt different lengths of the initial starbursts and different initial mass functions for the calculation of model spectra of the single stellar populations contributing to the total integrated spectrum. We also allow for deviations of the ratio of extinction to reddening R V from 3.1 and determine the value from the spectral fit. We find that burst length and R V have a significant influence on the determination of metallicities, whereas the effect of the initial mass function is small. The R V values are larger than 3.1. The metallicities of the young stellar population agree with extragalactic spectroscopic studies of individual massive supergiant stars and are significantly higher than those of the older stellar population. This confirms galaxy evolution models where metallicity depends on the ratio of gas to stellar mass and where this ratio decreases with time. Star formation history is found to depend on galaxy stellar mass. Massive galaxies are dominated by stars formed at early times.

(1125)The Hateful Eight: Connecting Massive Substructures in Galaxy Clusters like A2744 to Their Dynamical Assembly State Using the Magneticum Simulations
  • Lucas C. Kimmig,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Veronica Biffi
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acc740
abstract + abstract -

Substructures are known to be good tracers for the dynamical states and recent accretion histories of the most massive collapsed structures in the universe, galaxy clusters. Observations find extremely massive substructures in some clusters, especially Abell 2744 (A2744), which are potentially in tension with the ΛCDM paradigm because they are not found in simulations directly. However, the methods to measure substructure masses strongly differ between observations and simulations. Using the fully hydrodynamical cosmological simulation suite MAGNETICUM PATHFINDER, we develop a method to measure substructure masses in projection from simulations, similarly to the observational approach. We identify a simulated A2744 counterpart that not only has eight substructures of similar mass fractions but also exhibits similar features in the hot gas component. This cluster formed only recently through a major merger together with at least six massive minor merger events since z = 1, where previously the most massive component had a mass of less than 1 × 1014 M . We show that the mass fraction of all substructures and of the eighth substructure separately are excellent tracers for the dynamical state and assembly history for all galaxy cluster mass ranges, with high fractions indicating merger events within the last 2 Gyr. Finally, we demonstrate that the differences between subhalo masses measured directly from simulations as bound and those measured in projection are due to methodology, with the latter generally 2-3 times larger than the former. We provide a predictor function to estimate projected substructure masses from SUBFIND masses for future comparison studies between simulations and observations.

(1124)Sensitivity Modeling for LiteBIRD
  • T. Hasebe,
  • P. A. R. Ade,
  • A. Adler,
  • E. Allys,
  • D. Alonso
  • +277
  • K. Arnold,
  • D. Auguste,
  • J. Aumont,
  • R. Aurlien,
  • J. Austermann,
  • S. Azzoni,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. Banerji,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • N. Bartolo,
  • S. Basak,
  • E. Battistelli,
  • L. Bautista,
  • J. Beall,
  • D. Beck,
  • S. Beckman,
  • K. Benabed,
  • J. Bermejo-Ballesteros,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • J. Bonis,
  • J. Borrill,
  • F. Bouchet,
  • F. Boulanger,
  • S. Bounissou,
  • M. Brilenkov,
  • M. L. Brown,
  • M. Bucher,
  • E. Calabrese,
  • M. Calvo,
  • P. Campeti,
  • A. Carones,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • A. Catalano,
  • A. Challinor,
  • V. Chan,
  • K. Cheung,
  • Y. Chinone,
  • J. Cliche,
  • F. Columbro,
  • W. Coulton,
  • J. Cubas,
  • A. Cukierman,
  • D. Curtis,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • K. Dachlythra,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • T. de Haan,
  • E. de la Hoz,
  • M. De Petris,
  • S. Della Torre,
  • C. Dickinson,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • M. Dobbs,
  • T. Dotani,
  • D. Douillet,
  • L. Duband,
  • A. Ducout,
  • S. Duff,
  • J. M. Duval,
  • K. Ebisawa,
  • T. Elleflot,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • J. Errard,
  • T. Essinger-Hileman,
  • F. Finelli,
  • R. Flauger,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • S. Galli,
  • M. Galloway,
  • K. Ganga,
  • J. R. Gao,
  • R. T. Genova-Santos,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • T. Ghigna,
  • S. Giardiello,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • M. L. Gradziel,
  • J. Grain,
  • L. Grandsire,
  • F. Grupp,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • J. E. Gudmundsson,
  • N. W. Halverson,
  • J. Hamilton,
  • P. Hargrave,
  • M. Hasegawa,
  • M. Hattori,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • L. T. Hergt,
  • D. Herman,
  • D. Herranz,
  • C. A. Hill,
  • G. Hilton,
  • E. Hivon,
  • R. A. Hlozek,
  • T. D. Hoang,
  • A. L. Hornsby,
  • Y. Hoshino,
  • J. Hubmayr,
  • K. Ichiki,
  • T. Iida,
  • H. Imada,
  • K. Ishimura,
  • H. Ishino,
  • G. Jaehnig,
  • M. Jones,
  • T. Kaga,
  • S. Kashima,
  • N. Katayama,
  • A. Kato,
  • T. Kawasaki,
  • R. Keskitalo,
  • T. Kisner,
  • Y. Kobayashi,
  • N. Kogiso,
  • A. Kogut,
  • K. Kohri,
  • E. Komatsu,
  • K. Komatsu,
  • K. Konishi,
  • N. Krachmalnicoff,
  • I. Kreykenbohm,
  • C. L. Kuo,
  • A. Kushino,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • J. V. Lanen,
  • G. Laquaniello,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • A. T. Lee,
  • C. Leloup,
  • F. Levrier,
  • E. Linder,
  • T. Louis,
  • G. Luzzi,
  • J. Macias-Perez,
  • T. Maciaszek,
  • B. Maffei,
  • D. Maino,
  • M. Maki,
  • S. Mandelli,
  • M. Maris,
  • E. Martínez-González,
  • S. Masi,
  • M. Massa,
  • S. Matarrese,
  • F. T. Matsuda,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • L. Mele,
  • A. Mennella,
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • Y. Minami,
  • K. Mitsuda,
  • A. Moggi,
  • A. Monfardini,
  • J. Montgomery,
  • L. Montier,
  • G. Morgante,
  • B. Mot,
  • Y. Murata,
  • J. A. Murphy,
  • M. Nagai,
  • Y. Nagano,
  • T. Nagasaki,
  • R. Nagata,
  • S. Nakamura,
  • R. Nakano,
  • T. Namikawa,
  • F. Nati,
  • P. Natoli,
  • S. Nerval,
  • T. Nishibori,
  • H. Nishino,
  • F. Noviello,
  • C. O'Sullivan,
  • K. Odagiri,
  • H. Ogawa,
  • H. Ogawa,
  • S. Oguri,
  • H. Ohsaki,
  • I. S. Ohta,
  • N. Okada,
  • N. Okada,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • A. Passerini,
  • G. Patanchon,
  • V. Pelgrim,
  • J. Peloton,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • M. Piat,
  • G. Pisano,
  • G. Polenta,
  • D. Poletti,
  • T. Prouvé,
  • G. Puglisi,
  • D. Rambaud,
  • C. Raum,
  • S. Realini,
  • M. Reinecke,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • G. Roudil,
  • J. Rubino-Martin,
  • M. Russell,
  • H. Sakurai,
  • Y. Sakurai,
  • M. Sandri,
  • M. Sasaki,
  • G. Savini,
  • D. Scott,
  • J. Seibert,
  • Y. Sekimoto,
  • B. Sherwin,
  • K. Shinozaki,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • P. Shirron,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • G. Smecher,
  • F. Spinella,
  • S. Stever,
  • R. Stompor,
  • S. Sugiyama,
  • R. Sullivan,
  • A. Suzuki,
  • J. Suzuki,
  • T. L. Svalheim,
  • E. Switzer,
  • R. Takaku,
  • H. Takakura,
  • S. Takakura,
  • Y. Takase,
  • Y. Takeda,
  • A. Tartari,
  • D. Tavagnacco,
  • A. Taylor,
  • E. Taylor,
  • Y. Terao,
  • J. Thermeau,
  • H. Thommesen,
  • K. L. Thompson,
  • B. Thorne,
  • T. Toda,
  • M. Tomasi,
  • M. Tominaga,
  • N. Trappe,
  • M. Tristram,
  • M. Tsuji,
  • M. Tsujimoto,
  • C. Tucker,
  • J. Ullom,
  • L. Vacher,
  • G. Vermeulen,
  • P. Vielva,
  • F. Villa,
  • M. Vissers,
  • N. Vittorio,
  • B. Wandelt,
  • W. Wang,
  • K. Watanuki,
  • I. K. Wehus,
  • J. Weller,
  • B. Westbrook,
  • J. Wilms,
  • B. Winter,
  • E. J. Wollack,
  • N. Y. Yamasaki,
  • T. Yoshida,
  • J. Yumoto,
  • A. Zacchei,
  • M. Zannoni,
  • A. Zonca,
  • LiteBIRD Collaboration
  • (less)
Journal of Low Temperature Physics (06/2023) doi:10.1007/s10909-022-02921-7
abstract + abstract -

LiteBIRD is a future satellite mission designed to observe the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation in order to probe the inflationary universe. LiteBIRD is set to observe the sky using three telescopes with transition-edge sensor bolometers. In this work we estimated the LiteBIRD instrumental sensitivity using its current design. We estimated the detector noise due to the optical loadings using physical optics and ray-tracing simulations. The noise terms associated with thermal carrier and readout noise were modeled in the detector noise calculation. We calculated the observational sensitivities over fifteen bands designed for the LiteBIRD telescopes using assumed observation time efficiency.

(1123)The Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure and Multi-tracer II: redshift space and realistic tracers
  • Thiago Mergulhão,
  • Henrique Rubira,
  • Rodrigo Voivodic
abstract + abstract -

We extend the multi-tracer (MT) formalism of the effective field theory of large-scale structure to redshift space, comparing the results of MT to a single-tracer analysis when extracting cosmological parameters from simulations. We used a sub-halo abundance matching method to obtain more realistic multi-tracer galaxy catalogs constructed from N-body simulations. Considering different values for the sample shot noise and volume, we show that the MT error bars on $A_s$, $\omega_{\rm cdm}$, and $h$ in a full-shape analysis are approximately $50\%$ smaller relative to ST. We find that cosmological and bias coefficients from MT are less degenerate, indicating that the MT parameter basis is more orthogonal. We conclude that using MT combined with perturbation theory is a robust and competitive way to accommodate the information present in the mildly non-linear scales.

(1122)HOLISMOKES -- XI. Evaluation of supervised neural networks for strong-lens searches in ground-based imaging surveys
  • R. Canameras,
  • S. Schuldt,
  • Y. Shu,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • S. Taubenberger
  • +8
  • I. T. Andika,
  • S. Bag,
  • K. T. Inoue,
  • A. T. Jaelani,
  • L. Leal-Taixe,
  • T. Meinhardt,
  • A. Melo,
  • A. More
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

While supervised neural networks have become state of the art for identifying the rare strong gravitational lenses from large imaging data sets, their selection remains significantly affected by the large number and diversity of nonlens contaminants. This work evaluates and compares systematically the performance of neural networks in order to move towards a rapid selection of galaxy-scale strong lenses with minimal human input in the era of deep, wide-scale surveys. We used multiband images from PDR2 of the HSC Wide survey to build test sets mimicking an actual classification experiment, with 189 strong lenses previously found over the HSC footprint and 70,910 nonlens galaxies in COSMOS. Multiple networks were trained on different sets of realistic strong-lens simulations and nonlens galaxies, with various architectures and data pre-processing. The overall performances strongly depend on the construction of the ground-truth training data and they typically, but not systematically, improve using our baseline residual network architecture. Improvements are found when applying random shifts to the image centroids and square root stretches to the pixel values, adding z band, or using random viewpoints of the original images, but not when adding difference images to subtract emission from the central galaxy. The most significant gain is obtained with committees of networks trained on different data sets, and showing a moderate overlap between populations of false positives. Nearly-perfect invariance to image quality can be achieved by training networks either with large number of bands, or jointly with the PSF and science frames. Overall, we show the possibility to reach a TPR0 as high as 60% for the test sets under consideration, which opens promising perspectives for pure selection of strong lenses without human input using the Rubin Observatory and other forthcoming ground-based surveys.

(1121)The PEPSI Exoplanet Transit Survey (PETS). III. The detection of Fe I, Cr I, and Ti I in the atmosphere of MASCARA-1 b through high-resolution emission spectroscopy
  • G. Scandariato,
  • F. Borsa,
  • A. S. Bonomo,
  • B. S. Gaudi,
  • Th. Henning
  • +17
  • I. Ilyin,
  • M. C. Johnson,
  • L. Malavolta,
  • M. Mallonn,
  • K. Molaverdikhani,
  • V. Nascimbeni,
  • J. Patience,
  • L. Pino,
  • K. Poppenhaeger,
  • E. Schlawin,
  • E. L. Shkolnik,
  • D. Sicilia,
  • A. Sozzetti,
  • K. G. Strassmeier,
  • C. Veillet,
  • J. Wang,
  • F. Yan
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245539
abstract + abstract -

Context. Hot giant planets such as MASCARA-1 b are expected to have thermally inverted atmospheres, which makes them perfect laboratories for atmospheric characterization through high-resolution spectroscopy. Nonetheless, previous attempts at detecting the atmosphere of MASCARA-1 b in transmission have led to negative results.
Aims: We aim to detect the optical emission spectrum of MASCARA-1 b.
Methods: We used the high-resolution spectrograph PEPSI to observe MASCARA-1 (spectral type A8) near the secondary eclipse of the planet. We cross-correlated the spectra with synthetic templates computed for several atomic and molecular species.
Results: We detect Fe I, Cr I, and Ti I in the atmosphere of MASCARA-1 b with a S/N ≈ 7, 4, and 5, respectively, and confirm the expected systemic velocity of ≈13 km s−1 and the radial velocity semi-amplitude of MASCARA-1 b of ≈200 km s−1. The detection of Ti is of particular importance in the context of the recently proposed phenomenon of Ti cold-trapping below a certain planetary equilibrium temperature.
Conclusions: We confirm the presence of an atmosphere around MASCARA-1 b through emission spectroscopy. We conclude that the atmospheric non-detection in transmission spectroscopy is due to the strong gravity of the planet and/or to the overlap between the planetary track and its Doppler shadow.

(1120)The Young and the Wild: What Happens to Protoclusters Forming at Redshift z ≈ 4?
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Helmut Dannerbauer
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/accb91
abstract + abstract -

Using one of the largest volumes of the hydrodynamical cosmological simulation suit Magneticum, we study the evolution of protoclusters identified at redshift ≈ 4, with properties similar to the well-observed protocluster SPT2349-56. We identify 42 protoclusters in the simulation as massive and equally rich in substructures as observed, confirming that these observed structures can already be virialized. The dynamics of the internally fast-rotating member galaxies within these protoclusters resemble observations, merging rapidly to form the cores of the brightest cluster galaxies of the assembling clusters. Half of the gas reservoir of these structures is in a hot phase, with the metal enrichment at a very early stage. These systems show a good agreement with the observed amount of cold star-forming gas, largely enriched to solar values. We predict that some of the member galaxies are already quenched at z ≈ 4, rendering them undetectable through measurements of their gas reservoirs. Tracing the evolution of protoclusters reveals that none of the typical mass indicators at high redshift are good tracers to predict the present-day mass of the system. We find that none of the simulated protoclusters at z = 4.3 are among the top ten most massive clusters at redshift z = 0.2, with some barely reaching masses of M ≈ 2 × 1014 M . Although the average star formation and mass growth rates in the simulated galaxies match observations at high redshift reasonably well, the simulation fails to reproduce the extremely high total star formation rates within the observed protoclusters, indicating that the subgrid models are lacking the ability to reproduce a higher star formation efficiency (or lower depletion timescales).

(1119)The Orbital Structure and Selection Effects of the Galactic Center S-Star Cluster
  • Andreas Burkert,
  • Stefan Gillessen,
  • Douglas N. C. Lin,
  • Xiaochen Zheng,
  • Philipp Schoeller
  • +2
  • Frank Eisenhauer,
  • Reinhard Genzel
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The orbital distribution of the S-star cluster surrounding the supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way is analyzed. A tight, roughly exponential dependence of the pericenter distance r$_{p}$ on orbital eccentricity e$_{\star}$ is found, $\log ($r$_p)\sim$(1-e$_{\star}$), which cannot be explained simply by a random distribution of semi-major axes and eccentricities. No stars are found in the region with high e$_{\star}$ and large log r$_{p}$ or in the region with low e$_{\star}$ and small log r$_{p}$. G-clouds follow the same correlation. The likelihood P(log r$_p$,(1-e$_{\star}$)) to determine the orbital parameters of S-stars is determined. P is very small for stars with large e$_{\star}$ and large log r$_{p}$. S-stars might exist in this region. To determine their orbital parameters, one however needs observations over a longer time period. On the other hand, if stars would exist in the region of low log r$_{p}$ and small e$_{\star}$, their orbital parameters should by now have been determined. That this region is unpopulated therefore indicates that no S-stars exist with these orbital characteristics, providing constraints for their formation. We call this region, defined by $\log$ (r$_p$/AU) $<$ 1.57+2.6(1-e$_{\star})$, the zone of avoidance. Finally, it is shown that the observed frequency of eccentricities and pericenter distances is consistent with a random sampling of log r$_{p}$ and e$_{\star}$. However, only if one takes into account that no stars exist in the zone of avoidance and that orbital parameters cannot yet be determined for stars with large r$_{p}$ and large e$_{\star}$.

(1118)Hierarchical Neural Simulation-Based Inference Over Event Ensembles
  • Lukas Heinrich,
  • Siddharth Mishra-Sharma,
  • Chris Pollard,
  • Philipp Windischhofer
abstract + abstract -

When analyzing real-world data it is common to work with event ensembles, which comprise sets of observations that collectively constrain the parameters of an underlying model of interest. Such models often have a hierarchical structure, where "local" parameters impact individual events and "global" parameters influence the entire dataset. We introduce practical approaches for optimal dataset-wide probabilistic inference in cases where the likelihood is intractable, but simulations can be realized via forward modeling. We construct neural estimators for the likelihood(-ratio) or posterior and show that explicitly accounting for the model's hierarchical structure can lead to tighter parameter constraints. We ground our discussion using case studies from the physical sciences, focusing on examples from particle physics (particle collider data) and astrophysics (strong gravitational lensing observations).

(1117)Radiative Corrections: From Medium to High Energy Experiments
  • Andrei Afanasev,
  • Jan C. Bernauer,
  • Peter Blunden,
  • Johannes Blümlein,
  • Ethan W. Cline
  • +14
  • Jan M. Friedrich,
  • Franziska Hagelstein,
  • Tomáš Husek,
  • Michael Kohl,
  • Fred Myhrer,
  • Gil Paz,
  • Susan Schadmand,
  • Axel Schmidt,
  • Vladyslava Sharkovska,
  • Adrian Signer,
  • Oleksandr Tomalak,
  • Egle Tomasi-Gustafsson,
  • Yannick Ulrich,
  • Marc Vanderhaeghen
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Radiative corrections are crucial for modern high-precision physics experiments, and are an area of active research in the experimental and theoretical community. Here we provide an overview of the state of the field of radiative corrections with a focus on several topics: lepton-proton scattering, QED corrections in deep-inelastic scattering, and in radiative light-hadron decays. Particular emphasis is placed on the two-photon exchange, believed to be responsible for the proton form-factor discrepancy, and associated Monte-Carlo codes. We encourage the community to continue developing theoretical techniques to treat radiative corrections, and perform experimental tests of these corrections.

(1116)The Isotropic Center of NGC 5419-A Core in Formation?
  • Bianca Neureiter,
  • Jens Thomas,
  • Antti Rantala,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Kianusch Mehrgan
  • +3
  • Roberto Saglia,
  • Stefano de Nicola,
  • Ralf Bender
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/accffa
abstract + abstract -

With its cored surface brightness profile, the elliptical galaxy NGC 5419 appears as a typical high-mass early-type galaxy (ETG). However, the galaxy hosts two distinct nuclei in its center. We use high-signal MUSE (Multi-unit Spectroscopic Explorer (Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO program 099.B-0193(A).)) spectral observations and novel triaxial dynamical orbit models to reveal a surprisingly isotropic central orbit distribution in NGC 5419. Recent collisionless simulations of merging massive ETGs suggest a two-phase core formation model, in which the low-density stellar core forms rapidly by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) sinking into the center due to dynamical friction. Only afterwards do the SMBHs form a hard binary, and the black hole scouring process slowly changes the central orbit distribution from isotropic to tangential. The observed cored density profile, the double nucleus, and the isotropic center of NGC 5419 together thus point to an intermediate evolutionary state where the first phase of core formation has taken place, yet the scouring process is only beginning. This implies that the double nucleus is an SMBH binary. Our triaxial dynamical models indicate a total mass of the two SMBHs in the center of NGC 5419 of M BH = (1.0 ± 0.08) × 1010 M . Moreover, we find that NGC 5419's complex kinematically distinct core can be explained by a coherent flip of the direction of orbital rotation of stars on tube orbits at ~3 kpc distance from the galaxy center together with projection effects. This is also in agreement with merger simulations hosting SMBHs in the same mass regime.

(1115)Multimessenger Characterization of Markarian 501 during Historically Low X-Ray and γ-Ray Activity
  • H. Abe,
  • S. Abe,
  • V. A. Acciari,
  • I. Agudo,
  • T. Aniello
  • +318
  • S. Ansoldi,
  • L. A. Antonelli,
  • A. Arbet-Engels,
  • C. Arcaro,
  • M. Artero,
  • K. Asano,
  • D. Baack,
  • A. Babić,
  • A. Baquero,
  • U. Barres de Almeida,
  • J. A. Barrio,
  • I. Batković,
  • J. Baxter,
  • J. Becerra González,
  • W. Bednarek,
  • E. Bernardini,
  • M. Bernardos,
  • A. Berti,
  • J. Besenrieder,
  • W. Bhattacharyya,
  • C. Bigongiari,
  • A. Biland,
  • O. Blanch,
  • G. Bonnoli,
  • Ž. Bošnjak,
  • I. Burelli,
  • G. Busetto,
  • R. Carosi,
  • M. Carretero-Castrillo,
  • A. J. Castro-Tirado,
  • G. Ceribella,
  • Y. Chai,
  • A. Chilingarian,
  • S. Cikota,
  • E. Colombo,
  • J. L. Contreras,
  • J. Cortina,
  • S. Covino,
  • G. D'Amico,
  • V. D'Elia,
  • P. da Vela,
  • F. Dazzi,
  • A. de Angelis,
  • B. de Lotto,
  • A. Del Popolo,
  • M. Delfino,
  • J. Delgado,
  • C. Delgado Mendez,
  • D. Depaoli,
  • F. di Pierro,
  • L. di Venere,
  • E. Do Souto Espiñeira,
  • D. Dominis Prester,
  • A. Donini,
  • D. Dorner,
  • M. Doro,
  • D. Elsaesser,
  • G. Emery,
  • J. Escudero,
  • V. Fallah Ramazani,
  • L. Fariña,
  • A. Fattorini,
  • L. Foffano,
  • L. Font,
  • C. Fruck,
  • S. Fukami,
  • Y. Fukazawa,
  • R. J. García López,
  • M. Garczarczyk,
  • S. Gasparyan,
  • M. Gaug,
  • J. G. Giesbrecht Paiva,
  • N. Giglietto,
  • F. Giordano,
  • P. Gliwny,
  • N. Godinović,
  • R. Grau,
  • D. Green,
  • J. G. Green,
  • D. Hadasch,
  • A. Hahn,
  • T. Hassan,
  • L. Heckmann,
  • J. Herrera,
  • D. Hrupec,
  • M. Hütten,
  • R. Imazawa,
  • T. Inada,
  • R. Iotov,
  • K. Ishio,
  • I. Jiménez Martínez,
  • J. Jormanainen,
  • D. Kerszberg,
  • Y. Kobayashi,
  • H. Kubo,
  • J. Kushida,
  • A. Lamastra,
  • D. Lelas,
  • F. Leone,
  • E. Lindfors,
  • L. Linhoff,
  • S. Lombardi,
  • F. Longo,
  • R. López-Coto,
  • M. López-Moya,
  • A. López-Oramas,
  • S. Loporchio,
  • A. Lorini,
  • E. Lyard,
  • B. Machado de Oliveira Fraga,
  • P. Majumdar,
  • M. Makariev,
  • G. Maneva,
  • N. Mang,
  • M. Manganaro,
  • S. Mangano,
  • K. Mannheim,
  • M. Mariotti,
  • M. Martínez,
  • A. Mas-Aguilar,
  • D. Mazin,
  • S. Menchiari,
  • S. Mender,
  • S. Mićanović,
  • D. Miceli,
  • T. Miener,
  • J. M. Miranda,
  • R. Mirzoyan,
  • E. Molina,
  • H. A. Mondal,
  • A. Moralejo,
  • D. Morcuende,
  • V. Moreno,
  • T. Nakamori,
  • C. Nanci,
  • L. Nava,
  • V. Neustroev,
  • M. Nievas Rosillo,
  • C. Nigro,
  • K. Nilsson,
  • K. Nishijima,
  • T. Njoh Ekoume,
  • K. Noda,
  • S. Nozaki,
  • Y. Ohtani,
  • T. Oka,
  • A. Okumura,
  • J. Otero-Santos,
  • S. Paiano,
  • M. Palatiello,
  • D. Paneque,
  • R. Paoletti,
  • J. M. Paredes,
  • L. Pavletić,
  • M. Persic,
  • M. Pihet,
  • G. Pirola,
  • F. Podobnik,
  • P. G. Prada Moroni,
  • E. Prandini,
  • G. Principe,
  • C. Priyadarshi,
  • W. Rhode,
  • M. Ribó,
  • J. Rico,
  • C. Righi,
  • A. Rugliancich,
  • N. Sahakyan,
  • T. Saito,
  • S. Sakurai,
  • K. Satalecka,
  • F. G. Saturni,
  • B. Schleicher,
  • K. Schmidt,
  • F. Schmuckermaier,
  • J. L. Schubert,
  • T. Schweizer,
  • J. Sitarek,
  • V. Sliusar,
  • D. Sobczynska,
  • A. Spolon,
  • A. Stamerra,
  • J. Strišković,
  • D. Strom,
  • M. Strzys,
  • Y. Suda,
  • T. Surić,
  • H. Tajima,
  • M. Takahashi,
  • R. Takeishi,
  • F. Tavecchio,
  • P. Temnikov,
  • K. Terauchi,
  • T. Terzić,
  • M. Teshima,
  • L. Tosti,
  • S. Truzzi,
  • A. Tutone,
  • S. Ubach,
  • J. van Scherpenberg,
  • M. Vazquez Acosta,
  • S. Ventura,
  • V. Verguilov,
  • I. Viale,
  • C. F. Vigorito,
  • V. Vitale,
  • I. Vovk,
  • R. Walter,
  • M. Will,
  • C. Wunderlich,
  • T. Yamamoto,
  • D. Zarić,
  • MAGIC Collaboration,
  • M. Cerruti,
  • J. A. Acosta-Pulido,
  • G. Apolonio,
  • R. Bachev,
  • M. Baloković,
  • E. Benítez,
  • I. Björklund,
  • V. Bozhilov,
  • L. F. Brown,
  • A. Bugg,
  • W. Carbonell,
  • M. I. Carnerero,
  • D. Carosati,
  • C. Casadio,
  • W. Chamani,
  • W. P. Chen,
  • R. A. Chigladze,
  • G. Damljanovic,
  • K. Epps,
  • A. Erkenov,
  • M. Feige,
  • J. Finke,
  • A. Fuentes,
  • K. Gazeas,
  • M. Giroletti,
  • T. S. Grishina,
  • A. C. Gupta,
  • ,
  • M. A. Gurwell,
  • E. Heidemann,
  • D. Hiriart,
  • W. J. Hou,
  • T. Hovatta,
  • S. Ibryamov,
  • M. D. Joner,
  • S. G. Jorstad,
  • J. Kania,
  • S. Kiehlmann,
  • G. N. Kimeridze,
  • E. N. Kopatskaya,
  • M. Kopp,
  • M. Korte,
  • B. Kotas,
  • S. Koyama,
  • J. A. Kramer,
  • L. Kunkel,
  • S. O. Kurtanidze,
  • O. M. Kurtanidze,
  • A. Lähteenmäki,
  • J. M. López,
  • V. M. Larionov,
  • E. G. Larionova,
  • L. V. Larionova,
  • C. Leto,
  • C. Lorey,
  • R. Mújica,
  • G. M. Madejski,
  • N. Marchili,
  • A. P. Marscher,
  • M. Minev,
  • A. Modaressi,
  • D. A. Morozova,
  • T. Mufakharov,
  • I. Myserlis,
  • A. A. Nikiforova,
  • M. G. Nikolashvili,
  • E. Ovcharov,
  • M. Perri,
  • C. M. Raiteri,
  • A. C. S. Readhead,
  • A. Reimer,
  • D. Reinhart,
  • S. Righini,
  • K. Rosenlehner,
  • A. C. Sadun,
  • S. S. Savchenko,
  • A. Scherbantin,
  • L. Schneider,
  • K. Schoch,
  • D. Seifert,
  • E. Semkov,
  • L. A. Sigua,
  • C. Singh,
  • P. Sola,
  • Y. Sotnikova,
  • M. Spencer,
  • R. Steineke,
  • M. Stojanovic,
  • A. Strigachev,
  • M. Tornikoski,
  • E. Traianou,
  • A. Tramacere,
  • Yu. V. Troitskaya,
  • I. S. Troitskiy,
  • J. B. Trump,
  • A. Tsai,
  • A. Valcheva,
  • A. A. Vasilyev,
  • F. Verrecchia,
  • M. Villata,
  • O. Vince,
  • K. Vrontaki,
  • Z. R. Weaver,
  • E. Zaharieva,
  • N. Zottmann
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (06/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4365/acc181
abstract + abstract -

We study the broadband emission of Mrk 501 using multiwavelength observations from 2017 to 2020 performed with a multitude of instruments, involving, among others, MAGIC, Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT), NuSTAR, Swift, GASP-WEBT, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. Mrk 501 showed an extremely low broadband activity, which may help to unravel its baseline emission. Nonetheless, significant flux variations are detected at all wave bands, with the highest occurring at X-rays and very-high-energy (VHE) γ-rays. A significant correlation (>3σ) between X-rays and VHE γ-rays is measured, supporting leptonic scenarios to explain the variable parts of the emission, also during low activity. This is further supported when we extend our data from 2008 to 2020, and identify, for the first time, significant correlations between the Swift X-Ray Telescope and Fermi-LAT. We additionally find correlations between high-energy γ-rays and radio, with the radio lagging by more than 100 days, placing the γ-ray emission zone upstream of the radio-bright regions in the jet. Furthermore, Mrk 501 showed a historically low activity in X-rays and VHE γ-rays from mid-2017 to mid-2019 with a stable VHE flux (>0.2 TeV) of 5% the emission of the Crab Nebula. The broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) of this 2 yr long low state, the potential baseline emission of Mrk 501, can be characterized with one-zone leptonic models, and with (lepto)-hadronic models fulfilling neutrino flux constraints from IceCube. We explore the time evolution of the SED toward the low state, revealing that the stable baseline emission may be ascribed to a standing shock, and the variable emission to an additional expanding or traveling shock.

(1114)Electron-Ion Temperature Ratio in Astrophysical Shocks
  • John C. Raymond,
  • Parviz Ghavamian,
  • Artem Bohdan,
  • Dongsu Ryu,
  • Jacek Niemiec
  • +7
  • Lorenzo Sironi,
  • Aaron Tran,
  • Elena Amato,
  • Masahiro Hoshino,
  • Martin Pohl,
  • Takanobu Amano,
  • Frederico Fiuza
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acc528
abstract + abstract -

Collisionless shock waves in supernova remnants and the solar wind heat electrons less effectively than they heat ions, as is predicted by kinetic simulations. However, the values of T e /T p inferred from the Hα profiles of supernova remnant shocks behave differently as a function of Mach number or Alfvén Mach number than what is measured in the solar wind or predicted by simulations. Here we determine T e /T p for supernova remnant shocks using Hα profiles, shock speeds from proper motions, and electron temperatures from X-ray spectra. We also improve the estimates of sound speed and Alfvén speed used to determine Mach numbers. We find that the Hα determinations are robust and that the discrepancies among supernova remnant shocks, solar wind shocks, and computer-simulated shocks remain. We discuss some possible contributing factors, including shock precursors, turbulence, and varying preshock conditions.

(1113)Towards cosmological simulations of the magnetized intracluster medium with resolved Coulomb collision scale
  • Ulrich P. Steinwandel,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Ludwig Böss,
  • Tirso Marin-Gilabert
abstract + abstract -

We present the first results of one extremely high resolution, non-radiative magnetohydrodynamical cosmological zoom-in simulation of a massive cluster with a virial mass M$_\mathrm{vir} = 2.0 \times 10^{15}$ solar masses. We adopt a mass resolution of $4 \times 10^5$ M$_{\odot}$ with a maximum spatial resolution of around 250 pc in the central regions of the cluster. We follow the detailed amplification process in a resolved small-scale turbulent dynamo in the Intracluster medium (ICM) with strong exponential growth until redshift 4, after which the field grows weakly in the adiabatic compression limit until redshift 2. The energy in the field is slightly reduced as the system approaches redshift zero in agreement with adiabatic decompression. The field structure is highly turbulent in the center and shows field reversals on a length scale of a few 10 kpc and an anti-correlation between the radial and angular field components in the central region that is ordered by small-scale turbulent dynamo action. The large-scale field on Mpc scales is almost isotropic, indicating that the structure formation process in massive galaxy cluster formation is suppressing memory of both the initial field configuration and the amplified morphology via the turbulent dynamo in the central regions. We demonstrate that extremely high-resolution simulations of the magnetized ICM are in reach that can resolve the small-scale magnetic field structure which is of major importance for the injection of and transport of cosmic rays in the ICM. This work is a major cornerstone for follow-up studies with an on-the-fly treatment of cosmic rays to model in detail electron-synchrotron and gamma-ray emissions.

(1112)Bias-Free Estimation of Signals on Top of Unknown Backgrounds
  • Johannes Diehl,
  • Jakob Knollmüller,
  • Oliver Schulz
abstract + abstract -

We present a method for obtaining unbiased signal estimates in the presence of a significant background, eliminating the need for a parametric model for the background itself. Our approach is based on a minimal set of conditions for observation and background estimators, which are typically satisfied in practical scenarios. To showcase the effectiveness of our method, we apply it to simulated data from the planned dielectric axion haloscope MADMAX.

(1111)Simulating $\mathbb{Z}_2$ Lattice Gauge Theory with the Variational Quantum Thermalizer
  • Michael Fromm,
  • Owe Philipsen,
  • Michael Spannowsky,
  • Christopher Winterowd
abstract + abstract -

The properties of strongly-coupled lattice gauge theories at finite density as well as in real time have largely eluded first-principles studies on the lattice. This is due to the failure of importance sampling for systems with a complex action. An alternative to evade the sign problem is quantum simulation. Although still in its infancy, a lot of progress has been made in devising algorithms to address these problems. In particular, recent efforts have addressed the question of how to produce thermal Gibbs states on a quantum computer. In this study, we apply a variational quantum algorithm to a low-dimensional model which has a local abelian gauge symmetry. We demonstrate how this approach can be applied to obtain information regarding the phase diagram as well as unequal-time correlation functions at non-zero temperature.

(1110)Star Formation in the Dwarf Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4395: Evidence for Both AGN and SN Feedback?
  • Payel Nandi,
  • C. S. Stalin,
  • D. J. Saikia,
  • S. Muneer,
  • George Mountrichas
  • +3
  • Dominika Wylezalek,
  • R. Sagar,
  • Markus Kissler-Patig
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present a detailed multi-wavelength study of star formation in the dwarf galaxy NGC 4395 which hosts an active galactic nucleus (AGN). From our observations with the Ultra-Violet Imaging Telescope, we have compiled a catalogue of 284 star forming (SF) regions, out of which we could detect 120 SF regions in Hα observations. Across the entire galaxy, we found the extinction corrected star formation rate (SFR) in the far ultra-violet (FUV) to range from 2.0 × 10−5 M⊙yr−1 to 1.5 × 10−2 M⊙yr−1 with a median of 3.0 × 10−4 M⊙yr−1 and age to lie in the range of ∼ 1 to 98 Myr with a median of 14 Myr. In Hα we found the SFR to range from 7.2 × 10−6 M⊙yr−1 to 2.7 × 10−2 M⊙yr−1 with a median of 1.7 × 10−4 M⊙yr−1 and age to lie between 3 to 6 Myr with a median of 5 Myr. The stellar ages derived from Hα show a gradual decline with galactocentric distance. We found three SF regions close to the center of NGC~4395 with high SFR both from Hα and UV which could be attributed to feedback effects from the AGN. We also found six other SF regions in one of the spiral arms having higher SFR. These are very close to supernovae remnants which could have enhanced the SFR locally. We obtained a specific SFR (SFR per unit mass) for the whole galaxy 4.64 × 10−10 yr−1.

(1109)The impact of dust evolution on the dead zone outer edge in magnetized protoplanetary disks
  • Timmy N. Delage,
  • Matías Gárate,
  • Satoshi Okuzumi,
  • Chao-Chin Yang,
  • Paola Pinilla
  • +3
  • Mario Flock,
  • Sebastian Markus Stammler,
  • Tilman Birnstiel
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244731
abstract + abstract -

Context. The dead zone outer edge corresponds to the transition from the magnetically dead to the magnetorotational instability (MRI) active regions in the outer protoplanetary disk midplane. It has been previously hypothesized to be a prime location for dust particle trapping. A more consistent approach to access such an idea has yet to be developed, since the interplay between dust evolution and MRI-driven accretion over millions of years has been poorly understood.
Aims: We provide an important step toward a better understanding of the MRI-dust coevolution in protoplanetary disks. In this pilot study, we present a proof of concept that dust evolution ultimately plays a crucial role in the MRI activity.
Methods: First, we study how a fixed power-law dust size distribution with varying parameters impacts the MRI activity, especially the steady-state MRI-driven accretion, by employing and improving our previous 1+1D MRI-driven turbulence model. Second, we relax the steady-state accretion assumption in this disk accretion model, and partially couple it to a dust evolution model in order to investigate how the evolution of dust (dynamics and grain growth processes combined) and MRI-driven accretion are intertwined on million-year timescales, from a more sophisticated modeling of the gas ionization degree.
Results: Dust coagulation and settling lead to a higher gas ionization degree in the protoplanetary disk, resulting in stronger MRI-driven turbulence as well as a more compact dead zone. On the other hand, fragmentation has an opposite effect because it replenishes the disk in small dust particles which are very efficient at sweeping up free electrons and ions from the gas phase. Since the dust content of the disk decreases over millions of years of evolution due to radial drift, the MRI-driven turbulence overall becomes stronger and the dead zone more compact until the disk dust-gas mixture eventually behaves as a grain-free plasma. Furthermore, our results show that dust evolution alone does not lead to a complete reactivation of the dead zone. For typical T-Tauri stars, we find that the dead zone outer edge is expected to be located roughly between 10 au and 50 au during the disk lifetime for our choice of the magnetic field strength and configuration. Finally, the MRI activity evolution is expected to be crucially sensitive to the choice made for the minimum grain size of the dust distribution.
Conclusions: The MRI activity evolution (hence the temporal evolution of the MRI-induced α parameter) is controlled by dust evolution and occurs on a timescale of local dust growth, as long as there are enough dust particles in the disk to dominate the recombination process for the ionization chemistry. Once that is no longer the case, the MRI activity evolution is expected to be controlled by gas evolution and occurs on a viscous evolution timescale.

(1108)AAfrag 2.01: interpolation routines for Monte Carlo results on secondary production including light antinuclei in hadronic interactions
  • M. Kachelrieß,
  • S. Ostapchenko,
  • J. Tjemsland
Computer Physics Communications (06/2023) doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2023.108698
abstract + abstract -

Light antinuclei, like antideuteron and antihelium-3, are ideal probes for new, exotic physics because their astrophysical backgrounds are suppressed at low energies. In order to exploit fully the inherent discovery potential of light antinuclei, a reliable description of their production cross sections in cosmic ray interactions is crucial. We provide therefore the cross sections of antideuteron and antihelium-3 production in pp, pHe, Hep, HeHe, p bar p and p bar He collisions at energies relevant for secondary production in the Milky Way, in a tabulated form which is convinient to use. These predictions are based on QGSJET-II-04m and the state of the art coalescence model WiFunC, which evaluates the coalesence probability on an event-by-event basis, including both momentum correlations and the dependence on the emission volume. In addition, we comment on the importance of a Monte Carlo description of the antideuteron production and on the use of event generators in general. In particular, we discuss the effect of two-particle momentum correlations provided by Monte Carlo event generators on antinuclei production.

(1107)A quantitative comparison between velocity dependent SIDM cross sections constrained by the gravothermal and isothermal models
  • Shengqi Yang,
  • Fangzhou Jiang,
  • Andrew Benson,
  • Yi-Ming Zhong,
  • Charlie Mace
  • +4
  • Xiaolong Du,
  • Zhichao Carton Zeng,
  • Annika H. G. Peter,
  • Moritz S. Fischer
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

One necessary step for probing the nature of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) particles with astrophysical observations is to pin down any possible velocity dependence in the SIDM cross section. Major challenges for achieving this goal include eliminating, or mitigating, the impact of the baryonic components and tidal effects within the dark matter halos of interest -- the effects of these processes can be highly degenerate with those of dark matter self-interactions at small scales. In this work we select 9 isolated galaxies and brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with baryonic components small enough such that the baryonic gravitational potentials do not significantly influence the halo gravothermal evolution processes. We then constrain the parameters of Rutherford and Moller scattering cross section models with the measured rotation curves and stellar kinematics through the gravothermal fluid formalism and isothermal method. Cross sections constrained by the two methods are consistent at $1\sigma$ confidence level, but the isothermal method prefers cross sections greater than the gravothermal approach constraints by a factor of $\sim3$.

(1106)Applications of machine learning to detecting fast neutrino flavor instabilities in core-collapse supernova and neutron star merger models
  • Sajad Abbar
Physical Review D (05/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.103006
abstract + abstract -

Neutrinos propagating in a dense neutrino gas, such as those expected in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and neutron star mergers (NSMs), can experience fast flavor conversions on relatively short scales. This can happen if the neutrino electron lepton number (ν ELN ) angular distribution crosses zero in a certain direction. Despite this, most of the state-of-the-art CCSN and NSM simulations do not provide such detailed angular information and instead, supply only a few moments of the neutrino angular distributions. In this study we employ, for the first time, a machine learning (ML) approach to this problem and show that it can be extremely successful in detecting ν ELN crossings on the basis of its zeroth and first moments. We observe that an accuracy of ∼95 % can be achieved by the ML algorithms, which almost corresponds to the Bayes error rate of our problem. Considering its remarkable efficiency and agility, the ML approach provides one with an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate the occurrence of fast flavor conversions in CCSN and NSM simulations on the fly. We also provide our ML methodologies on GitHub.

(1105)First look at the evaluation of three-loop non-planar Feynman diagrams for Higgs plus jet production
  • Johannes M. Henn,
  • Jungwon Lim,
  • William J. Torres Bobadilla
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2023)026
abstract + abstract -

We present new computations for Feynman integrals relevant to Higgs plus jet production at three loops, including first results for a non-planar class of integrals. The results are expressed in terms of generalised polylogarithms up to transcendental weight six. We also provide the full canonical differential equations, which allows us to make structural observations on the answer. In particular, we find a counterexample to previously conjectured adjacency relations, for a planar integral of the tennis-court type. Additionally, for a non-planar triple ladder diagram, we find two novel alphabet letters. This information may be useful for future bootstrap approaches.

(1104)Impact of systematic nuclear uncertainties on composition and decay heat of dynamical and disk ejecta in compact binary mergers
  • I. Kullmann,
  • S. Goriely,
  • O. Just,
  • A. Bauswein,
  • H. -T. Janka
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (05/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1458
abstract + abstract -

Theoretically predicted yields of elements created by the rapid neutron capture (r-) process carry potentially large uncertainties associated with incomplete knowledge of nuclear properties and approximative hydrodynamical modelling of the matter ejection processes. We present an in-depth study of the nuclear uncertainties by varying theoretical nuclear input models that describe the experimentally unknown neutron-rich nuclei. This includes two frameworks for calculating the radiative neutron capture rates and 14 different models for nuclear masses, β-decay rates and fission properties. Our r-process nuclear network calculations are based on detailed hydrodynamical simulations of dynamically ejected material from NS-NS or NS-BH binary mergers plus the secular ejecta from BH-torus systems. The impact of nuclear uncertainties on the r-process abundance distribution and the early radioactive heating rate is found to be modest (within a factor of ~20 for individual A > 90 abundances and a factor of 2 for the heating rate). However, the impact on the late-time heating rate is more significant and depends strongly on the contribution from fission. We witness significantly higher sensitivity to the nuclear physics input if only a single trajectory is used compared to considering ensembles with a much larger number of trajectories (ranging between 150 and 300), and the quantitative effects of the nuclear uncertainties strongly depend on the adopted conditions for the individual trajectory. We use the predicted Th/U ratio to estimate the cosmochronometric age of six metal-poor stars and find the impact of the nuclear uncertainties to be up to 2 Gyr.

(1103)HOLISMOKES. X. Comparison between neural network and semi-automated traditional modeling of strong lenses
  • S. Schuldt,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • R. Cañameras,
  • Y. Shu,
  • S. Taubenberger
  • +2
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244534
abstract + abstract -

Modeling of strongly gravitationally lensed galaxies is often required in order to use them as astrophysical or cosmological probes. With current and upcoming wide-field imaging surveys, the number of detected lenses is increasing significantly such that automated and fast modeling procedures for ground-based data are urgently needed. This is especially pertinent to short-lived lensed transients in order to plan follow-up observations. Therefore, we present in a companion paper a neural network predicting the parameter values with corresponding uncertainties of a singular isothermal ellipsoid (SIE) mass profile with external shear. In this work, we also present a newly developed pipeline that can be used to model any galaxy-scale lensing system consistently. In contrast to previous automated modeling pipelines that require high-resolution space-based images, is optimized to work well on ground-based images such as those from the Hyper-Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program or the upcoming Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time. We further present, a flexible automation code for individual modeling that has no direct decisions and assumptions implemented on the lens system setup or image resolution. Both pipelines, in addition to our modeling network, minimize the user input time drastically and thus are important for future modeling efforts. We applied the network to 31 real galaxy-scale lenses of HSC and compare the results to traditional, Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling-based models obtained from our semi-autonomous pipelines. In the direct comparison, we find a very good match for the Einstein radius. The lens mass center and ellipticity show reasonable agreement. The main discrepancies pretrain to the external shear, as is expected from our tests on mock systems where the neural network always predicts values close to zero for the complex components of the shear. In general, our study demonstrates that neural networks are a viable and ultra fast approach for measuring the lens-galaxy masses from ground-based data in the upcoming era with ~105 lenses expected.

(1102)Template-based information transfer in chemically fueled dynamic combinatorial libraries
  • Christine Kriebisch,
  • Ludwig Burger,
  • Oleksii Zozulia,
  • Michele Stasi,
  • Alexander Floroni
  • +3
  • Dieter Braun,
  • Ulrich Gerland,
  • Job Boekhoven
  • (less)
preprint NaturePortfolio (05/2023) doi:10.21203/
abstract + abstract -

One of science’s greatest challenges is how life can spontaneously emerge from a mixture of abiotic molecules. A complicating factor is that life is inherently unstable, and, by extension, so are its molecules—RNA and proteins are prone to hydrolysis and denaturation. For the synthesis of life or to better understand its emergence at its origin, selection mechanisms are needed for such inherently unstable molecules. Here, we present a chemically-fueled dynamic combinatorial library as a model for RNA oligomerization and deoligomerization that shines new light on selection and purification mechanisms under kinetic control. In the experiments, nucleotide oligomers can only sustain by continuous production. We find that hybridization is a powerful tool for selecting unstable molecules as it offers feedback on oligomerization and deoligomerization rates. Template-based copying can thereby select molecules of specific lengths and sequences. Moreover, we find that templation can also be used to purify libraries of oligomers. Further, template-based copying within coacervate-based protocells changes its compartment’s physical properties, like their ability to fuse. Such reciprocal coupling between information sequences and physical properties is a key step toward synthetic life.

(1101)Toward a population synthesis of disks and planets. II. Confronting disk models and observations at the population level
  • Alexandre Emsenhuber,
  • Remo Burn,
  • Jesse Weder,
  • Kristina Monsch,
  • Giovanni Picogna
  • +2
  • Barbara Ercolano,
  • Thomas Preibisch
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244767
abstract + abstract -

Aims: We want to find the distribution of initial conditions that best reproduces disc observations at the population level.
Methods: We first ran a parameter study using a 1D model that includes the viscous evolution of a gas disc, dust, and pebbles, coupled with an emission model to compute the millimetre flux observable with ALMA. This was used to train a machine learning surrogate model that can compute the relevant quantity for comparison with observations in seconds. This surrogate model was used to perform parameter studies and synthetic disc populations.
Results: Performing a parameter study, we find that internal photoevaporation leads to a lower dependency of disc lifetime on stellar mass than external photoevaporation. This dependence should be investigated in the future. Performing population synthesis, we find that under the combined losses of internal and external photoevaporation, discs are too short lived.
Conclusions: To match observational constraints, future models of disc evolution need to include one or a combination of the following processes: infall of material to replenish the discs, shielding of the disc from internal photoevaporation due to magnetically driven disc winds, and extinction of external high-energy radiation. Nevertheless, disc properties in low-external-photoevaporation regions can be reproduced by having more massive and compact discs. Here, the optimum values of the α viscosity parameter lie between 3 × 10−4 and 10−3 and with internal photoevaporation being the main mode of disc dispersal.

Tables 3 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

(1100)LensWatch. I. Resolved HST Observations and Constraints on the Strongly Lensed Type Ia Supernova 2022qmx ("SN Zwicky")
  • J. D. R. Pierel,
  • N. Arendse,
  • S. Ertl,
  • X. Huang,
  • L. A. Moustakas
  • +40
  • S. Schuldt,
  • A. J. Shajib,
  • Y. Shu,
  • S. Birrer,
  • M. Bronikowski,
  • J. Hjorth,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • S. Agarwal,
  • A. Agnello,
  • A. S. Bolton,
  • S. Chakrabarti,
  • C. Cold,
  • F. Courbin,
  • J. M. Della Costa,
  • S. Dhawan,
  • M. Engesser,
  • Ori D. Fox,
  • C. Gall,
  • S. Gomez,
  • A. Goobar,
  • S. W. Jha,
  • C. Jimenez,
  • J. Johansson,
  • C. Larison,
  • G. Li,
  • R. Marques-Chaves,
  • S. Mao,
  • P. A. Mazzali,
  • I. Perez-Fournon,
  • T. Petrushevska,
  • F. Poidevin,
  • A. Rest,
  • W. Sheu,
  • R. Shirley,
  • E. Silver,
  • C. Storfer,
  • L. G. Strolger,
  • T. Treu,
  • R. Wojtak,
  • Y. Zenati
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (05/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acc7a6
abstract + abstract -

Supernovae (SNe) that have been multiply imaged by gravitational lensing are rare and powerful probes for cosmology. Each detection is an opportunity to develop the critical tools and methodologies needed as the sample of lensed SNe increases by orders of magnitude with the upcoming Vera C. Rubin Observatory and Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope. The latest such discovery is of the quadruply imaged Type Ia SN 2022qmx (aka, "SN Zwicky") at z = 0.3544. SN Zwicky was discovered by the Zwicky Transient Facility in spatially unresolved data. Here we present follow-up Hubble Space Telescope observations of SN Zwicky, the first from the multicycle "LensWatch (" program. We measure photometry for each of the four images of SN Zwicky, which are resolved in three WFC3/UVIS filters (F475W, F625W, and F814W) but unresolved with WFC3/IR F160W, and present an analysis of the lensing system using a variety of independent lens modeling methods. We find consistency between lens-model-predicted time delays (≲1 day), and delays estimated with the single epoch of Hubble Space Telescope colors (≲3.5 days), including the uncertainty from chromatic microlensing (~1-1.5 days). Our lens models converge to an Einstein radius of ${\theta }_{{\rm{E}}}=({0.168}_{-0.005}^{+0.009})^{\prime\prime} $ , the smallest yet seen in a lensed SN system. The "standard candle" nature of SN Zwicky provides magnification estimates independent of the lens modeling that are brighter than predicted by $\sim {1.7}_{-0.6}^{+0.8}$ mag and $\sim {0.9}_{-0.6}^{+0.8}$ mag for two of the four images, suggesting significant microlensing and/or additional substructure beyond the flexibility of our image-position mass models.

(1099)Pushing forward jet substructure measurements in heavy-ion collisions
  • Daniel Pablos,
  • Alba Soto-Ontoso
Physical Review D (05/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.094003
abstract + abstract -

Energetic jets that traverse the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy-ion collisions serve as excellent probes to study this new state of deconfined QCD matter. Presently, however, our ability to achieve a crisp theoretical interpretation of the crescent number of jet observables measured in experiments is hampered by the presence of selection biases. The aim of this work is to minimize those selection biases associated to the modification of the quark- versus gluon-initiated jet fraction in order to assess the presence of other medium-induced effects, namely, color decoherence, by exploring the rapidity dependence of jet substructure observables. So far, all jet substructure measurements at midrapidity have shown that heavy-ion jets are narrower than vacuum jets. We show both analytically and with Monte Carlo simulations that if the narrowing effect persists at forward rapidities, where the quark-initiated jet fraction is greatly increased, this could serve as an unambiguous experimental observation of color decoherence dynamics in heavy-ion collisions.

(1098)Cosmic-ray-driven galactic winds: transport modes of cosmic rays and Alfvén-wave dark regions
  • T. Thomas,
  • C. Pfrommer,
  • R. Pakmor
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (05/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad472
abstract + abstract -

Feedback mediated by cosmic rays (CRs) is an important process in galaxy formation. Because CRs are long-lived and because they are transported along the magnetic field lines independently of any gas flow, they can efficiently distribute their feedback energy within the galaxy. We present an in-depth investigation of (i) how CRs launch galactic winds from a disc that is forming in a $10^{11} \, \rm {M}_\odot$ halo and (ii) the state of CR transport inside the galactic wind. To this end, we use the AREPO moving-mesh code and model CR transport with the two-moment description of CR hydrodynamics. This model includes the CR interaction with the gyroresonant Alfvén waves that enable us to self-consistently calculate the CR diffusion coefficient and CR transport speeds based on coarse-grained models for plasma physical effects. This delivers insight into key questions such as whether the effective CR transport is streaming-like or diffusive-like, how the CR diffusion coefficient and transport speed change inside the circumgalactic medium, and to what degree the two-moment approximation is needed to faithfully capture these effects. We find that the CR-diffusion coefficient reaches a steady state in most environments with the notable exception of our newly discovered Alfvén-wave dark regions where the toroidal wind magnetic field is nearly perpendicular to the CR pressure gradient so that CRs are unable to excite the gyroresonant Alfvén waves. However, CR transport itself cannot reach a steady state and is not well described by either the CR streaming paradigm, the CR diffusion paradigm, or a combination of both.

(1097)Nonstandard neutrino self-interactions can cause neutrino flavor equipartition inside the supernova core
  • Sajad Abbar
Physical Review D (05/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.103002
abstract + abstract -

We show that nonstandard neutrino self-interactions can lead to total flavor equipartition in a dense neutrino gas, such as those expected in core-collapse supernovae. In this first investigation of this phenomenon in the multiangle scenario, we demonstrate that such a flavor equipartition can occur on very short scales, and therefore very deep inside the newly formed proto-neutron star, with a possible significant impact on the physics of core-collapse supernovae. Our findings imply that future galactic core-collapse supernovae can appreciably probe nonstandard neutrino self-interactions, for certain cases even when they are many orders of magnitude smaller than the Standard Model terms.

(1096)Empirical determination of the lithium 6707.856 Å wavelength in young stars
  • Justyn Campbell-White,
  • Carlo F. Manara,
  • Aurora Sicilia-Aguilar,
  • Antonio Frasca,
  • Louise D. Nielsen
  • +18
  • P. Christian Schneider,
  • Brunella Nisini,
  • Amelia Bayo,
  • Barbara Ercolano,
  • Péter Ábrahám,
  • Rik Claes,
  • Min Fang,
  • Davide Fedele,
  • Jorge Filipe Gameiro,
  • Manuele Gangi,
  • Ágnes Kóspál,
  • Karina Maucó,
  • Monika G. Petr-Gotzens,
  • Elisabetta Rigliaco,
  • Connor Robinson,
  • Michal Siwak,
  • Lukasz Tychoniec,
  • Laura Venuti
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2023) e-Print:2303.03843 doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245696
abstract + abstract -

Absorption features in stellar atmospheres are often used to calibrate photocentric velocities for the kinematic analysis of further spectral lines. The Li feature at ∼6708 Å is commonly used, especially in the case of young stellar objects, for which it is one of the strongest absorption lines. However, this complex line comprises two isotope fine-structure doublets. We empirically measured the wavelength of this Li feature in a sample of young stars from the PENELLOPE/VLT programme (using X-shooter, UVES, and ESPRESSO data) as well as HARPS data. For 51 targets, we fit 314 individual spectra using the STAR-MELT package, resulting in 241 accurately fitted Li features given the automated goodness-of-fit threshold. We find the mean air wavelength to be 6707.856 Å, with a standard error of 0.002 Å (0.09 km s−1), and a weighted standard deviation of 0.026 Å (1.16 km s−1). The observed spread in measured positions spans 0.145 Å, or 6.5 km s−1, which is higher by up to a factor of six than the typically reported velocity errors for high-resolution studies. We also find a correlation between the effective temperature of the star and the wavelength of the central absorption. We discuss that exclusively using this Li feature as a reference for photocentric velocity in young stars might introduce a systematic positive offset in wavelength to measurements of further spectral lines. If outflow tracing forbidden lines, such as [O I] 6300 Å, is more blueshifted than previously thought, this then favours a disc wind as the origin for this emission in young stars.

Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programmes 105.207T and 106.20Z8.

(1095)Kaon physics without new physics in ε<SUB>K</SUB>
  • Jason Aebischer,
  • Andrzej J. Buras,
  • Jacky Kumar
European Physical Journal C (05/2023) doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-023-11474-2
abstract + abstract -

Despite the observation of significant suppressions of b →s μ+μ- branching ratios no clear sign of New Physics (NP) has been identified in Δ F =2 observables Δ Md ,s , εK and the mixing induced CP asymmetries Sψ KS and Sψ ϕ. Assuming negligible NP contributions to these observables allows to determine CKM parameters without being involved in the tensions between inclusive and exclusive determinations of | Vcb| and | Vub| . Furthermore this method avoids the impact of NP on the determination of these parameters present likely in global fits. Simultaneously it provides SM predictions for numerous rare K and B branching ratios that are most accurate to date. Analyzing this scenario within Z' models we point out, following the 2009 observations of Monika Blanke and ours of 2020, that despite the absence of NP contributions to εK, significant NP contributions to K+→π+ν ν ¯ , KL→π0ν ν ¯ , KS→μ+μ- , KL→π0+- , ε'/ε and Δ MK can be present. In the simplest scenario, this is guaranteed, as far as flavour changes are concerned, by a single non-vanishing imaginary left-handed Z' coupling gsdL. This scenario implies very stringent correlations between the Kaon observables considered by us. In particular, the identification of NP in any of these observables implies automatically NP contributions to the remaining ones under the assumption of non-vanishing flavour conserving Z' couplings to q q ¯ , ν ν ¯ , and μ+μ- . A characteristic feature of this scenario is a strict correlation between K+→π+ν ν ¯ and KL→π0ν ν ¯ branching ratios on a branch parallel to the Grossman-Nir bound. Moreover, Δ MK is automatically suppressed as seems to be required by the results of the RBC-UKQCD lattice QCD collaboration. Furthermore, there is no NP contribution to KL→μ+μ- which otherwise would bound NP effects in K+→π+ν ν ¯ . Of particular interest are the correlations of K+→π+ν ν ¯ and KL→π0ν ν ¯ branching ratios and of Δ MK with the ratio ε'/ε . We investigate the impact of renormalization group effects in the context of the SMEFT on this simple scenario.

(1094)Truncated Affine Rozansky-Witten Models as Extended TQFTs
  • Ilka Brunner,
  • Nils Carqueville,
  • Daniel Roggenkamp
Communications in Mathematical Physics (05/2023) doi:10.1007/s00220-022-04614-4
abstract + abstract -

We construct extended TQFTs associated to Rozansky-Witten models with target manifolds TCn . The starting point of the construction is the 3-category whose objects are such Rozansky-Witten models, and whose morphisms are defects of all codimensions. By truncation, we obtain a (non-semisimple) 2-category C of bulk theories, surface defects, and isomorphism classes of line defects. Through a systematic application of the cobordism hypothesis we construct a unique extended oriented 2-dimensional TQFT valued in C for every affine Rozansky-Witten model. By evaluating this TQFT on closed surfaces we obtain the infinite-dimensional state spaces (graded by flavour and R-charges) of the initial 3-dimensional theory. Furthermore, we explicitly compute the commutative Frobenius algebras that classify the restrictions of the extended theories to circles and bordisms between them.

(1093)Lights in the Dark: Globular clusters as dark matter tracers
  • Lucas M. Valenzuela
abstract + abstract -

A long-standing observed curiosity of globular clusters (GCs) has been that both the number and total mass of GCs in a galaxy are linearly correlated with the galaxy's virial mass, whereas its stellar component shows no such linear correlation. This work expands on an empirical model for the numbers and ages of GCs in galaxies presented by Valenzuela et al. (2021) that is consistent with recent observational data from massive elliptical galaxies down to the dwarf galaxy regime. Applying the model to simulations, GC numbers are shown to be excellent tracers for the dark matter (DM) virial mass, even when distinct formation mechanisms are employed for blue and red GCs. Furthermore, the amount of DM smooth accretion is encoded in the GC abundances, therefore providing a measure for an otherwise nearly untraceable component of the formation history of galaxies.

(1092)Observability of photoevaporation signatures in the dust continuum emission of transition discs
  • Giovanni Picogna,
  • Carolina Schäfer,
  • Barbara Ercolano,
  • Christian Rab,
  • Rafael Franz
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (05/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1504
abstract + abstract -

Photoevaporative disc winds play a key role in our understanding of circumstellar disc evolution, especially in the final stages, and they might affect the planet formation process and the final location of planets. The study of transition discs (i.e. discs with a central dust cavity) is central for our understanding of the photoevaporation process and disc dispersal. However, we need to distinguish cavities created by photoevaporation from those created by giant planets. Theoretical models are necessary to identify possible observational signatures of the two different processes, and models to find the differences between the two processes are still lacking. In this paper we study a sample of transition discs obtained from radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of internally photoevaporated discs, and focus on the dust dynamics relevant for current ALMA observations. We then compared our results with gaps opened by super Earths/giant planets, finding that the photoevaporated cavity steepness depends mildly on gap size, and it is similar to that of a 1 MJ mass planet. However, the dust density drops less rapidly inside the photoevaporated cavity compared to the planetary case due to the less efficient dust filtering. This effect is visible in the resulting spectral index, which shows a larger spectral index at the cavity edge and a shallower increase inside it with respect to the planetary case. The combination of cavity steepness and spectral index might reveal the true nature of transition discs.

(1091)TDCOSMO. XII. Improved Hubble constant measurement from lensing time delays using spatially resolved stellar kinematics of the lens galaxy
  • Anowar J. Shajib,
  • Pritom Mozumdar,
  • Geoff C. -F. Chen,
  • Tommaso Treu,
  • Michele Cappellari
  • +10
  • Shawn Knabel,
  • Sherry H. Suyu,
  • Vardha N. Bennert,
  • Joshua A. Frieman,
  • Dominique Sluse,
  • Simon Birrer,
  • Frederic Courbin,
  • Christopher D. Fassnacht,
  • Lizvette Villafaña,
  • Peter R. Williams
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202345878
abstract + abstract -

Strong-lensing time delays enable the measurement of the Hubble constant (H0) independently of other traditional methods. The main limitation to the precision of time-delay cosmography is mass-sheet degeneracy (MSD). Some of the previous TDCOSMO analyses broke the MSD by making standard assumptions about the mass density profile of the lens galaxy, reaching 2% precision from seven lenses. However, this approach could potentially bias the H0 measurement or underestimate the errors. For this work, we broke the MSD for the first time using spatially resolved kinematics of the lens galaxy in RXJ1131-1231 obtained from the Keck Cosmic Web Imager spectroscopy, in combination with previously published time delay and lens models derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging. This approach allowed us to robustly estimate H0, effectively implementing a maximally flexible mass model. Following a blind analysis, we estimated the angular diameter distance to the lens galaxy Dd = 865-81+85 Mpc and the time-delay distance DΔt = 2180-271+472 Mpc, giving H0 = 77.1-7.1+7.3 km s-1 Mpc-1 - for a flat Λ cold dark matter cosmology. The error budget accounts for all uncertainties, including the MSD inherent to the lens mass profile and line-of-sight effects, and those related to the mass-anisotropy degeneracy and projection effects. Our new measurement is in excellent agreement with those obtained in the past using standard simply parametrized mass profiles for this single system (H0 = 78.3-3.3+3.4 km s-1 Mpc-1) and for seven lenses (H0 = 74.2-1.6+1.6 km s-1 Mpc-1), or for seven lenses using single-aperture kinematics and the same maximally flexible models used by us (H0 = 73.3-5.8+5.8 km s-1 Mpc-1). This agreement corroborates the methodology of time-delay cosmography.

Reduced Keck Cosmic Web Imager data analyzed in this paper are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

(1090)VISIONS: the VISTA Star Formation Atlas. I. Survey overview
  • Stefan Meingast,
  • João Alves,
  • Hervé Bouy,
  • Monika G. Petr-Gotzens,
  • Verena Fürnkranz
  • +35
  • Josefa E. Großschedl,
  • David Hernandez,
  • Alena Rottensteiner,
  • Magda Arnaboldi,
  • Joana Ascenso,
  • Amelia Bayo,
  • Erik Brändli,
  • Anthony G. A. Brown,
  • Jan Forbrich,
  • Alyssa Goodman,
  • Alvaro Hacar,
  • Birgit Hasenberger,
  • Rainer Köhler,
  • Karolina Kubiak,
  • Michael Kuhn,
  • Charles Lada,
  • Kieran Leschinski,
  • Marco Lombardi,
  • Diego Mardones,
  • Laura Mascetti,
  • Núria Miret-Roig,
  • André Moitinho,
  • Koraljka Mužić,
  • Martin Piecka,
  • Laura Posch,
  • Timo Prusti,
  • Karla Peña Ramírez,
  • Ronny Ramlau,
  • Sebastian Ratzenböck,
  • Germano Sacco,
  • Cameren Swiggum,
  • Paula Stella Teixeira,
  • Vanessa Urban,
  • Eleonora Zari,
  • Catherine Zucker
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2023) e-Print:2303.08831 doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245771
abstract + abstract -

VISIONS is an ESO public survey of five nearby (d < 500 pc) star-forming molecular cloud complexes that are canonically associated with the constellations of Chamaeleon, Corona Australis, Lupus, Ophiuchus, and Orion. The survey was carried out with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA), using the VISTA Infrared Camera (VIRCAM), and collected data in the near-infrared passbands J (1.25 μm), H (1.65 μm), and KS (2.15 μm). With a total on-sky exposure time of 49.4h VISIONS covers an area of 650 deg2, it is designed to build an infrared legacy archive with a structure and content similar to the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) for the screened star-forming regions. Taking place between April 2017 and March 2022, the observations yielded approximately 1.15 million images, which comprise 19 TB of raw data. The observations undertaken within the survey are grouped into three different subsurveys. First, the wide subsurvey comprises shallow, large-scale observations and it has revisited the star-forming complexes six times over the course of its execution. Second, the deep subsurvey of dedicated high-sensitivity observations has collected data on areas with the largest amounts of dust extinction. Third, the control subsurvey includes observations of areas of low-to-negligible dust extinction. Using this strategy, the VISIONS observation program offers multi-epoch position measurements, with the ability to access deeply embedded objects, and it provides a baseline for statistical comparisons and sample completeness - all at the same time. In particular, VISIONS is designed to measure the proper motions of point sources, with a precision of 1 mas yr−1 or better, when complemented with data from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS). In this way, VISIONS can provide proper motions of complete ensembles of embedded and low-mass objects, including sources inaccessible to the optical ESA Gaia mission. VISIONS will enable the community to address a variety of research topics from a more informed perspective, including the 3D distribution and motion of embedded stars and the nearby interstellar medium, the identification and characterization of young stellar objects, the formation and evolution of embedded stellar clusters and their initial mass function, as well as the characteristics of interstellar dust and the reddening law.

(1089)ABYSS. I. Targeting Strategy for the APOGEE and BOSS Young Star Survey in SDSS-V
  • Marina Kounkel,
  • Eleonora Zari,
  • Kevin Covey,
  • Andrew Tkachenko,
  • Carlos Román Zúñiga
  • +13
  • Keivan Stassun,
  • Amelia M. Stutz,
  • Guy Stringfellow,
  • Alexandre Roman-Lopes,
  • Jesús Hernández,
  • Karla Peña Ramírez,
  • Amelia Bayo,
  • Jinyoung Serena Kim,
  • Lyra Cao,
  • Scott J. Wolk,
  • Juna Kollmeier,
  • Ricardo López-Valdivia,
  • Bárbara Rojas-Ayala
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (05/2023) e-Print:2301.07186 doi:10.3847/1538-4365/acc106
abstract + abstract -

The fifth iteration of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is set to obtain optical and near-infrared spectra of ~5 million stars of all ages and masses throughout the Milky Way. As a part of these efforts, APOGEE and BOSS Young Star Survey (ABYSS) will observe ~105 stars with ages <30 Myr that have been selected using a set of homogeneous selection functions that make use of different tracers of youth. The ABYSS targeting strategy we describe in this paper is aimed to provide the largest spectroscopic census of young stars to date. It consists of eight different types of selection criteria that take the position on the H-R diagram, infrared excess, variability, as well as the position in phase space in consideration. The resulting catalog of ~200,000 sources (of which a half are expected to be observed) provides representative coverage of the young Galaxy, including both nearby diffuse associations as well as more distant massive complexes, reaching toward the inner Galaxy and the Galactic center.

(1088)Topological Kolmogorov complexity and the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism
  • Vittorio Vitale,
  • Tiago Mendes-Santos,
  • Alex Rodriguez,
  • Marcello Dalmonte
abstract + abstract -

Topology plays a fundamental role in our understanding of many-body physics, from vortices and solitons in classical field theory, to phases and excitations in quantum matter. Topological phenomena are intimately connected to the distribution of information content - that, differently from ordinary matter, is now governed by non-local degrees of freedom. However, a precise characterization of how topological effects govern the complexity of a many-body state - i.e., its partition function - is presently unclear. In this work, we show how topology and complexity are directly intertwined concepts in the context of classical statistical mechanics. In concrete, we present a theory that shows how the \emph{Kolmogorov complexity} of a classical partition function sampling carries unique, distinctive features depending on the presence of topological excitations in the system. We confront two-dimensional Ising and XY models on several topologies, and study the corresponding samplings as high-dimensional manifolds in configuration space, quantifying their complexity via the intrinsic dimension. While for the Ising model the intrisic dimension is independent of the real-space topology, for the XY model it depends crucially on temperature: across the Berezkinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition, complexity becomes topology dependent. In the BKT phase, it displays a characteristic dependence on the homology of the real-space manifold, and, for $g$-torii, it follows a scaling that is solely genus dependent. We argue that this behavior is intimately connected to the emergence of an order parameter in data space, the conditional connectivity, that displays scaling behavior. Our approach paves the way for an understanding of topological phenomena from the Kolmogorov complexity perspective, in a manner that is amenable to both quantum mechanical and out-of-equilibrium generalizations.

(1087)Beyond 3$\times$2-point cosmology: the integrated shear and galaxy 3-point correlation functions
  • Anik Halder,
  • Zhengyangguang Gong,
  • Alexandre Barreira,
  • Oliver Friedrich,
  • Stella Seitz
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

We present the integrated 3-point correlation functions (3PCF) involving both the cosmic shear and the galaxy density fields. These are a set of higher-order statistics that describe the modulation of local 2-point correlation functions (2PCF) by large-scale features in the fields, and which are easy to measure from galaxy imaging surveys. Based on previous works on the shear-only integrated 3PCF, we develop the theoretical framework for modelling 5 new statistics involving the galaxy field and its cross-correlations with cosmic shear. Using realistic galaxy and cosmic shear mocks from simulations, we determine the regime of validity of our models based on leading-order standard perturbation theory with an MCMC analysis that recovers unbiased constraints of the amplitude of fluctuations parameter $A_s$ and the linear and quadratic galaxy bias parameters $b_1$ and $b_2$. Using Fisher matrix forecasts for a DES-Y3-like survey, relative to baseline analyses with conventional 3$\times$2PCFs, we find that the addition of the shear-only integrated 3PCF can improve cosmological parameter constraints by $20-40\%$. The subsequent addition of the new statistics introduced in this paper can lead to further improvements of $10-20\%$, even when utilizing only conservatively large scales where the tree-level models are valid. Our results motivate future work on the galaxy and shear integrated 3PCFs, which offer a practical way to extend standard analyses based on 3$\times$2PCFs to systematically probe the non-Gaussian information content of cosmic density fields.

(1086)The optimized point-coupling interaction for the relativistic energy density functional of Hartree-Bogoliubov approach quantifying the nuclear bulk properties
  • Zi Xin Liu,
  • Yi Hua Lam,
  • Ning Lu,
  • Peter Ring
abstract + abstract -

We propose a newly optimized nonlinear point-coupling parameterized interaction, PC-L3R, for the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov framework with a further optimized separable pairing force by fitting to observables, i.e., the binding energies of 91 spherical nuclei, charge radii of 63 nuclei, and 12 sets of mean pairing gaps consisting of 54 nuclei in total. The separable pairing force strengths of proton and neutron are optimized together with the point-coupling constants, and are justified in satisfactory reproducing the empirical pairing gaps. The comparison of experimental binding energies compiled in AME2020 for 91 nuclei with the ones generated from the present and other commonly used point-coupling interactions indicates that the implementation of PC-L3R in relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov yields the lowest root-mean-square deviation. The charge radii satisfactory agree with experiment. Meanwhile, PC-L3R is capable of estimating the saturation properties of the symmetric nuclear matter and of appropriately predicting the isospin and mass dependence of binding energy. The experimental odd-even staggering of single nucleon separation energies is well reproduced. The comparison of the estimated binding energies for 7,373 nuclei based on the PC-L3R and other point-coupling interactions is also presented.

(1085)Synthesis of prebiotic organics from CO2 by catalysis with meteoritic and volcanic particles
  • S. Peters,
  • D. A. Semenov,
  • R. Hochleitner,
  • O. Trapp
Sci. Rep. (05/2023) doi:10.1038/s41598-023-33741-8
abstract + abstract -

The emergence of prebiotic organics was a mandatory step toward the origin of life. The significance of the exogenous delivery versus the in-situ synthesis from atmospheric gases is still under debate. We experimentally demonstrate that iron-rich meteoritic and volcanic particles activate and catalyse the fixation of CO2, yielding the key precursors of life-building blocks. This catalysis is robust and produces selectively aldehydes, alcohols, and hydrocarbons, independent of the redox state of the environment. It is facilitated by common minerals and tolerates a broad range of the early planetary conditions (150–300 °C, ≲ 10–50 bar, wet or dry climate). We find that up to 6 × 108 kg/year of prebiotic organics could have been synthesized by this planetary-scale process from the atmospheric CO2 on Hadean Earth.

(1084)The growth of intermediate mass black holes through tidal captures and tidal disruption events
  • Francesco Paolo Rizzuto,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Antti Rantala,
  • Peter H. Johansson,
  • Jeremiah P. Ostriker
  • +3
  • Nicholas C. Stone,
  • Shihong Liao,
  • Dimitrios Irodotou
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (05/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad734
abstract + abstract -

We present N-body simulations, including post-Newtonian dynamics, of dense clusters of low-mass stars harbouring central black holes (BHs) with initial masses of 50, 300, and 2000 M. The models are evolved with the N-body code BIFROST to investigate the possible formation and growth of massive BHs by the tidal capture of stars and tidal disruption events (TDEs). We model star-BH tidal interactions using a velocity-dependent drag force, which causes orbital energy and angular momentum loss near the BH. About ~20-30 per cent of the stars within the spheres of influence of the black holes form Bahcall-Wolf cusps and prevent the systems from core collapse. Within the first 40 Myr of evolution, the systems experience 500-1300 TDEs, depending on the initial cluster structure. Most (>95 per cent) of the TDEs originate from stars in the Bahcall-Wolf cusp. We derive an analytical formula for the TDE rate as a function of the central BH mass, density, and velocity dispersion of the clusters ($\dot{N}_{\mathrm{TDE}} \propto M\mathrm{_{BH}}\rho \sigma ^{-3}$). We find that TDEs can lead a 300 M BH to reach $\sim 7000 \, \mathrm{{M}_{\odot }}$ within a Gyr. This indicates that TDEs can drive the formation and growth of massive BHs in sufficiently dense environments, which might be present in the central regions of nuclear star clusters.

(1083)The Loop Momentum Amplituhedron
  • Livia Ferro,
  • Tomasz Łukowski
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2023)183
abstract + abstract -

In this paper we focus on scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and define a long sought-after geometry, the loop momentum amplituhedron, which we conjecture to encode tree and (the integrands of) loop amplitudes in spinor helicity variables. Motivated by the structure of amplitude singularities, we define an extended positive space, which enhances the Grassmannian space featuring at tree level, and a map which associates to each of its points tree-level kinematic variables and loop momenta. The image of this map is the loop momentum amplituhedron. Importantly, our formulation provides a global definition of the loop momenta. We conjecture that for all multiplicities and helicity sectors, there exists a canonical logarithmic differential form defined on this space, and provide its explicit form in a few examples.

(1082)Mixed moduli in 3d N = 4 higher-genus quivers
  • Ioannis Lavdas,
  • Bruno Le Floch
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2023)124
abstract + abstract -

We analyze exactly marginal deformations of 3d N = 4 Lagrangian gauge theories, especially mixed-branch operators with both electric and magnetic charges. These mixed-branch moduli can either belong to products of electric and magnetic current supermultiplets, or be single-trace (non-factorizable). Apart from some exceptional quivers that have additional moduli, 3d N = 4 theories described by genus g quivers with nonabelian unitary gauge groups have exactly g single-trace mixed moduli, which preserve the global flavour symmetries. This partly explains why only linear and circular quivers have known AdS4 supergravity duals. Indeed, for g > 1, AdS4 gauged supergravities cannot capture the entire g-dimensional moduli space even if one takes into account the quantization moduli of boundary conditions. Likewise, in a general Lagrangian theory, we establish (using the superconformal index) that the number of single-trace mixed moduli is bounded below by the genus of a graph encoding how nonabelian gauge groups act on hypermultiplets.

(1081)Integrated negative geometries in ABJM
  • Johannes M. Henn,
  • Martín Lagares,
  • Shun-Qing Zhang
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2023)112
abstract + abstract -

We study, in the context of the three-dimensional N = 6 Chern-Simons-matter (ABJM) theory, the infrared-finite functions that result from performing L − 1 loop integrations over the L-loop integrand of the logarithm of the four-particle scattering amplitude. Our starting point are the integrands obtained from the recently proposed all-loop projected amplituhedron for the ABJM theory. Organizing them in terms of negative geometries ensures that no divergences occur upon integration if at least one loop variable is left unintegrated. We explicitly perform the integrations up to L = 3, finding both parity-even and -odd terms. Moreover, we discuss a prescription to compute the cusp anomalous dimension Γcusp of ABJM in terms of the integrated negative geometries, and we use it to reproduce the first non-trivial order of Γcusp. Finally, we show that the leading singularities that characterize the integrated results are conformally invariant.

(1080)Two-loop master integrals for a planar and a non-planar topology relevant for single top production
  • Nikolaos Syrrakos
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2023)131
abstract + abstract -

We provide analytic results for two-loop four-point master integrals with one massive propagator and one massive leg relevant to single top production. Canonical bases of master integrals are constructed and the Simplified Differential Equations approach is employed for their analytic solution. The necessary boundary terms are computed in closed form in the dimensional regulator, allowing us to obtain analytic results in terms of multiple polylogarithms of arbitrary transcendental weight. We provide explicit solutions of all two-loop master integrals up to transcendental weight six and discuss their numerical evaluation for Euclidean and physical phase-space points.

(1079)The case for an EIC Theory Alliance: Theoretical Challenges of the EIC
  • Raktim Abir,
  • Igor Akushevich,
  • Tolga Altinoluk,
  • Daniele Paolo Anderle,
  • Fatma P. Aslan
  • +166
  • Alessandro Bacchetta,
  • Baha Balantekin,
  • Joao Barata,
  • Marco Battaglieri,
  • Carlos A. Bertulani,
  • Guillaume Beuf,
  • Chiara Bissolotti,
  • Daniël Boer,
  • M. Boglione,
  • Radja Boughezal,
  • Eric Braaten,
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Vladimir Braun,
  • Duane Byer,
  • Francesco Giovanni Celiberto,
  • Yang-Ting Chien,
  • Ian C. Cloët,
  • Martha Constantinou,
  • Wim Cosyn,
  • Aurore Courtoy,
  • Alexander Czajka,
  • Umberto D'Alesio,
  • Giuseppe Bozzi,
  • Igor Danilkin,
  • Debasish Das,
  • Daniel de Florian,
  • Andrea Delgado,
  • J. P. B. C. de Melo,
  • William Detmold,
  • Michael Döring,
  • Adrian Dumitru,
  • Miguel G. Echevarria,
  • Robert Edwards,
  • Gernot Eichmann,
  • Bruno El-Bennich,
  • Michael Engelhardt,
  • Cesar Fernandez-Ramirez,
  • Christian Fischer,
  • Geofrey Fox,
  • Adam Freese,
  • Leonard Gamberg,
  • Maria Vittoria Garzelli,
  • Francesco Giacosa,
  • Gustavo Gil da Silveira,
  • Derek Glazier,
  • Victor P. Goncalves,
  • Silas Grossberndt,
  • Feng-Kun Guo,
  • Rajan Gupta,
  • Yoshitaka Hatta,
  • Martin Hentschinski,
  • Astrid Hiller Blin,
  • Radja Boughezal,
  • Timothy Hobbs,
  • Alexander Ilyichev,
  • Jamal Jalilian-Marian,
  • Chueng-Ryong Ji,
  • Shuo Jia,
  • Zhong-Bo Kang,
  • Bishnu Karki,
  • Weiyao Ke,
  • Vladimir Khachatryan,
  • Dmitri Kharzeev,
  • Spencer R. Klein,
  • Vladimir Korepin,
  • Yuri Kovchegov,
  • Brandon Kriesten,
  • Shunzo Kumano,
  • Wai Kin Lai,
  • Richard Lebed,
  • Christopher Lee,
  • Kyle Lee,
  • Hai Tao Li,
  • Jifeng Liao,
  • Huey-Wen Lin,
  • Keh-Fei Liu,
  • Simonetta Liuti,
  • Cédric Lorcé,
  • Magno V. T. Machado,
  • Heikki Mantysaari,
  • Vincent Mathieu,
  • Nilmani Mathur,
  • Yacine Mehtar-Tani,
  • Wally Melnitchouk,
  • Emanuele Mereghetti,
  • Andreas Metz,
  • Johannes K. L. Michel,
  • Gerald Miller,
  • Hamlet Mkrtchyan,
  • Asmita Mukherjee,
  • Swagato Mukherjee,
  • Piet Mulders,
  • Stéphane Munier,
  • Francesco Murgia,
  • P. M. Nadolsky,
  • John W Negele,
  • Duff Neill,
  • Jan Nemchik,
  • E. Nocera,
  • Vitalii Okorokov,
  • Fredrick Olness,
  • Barbara Pasquini,
  • Chao Peng,
  • Peter Petreczky,
  • Frank Petriello,
  • Alessandro Pilloni,
  • Bernard Pire,
  • Cristian Pisano,
  • Daniel Pitonyak,
  • Michal Praszalowicz,
  • Alexei Prokudin,
  • Jianwei Qiu,
  • Marco Radici,
  • Khépani Raya,
  • Felix Ringer,
  • Jennifer Rittenhouse West,
  • Arkaitz Rodas,
  • Simone Rodini,
  • Juan Rojo,
  • Farid Salazar,
  • Elena Santopinto,
  • Misak Sargsian,
  • Nobuo Sato,
  • Bjoern Schenke,
  • Stella Schindler,
  • Gunar Schnell,
  • Peter Schweitzer,
  • Ignazio Scimemi,
  • Jorge Segovia,
  • Kirill Semenov-Tian-Shansky,
  • Phiala Shanahan,
  • Ding-Yu Shao,
  • Matt Sievert,
  • Andrea Signori,
  • Rajeev Singh,
  • Vladi Skokov,
  • Qin-Tao Song,
  • Stanislav Srednyak,
  • Iain W. Stewart,
  • Raza Sabbir Sufian,
  • Eric Swanson,
  • Sergey Syritsyn,
  • Adam Szczepaniak,
  • Pawel Sznajder,
  • Asli Tandogan,
  • Yossathorn Tawabutr,
  • A. Tawfik,
  • John Terry,
  • Tobias Toll,
  • Oleksandr Tomalak,
  • Fidele Twagirayezu,
  • Raju Venugopalan,
  • Ivan Vitev,
  • Alexey Vladimirov,
  • Werner Vogelsang,
  • Ramona Vogt,
  • Gojko Vujanovic,
  • Wouter Waalewijn,
  • Xiang-Peng Wang,
  • Bo-Wen Xiao,
  • Hongxi Xing,
  • Yi-Bo Yang,
  • Xiaojun Yao,
  • Feng Yuan,
  • Yong Zhao,
  • Pia Zurita
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We outline the physics opportunities provided by the Electron Ion Collider (EIC). These include the study of the parton structure of the nucleon and nuclei, the onset of gluon saturation, the production of jets and heavy flavor, hadron spectroscopy and tests of fundamental symmetries. We review the present status and future challenges in EIC theory that have to be addressed in order to realize this ambitious and impactful physics program, including how to engage a diverse and inclusive workforce. In order to address these many-fold challenges, we propose a coordinated effort involving theory groups with differing expertise is needed. We discuss the scientific goals and scope of such an EIC Theory Alliance.

(1078)Two-loop bottom mass effects on the Higgs transverse momentum spectrum in top-induced gluon fusion
  • Piotr Pietrulewicz,
  • Maximilian Stahlhofen
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2023)175
abstract + abstract -

We compute bottom mass (mb) corrections to the transverse momentum (qT) spectrum of Higgs bosons produced by gluon fusion in the regime qT ∼ mb ≪ mH at leading power in mb/mH and qT/mH, where the gluons couple to the Higgs via a top loop. To this end we calculate the quark mass dependence of the transverse momentum dependent gluon beam functions (aka gluon TMDPDFs) at two loops in the framework of SCET. These functions represent the collinear matrix elements in the factorized gluon-fusion cross section for small qT. We discuss in detail technical subtleties regarding rapidity regulators and zero-bin subtractions in the calculation of the virtual corrections present for massive quarks. Combined with the known soft function for mb ≠ 0 our results allow to determine the resummed Higgs qT distribution in the top-induced gluon fusion channel at NNLL' (and eventually N3LL) with full dependence on mb/qT. We perform a first phenomenological analysis at fixed order, where the new corrections to the massless approximation lead to percent-level effects in the peak region of the Higgs qT spectrum. Upon resummation they may thus be relevant for state-of-the-art precision predictions for the LHC.

(1077)MARDELS: A full-sky X-ray selected galaxy cluster catalog
  • Matthias Klein,
  • Daniel Hernández-Lang,
  • Joseph J Mohr,
  • Aditya Singh
abstract + abstract -

We present the MARDELS catalog of 8,471 X-ray selected galaxy clusters over 25,000 deg^2 of extragalactic sky. The accumulation of deep, multiband optical imaging data, the development of the optical counterpart classification algorithm MCMF, and the release of the DESI Legacy Survey DR10 catalog covering the extragalactic sky makes it possible -- for the first time, more than 30 years after the launch of the ROSAT X-ray satellite -- to identify the majority of the galaxy clusters detected in the ROSAT All-Sky-Survey source catalog (2RXS). The resulting 90% pure MARDELS catalog is the largest ICM-selected cluster sample to date. MARDELS probes a large dynamic range in cluster mass spanning from galaxy groups to the most massive clusters in the Universe. The cluster redshift distribution peaks at z~0.1 and extends to redshifts z~1. Out to z~0.4, the MARDELS sample contains more clusters per redshift interval (dN/dz) than any other ICM-selected sample. In addition to the main sample, we present two subsamples with 6,930 and 5,522 clusters, exhibiting 95% and 99% purity, respectively. We forecast the utility of the sample for a cluster cosmological study, using realistic mock catalogs that incorporate most observational effects, including the X-ray exposure time and background variations, the existence likelihood selection adopted in 2RXS and the impact of the optical cleaning with MCMF. Using realistic priors on the observable--mass relation parameters from a DES-based weak lensing analysis, we estimate the constraining power of the MARDELSxDES sample to be of 0.026, 0.033 and 0.15 ($1\sigma$) on the parameters $\Omega_\mathrm{m}$, $\sigma_8$ and $w$, respectively.

(1076)Characterisation of the upper atmospheres of HAT-P-32 b, WASP-69 b, GJ 1214 b, and WASP-76 b through their He I triplet absorption
  • M. Lampón,
  • M. López-Puertas,
  • J. Sanz-Forcada,
  • S. Czesla,
  • L. Nortmann
  • +12
  • N. Casasayas-Barris,
  • J. Orell-Miquel,
  • A. Sánchez-López,
  • C. Danielski,
  • E. Pallé,
  • K. Molaverdikhani,
  • Th. Henning,
  • J. A. Caballero,
  • P. J. Amado,
  • A. Quirrenbach,
  • A. Reiners,
  • I. Ribas
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245649
abstract + abstract -

Characterisation of atmospheres undergoing photo-evaporation is key to understanding the formation, evolution, and diversity of planets. However, only a few upper atmospheres that experience this kind of hydrodynamic escape have been characterised. Our aim is to characterise the upper atmospheres of the hot Jupiters HAT-P-32b and WASP-69 b, the warm sub-Neptune GJ 1214 b, and the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-76 b through high-resolution observations of their He I triplet absorption. In addition, we also reanalyse the warm Neptune GJ 3470 b and the hot Jupiter HD 189733 b. We used a spherically symmetric 1D hydrodynamic model coupled with a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model for calculating the He I triplet distribution along the escaping outflow. Comparing synthetic absorption spectra with observations, we constrained the main parameters of the upper atmosphere of these planets and classify them according to their hydrodynamic regime. Our results show that HAT-P-32 b photo-evaporates at (130 ± 70) ×1011 g s−1 with a hot (12 400 ± 2900 K) upper atmosphere; WASP-69 b loses its atmosphere at (0.9 ± 0.5) ×1011 g s−1 and 5250 ± 750 K; and GJ 1214b, with a relatively cold outflow of 3750 ± 750 K, photo-evaporates at (1.3 ± 1.1) ×1011 g s−1. For WASP-76 b, its weak absorption prevents us from constraining its temperature and mass-loss rate significantly; we obtained ranges of 6000-17 000 K and 23.5 ± 21.5 ×1011 g s−1. Our reanalysis of GJ 3470 b yields colder temperatures, 3400 ± 350 K, but practically the same mass-loss rate as in our previous results. Our reanalysis of HD 189733 b yields a slightly higher mass-loss rate, (1.4 ± 0.5) × 1011 g s−1, and temperature, 12 700 ± 900 K compared to previous estimates. We also found that HAT-P-32 b, WASP-69 b, and WASP-76 b undergo hydrodynamic escape in the recombination-limited regime, and that GJ 1214 b is in the photon-limited regime. Our results support that photo-evaporated outflows tend to be very light, H/He ≳ 98/2. The dependences of the mass-loss rates and temperatures of the studied planets on the respective system parameters (X-ray and ultraviolet stellar flux, gravitational potential) are well explained by the current hydrodynamic escape models.

(1075)Fast neutrino flavor conversion in core-collapse supernovae: A parametric study in 1D models
  • Jakob Ehring,
  • Sajad Abbar,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka,
  • Georg Raffelt,
  • Irene Tamborra
abstract + abstract -

We explore the impact of small-scale flavor conversions of neutrinos, the so-called fast flavor conversions (FFCs), on the dynamical evolution and neutrino emission of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). In order to do that, we implement FFCs in the spherically symmetric (1D) CCSN simulations of a 20 M progenitor model parametrically, assuming that FFCs happen at densities lower than a systematically varied threshold value and lead to an immediate flavor equilibrium consistent with lepton number conservation. We find that besides hardening the νe and ν¯e spectra, which helps the expansion of the shock by enhanced postshock heating, FFCs can cause significant, nontrivial modifications of the energy transport in the SN environment via increasing the νμ ,τ luminosities. In our nonexploding models this results in extra cooling of the layers around the neutrinospheres, which triggers a faster contraction of the protoneutron star and hence, in our 1D models, hampers the CCSN explosion. Although our study is limited by the 1D nature of our simulations, it provides valuable insights into how neutrino flavor conversions in the deepest CCSN regions can impact the neutrino release and the corresponding response of the stellar medium.

(1074)Reliable Data Handling and Processing Systems for Small-Satellite Missions
  • M. J. Losekamm,
  • P. Hinderberger and S. Rückerl
2023 IEEE Aerospace Conference (05/2023) doi:10.1109/AERO55745.2023.10115789
abstract + abstract -

We describe the development of a command and data-handling system and a payload data processor for two science missions aboard 3U CubeSats. Both are built around radiation-hardened VA41620 microcontrollers and mostly rely on radiation-tolerant magnetoresistive random-access memory for data storage; the payload data processor is equipped with an XQRKU060 field-programmable gate array that allows the implementation of a wide variety of hardware interfaces and processing algorithms. We also describe the operating system and software framework we develop to program these systems. A flexible hardware architecture and a modular software design allow to adapt them to a variety of future missions.

(1073)Spin exchange-enabled quantum simulator for large-scale non-Abelian gauge theories
  • Jad C. Halimeh,
  • Lukas Homeier,
  • Annabelle Bohrdt,
  • Fabian Grusdt
abstract + abstract -

A central requirement for the faithful implementation of large-scale lattice gauge theories (LGTs) on quantum simulators is the protection of the underlying gauge symmetry. Recent advancements in the experimental realizations of large-scale LGTs have been impressive, albeit mostly restricted to Abelian gauge groups. Guided by this requirement for gauge protection, we propose an experimentally feasible approach to implement large-scale non-Abelian $\mathrm{SU}(N)$ and $\mathrm{U}(N)$ LGTs with dynamical matter in $d+1$D, enabled by two-body spin-exchange interactions realizing local emergent gauge-symmetry stabilizer terms. We present two concrete proposals for $2+1$D $\mathrm{SU}(2)$ and $\mathrm{U}(2)$ LGTs, including dynamical matter and induced plaquette terms, that can be readily implemented in current ultracold-molecule and next-generation ultracold-atom platforms. We provide numerical benchmarks showcasing experimentally accessible dynamics, and demonstrate the stability of the underlying non-Abelian gauge invariance. We develop a method to obtain the effective gauge-invariant model featuring the relevant magnetic plaquette and minimal gauge-matter coupling terms. Our approach paves the way towards near-term realizations of large-scale non-Abelian quantum link models in analog quantum simulators.

(1072)Detailed Shapes of the Line-of-sight Velocity Distributions in Massive Early-type Galaxies from Nonparametric Spectral Models
  • K. Mehrgan,
  • J. Thomas,
  • R. Saglia,
  • T. Parikh,
  • R. Bender
abstract + abstract -

We present the first systematic study of the detailed shapes of the line-of-sight velocity distributions (LOSVDs) in nine massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) using the novel nonparametric modeling code WINGFIT. High-signal spectral observations with the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at the Very Large Telescope allow us to measure between 40 and 400 individual LOSVDs in each galaxy at a signal-to-noise ratio level better than 100 per spectral bin and to trace the LOSVDs all the way out to the highest stellar velocities. We extensively discuss potential LOSVD distortions due to template mismatch and strategies to avoid them. Our analysis uncovers a plethora of complex, large-scale kinematic structures for the shapes of the LOSVDs. Most notably, in the centers of all ETGs in our sample, we detect faint, broad LOSVD "wings" extending the line-of-sight velocities, vlos, well beyond 3σ to vlos ∼ ± 1000–1500 km s−1 on both sides of the peak of the LOSVDs. These wings likely originate from point-spread function effects and contain velocity information about the very central unresolved regions of the galaxies. In several galaxies, we detect wings of similar shape also toward the outer parts of the MUSE field of view. We propose that these wings originate from faint halos of loosely bound stars around the ETGs, similar to the cluster-bound stellar envelopes found around many brightest cluster galaxies.