page 8 of 19
(1106)Toward a population synthesis of disks and planets. II. Confronting disk models and observations at the population level
  • Alexandre Emsenhuber,
  • Remo Burn,
  • Jesse Weder,
  • Kristina Monsch,
  • Giovanni Picogna
  • +2
  • Barbara Ercolano,
  • Thomas Preibisch
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244767
abstract + abstract -

Aims: We want to find the distribution of initial conditions that best reproduces disc observations at the population level.
Methods: We first ran a parameter study using a 1D model that includes the viscous evolution of a gas disc, dust, and pebbles, coupled with an emission model to compute the millimetre flux observable with ALMA. This was used to train a machine learning surrogate model that can compute the relevant quantity for comparison with observations in seconds. This surrogate model was used to perform parameter studies and synthetic disc populations.
Results: Performing a parameter study, we find that internal photoevaporation leads to a lower dependency of disc lifetime on stellar mass than external photoevaporation. This dependence should be investigated in the future. Performing population synthesis, we find that under the combined losses of internal and external photoevaporation, discs are too short lived.
Conclusions: To match observational constraints, future models of disc evolution need to include one or a combination of the following processes: infall of material to replenish the discs, shielding of the disc from internal photoevaporation due to magnetically driven disc winds, and extinction of external high-energy radiation. Nevertheless, disc properties in low-external-photoevaporation regions can be reproduced by having more massive and compact discs. Here, the optimum values of the α viscosity parameter lie between 3 × 10−4 and 10−3 and with internal photoevaporation being the main mode of disc dispersal.

Tables 3 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

(1105)LensWatch. I. Resolved HST Observations and Constraints on the Strongly Lensed Type Ia Supernova 2022qmx ("SN Zwicky")
  • J. D. R. Pierel,
  • N. Arendse,
  • S. Ertl,
  • X. Huang,
  • L. A. Moustakas
  • +40
  • S. Schuldt,
  • A. J. Shajib,
  • Y. Shu,
  • S. Birrer,
  • M. Bronikowski,
  • J. Hjorth,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • S. Agarwal,
  • A. Agnello,
  • A. S. Bolton,
  • S. Chakrabarti,
  • C. Cold,
  • F. Courbin,
  • J. M. Della Costa,
  • S. Dhawan,
  • M. Engesser,
  • Ori D. Fox,
  • C. Gall,
  • S. Gomez,
  • A. Goobar,
  • S. W. Jha,
  • C. Jimenez,
  • J. Johansson,
  • C. Larison,
  • G. Li,
  • R. Marques-Chaves,
  • S. Mao,
  • P. A. Mazzali,
  • I. Perez-Fournon,
  • T. Petrushevska,
  • F. Poidevin,
  • A. Rest,
  • W. Sheu,
  • R. Shirley,
  • E. Silver,
  • C. Storfer,
  • L. G. Strolger,
  • T. Treu,
  • R. Wojtak,
  • Y. Zenati
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (05/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acc7a6
abstract + abstract -

Supernovae (SNe) that have been multiply imaged by gravitational lensing are rare and powerful probes for cosmology. Each detection is an opportunity to develop the critical tools and methodologies needed as the sample of lensed SNe increases by orders of magnitude with the upcoming Vera C. Rubin Observatory and Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope. The latest such discovery is of the quadruply imaged Type Ia SN 2022qmx (aka, "SN Zwicky") at z = 0.3544. SN Zwicky was discovered by the Zwicky Transient Facility in spatially unresolved data. Here we present follow-up Hubble Space Telescope observations of SN Zwicky, the first from the multicycle "LensWatch (" program. We measure photometry for each of the four images of SN Zwicky, which are resolved in three WFC3/UVIS filters (F475W, F625W, and F814W) but unresolved with WFC3/IR F160W, and present an analysis of the lensing system using a variety of independent lens modeling methods. We find consistency between lens-model-predicted time delays (≲1 day), and delays estimated with the single epoch of Hubble Space Telescope colors (≲3.5 days), including the uncertainty from chromatic microlensing (~1-1.5 days). Our lens models converge to an Einstein radius of ${\theta }_{{\rm{E}}}=({0.168}_{-0.005}^{+0.009})^{\prime\prime} $ , the smallest yet seen in a lensed SN system. The "standard candle" nature of SN Zwicky provides magnification estimates independent of the lens modeling that are brighter than predicted by $\sim {1.7}_{-0.6}^{+0.8}$ mag and $\sim {0.9}_{-0.6}^{+0.8}$ mag for two of the four images, suggesting significant microlensing and/or additional substructure beyond the flexibility of our image-position mass models.

(1104)Pushing forward jet substructure measurements in heavy-ion collisions
  • Daniel Pablos,
  • Alba Soto-Ontoso
Physical Review D (05/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.094003
abstract + abstract -

Energetic jets that traverse the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy-ion collisions serve as excellent probes to study this new state of deconfined QCD matter. Presently, however, our ability to achieve a crisp theoretical interpretation of the crescent number of jet observables measured in experiments is hampered by the presence of selection biases. The aim of this work is to minimize those selection biases associated to the modification of the quark- versus gluon-initiated jet fraction in order to assess the presence of other medium-induced effects, namely, color decoherence, by exploring the rapidity dependence of jet substructure observables. So far, all jet substructure measurements at midrapidity have shown that heavy-ion jets are narrower than vacuum jets. We show both analytically and with Monte Carlo simulations that if the narrowing effect persists at forward rapidities, where the quark-initiated jet fraction is greatly increased, this could serve as an unambiguous experimental observation of color decoherence dynamics in heavy-ion collisions.

(1103)Cosmic-ray-driven galactic winds: transport modes of cosmic rays and Alfvén-wave dark regions
  • T. Thomas,
  • C. Pfrommer,
  • R. Pakmor
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (05/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad472
abstract + abstract -

Feedback mediated by cosmic rays (CRs) is an important process in galaxy formation. Because CRs are long-lived and because they are transported along the magnetic field lines independently of any gas flow, they can efficiently distribute their feedback energy within the galaxy. We present an in-depth investigation of (i) how CRs launch galactic winds from a disc that is forming in a $10^{11} \, \rm {M}_\odot$ halo and (ii) the state of CR transport inside the galactic wind. To this end, we use the AREPO moving-mesh code and model CR transport with the two-moment description of CR hydrodynamics. This model includes the CR interaction with the gyroresonant Alfvén waves that enable us to self-consistently calculate the CR diffusion coefficient and CR transport speeds based on coarse-grained models for plasma physical effects. This delivers insight into key questions such as whether the effective CR transport is streaming-like or diffusive-like, how the CR diffusion coefficient and transport speed change inside the circumgalactic medium, and to what degree the two-moment approximation is needed to faithfully capture these effects. We find that the CR-diffusion coefficient reaches a steady state in most environments with the notable exception of our newly discovered Alfvén-wave dark regions where the toroidal wind magnetic field is nearly perpendicular to the CR pressure gradient so that CRs are unable to excite the gyroresonant Alfvén waves. However, CR transport itself cannot reach a steady state and is not well described by either the CR streaming paradigm, the CR diffusion paradigm, or a combination of both.

(1102)Nonstandard neutrino self-interactions can cause neutrino flavor equipartition inside the supernova core
  • Sajad Abbar
Physical Review D (05/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.103002
abstract + abstract -

We show that nonstandard neutrino self-interactions can lead to total flavor equipartition in a dense neutrino gas, such as those expected in core-collapse supernovae. In this first investigation of this phenomenon in the multiangle scenario, we demonstrate that such a flavor equipartition can occur on very short scales, and therefore very deep inside the newly formed proto-neutron star, with a possible significant impact on the physics of core-collapse supernovae. Our findings imply that future galactic core-collapse supernovae can appreciably probe nonstandard neutrino self-interactions, for certain cases even when they are many orders of magnitude smaller than the Standard Model terms.

(1101)Empirical determination of the lithium 6707.856 Å wavelength in young stars
  • Justyn Campbell-White,
  • Carlo F. Manara,
  • Aurora Sicilia-Aguilar,
  • Antonio Frasca,
  • Louise D. Nielsen
  • +18
  • P. Christian Schneider,
  • Brunella Nisini,
  • Amelia Bayo,
  • Barbara Ercolano,
  • Péter Ábrahám,
  • Rik Claes,
  • Min Fang,
  • Davide Fedele,
  • Jorge Filipe Gameiro,
  • Manuele Gangi,
  • Ágnes Kóspál,
  • Karina Maucó,
  • Monika G. Petr-Gotzens,
  • Elisabetta Rigliaco,
  • Connor Robinson,
  • Michal Siwak,
  • Lukasz Tychoniec,
  • Laura Venuti
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2023) e-Print:2303.03843 doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245696
abstract + abstract -

Absorption features in stellar atmospheres are often used to calibrate photocentric velocities for the kinematic analysis of further spectral lines. The Li feature at ∼6708 Å is commonly used, especially in the case of young stellar objects, for which it is one of the strongest absorption lines. However, this complex line comprises two isotope fine-structure doublets. We empirically measured the wavelength of this Li feature in a sample of young stars from the PENELLOPE/VLT programme (using X-shooter, UVES, and ESPRESSO data) as well as HARPS data. For 51 targets, we fit 314 individual spectra using the STAR-MELT package, resulting in 241 accurately fitted Li features given the automated goodness-of-fit threshold. We find the mean air wavelength to be 6707.856 Å, with a standard error of 0.002 Å (0.09 km s−1), and a weighted standard deviation of 0.026 Å (1.16 km s−1). The observed spread in measured positions spans 0.145 Å, or 6.5 km s−1, which is higher by up to a factor of six than the typically reported velocity errors for high-resolution studies. We also find a correlation between the effective temperature of the star and the wavelength of the central absorption. We discuss that exclusively using this Li feature as a reference for photocentric velocity in young stars might introduce a systematic positive offset in wavelength to measurements of further spectral lines. If outflow tracing forbidden lines, such as [O I] 6300 Å, is more blueshifted than previously thought, this then favours a disc wind as the origin for this emission in young stars.

Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programmes 105.207T and 106.20Z8.

(1100)Kaon physics without new physics in ε<SUB>K</SUB>
  • Jason Aebischer,
  • Andrzej J. Buras,
  • Jacky Kumar
European Physical Journal C (05/2023) doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-023-11474-2
abstract + abstract -

Despite the observation of significant suppressions of b →s μ+μ- branching ratios no clear sign of New Physics (NP) has been identified in Δ F =2 observables Δ Md ,s , εK and the mixing induced CP asymmetries Sψ KS and Sψ ϕ. Assuming negligible NP contributions to these observables allows to determine CKM parameters without being involved in the tensions between inclusive and exclusive determinations of | Vcb| and | Vub| . Furthermore this method avoids the impact of NP on the determination of these parameters present likely in global fits. Simultaneously it provides SM predictions for numerous rare K and B branching ratios that are most accurate to date. Analyzing this scenario within Z' models we point out, following the 2009 observations of Monika Blanke and ours of 2020, that despite the absence of NP contributions to εK, significant NP contributions to K+→π+ν ν ¯ , KL→π0ν ν ¯ , KS→μ+μ- , KL→π0+- , ε'/ε and Δ MK can be present. In the simplest scenario, this is guaranteed, as far as flavour changes are concerned, by a single non-vanishing imaginary left-handed Z' coupling gsdL. This scenario implies very stringent correlations between the Kaon observables considered by us. In particular, the identification of NP in any of these observables implies automatically NP contributions to the remaining ones under the assumption of non-vanishing flavour conserving Z' couplings to q q ¯ , ν ν ¯ , and μ+μ- . A characteristic feature of this scenario is a strict correlation between K+→π+ν ν ¯ and KL→π0ν ν ¯ branching ratios on a branch parallel to the Grossman-Nir bound. Moreover, Δ MK is automatically suppressed as seems to be required by the results of the RBC-UKQCD lattice QCD collaboration. Furthermore, there is no NP contribution to KL→μ+μ- which otherwise would bound NP effects in K+→π+ν ν ¯ . Of particular interest are the correlations of K+→π+ν ν ¯ and KL→π0ν ν ¯ branching ratios and of Δ MK with the ratio ε'/ε . We investigate the impact of renormalization group effects in the context of the SMEFT on this simple scenario.

(1099)Truncated Affine Rozansky-Witten Models as Extended TQFTs
  • Ilka Brunner,
  • Nils Carqueville,
  • Daniel Roggenkamp
Communications in Mathematical Physics (05/2023) doi:10.1007/s00220-022-04614-4
abstract + abstract -

We construct extended TQFTs associated to Rozansky-Witten models with target manifolds TCn . The starting point of the construction is the 3-category whose objects are such Rozansky-Witten models, and whose morphisms are defects of all codimensions. By truncation, we obtain a (non-semisimple) 2-category C of bulk theories, surface defects, and isomorphism classes of line defects. Through a systematic application of the cobordism hypothesis we construct a unique extended oriented 2-dimensional TQFT valued in C for every affine Rozansky-Witten model. By evaluating this TQFT on closed surfaces we obtain the infinite-dimensional state spaces (graded by flavour and R-charges) of the initial 3-dimensional theory. Furthermore, we explicitly compute the commutative Frobenius algebras that classify the restrictions of the extended theories to circles and bordisms between them.

(1098)Lights in the Dark: Globular clusters as dark matter tracers
  • Lucas M. Valenzuela
abstract + abstract -

A long-standing observed curiosity of globular clusters (GCs) has been that both the number and total mass of GCs in a galaxy are linearly correlated with the galaxy's virial mass, whereas its stellar component shows no such linear correlation. This work expands on an empirical model for the numbers and ages of GCs in galaxies presented by Valenzuela et al. (2021) that is consistent with recent observational data from massive elliptical galaxies down to the dwarf galaxy regime. Applying the model to simulations, GC numbers are shown to be excellent tracers for the dark matter (DM) virial mass, even when distinct formation mechanisms are employed for blue and red GCs. Furthermore, the amount of DM smooth accretion is encoded in the GC abundances, therefore providing a measure for an otherwise nearly untraceable component of the formation history of galaxies.

(1097)Observability of photoevaporation signatures in the dust continuum emission of transition discs
  • Giovanni Picogna,
  • Carolina Schäfer,
  • Barbara Ercolano,
  • Christian Rab,
  • Rafael Franz
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (05/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1504
abstract + abstract -

Photoevaporative disc winds play a key role in our understanding of circumstellar disc evolution, especially in the final stages, and they might affect the planet formation process and the final location of planets. The study of transition discs (i.e. discs with a central dust cavity) is central for our understanding of the photoevaporation process and disc dispersal. However, we need to distinguish cavities created by photoevaporation from those created by giant planets. Theoretical models are necessary to identify possible observational signatures of the two different processes, and models to find the differences between the two processes are still lacking. In this paper we study a sample of transition discs obtained from radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of internally photoevaporated discs, and focus on the dust dynamics relevant for current ALMA observations. We then compared our results with gaps opened by super Earths/giant planets, finding that the photoevaporated cavity steepness depends mildly on gap size, and it is similar to that of a 1 MJ mass planet. However, the dust density drops less rapidly inside the photoevaporated cavity compared to the planetary case due to the less efficient dust filtering. This effect is visible in the resulting spectral index, which shows a larger spectral index at the cavity edge and a shallower increase inside it with respect to the planetary case. The combination of cavity steepness and spectral index might reveal the true nature of transition discs.

(1096)TDCOSMO. XII. Improved Hubble constant measurement from lensing time delays using spatially resolved stellar kinematics of the lens galaxy
  • Anowar J. Shajib,
  • Pritom Mozumdar,
  • Geoff C. -F. Chen,
  • Tommaso Treu,
  • Michele Cappellari
  • +10
  • Shawn Knabel,
  • Sherry H. Suyu,
  • Vardha N. Bennert,
  • Joshua A. Frieman,
  • Dominique Sluse,
  • Simon Birrer,
  • Frederic Courbin,
  • Christopher D. Fassnacht,
  • Lizvette Villafaña,
  • Peter R. Williams
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202345878
abstract + abstract -

Strong-lensing time delays enable the measurement of the Hubble constant (H0) independently of other traditional methods. The main limitation to the precision of time-delay cosmography is mass-sheet degeneracy (MSD). Some of the previous TDCOSMO analyses broke the MSD by making standard assumptions about the mass density profile of the lens galaxy, reaching 2% precision from seven lenses. However, this approach could potentially bias the H0 measurement or underestimate the errors. For this work, we broke the MSD for the first time using spatially resolved kinematics of the lens galaxy in RXJ1131-1231 obtained from the Keck Cosmic Web Imager spectroscopy, in combination with previously published time delay and lens models derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging. This approach allowed us to robustly estimate H0, effectively implementing a maximally flexible mass model. Following a blind analysis, we estimated the angular diameter distance to the lens galaxy Dd = 865-81+85 Mpc and the time-delay distance DΔt = 2180-271+472 Mpc, giving H0 = 77.1-7.1+7.3 km s-1 Mpc-1 - for a flat Λ cold dark matter cosmology. The error budget accounts for all uncertainties, including the MSD inherent to the lens mass profile and line-of-sight effects, and those related to the mass-anisotropy degeneracy and projection effects. Our new measurement is in excellent agreement with those obtained in the past using standard simply parametrized mass profiles for this single system (H0 = 78.3-3.3+3.4 km s-1 Mpc-1) and for seven lenses (H0 = 74.2-1.6+1.6 km s-1 Mpc-1), or for seven lenses using single-aperture kinematics and the same maximally flexible models used by us (H0 = 73.3-5.8+5.8 km s-1 Mpc-1). This agreement corroborates the methodology of time-delay cosmography.

Reduced Keck Cosmic Web Imager data analyzed in this paper are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

(1095)VISIONS: the VISTA Star Formation Atlas. I. Survey overview
  • Stefan Meingast,
  • João Alves,
  • Hervé Bouy,
  • Monika G. Petr-Gotzens,
  • Verena Fürnkranz
  • +35
  • Josefa E. Großschedl,
  • David Hernandez,
  • Alena Rottensteiner,
  • Magda Arnaboldi,
  • Joana Ascenso,
  • Amelia Bayo,
  • Erik Brändli,
  • Anthony G. A. Brown,
  • Jan Forbrich,
  • Alyssa Goodman,
  • Alvaro Hacar,
  • Birgit Hasenberger,
  • Rainer Köhler,
  • Karolina Kubiak,
  • Michael Kuhn,
  • Charles Lada,
  • Kieran Leschinski,
  • Marco Lombardi,
  • Diego Mardones,
  • Laura Mascetti,
  • Núria Miret-Roig,
  • André Moitinho,
  • Koraljka Mužić,
  • Martin Piecka,
  • Laura Posch,
  • Timo Prusti,
  • Karla Peña Ramírez,
  • Ronny Ramlau,
  • Sebastian Ratzenböck,
  • Germano Sacco,
  • Cameren Swiggum,
  • Paula Stella Teixeira,
  • Vanessa Urban,
  • Eleonora Zari,
  • Catherine Zucker
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2023) e-Print:2303.08831 doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245771
abstract + abstract -

VISIONS is an ESO public survey of five nearby (d < 500 pc) star-forming molecular cloud complexes that are canonically associated with the constellations of Chamaeleon, Corona Australis, Lupus, Ophiuchus, and Orion. The survey was carried out with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA), using the VISTA Infrared Camera (VIRCAM), and collected data in the near-infrared passbands J (1.25 μm), H (1.65 μm), and KS (2.15 μm). With a total on-sky exposure time of 49.4h VISIONS covers an area of 650 deg2, it is designed to build an infrared legacy archive with a structure and content similar to the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) for the screened star-forming regions. Taking place between April 2017 and March 2022, the observations yielded approximately 1.15 million images, which comprise 19 TB of raw data. The observations undertaken within the survey are grouped into three different subsurveys. First, the wide subsurvey comprises shallow, large-scale observations and it has revisited the star-forming complexes six times over the course of its execution. Second, the deep subsurvey of dedicated high-sensitivity observations has collected data on areas with the largest amounts of dust extinction. Third, the control subsurvey includes observations of areas of low-to-negligible dust extinction. Using this strategy, the VISIONS observation program offers multi-epoch position measurements, with the ability to access deeply embedded objects, and it provides a baseline for statistical comparisons and sample completeness - all at the same time. In particular, VISIONS is designed to measure the proper motions of point sources, with a precision of 1 mas yr−1 or better, when complemented with data from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS). In this way, VISIONS can provide proper motions of complete ensembles of embedded and low-mass objects, including sources inaccessible to the optical ESA Gaia mission. VISIONS will enable the community to address a variety of research topics from a more informed perspective, including the 3D distribution and motion of embedded stars and the nearby interstellar medium, the identification and characterization of young stellar objects, the formation and evolution of embedded stellar clusters and their initial mass function, as well as the characteristics of interstellar dust and the reddening law.

(1094)ABYSS. I. Targeting Strategy for the APOGEE and BOSS Young Star Survey in SDSS-V
  • Marina Kounkel,
  • Eleonora Zari,
  • Kevin Covey,
  • Andrew Tkachenko,
  • Carlos Román Zúñiga
  • +13
  • Keivan Stassun,
  • Amelia M. Stutz,
  • Guy Stringfellow,
  • Alexandre Roman-Lopes,
  • Jesús Hernández,
  • Karla Peña Ramírez,
  • Amelia Bayo,
  • Jinyoung Serena Kim,
  • Lyra Cao,
  • Scott J. Wolk,
  • Juna Kollmeier,
  • Ricardo López-Valdivia,
  • Bárbara Rojas-Ayala
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (05/2023) e-Print:2301.07186 doi:10.3847/1538-4365/acc106
abstract + abstract -

The fifth iteration of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is set to obtain optical and near-infrared spectra of ~5 million stars of all ages and masses throughout the Milky Way. As a part of these efforts, APOGEE and BOSS Young Star Survey (ABYSS) will observe ~105 stars with ages <30 Myr that have been selected using a set of homogeneous selection functions that make use of different tracers of youth. The ABYSS targeting strategy we describe in this paper is aimed to provide the largest spectroscopic census of young stars to date. It consists of eight different types of selection criteria that take the position on the H-R diagram, infrared excess, variability, as well as the position in phase space in consideration. The resulting catalog of ~200,000 sources (of which a half are expected to be observed) provides representative coverage of the young Galaxy, including both nearby diffuse associations as well as more distant massive complexes, reaching toward the inner Galaxy and the Galactic center.

(1093)Topological Kolmogorov complexity and the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism
  • Vittorio Vitale,
  • Tiago Mendes-Santos,
  • Alex Rodriguez,
  • Marcello Dalmonte
abstract + abstract -

Topology plays a fundamental role in our understanding of many-body physics, from vortices and solitons in classical field theory, to phases and excitations in quantum matter. Topological phenomena are intimately connected to the distribution of information content - that, differently from ordinary matter, is now governed by non-local degrees of freedom. However, a precise characterization of how topological effects govern the complexity of a many-body state - i.e., its partition function - is presently unclear. In this work, we show how topology and complexity are directly intertwined concepts in the context of classical statistical mechanics. In concrete, we present a theory that shows how the \emph{Kolmogorov complexity} of a classical partition function sampling carries unique, distinctive features depending on the presence of topological excitations in the system. We confront two-dimensional Ising and XY models on several topologies, and study the corresponding samplings as high-dimensional manifolds in configuration space, quantifying their complexity via the intrinsic dimension. While for the Ising model the intrisic dimension is independent of the real-space topology, for the XY model it depends crucially on temperature: across the Berezkinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition, complexity becomes topology dependent. In the BKT phase, it displays a characteristic dependence on the homology of the real-space manifold, and, for $g$-torii, it follows a scaling that is solely genus dependent. We argue that this behavior is intimately connected to the emergence of an order parameter in data space, the conditional connectivity, that displays scaling behavior. Our approach paves the way for an understanding of topological phenomena from the Kolmogorov complexity perspective, in a manner that is amenable to both quantum mechanical and out-of-equilibrium generalizations.

(1092)Beyond 3$\times$2-point cosmology: the integrated shear and galaxy 3-point correlation functions
  • Anik Halder,
  • Zhengyangguang Gong,
  • Alexandre Barreira,
  • Oliver Friedrich,
  • Stella Seitz
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

We present the integrated 3-point correlation functions (3PCF) involving both the cosmic shear and the galaxy density fields. These are a set of higher-order statistics that describe the modulation of local 2-point correlation functions (2PCF) by large-scale features in the fields, and which are easy to measure from galaxy imaging surveys. Based on previous works on the shear-only integrated 3PCF, we develop the theoretical framework for modelling 5 new statistics involving the galaxy field and its cross-correlations with cosmic shear. Using realistic galaxy and cosmic shear mocks from simulations, we determine the regime of validity of our models based on leading-order standard perturbation theory with an MCMC analysis that recovers unbiased constraints of the amplitude of fluctuations parameter $A_s$ and the linear and quadratic galaxy bias parameters $b_1$ and $b_2$. Using Fisher matrix forecasts for a DES-Y3-like survey, relative to baseline analyses with conventional 3$\times$2PCFs, we find that the addition of the shear-only integrated 3PCF can improve cosmological parameter constraints by $20-40\%$. The subsequent addition of the new statistics introduced in this paper can lead to further improvements of $10-20\%$, even when utilizing only conservatively large scales where the tree-level models are valid. Our results motivate future work on the galaxy and shear integrated 3PCFs, which offer a practical way to extend standard analyses based on 3$\times$2PCFs to systematically probe the non-Gaussian information content of cosmic density fields.

(1091)The optimized point-coupling interaction for the relativistic energy density functional of Hartree-Bogoliubov approach quantifying the nuclear bulk properties
  • Zi Xin Liu,
  • Yi Hua Lam,
  • Ning Lu,
  • Peter Ring
abstract + abstract -

We propose a newly optimized nonlinear point-coupling parameterized interaction, PC-L3R, for the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov framework with a further optimized separable pairing force by fitting to observables, i.e., the binding energies of 91 spherical nuclei, charge radii of 63 nuclei, and 12 sets of mean pairing gaps consisting of 54 nuclei in total. The separable pairing force strengths of proton and neutron are optimized together with the point-coupling constants, and are justified in satisfactory reproducing the empirical pairing gaps. The comparison of experimental binding energies compiled in AME2020 for 91 nuclei with the ones generated from the present and other commonly used point-coupling interactions indicates that the implementation of PC-L3R in relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov yields the lowest root-mean-square deviation. The charge radii satisfactory agree with experiment. Meanwhile, PC-L3R is capable of estimating the saturation properties of the symmetric nuclear matter and of appropriately predicting the isospin and mass dependence of binding energy. The experimental odd-even staggering of single nucleon separation energies is well reproduced. The comparison of the estimated binding energies for 7,373 nuclei based on the PC-L3R and other point-coupling interactions is also presented.

(1090)Synthesis of prebiotic organics from CO2 by catalysis with meteoritic and volcanic particles
  • S. Peters,
  • D. A. Semenov,
  • R. Hochleitner,
  • O. Trapp
Sci. Rep. (05/2023) doi:10.1038/s41598-023-33741-8
abstract + abstract -

The emergence of prebiotic organics was a mandatory step toward the origin of life. The significance of the exogenous delivery versus the in-situ synthesis from atmospheric gases is still under debate. We experimentally demonstrate that iron-rich meteoritic and volcanic particles activate and catalyse the fixation of CO2, yielding the key precursors of life-building blocks. This catalysis is robust and produces selectively aldehydes, alcohols, and hydrocarbons, independent of the redox state of the environment. It is facilitated by common minerals and tolerates a broad range of the early planetary conditions (150–300 °C, ≲ 10–50 bar, wet or dry climate). We find that up to 6 × 108 kg/year of prebiotic organics could have been synthesized by this planetary-scale process from the atmospheric CO2 on Hadean Earth.

(1089)The growth of intermediate mass black holes through tidal captures and tidal disruption events
  • Francesco Paolo Rizzuto,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Antti Rantala,
  • Peter H. Johansson,
  • Jeremiah P. Ostriker
  • +3
  • Nicholas C. Stone,
  • Shihong Liao,
  • Dimitrios Irodotou
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (05/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad734
abstract + abstract -

We present N-body simulations, including post-Newtonian dynamics, of dense clusters of low-mass stars harbouring central black holes (BHs) with initial masses of 50, 300, and 2000 M. The models are evolved with the N-body code BIFROST to investigate the possible formation and growth of massive BHs by the tidal capture of stars and tidal disruption events (TDEs). We model star-BH tidal interactions using a velocity-dependent drag force, which causes orbital energy and angular momentum loss near the BH. About ~20-30 per cent of the stars within the spheres of influence of the black holes form Bahcall-Wolf cusps and prevent the systems from core collapse. Within the first 40 Myr of evolution, the systems experience 500-1300 TDEs, depending on the initial cluster structure. Most (>95 per cent) of the TDEs originate from stars in the Bahcall-Wolf cusp. We derive an analytical formula for the TDE rate as a function of the central BH mass, density, and velocity dispersion of the clusters ($\dot{N}_{\mathrm{TDE}} \propto M\mathrm{_{BH}}\rho \sigma ^{-3}$). We find that TDEs can lead a 300 M BH to reach $\sim 7000 \, \mathrm{{M}_{\odot }}$ within a Gyr. This indicates that TDEs can drive the formation and growth of massive BHs in sufficiently dense environments, which might be present in the central regions of nuclear star clusters.

(1088)The Loop Momentum Amplituhedron
  • Livia Ferro,
  • Tomasz Łukowski
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2023)183
abstract + abstract -

In this paper we focus on scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and define a long sought-after geometry, the loop momentum amplituhedron, which we conjecture to encode tree and (the integrands of) loop amplitudes in spinor helicity variables. Motivated by the structure of amplitude singularities, we define an extended positive space, which enhances the Grassmannian space featuring at tree level, and a map which associates to each of its points tree-level kinematic variables and loop momenta. The image of this map is the loop momentum amplituhedron. Importantly, our formulation provides a global definition of the loop momenta. We conjecture that for all multiplicities and helicity sectors, there exists a canonical logarithmic differential form defined on this space, and provide its explicit form in a few examples.

(1087)Mixed moduli in 3d N = 4 higher-genus quivers
  • Ioannis Lavdas,
  • Bruno Le Floch
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2023)124
abstract + abstract -

We analyze exactly marginal deformations of 3d N = 4 Lagrangian gauge theories, especially mixed-branch operators with both electric and magnetic charges. These mixed-branch moduli can either belong to products of electric and magnetic current supermultiplets, or be single-trace (non-factorizable). Apart from some exceptional quivers that have additional moduli, 3d N = 4 theories described by genus g quivers with nonabelian unitary gauge groups have exactly g single-trace mixed moduli, which preserve the global flavour symmetries. This partly explains why only linear and circular quivers have known AdS4 supergravity duals. Indeed, for g > 1, AdS4 gauged supergravities cannot capture the entire g-dimensional moduli space even if one takes into account the quantization moduli of boundary conditions. Likewise, in a general Lagrangian theory, we establish (using the superconformal index) that the number of single-trace mixed moduli is bounded below by the genus of a graph encoding how nonabelian gauge groups act on hypermultiplets.

(1086)Integrated negative geometries in ABJM
  • Johannes M. Henn,
  • Martín Lagares,
  • Shun-Qing Zhang
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2023)112
abstract + abstract -

We study, in the context of the three-dimensional N = 6 Chern-Simons-matter (ABJM) theory, the infrared-finite functions that result from performing L − 1 loop integrations over the L-loop integrand of the logarithm of the four-particle scattering amplitude. Our starting point are the integrands obtained from the recently proposed all-loop projected amplituhedron for the ABJM theory. Organizing them in terms of negative geometries ensures that no divergences occur upon integration if at least one loop variable is left unintegrated. We explicitly perform the integrations up to L = 3, finding both parity-even and -odd terms. Moreover, we discuss a prescription to compute the cusp anomalous dimension Γcusp of ABJM in terms of the integrated negative geometries, and we use it to reproduce the first non-trivial order of Γcusp. Finally, we show that the leading singularities that characterize the integrated results are conformally invariant.

(1085)Two-loop master integrals for a planar and a non-planar topology relevant for single top production
  • Nikolaos Syrrakos
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2023)131
abstract + abstract -

We provide analytic results for two-loop four-point master integrals with one massive propagator and one massive leg relevant to single top production. Canonical bases of master integrals are constructed and the Simplified Differential Equations approach is employed for their analytic solution. The necessary boundary terms are computed in closed form in the dimensional regulator, allowing us to obtain analytic results in terms of multiple polylogarithms of arbitrary transcendental weight. We provide explicit solutions of all two-loop master integrals up to transcendental weight six and discuss their numerical evaluation for Euclidean and physical phase-space points.

(1084)The case for an EIC Theory Alliance: Theoretical Challenges of the EIC
  • Raktim Abir,
  • Igor Akushevich,
  • Tolga Altinoluk,
  • Daniele Paolo Anderle,
  • Fatma P. Aslan
  • +166
  • Alessandro Bacchetta,
  • Baha Balantekin,
  • Joao Barata,
  • Marco Battaglieri,
  • Carlos A. Bertulani,
  • Guillaume Beuf,
  • Chiara Bissolotti,
  • Daniël Boer,
  • M. Boglione,
  • Radja Boughezal,
  • Eric Braaten,
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Vladimir Braun,
  • Duane Byer,
  • Francesco Giovanni Celiberto,
  • Yang-Ting Chien,
  • Ian C. Cloët,
  • Martha Constantinou,
  • Wim Cosyn,
  • Aurore Courtoy,
  • Alexander Czajka,
  • Umberto D'Alesio,
  • Giuseppe Bozzi,
  • Igor Danilkin,
  • Debasish Das,
  • Daniel de Florian,
  • Andrea Delgado,
  • J. P. B. C. de Melo,
  • William Detmold,
  • Michael Döring,
  • Adrian Dumitru,
  • Miguel G. Echevarria,
  • Robert Edwards,
  • Gernot Eichmann,
  • Bruno El-Bennich,
  • Michael Engelhardt,
  • Cesar Fernandez-Ramirez,
  • Christian Fischer,
  • Geofrey Fox,
  • Adam Freese,
  • Leonard Gamberg,
  • Maria Vittoria Garzelli,
  • Francesco Giacosa,
  • Gustavo Gil da Silveira,
  • Derek Glazier,
  • Victor P. Goncalves,
  • Silas Grossberndt,
  • Feng-Kun Guo,
  • Rajan Gupta,
  • Yoshitaka Hatta,
  • Martin Hentschinski,
  • Astrid Hiller Blin,
  • Radja Boughezal,
  • Timothy Hobbs,
  • Alexander Ilyichev,
  • Jamal Jalilian-Marian,
  • Chueng-Ryong Ji,
  • Shuo Jia,
  • Zhong-Bo Kang,
  • Bishnu Karki,
  • Weiyao Ke,
  • Vladimir Khachatryan,
  • Dmitri Kharzeev,
  • Spencer R. Klein,
  • Vladimir Korepin,
  • Yuri Kovchegov,
  • Brandon Kriesten,
  • Shunzo Kumano,
  • Wai Kin Lai,
  • Richard Lebed,
  • Christopher Lee,
  • Kyle Lee,
  • Hai Tao Li,
  • Jifeng Liao,
  • Huey-Wen Lin,
  • Keh-Fei Liu,
  • Simonetta Liuti,
  • Cédric Lorcé,
  • Magno V. T. Machado,
  • Heikki Mantysaari,
  • Vincent Mathieu,
  • Nilmani Mathur,
  • Yacine Mehtar-Tani,
  • Wally Melnitchouk,
  • Emanuele Mereghetti,
  • Andreas Metz,
  • Johannes K. L. Michel,
  • Gerald Miller,
  • Hamlet Mkrtchyan,
  • Asmita Mukherjee,
  • Swagato Mukherjee,
  • Piet Mulders,
  • Stéphane Munier,
  • Francesco Murgia,
  • P. M. Nadolsky,
  • John W Negele,
  • Duff Neill,
  • Jan Nemchik,
  • E. Nocera,
  • Vitalii Okorokov,
  • Fredrick Olness,
  • Barbara Pasquini,
  • Chao Peng,
  • Peter Petreczky,
  • Frank Petriello,
  • Alessandro Pilloni,
  • Bernard Pire,
  • Cristian Pisano,
  • Daniel Pitonyak,
  • Michal Praszalowicz,
  • Alexei Prokudin,
  • Jianwei Qiu,
  • Marco Radici,
  • Khépani Raya,
  • Felix Ringer,
  • Jennifer Rittenhouse West,
  • Arkaitz Rodas,
  • Simone Rodini,
  • Juan Rojo,
  • Farid Salazar,
  • Elena Santopinto,
  • Misak Sargsian,
  • Nobuo Sato,
  • Bjoern Schenke,
  • Stella Schindler,
  • Gunar Schnell,
  • Peter Schweitzer,
  • Ignazio Scimemi,
  • Jorge Segovia,
  • Kirill Semenov-Tian-Shansky,
  • Phiala Shanahan,
  • Ding-Yu Shao,
  • Matt Sievert,
  • Andrea Signori,
  • Rajeev Singh,
  • Vladi Skokov,
  • Qin-Tao Song,
  • Stanislav Srednyak,
  • Iain W. Stewart,
  • Raza Sabbir Sufian,
  • Eric Swanson,
  • Sergey Syritsyn,
  • Adam Szczepaniak,
  • Pawel Sznajder,
  • Asli Tandogan,
  • Yossathorn Tawabutr,
  • A. Tawfik,
  • John Terry,
  • Tobias Toll,
  • Oleksandr Tomalak,
  • Fidele Twagirayezu,
  • Raju Venugopalan,
  • Ivan Vitev,
  • Alexey Vladimirov,
  • Werner Vogelsang,
  • Ramona Vogt,
  • Gojko Vujanovic,
  • Wouter Waalewijn,
  • Xiang-Peng Wang,
  • Bo-Wen Xiao,
  • Hongxi Xing,
  • Yi-Bo Yang,
  • Xiaojun Yao,
  • Feng Yuan,
  • Yong Zhao,
  • Pia Zurita
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We outline the physics opportunities provided by the Electron Ion Collider (EIC). These include the study of the parton structure of the nucleon and nuclei, the onset of gluon saturation, the production of jets and heavy flavor, hadron spectroscopy and tests of fundamental symmetries. We review the present status and future challenges in EIC theory that have to be addressed in order to realize this ambitious and impactful physics program, including how to engage a diverse and inclusive workforce. In order to address these many-fold challenges, we propose a coordinated effort involving theory groups with differing expertise is needed. We discuss the scientific goals and scope of such an EIC Theory Alliance.

(1083)Two-loop bottom mass effects on the Higgs transverse momentum spectrum in top-induced gluon fusion
  • Piotr Pietrulewicz,
  • Maximilian Stahlhofen
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2023)175
abstract + abstract -

We compute bottom mass (mb) corrections to the transverse momentum (qT) spectrum of Higgs bosons produced by gluon fusion in the regime qT ∼ mb ≪ mH at leading power in mb/mH and qT/mH, where the gluons couple to the Higgs via a top loop. To this end we calculate the quark mass dependence of the transverse momentum dependent gluon beam functions (aka gluon TMDPDFs) at two loops in the framework of SCET. These functions represent the collinear matrix elements in the factorized gluon-fusion cross section for small qT. We discuss in detail technical subtleties regarding rapidity regulators and zero-bin subtractions in the calculation of the virtual corrections present for massive quarks. Combined with the known soft function for mb ≠ 0 our results allow to determine the resummed Higgs qT distribution in the top-induced gluon fusion channel at NNLL' (and eventually N3LL) with full dependence on mb/qT. We perform a first phenomenological analysis at fixed order, where the new corrections to the massless approximation lead to percent-level effects in the peak region of the Higgs qT spectrum. Upon resummation they may thus be relevant for state-of-the-art precision predictions for the LHC.

(1082)MARDELS: A full-sky X-ray selected galaxy cluster catalog
  • Matthias Klein,
  • Daniel Hernández-Lang,
  • Joseph J Mohr,
  • Aditya Singh
abstract + abstract -

We present the MARDELS catalog of 8,471 X-ray selected galaxy clusters over 25,000 deg^2 of extragalactic sky. The accumulation of deep, multiband optical imaging data, the development of the optical counterpart classification algorithm MCMF, and the release of the DESI Legacy Survey DR10 catalog covering the extragalactic sky makes it possible -- for the first time, more than 30 years after the launch of the ROSAT X-ray satellite -- to identify the majority of the galaxy clusters detected in the ROSAT All-Sky-Survey source catalog (2RXS). The resulting 90% pure MARDELS catalog is the largest ICM-selected cluster sample to date. MARDELS probes a large dynamic range in cluster mass spanning from galaxy groups to the most massive clusters in the Universe. The cluster redshift distribution peaks at z~0.1 and extends to redshifts z~1. Out to z~0.4, the MARDELS sample contains more clusters per redshift interval (dN/dz) than any other ICM-selected sample. In addition to the main sample, we present two subsamples with 6,930 and 5,522 clusters, exhibiting 95% and 99% purity, respectively. We forecast the utility of the sample for a cluster cosmological study, using realistic mock catalogs that incorporate most observational effects, including the X-ray exposure time and background variations, the existence likelihood selection adopted in 2RXS and the impact of the optical cleaning with MCMF. Using realistic priors on the observable--mass relation parameters from a DES-based weak lensing analysis, we estimate the constraining power of the MARDELSxDES sample to be of 0.026, 0.033 and 0.15 ($1\sigma$) on the parameters $\Omega_\mathrm{m}$, $\sigma_8$ and $w$, respectively.

(1081)Characterisation of the upper atmospheres of HAT-P-32 b, WASP-69 b, GJ 1214 b, and WASP-76 b through their He I triplet absorption
  • M. Lampón,
  • M. López-Puertas,
  • J. Sanz-Forcada,
  • S. Czesla,
  • L. Nortmann
  • +12
  • N. Casasayas-Barris,
  • J. Orell-Miquel,
  • A. Sánchez-López,
  • C. Danielski,
  • E. Pallé,
  • K. Molaverdikhani,
  • Th. Henning,
  • J. A. Caballero,
  • P. J. Amado,
  • A. Quirrenbach,
  • A. Reiners,
  • I. Ribas
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245649
abstract + abstract -

Characterisation of atmospheres undergoing photo-evaporation is key to understanding the formation, evolution, and diversity of planets. However, only a few upper atmospheres that experience this kind of hydrodynamic escape have been characterised. Our aim is to characterise the upper atmospheres of the hot Jupiters HAT-P-32b and WASP-69 b, the warm sub-Neptune GJ 1214 b, and the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-76 b through high-resolution observations of their He I triplet absorption. In addition, we also reanalyse the warm Neptune GJ 3470 b and the hot Jupiter HD 189733 b. We used a spherically symmetric 1D hydrodynamic model coupled with a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model for calculating the He I triplet distribution along the escaping outflow. Comparing synthetic absorption spectra with observations, we constrained the main parameters of the upper atmosphere of these planets and classify them according to their hydrodynamic regime. Our results show that HAT-P-32 b photo-evaporates at (130 ± 70) ×1011 g s−1 with a hot (12 400 ± 2900 K) upper atmosphere; WASP-69 b loses its atmosphere at (0.9 ± 0.5) ×1011 g s−1 and 5250 ± 750 K; and GJ 1214b, with a relatively cold outflow of 3750 ± 750 K, photo-evaporates at (1.3 ± 1.1) ×1011 g s−1. For WASP-76 b, its weak absorption prevents us from constraining its temperature and mass-loss rate significantly; we obtained ranges of 6000-17 000 K and 23.5 ± 21.5 ×1011 g s−1. Our reanalysis of GJ 3470 b yields colder temperatures, 3400 ± 350 K, but practically the same mass-loss rate as in our previous results. Our reanalysis of HD 189733 b yields a slightly higher mass-loss rate, (1.4 ± 0.5) × 1011 g s−1, and temperature, 12 700 ± 900 K compared to previous estimates. We also found that HAT-P-32 b, WASP-69 b, and WASP-76 b undergo hydrodynamic escape in the recombination-limited regime, and that GJ 1214 b is in the photon-limited regime. Our results support that photo-evaporated outflows tend to be very light, H/He ≳ 98/2. The dependences of the mass-loss rates and temperatures of the studied planets on the respective system parameters (X-ray and ultraviolet stellar flux, gravitational potential) are well explained by the current hydrodynamic escape models.

(1080)Fast neutrino flavor conversion in core-collapse supernovae: A parametric study in 1D models
  • Jakob Ehring,
  • Sajad Abbar,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka,
  • Georg Raffelt,
  • Irene Tamborra
abstract + abstract -

We explore the impact of small-scale flavor conversions of neutrinos, the so-called fast flavor conversions (FFCs), on the dynamical evolution and neutrino emission of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). In order to do that, we implement FFCs in the spherically symmetric (1D) CCSN simulations of a 20 M progenitor model parametrically, assuming that FFCs happen at densities lower than a systematically varied threshold value and lead to an immediate flavor equilibrium consistent with lepton number conservation. We find that besides hardening the νe and ν¯e spectra, which helps the expansion of the shock by enhanced postshock heating, FFCs can cause significant, nontrivial modifications of the energy transport in the SN environment via increasing the νμ ,τ luminosities. In our nonexploding models this results in extra cooling of the layers around the neutrinospheres, which triggers a faster contraction of the protoneutron star and hence, in our 1D models, hampers the CCSN explosion. Although our study is limited by the 1D nature of our simulations, it provides valuable insights into how neutrino flavor conversions in the deepest CCSN regions can impact the neutrino release and the corresponding response of the stellar medium.

(1079)Reliable Data Handling and Processing Systems for Small-Satellite Missions
  • M. J. Losekamm,
  • P. Hinderberger and S. Rückerl
2023 IEEE Aerospace Conference (05/2023) doi:10.1109/AERO55745.2023.10115789
abstract + abstract -

We describe the development of a command and data-handling system and a payload data processor for two science missions aboard 3U CubeSats. Both are built around radiation-hardened VA41620 microcontrollers and mostly rely on radiation-tolerant magnetoresistive random-access memory for data storage; the payload data processor is equipped with an XQRKU060 field-programmable gate array that allows the implementation of a wide variety of hardware interfaces and processing algorithms. We also describe the operating system and software framework we develop to program these systems. A flexible hardware architecture and a modular software design allow to adapt them to a variety of future missions.

(1078)Spin exchange-enabled quantum simulator for large-scale non-Abelian gauge theories
  • Jad C. Halimeh,
  • Lukas Homeier,
  • Annabelle Bohrdt,
  • Fabian Grusdt
abstract + abstract -

A central requirement for the faithful implementation of large-scale lattice gauge theories (LGTs) on quantum simulators is the protection of the underlying gauge symmetry. Recent advancements in the experimental realizations of large-scale LGTs have been impressive, albeit mostly restricted to Abelian gauge groups. Guided by this requirement for gauge protection, we propose an experimentally feasible approach to implement large-scale non-Abelian $\mathrm{SU}(N)$ and $\mathrm{U}(N)$ LGTs with dynamical matter in $d+1$D, enabled by two-body spin-exchange interactions realizing local emergent gauge-symmetry stabilizer terms. We present two concrete proposals for $2+1$D $\mathrm{SU}(2)$ and $\mathrm{U}(2)$ LGTs, including dynamical matter and induced plaquette terms, that can be readily implemented in current ultracold-molecule and next-generation ultracold-atom platforms. We provide numerical benchmarks showcasing experimentally accessible dynamics, and demonstrate the stability of the underlying non-Abelian gauge invariance. We develop a method to obtain the effective gauge-invariant model featuring the relevant magnetic plaquette and minimal gauge-matter coupling terms. Our approach paves the way towards near-term realizations of large-scale non-Abelian quantum link models in analog quantum simulators.

(1077)Detailed Shapes of the Line-of-sight Velocity Distributions in Massive Early-type Galaxies from Nonparametric Spectral Models
  • K. Mehrgan,
  • J. Thomas,
  • R. Saglia,
  • T. Parikh,
  • R. Bender
abstract + abstract -

We present the first systematic study of the detailed shapes of the line-of-sight velocity distributions (LOSVDs) in nine massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) using the novel nonparametric modeling code WINGFIT. High-signal spectral observations with the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at the Very Large Telescope allow us to measure between 40 and 400 individual LOSVDs in each galaxy at a signal-to-noise ratio level better than 100 per spectral bin and to trace the LOSVDs all the way out to the highest stellar velocities. We extensively discuss potential LOSVD distortions due to template mismatch and strategies to avoid them. Our analysis uncovers a plethora of complex, large-scale kinematic structures for the shapes of the LOSVDs. Most notably, in the centers of all ETGs in our sample, we detect faint, broad LOSVD "wings" extending the line-of-sight velocities, vlos, well beyond 3σ to vlos ∼ ± 1000–1500 km s−1 on both sides of the peak of the LOSVDs. These wings likely originate from point-spread function effects and contain velocity information about the very central unresolved regions of the galaxies. In several galaxies, we detect wings of similar shape also toward the outer parts of the MUSE field of view. We propose that these wings originate from faint halos of loosely bound stars around the ETGs, similar to the cluster-bound stellar envelopes found around many brightest cluster galaxies.

(1076)Constraints on the Up-Quark Valence Distribution in the Proton
  • Ritu Aggarwal,
  • Michiel Botje,
  • Allen Caldwell,
  • Francesca Capel,
  • Oliver Schulz
Physical Review Letters (04/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.141901
abstract + abstract -

The high-x data from the ZEUS Collaboration are used to extract parton density distributions of the proton deep in the perturbative regime of QCD. The data primarily constrain the up-quark valence distribution and new results are presented on its x dependence as well as on the momentum carried by the up quark. The results were obtained using Bayesian analysis methods which can serve as a model for future parton density extractions.

(1075)Secular equilibrium assessment in a CaWO<SUB>4</SUB> target crystal from the dark matter experiment CRESST using Bayesian likelihood normalisation
  • G. Angloher,
  • S. Banik,
  • G. Benato,
  • A. Bento,
  • A. Bertolini
  • +57
  • R. Breier,
  • C. Bucci,
  • J. Burkhart,
  • L. Canonica,
  • A. D'Addabbo,
  • S. di Lorenzo,
  • L. Einfalt,
  • A. Erb,
  • F. V. Feilitzsch,
  • N. Ferreiro Iachellini,
  • S. Fichtinger,
  • D. Fuchs,
  • A. Fuss,
  • A. Garai,
  • V. M. Ghete,
  • P. Gorla,
  • S. Gupta,
  • D. Hauff,
  • M. Ješkovský,
  • J. Jochum,
  • M. Kaznacheeva,
  • A. Kinast,
  • H. Kluck,
  • H. Kraus,
  • A. Langenkämper,
  • M. Mancuso,
  • L. Marini,
  • V. Mokina,
  • A. Nilima,
  • M. Olmi,
  • T. Ortmann,
  • C. Pagliarone,
  • L. Pattavina,
  • F. Petricca,
  • W. Potzel,
  • P. Povinec,
  • F. Pröbst,
  • F. Pucci,
  • F. Reindl,
  • J. Rothe,
  • K. Schäffner,
  • J. Schieck,
  • D. Schmiedmayer,
  • S. Schönert,
  • C. Schwertner,
  • M. Stahlberg,
  • L. Stodolsky,
  • C. Strandhagen,
  • R. Strauss,
  • I. Usherov,
  • F. Wagner,
  • M. Willers,
  • V. Zema,
  • F. Ferella,
  • M. Laubenstein,
  • S. Nisi,
  • CRESST Collaboration
  • (less)
Applied Radiation and Isotopes (04/2023) doi:10.1016/j.apradiso.2023.110670
abstract + abstract -

CRESST is a leading direct detection sub-GeVc-2 dark matter experiment. During its second phase, cryogenic bolometers were used to detect nuclear recoils off the CaWO4 target crystal nuclei. The previously established electromagnetic background model relies on Secular Equilibrium (SE) assumptions. In this work, a validation of SE is attempted by comparing two likelihood-based normalisation results using a recently developed spectral template normalisation method based on Bayesian likelihood. Albeit we find deviations from SE in some cases we conclude that these deviations are artefacts of the fit and that the assumptions of SE is physically meaningful.

(1074)Characterization of a kg-scale archaeological lead-based PbWO<SUB>4</SUB> cryogenic detector for the RES-NOVA experiment
  • J. W. Beeman,
  • G. Benato,
  • C. Bucci,
  • L. Canonica,
  • P. Carniti
  • +39
  • E. Celi,
  • M. Clemenza,
  • A. D'Addabbo,
  • F. A. Danevich,
  • S. Di Domizio,
  • S. Di Lorenzo,
  • O. M. Dubovik,
  • N. Ferreiro Iachellini,
  • F. Ferroni,
  • E. Fiorini,
  • S. Fu,
  • A. Garai,
  • S. Ghislandi,
  • L. Gironi,
  • P. Gorla,
  • C. Gotti,
  • P. V. Guillaumon,
  • D. L. Helis,
  • G. P. Kovtun,
  • M. Mancuso,
  • L. Marini,
  • M. Olmi,
  • L. Pagnanini,
  • L. Pattavina,
  • G. Pessina,
  • F. Petricca,
  • S. Pirro,
  • S. Pozzi,
  • A. Puiu,
  • S. Quitadamo,
  • J. Rothe,
  • A. P. Scherban,
  • S. Schönert,
  • D. A. Solopikhin,
  • R. Strauss,
  • E. Tarabini,
  • V. I. Tretyak,
  • I. A. Tupitsyna,
  • V. Wagner
  • (less)
Applied Radiation and Isotopes (04/2023) doi:10.1016/j.apradiso.2023.110704
abstract + abstract -

Core-collapse Supernovae (SNe) are one of the most energetic events in the Universe, during which almost all the star's binding energy is released in the form of neutrinos. These particles are direct probes of the processes occurring in the stellar core and provide unique insights into the gravitational collapse. RES-NOVA will revolutionize how we detect neutrinos from astrophysical sources, by deploying the first ton-scale array of cryogenic detectors made from archaeological lead. Pb offers the highest neutrino interaction cross-section via coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE νNS). Such process will enable RES-NOVA to be equally sensitive to all neutrino flavours. For the first time, we propose the use archaeological Pb as sensitive target material in order to achieve an ultra-low background level in the region of interest (O(1 keV)). All these features make possible the deployment of the first cm-scale neutrino telescope for the investigation of astrophysical sources. In this contribution, we will characterize the radiopurity level and the performance of a small-scale proof-of-principle detector of RES-NOVA, consisting in a PbWO4 crystal made from archaeological-Pb operated as cryogenic detector.

(1073)Synthetic red supergiant explosion model grid for systematic characterization of Type II supernovae
  • Takashi J. Moriya,
  • Bhagya M. Subrayan,
  • Dan Milisavljevic,
  • Sergei I. Blinnikov
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan (04/2023) doi:10.1093/pasj/psad024
abstract + abstract -

A new model grid containing 228016 synthetic red supergiant explosions (Type II supernovae) is introduced. Time evolution of spectral energy distributions from 1 to 50000 Å (100 frequency bins in a log scale) is computed at each time step up to 500 d after explosion in each model. We provide light curves for the filters of Vera C, Rubin Observatory's Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST), the Zwicky Transient Facility, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, but light curves for any photometric filters can be constructed by convolving any filter response functions to the synthetic spectral energy distributions. We also provide bolometric light curves and photosphere information such as photospheric velocity evolution. The parameter space covered by the model grid is five progenitor masses (10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 M$_{\odot}$ at the zero-age main sequence, solar metallicity), ten explosion energies (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 × 1051 erg), nine 56Ni masses (0.001, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 M$_{\odot}$), nine mass-loss rates (10-5.0, 10-4.5, 10-4.0, 10-3.5, 10-3.0, 10-2.5, 10-2.0, 10-1.5, and 10-1.0 M$_{\odot}$ yr-1 with a wind velocity of 10 km s-1), six circumstellar matter radii (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 × 1014 cm), and ten circumstellar structures (β = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0). 56Ni is assumed to be uniformly mixed up to the half-mass of a hydrogen-rich envelope. This model grid can be a base for rapid characterizations of Type II supernovae with sparse photometric sampling expected in LSST through a Bayesian approach, for example. The model grid is available at

(1072)Consistency of Type IIP supernova sibling distances
  • G. Csörnyei,
  • C. Vogl,
  • S. Taubenberger,
  • A. Flörs,
  • S. Blondin
  • +5
  • M. G. Cudmani,
  • A. Holas,
  • S. Kressierer,
  • B. Leibundgut,
  • W. Hillebrandt
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (04/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245379
abstract + abstract -

Context. Type II supernovae offer a direct way of estimating distances via the expanding photosphere method, which is independent of the cosmic distance ladder. A Gaussian process-based method was recently introduced, allowing for a fast and precise modelling of spectral time series and placing accurate and computationally cheap Type II-based absolute distance determinations within reach.
Aims: The goal of this work is to assess the internal consistency of this new modelling technique coupled with the distance estimation in an empirical way, using the spectral time series of supernova siblings, that is, supernovae that exploded in the same host galaxy.
Methods: We used a recently developed spectral emulator code, trained on TARDIS radiative transfer models that is capable of a fast maximum-likelihood parameter estimation and spectral fitting. After calculating the relevant physical parameters of supernovae, we applied the expanding photosphere method to estimate their distances. Finally, we tested the consistency of the obtained values by applying the formalism of Bayes factors.
Results: The distances to four different host galaxies were estimated based on two supernovae in each. The distance estimates are not only consistent within the errors for each of the supernova sibling pairs, but in the case of two hosts, they are precise to better than 5%. The analysis also showed that the main limiting factor of this estimation is the number and quality of spectra available for the individual objects, rather than the physical differences of the siblings.
Conclusions: Even though the literature data we used was not tailored to the requirements of our analysis, the agreement of the final estimates shows that the method is robust and is capable of inferring both precise and consistent distances. By using high-quality spectral time series, this method can provide precise distance estimates independent of the distance ladder, which are of high value for cosmology.

(1071)A gauge choice for parton showers
  • Zoltan Nagy,
  • Davison E. Soper
abstract + abstract -

We explore the features of interpolating gauge for QCD. This gauge, defined by Doust and by Baulieu and Zwanziger, interpolates between Feynman gauge or Lorenz gauge and Coulomb gauge. We argue that it could be useful for defining the splitting functions for a parton shower beyond order $\as$ or for defining the infrared subtraction terms for higher order perturbative calculations.

(1070)Static energy in (2 +1 +1 )-flavor lattice QCD: Scale setting and charm effects
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Rafael L. Delgado,
  • Andreas S. Kronfeld,
  • Viljami Leino,
  • Peter Petreczky
  • +4
  • Sebastian Steinbeißer,
  • Antonio Vairo,
  • Johannes H. Weber,
  • Tumqcd Collaboration
  • (less)
Physical Review D (04/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.074503
abstract + abstract -

We present results for the static energy in (2 +1 +1 )-flavor QCD over a wide range of lattice spacings and several quark masses, including the physical quark mass, with ensembles of lattice-gauge-field configurations made available by the MILC Collaboration. We obtain results for the static energy out to distances of nearly 1 fm, allowing us to perform a simultaneous determination of the scales r1 and r0, as well as the string tension σ . For the smallest three lattice spacings we also determine the scale r2. Our results for r0/r1 and r0√{σ } agree with published (2 +1 )-flavor results. However, our result for r1/r2 differs significantly from the value obtained in the (2 +1 )-flavor case, which is most likely due to the effect of the charm quark. We also report results for r0, r1, and r2 in fm, with the former two being slightly lower than published (2 +1 )-flavor results. We study in detail the effect of the charm quark on the static energy by comparing our results on the finest two lattices with the previously published (2 +1 )-flavor QCD results at similar lattice spacing. We find that for r >0.2 fm our results on the static energy agree with the (2 +1 )-flavor result, implying the decoupling of the charm quark for these distances. For smaller distances, on the other hand, we find that the effect of the dynamical charm quark is noticeable. The lattice results agree well with the two-loop perturbative expression of the static energy incorporating finite charm mass effects. This is the first time that the decoupling of the charm quark is observed and quantitatively analyzed on lattice data of the static energy.

(1069)Inclusive production of J/ψ, ψ(2S), and Υ states in pNRQCD
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Hee Sok Chung,
  • Antonio Vairo,
  • Xiang-Peng Wang
Journal of High Energy Physics (04/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP03(2023)242
abstract + abstract -

Under some assumptions on the hierarchy of relevant energy scales, we compute the nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) long-distance matrix elements (LDMEs) for inclusive production of J/ψ, ψ(2S), and Υ states based on the potential NRQCD (pNRQCD) effective field theory. Based on the pNRQCD formalism, we obtain expressions for the LDMEs in terms of the quarkonium wavefunctions at the origin and universal gluonic correlators, which do not depend on the heavy quark flavor or the radial excitation. This greatly reduces the number of nonperturbative unknowns and substantially enhances the predictive power of the nonrelativistic effective field theory formalism. We obtain improved determinations of the LDMEs for J/ψ, ψ(2S), and Υ states thanks to the universality of the gluonic correlators, and obtain phenomenological results for cross sections and polarizations at large transverse momentum that agree well with measurements at the LHC.

(1068)The Imprint of Clump Formation at High Redshift. II. The Chemistry of the Bulge
  • Victor P. Debattista,
  • David J. Liddicott,
  • Oscar A. Gonzalez,
  • Leandro Beraldo e Silva,
  • João A. S. Amarante
  • +9
  • Ilin Lazar,
  • Manuela Zoccali,
  • Elena Valenti,
  • Deanne B. Fisher,
  • Tigran Khachaturyants,
  • David L. Nidever,
  • Thomas R. Quinn,
  • Min Du,
  • Susan Kassin
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (04/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acbb00
abstract + abstract -

In Paper I, we showed that clumps in high-redshift galaxies, having a high star formation rate density (ΣSFR), produce disks with two tracks in the [Fe/H]-[α/Fe] chemical space, similar to that of the Milky Way's (MW's) thin+thick disks. Here we investigate the effect of clumps on the bulge's chemistry. The chemistry of the MW's bulge is comprised of a single track with two density peaks separated by a trough. We show that the bulge chemistry of an N-body + smoothed particle hydrodynamics clumpy simulation also has a single track. Star formation within the bulge is itself in the high-ΣSFR clumpy mode, which ensures that the bulge's chemical track follows that of the thick disk at low [Fe/H] and then extends to high [Fe/H], where it peaks. The peak at low metallicity instead is comprised of a mixture of in situ stars and stars accreted via clumps. As a result, the trough between the peaks occurs at the end of the thick disk track. We find that the high-metallicity peak dominates near the mid-plane and declines in relative importance with height, as in the MW. The bulge is already rapidly rotating by the end of the clump epoch, with higher rotation at low [α/Fe]. Thus clumpy star formation is able to simultaneously explain the chemodynamic trends of the MW's bulge, thin+thick disks, and the splash.

(1067)Scaling MadMiner with a deployment on REANA
  • Irina Espejo,
  • Sinclert Pérez,
  • Kenyi Hurtado,
  • Lukas Heinrich,
  • Kyle Cranmer
abstract + abstract -

MadMiner is a Python package that implements a powerful family of multivariate inference techniques that leverage matrix element information and machine learning. This multivariate approach neither requires the reduction of high-dimensional data to summary statistics nor any simplifications to the underlying physics or detector response. In this paper, we address some of the challenges arising from deploying MadMiner in a real-scale HEP analysis with the goal of offering a new tool in HEP that is easily accessible. The proposed approach encapsulates a typical MadMiner pipeline into a parametrized yadage workflow described in YAML files. The general workflow is split into two yadage sub-workflows, one dealing with the physics simulations and the other with the ML inference. After that, the workflow is deployed using REANA, a reproducible research data analysis platform that takes care of flexibility, scalability, reusability, and reproducibility features. To test the performance of our method, we performed scaling experiments for a MadMiner workflow on the National Energy Research Scientific Computer (NERSC) cluster with an HT-Condor back-end. All the stages of the physics sub-workflow had a linear dependency between resources or wall time and the number of events generated. This trend has allowed us to run a typical MadMiner workflow, consisting of 11M events, in 5 hours compared to days in the original study.

(1066)Simple rules for evanescent operators in one-loop basis transformations
  • Jason Aebischer,
  • Andrzej J. Buras,
  • Jacky Kumar
Physical Review D (04/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.075007
abstract + abstract -

Basis transformations often involve Fierz and other relations that are only valid in D =4 dimensions. In general D spacetime dimensions, however, evanescent operators have to be introduced in order to preserve such identities. Such evanescent operators contribute to one-loop basis transformations as well as to two-loop renormalization group running. We present a simple procedure on how to systematically change basis at the one-loop level by obtaining shifts due to evanescent operators. As an example we apply this method to derive the one-loop basis transformation from the Buras, Misiak and Urban basis useful for next-to-leading order QCD calculations, to the Jenkins, Manohar and Stoffer basis used in the matching to the standard model effective theory.

(1065)Associated production of a W boson and massive bottom quarks at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD
  • Luca Buonocore,
  • Simone Devoto,
  • Stefan Kallweit,
  • Javier Mazzitelli,
  • Luca Rottoli
  • +1
Physical Review D (04/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.074032
abstract + abstract -

We present the first calculation for the hadroproduction of a W boson in association with a massive bottom (b ) quark-antiquark pair at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD perturbation theory. We exploit the hierarchy between the b -quark mass and the characteristic energy scale of the process to obtain a reliable analytic expression for the two-loop virtual amplitude with three massive legs, starting from the corresponding result available for massless b quarks. The use of massive b quarks avoids the ambiguities associated with the correct flavor assignment in massless calculations, paving the way to a more realistic comparison with experimental data. We present phenomenological results considering proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy √{s }=13.6 TeV for inclusive W b b ¯ production and within a fiducial region relevant for the associated production of a W boson and a Higgs boson decaying into a b b ¯ pair, for which W b b ¯ production represents one of the most relevant backgrounds. We find that the NNLO corrections are substantial and that their inclusion is mandatory to obtain reliable predictions.

(1064)Two-loop helicity amplitudes for H+jet production to higher orders in the dimensional regulator
  • Thomas Gehrmann,
  • Petr Jakubčík,
  • Cesare Carlo Mella,
  • Nikolaos Syrrakos,
  • Lorenzo Tancredi
Journal of High Energy Physics (04/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP04(2023)016
abstract + abstract -

In view of the forthcoming High-Luminosity phase of the LHC, next-to-next-to-next-to-leading (N3LO) calculations for the most phenomenologically relevant processes become necessary. In this work, we take the first step towards this goal for H+jet production by computing the one- and two-loop helicity amplitudes for the two contributing processes, H → ggg, H →q q ¯g , in an effective theory with infinite top quark mass, to higher orders in the dimensional regulator. We decompose the amplitude in scalar form factors related to the helicity amplitudes and in a new basis of tensorial structures. The form factors receive contributions from Feynman integrals which were reduced to a novel canonical basis of master integrals. We derive and solve a set of differential equations for these integrals in terms of Multiple Polylogarithms (MPLs) of two variables up to transcendental weight six.

(1063)h →g g and h →γ γ with anomalous couplings at next-to-leading order in QCD
  • Gerhard Buchalla,
  • Marius Höfer,
  • Christoph Müller-Salditt
Physical Review D (04/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.076021
abstract + abstract -

We generalize the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD calculations for the decay rates of h →g g and h →γ γ to the case of anomalous couplings of the Higgs boson. We demonstrate how this computation can be done in a consistent way within the framework of an electroweak chiral Lagrangian, based on a systematic power counting. It turns out that no additional coupling parameters arise at NLO in QCD beyond those already present at leading order. The impact of QCD is large for h →g g and the uncertainties from QCD are significantly reduced at NLO. h →γ γ is only mildly affected by QCD; here the NLO treatment practically eliminates the uncertainties. Consequently, our results will allow for an improved determination of anomalous Higgs couplings from these processes. The relation of our framework to a treatment in Standard Model effective field theory is also discussed.

(1062)331 model predictions for rare B and K decays, and ∆F = 2 processes: an update
  • Andrzej J. Buras,
  • Fulvia De Fazio
Journal of High Energy Physics (04/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP03(2023)219
abstract + abstract -

Motivated by the improved results from the HPQCD lattice collaboration on the hadronic matrix elements entering ∆Ms,d in Bs,d 0-B¯s,d 0 mixings and the increase of the experimental branching ratio for Bs→ μ+μ-, we update our 2016 analysis of various flavour observables in four 331 models, M1, M3, M13 and M16 based on the gauge group SU(3)C× SU(3)L× U(1)X. These four models, which are distinguished by the quantum numbers, are selected among 24 331 models through their consistency with the electroweak precision tests and simultaneously by the relation C9NP=-bC10NP with 2 ≤ b ≤ 5, which after new result on Bs→ μ+μ- from CMS is favoured over the popular relation C9NP=-C10NP predicted by several leptoquark models. In this context we investigate in particular the dependence of various observables on |Vcb|, varying it in the broad range [0.0386, 0.043], that encompasses both its inclusive and exclusive determinations. Imposing the experimental constraints from εK, ∆Ms, ∆Md and the mixing induced CP asymmetries Sψ KS and Sψ KS, we investigate for which values of |Vcb| the four models can be made compatible with these data and what is the impact on B and K branching ratios. In particular we analyse NP contributions to the Wilson coefficients C9 and C10 and the decays Bs,d→ μ+μ-, K+→π+ν ν ¯ and KL→π0ν ν ¯. This allows us to illustrate how the value of |Vcb| determined together with other parameters of these models is infected by NP contributions and compare it with the one obtained recently under the assumption of the absence of NP in εK, ∆Ms, ∆Md and Sψ KS.

(1061)<SUP>26</SUP>Al gamma rays from the Galaxy with INTEGRAL/SPI
  • Moritz M. M. Pleintinger,
  • Roland Diehl,
  • Thomas Siegert,
  • Jochen Greiner,
  • Martin G. H. Krause
Astronomy and Astrophysics (04/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245069
abstract + abstract -

Context. The presence of radioactive 26Al at 1.8 MeV reveals an ongoing process of nucleosynthesis in the Milky Way. Diffuse emission from its decay can be measured with gamma-ray telescopes in space. The intensity, line shape, and spatial distribution of the 26Al emission allow for studies of these nucleosynthesis sources. The line parameters trace massive-star feedback in the interstellar medium thanks to its 1 My lifetime.
Aims: We aim to expand upon previous studies of the 26Al emission in the Milky Way, using all available gamma-ray data, including single and double events collected with SPI on INTEGRAL from 2003 until 2020.
Methods: We applied improved spectral response and background as evaluated from tracing spectral details over the entire mission. The exposure for the Galactic 26Al emission was enhanced using all event types measured within SPI. We redetermined the intensity of Galactic 26Al emission across the entire sky, through maximum likelihood fits of simulated and model-built sky distributions to SPI spectra for single and for double detector hits.
Results: We found an all-sky flux of (1.84±0.03)×10−3 ph cm−2 s−1 in the 1.809 MeV line from 26Al, determined via fitting to sky distributions from previous observations with COMPTEL. Significant emission from higher latitudes indicates an origin from nearby massive-star groups and superbubbles, which is also supported by a bottom-up population synthesis model. The line centroid is found at (1809.83±0.04 keV), while the line broadening from source kinematics integrated over the sky is (0.62±0.3) keV (FWHM).

(1060)TDCOSMO. X. Automated modeling of nine strongly lensed quasars and comparison between lens-modeling software
  • S. Ertl,
  • S. Schuldt,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • T. Schmidt,
  • T. Treu
  • +3
  • S. Birrer,
  • A. J. Shajib,
  • D. Sluse
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (04/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244909
abstract + abstract -

When strong gravitational lenses are to be used as an astrophysical or cosmological probe, models of their mass distributions are often needed. We present a new, time-efficient automation code for the uniform modeling of strongly lensed quasars with GLEE, a lens-modeling software for multiband data. By using the observed positions of the lensed quasars and the spatially extended surface brightness distribution of the host galaxy of the lensed quasar, we obtain a model of the mass distribution of the lens galaxy. We applied this uniform modeling pipeline to a sample of nine strongly lensed quasars for which images were obtained with the Wide Field Camera 3 of the Hubble Space Telescope. The models show well-reconstructed light components and a good alignment between mass and light centroids in most cases. We find that the automated modeling code significantly reduces the input time during the modeling process for the user. The time for preparing the required input files is reduced by a factor of 3 from ~3 h to about one hour. The active input time during the modeling process for the user is reduced by a factor of 10 from ~ 10 h to about one hour per lens system. This automated uniform modeling pipeline can efficiently produce uniform models of extensive lens-system samples that can be used for further cosmological analysis. A blind test that compared our results with those of an independent automated modeling pipeline based on the modeling software Lenstronomy revealed important lessons. Quantities such as Einstein radius, astrometry, mass flattening, and position angle are generally robustly determined. Other quantities, such as the radial slope of the mass density profile and predicted time delays, depend crucially on the quality of the data and on the accuracy with which the point spread function is reconstructed. Better data and/or a more detailed analysis are necessary to elevate our automated models to cosmography grade. Nevertheless, our pipeline enables the quick selection of lenses for follow-up and further modeling, which significantly speeds up the construction of cosmography-grade models. This important step forward will help us to take advantage of the increase in the number of lenses that is expected in the coming decade, which is an increase of several orders of magnitude.

(1059)The diffuse gamma-ray flux from clusters of galaxies
  • Saqib Hussain,
  • Rafael Alves Batista,
  • Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino,
  • Klaus Dolag
Nature Communications (04/2023) doi:10.1038/s41467-023-38226-w
abstract + abstract -

The origin of the diffuse gamma-ray background (DGRB), the one that remains after subtracting all individual sources from observed gamma-ray sky, is unknown. The DGRB possibly encompasses contributions from different source populations such as star-forming galaxies, starburst galaxies, active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, or galaxy clusters. Here, we combine cosmological magnetohydrodynamical simulations of clusters of galaxies with the propagation of cosmic rays (CRs) using Monte Carlo simulations, in the redshift range z ≤ 5.0, and show that the integrated gamma-ray flux from clusters can contribute up to 100% of the DGRB flux observed by Fermi-LAT above 100 GeV, for CRs spectral indices α = 1.5 − 2.5 and energy cutoffs Emax=1 016−1 017 eV. The flux is dominated by clusters with masses 1013 ≲ M/M ≲ 1015 and redshift z ≲ 0.3. Our results also predict the potential observation of high-energy gamma rays from clusters by experiments like the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC), the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), and potentially the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA).

(1058)Bananas of equal mass: any loop, any order in the dimensional regularisation parameter
  • Sebastian Pögel,
  • Xing Wang,
  • Stefan Weinzierl
Journal of High Energy Physics (04/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP04(2023)117
abstract + abstract -

We describe a systematic approach to cast the differential equation for the l-loop equal mass banana integral into an ε-factorised form. With the known boundary value at a specific point we obtain systematically the term of order j in the expansion in the dimensional regularisation parameter ε for any loop l. The approach is based on properties of Calabi-Yau operators, and in particular on self-duality.

(1057)Khuri-Treiman analysis of $J/\psi\to\pi^{+}\pi^{-}\pi^{0}$
  • JPAC Collaboration,
  • M. Albaladejo,
  • S. Gonzàlez-Solís,
  • Ł. Bibrzycki,
  • C. Fernández-Ramírez
  • +10
  • N. Hammoud,
  • V. Mathieu,
  • M. Mikhasenko,
  • G. Montaña,
  • R. J. Perry,
  • A. Pilloni,
  • A. Rodas,
  • W. A. Smith,
  • A. Szczepaniak,
  • D. Winney
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We study the decay $J/\psi\to\pi^{+}\pi^{-}\pi^{0}$ within the framework of the Khuri-Treiman equations. We find that the BESIII experimental di-pion mass distribution in the $\rho(770)$-region is well reproduced with a once-subtracted $P$-wave amplitude. Furthermore, we show that $F$-wave contributions to the amplitude improve the description of the data in the $\pi\pi$ mass region around 1.5 GeV. We also present predictions for the $J/\psi\to\pi^{0}\gamma^{*}$ transition form factor.

(1056)Heavy quark diffusion coefficient with gradient flow
  • V. Leino,
  • N. Brambilla,
  • J. Mayer-Steudte,
  • P. Petreczky
The 39th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory, (04/2023) doi:10.48550/arXiv.2212.10941
abstract + abstract -

The heavy quark diffusion coefficient is encoded in the spectral functions of the chromo-electric and the chromo-magnetic correlators, of which the latter describes the T/M contribution. We study these correlators at two different temperatures $T=1.5T_c$ and $T=10^4T_c$ in the deconfined phase of SU(3) gauge theory. We use gradient flow for noise reduction. We perform both continuum and zero flow time limits to extract the heavy quark diffusion coefficient. Our results imply that the mass suppressed effects in the heavy quark diffusion coefficient are 20% for bottom quarks and 34% for charm quark at $T=1.5T_c$.

(1055)Modest Dust Settling in the IRAS04302+2247 Class I Protoplanetary Disk
  • M. Villenave,
  • L. Podio,
  • G. Duchêne,
  • K. R. Stapelfeldt,
  • C. Melis
  • +9
  • C. Carrasco-Gonzalez,
  • V. J. M. Le Gouellec,
  • F. Ménard,
  • M. de Simone,
  • C. Chandler,
  • A. Garufi,
  • C. Pinte,
  • E. Bianchi,
  • C. Codella
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (04/2023) e-Print:2302.01949 doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acb92e
abstract + abstract -

We present new Very Large Array observations, between 6.8 and 66 mm, of the edge-on Class I disk IRAS04302+2247. Observations at 6.8 mm and 9.2 mm lead to the detection of thermal emission from the disk, while shallow observations at the other wavelengths are used to correct for emission from other processes. The disk radial brightness profile transitions from broadly extended in previous Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 0.9 mm and 2.1 mm observations to much more centrally brightened at 6.8 mm and 9.2 mm, which can be explained by optical depth effects. The radiative transfer modeling of the 0.9 mm, 2.1 mm, and 9.2 mm data suggests that the grains are smaller than 1 cm in the outer regions of the disk, allowing us to obtain the first lower limit for the scale height of grains emitting at millimeter wavelengths in a protoplanetary disk. We find that the millimeter dust scale height is between 1 au and 6 au at a radius 100 au from the central star, while the gas scale height is estimated to be about 7 au, indicating a modest level of settling. The estimated dust height is intermediate between less evolved Class 0 sources, which are found to be vertically thick, and more evolved Class II sources, which show a significant level of settling. This suggests that we are witnessing an intermediate stage of dust settling.

(1054)Waiting for Precise Measurements of $\beta$ and $\gamma$
  • Andrzej J. Buras
abstract + abstract -

During the last three decades the determination of the Unitarity Triangle (UT) was dominated by the measurements of its sides $R_b$ and $R_t$ through tree-level $B$ decays and the $\Delta M_d/\Delta M_s$ ratio, respectively, with some participation of the measurements of the angle $\beta$ through the mixing induced CP-asymmetries like $S_{\psi K_S}$ and $\varepsilon_K$. However, as pointed out already in 2002 by Fabrizio Parodi, Achille Stocchi and the present author, the most efficient strategy for a precise determination of the apex of the UT, that is $(\bar\varrho,\bar\eta)$, is to use the measurements of the angles $\beta$ and $\gamma$. The second best strategy would be the measurements of $R_b$ and $\gamma$. However, in view of the tensions between different determinations of $|V_{ub}|$ and $|V_{cb}|$, that enter $R_b$, the $(\beta,\gamma)$ strategy should be a clear winner once LHCb and Belle II will improve the measurements of these two angles. In this note we recall our finding of 2002 which should be finally realized in this decade through precise measurements of both angles by these collaborations. In this context we present two very simple formulae for $\bar\varrho$ and $\bar\eta$ in terms of $\beta$ and $\gamma$ which could be derived by high-school students, but to my knowledge never appeared in the literature on the UT, not even in our 2002 paper. We also emphasize the importance of precise measurements of both angles that would allow to perform powerful tests of the SM through numerous $|V_{cb}|$-independent correlations between $K$ and $B$ decay branching ratios $R_i(\beta,\gamma)$ recently derived by Elena Venturini and the present author. The simple findings presented here will appear in a subsection of a much longer contribution to the proceedings of KM50 later this year. I exhibited them here so that they are not lost in the latter.

(1053)Cosmology with Galaxy Cluster Properties using Machine Learning
  • Lanlan Qiu,
  • Nicola R. Napolitano,
  • Stefano Borgani,
  • Fucheng Zhong,
  • Xiaodong Li
  • +7
  • Mario Radovich,
  • Weipeng Lin,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Crescenzo Tortora,
  • Yang Wang,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus,
  • Giuseppe Longo
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

[Abridged] Galaxy clusters are the most massive gravitationally-bound systems in the universe and are widely considered to be an effective cosmological probe. We propose the first Machine Learning method using galaxy cluster properties to derive unbiased constraints on a set of cosmological parameters, including Omega_m, sigma_8, Omega_b, and h_0. We train the machine learning model with mock catalogs including "measured" quantities from Magneticum multi-cosmology hydrodynamical simulations, like gas mass, gas bolometric luminosity, gas temperature, stellar mass, cluster radius, total mass, velocity dispersion, and redshift, and correctly predict all parameters with uncertainties of the order of ~14% for Omega_m, ~8% for sigma_8, ~6% for Omega_b, and ~3% for h_0. This first test is exceptionally promising, as it shows that machine learning can efficiently map the correlations in the multi-dimensional space of the observed quantities to the cosmological parameter space and narrow down the probability that a given sample belongs to a given cosmological parameter combination. In the future, these ML tools can be applied to cluster samples with multi-wavelength observations from surveys like CSST in the optical band, Euclid and Roman in the near-infrared band, and eROSITA in the X-ray band to constrain both the cosmology and the effect of the baryonic feedback.

(1052)MeerKAT discovery of a double radio relic and odd radio circle
  • Bärbel S. Koribalski,
  • Angie Veronica,
  • Marcus Brüggen,
  • Thomas H. Reiprich,
  • Klaus Dolag
  • +9
  • Ian Heywood,
  • Heinz Andernach,
  • Ralf-Jürgen Dettmar,
  • Matthias Hoeft,
  • Xiaoyuan Zhang,
  • Esra Bulbul,
  • Gyula I. G. Józsa,
  • Jayanne English,
  • Juliana Saponara
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present the serendipitous discovery of a large double radio relic associated with the merging galaxy cluster PSZ2 G277.93+12.34 and a new odd radio circle, ORC J1027-4422, both found in deep MeerKAT 1.3 GHz wide-band data. The angular separation of the two arc-shaped cluster relics is 16 arcmin or 2.6 Mpc for a cluster redshift of z = 0.158. The thin southern relic, which shows a number of ridges/shocks including one possibly moving inwards, has a linear extent of 1.64 Mpc. In contrast, the northern relic is about twice as wide, twice as bright, but only has a largest linear size of 0.66 Mpc. Complementary SRG/eROSITA X-ray images reveal extended emission from hot intracluster gas between the two relics and around the narrow-angle tail (NAT) radio galaxy PMN J1033-4335 (z = 0.153) located just east of the northern relic. No radio halo associated with the PSZ2 cluster is detected. The radio morphologies of the NAT galaxy and the northern relic, which are also detected with the Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder at 887.5 MHz, suggest both are moving in the same outward direction. The discovery of ORC J1027-4422 in a different part of the MeerKAT image makes it the 4th known single ORC. It has a diameter of 90" corresponding to 400 kpc at a tentative redshift of z = 0.3 and remains undetected in X-ray emission. We discuss similarities between galaxy and cluster mergers as the formation mechanisms for ORCs and radio relics, respectively.

(1051)Machine learning and LHC event generation
  • Anja Butter,
  • Tilman Plehn,
  • Steffen Schumann,
  • Simon Badger,
  • Sascha Caron
  • +46
  • Kyle Cranmer,
  • Francesco Armando Di Bello,
  • Etienne Dreyer,
  • Stefano Forte,
  • Sanmay Ganguly,
  • Dorival Gonçalves,
  • Eilam Gross,
  • Theo Heimel,
  • Gudrun Heinrich,
  • Lukas Heinrich,
  • Alexander Held,
  • Stefan Höche,
  • Jessica N. Howard,
  • Philip Ilten,
  • Joshua Isaacson,
  • Timo Janßen,
  • Stephen Jones,
  • Marumi Kado,
  • Michael Kagan,
  • Gregor Kasieczka,
  • Felix Kling,
  • Sabine Kraml,
  • Claudius Krause,
  • Frank Krauss,
  • Kevin Kröninger,
  • Rahool Kumar Barman,
  • Michel Luchmann,
  • Vitaly Magerya,
  • Daniel Maitre,
  • Bogdan Malaescu,
  • Fabio Maltoni,
  • Till Martini,
  • Olivier Mattelaer,
  • Benjamin Nachman,
  • Sebastian Pitz,
  • Juan Rojo,
  • Matthew Schwartz,
  • David Shih,
  • Frank Siegert,
  • Roy Stegeman,
  • Bob Stienen,
  • Jesse Thaler,
  • Rob Verheyen,
  • Daniel Whiteson,
  • Ramon Winterhalder,
  • Jure Zupan
  • (less)
SciPost Physics (04/2023) doi:10.21468/SciPostPhys.14.4.079
abstract + abstract -

First-principle simulations are at the heart of the high-energy physics research program. They link the vast data output of multi-purpose detectors with fundamental theory predictions and interpretation. This review illustrates a wide range of applications of modern machine learning to event generation and simulation-based inference, including conceptional developments driven by the specific requirements of particle physics. New ideas and tools developed at the interface of particle physics and machine learning will improve the speed and precision of forward simulations, handle the complexity of collision data, and enhance inference as an inverse simulation problem.

(1050)Cosmology from the integrated shear 3-point correlation function: simulated likelihood analyses with machine-learning emulators
  • Zhengyangguang Gong,
  • Anik Halder,
  • Alexandre Barreira,
  • Stella Seitz,
  • Oliver Friedrich
abstract + abstract -

The integrated shear 3-point correlation function $\zeta_{\pm}$ measures the correlation between the local shear 2-point function $\xi_{\pm}$ and the 1-point shear aperture mass in patches of the sky. Unlike other higher-order statistics, $\zeta_{\pm}$ can be efficiently measured from cosmic shear data, and it admits accurate theory predictions on a wide range of scales as a function of cosmological and baryonic feedback parameters. Here, we develop and test a likelihood analysis pipeline for cosmological constraints using $\zeta_{\pm}$. We incorporate treatment of systematic effects from photometric redshift uncertainties, shear calibration bias and galaxy intrinsic alignments. We also develop an accurate neural-network emulator for fast theory predictions in MCMC parameter inference analyses. We test our pipeline using realistic cosmic shear maps based on $N$-body simulations with a DES Y3-like footprint, mask and source tomographic bins, finding unbiased parameter constraints. Relative to $\xi_{\pm}$-only, adding $\zeta_{\pm}$ can lead to $\approx 10-25\%$ improvements on the constraints of parameters like $A_s$ (or $\sigma_8$) and $w_0$. We find no evidence in $\xi_{\pm} + \zeta_{\pm}$ constraints of a significant mitigation of the impact of systematics. We also investigate the impact of the size of the apertures where $\zeta_{\pm}$ is measured, and of the strategy to estimate the covariance matrix ($N$-body vs. lognormal). Our analysis solidifies the strong potential of the $\zeta_{\pm}$ statistic and puts forward a pipeline that can be readily used to improve cosmological constraints using real cosmic shear data.

(1049)The PEPSI Exoplanet Transit Survey (PETS). II. A Deep Search for Thermal Inversion Agents in KELT-20 b/MASCARA-2 b with Emission and Transmission Spectroscopy
  • Marshall C. Johnson,
  • Ji Wang,
  • Anusha Pai Asnodkar,
  • Aldo S. Bonomo,
  • B. Scott Gaudi
  • +17
  • Thomas Henning,
  • Ilya Ilyin,
  • Engin Keles,
  • Luca Malavolta,
  • Matthias Mallonn,
  • Karan Molaverdikhani,
  • Valerio Nascimbeni,
  • Jennifer Patience,
  • Katja Poppenhaeger,
  • Gaetano Scandariato,
  • Everett Schlawin,
  • Evgenya Shkolnik,
  • Daniela Sicilia,
  • Alessandro Sozzetti,
  • Klaus G. Strassmeier,
  • Christian Veillet,
  • Fei Yan
  • (less)
The Astronomical Journal (04/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-3881/acb7e2
abstract + abstract -

Recent observations have shown that the atmospheres of ultrahot Jupiters (UHJs) commonly possess temperature inversions, where the temperature increases with increasing altitude. Nonetheless, which opacity sources are responsible for the presence of these inversions remains largely observationally unconstrained. We used LBT/PEPSI to observe the atmosphere of the UHJ KELT-20 b in both transmission and emission in order to search for molecular agents which could be responsible for the temperature inversion. We validate our methodology by confirming a previous detection of Fe I in emission at 16.9σ. Our search for the inversion agents TiO, VO, FeH, and CaH results in non-detections. Using injection-recovery testing we set 4σ upper limits upon the volume mixing ratios for these constituents as low as ~1 × 10-9 for TiO. For TiO, VO, and CaH, our limits are much lower than expectations from an equilibrium chemical model, while we cannot set constraining limits on FeH with our data. We thus rule out TiO and CaH as the source of the temperature inversion in KELT-20 b, and VO only if the line lists are sufficiently accurate. *Based on data acquired with the Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona.

(1048)Sommerfeld enhancement of resonant dark matter annihilation
  • Martin Beneke,
  • Stefan Lederer,
  • Kai Urban
abstract + abstract -

The dark matter annihilation cross section can be amplified by orders of magnitude if the annihilation occurs into a narrow resonance, or if the dark-matter particles experience a long-range force before annihilation (Sommerfeld effect). We show that when both enhancements are present they factorize completely, that is, all long-distance non-factorizable effects cancel at leading order in the small-velocity and narrow-width expansion. We then investigate the viability of ``super-resonant'' annihilation from the coaction of both mechanisms in Standard Model Higgs portal and simplified MSSM-inspired dark-matter scenarios.

(1047)Probing cosmic inflation with the LiteBIRD cosmic microwave background polarization survey
  • LiteBIRD Collaboration,
  • E. Allys,
  • K. Arnold,
  • J. Aumont,
  • R. Aurlien
  • +187
  • S. Azzoni,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. Banerji,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • N. Bartolo,
  • L. Bautista,
  • D. Beck,
  • S. Beckman,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • F. Boulanger,
  • M. Brilenkov,
  • M. Bucher,
  • E. Calabrese,
  • P. Campeti,
  • A. Carones,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • A. Catalano,
  • V. Chan,
  • K. Cheung,
  • Y. Chinone,
  • S. E. Clark,
  • F. Columbro,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • T. de Haan,
  • E. de la Hoz,
  • M. De Petris,
  • S. Della Torre,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • M. Dobbs,
  • T. Dotani,
  • J. M. Duval,
  • T. Elleflot,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • J. Errard,
  • T. Essinger-Hileman,
  • F. Finelli,
  • R. Flauger,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • M. Galloway,
  • K. Ganga,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • R. T. Génova-Santos,
  • T. Ghigna,
  • S. Giardiello,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • J. Grain,
  • F. Grupp,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • J. E. Gudmundsson,
  • N. W. Halverson,
  • P. Hargrave,
  • T. Hasebe,
  • M. Hasegawa,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • B. Hensley,
  • L. T. Hergt,
  • D. Herman,
  • E. Hivon,
  • R. A. Hlozek,
  • A. L. Hornsby,
  • Y. Hoshino,
  • J. Hubmayr,
  • K. Ichiki,
  • T. Iida,
  • H. Imada,
  • H. Ishino,
  • G. Jaehnig,
  • N. Katayama,
  • A. Kato,
  • R. Keskitalo,
  • T. Kisner,
  • Y. Kobayashi,
  • A. Kogut,
  • K. Kohri,
  • E. Komatsu,
  • K. Komatsu,
  • K. Konishi,
  • N. Krachmalnicoff,
  • C. L. Kuo,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • A. T. Lee,
  • C. Leloup,
  • F. Levrier,
  • E. Linder,
  • G. Luzzi,
  • J. Macias-Perez,
  • T. Maciaszek,
  • B. Maffei,
  • D. Maino,
  • S. Mandelli,
  • E. Martínez-González,
  • S. Masi,
  • M. Massa,
  • S. Matarrese,
  • F. T. Matsuda,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • L. Mele,
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • Y. Minami,
  • A. Moggi,
  • J. Montgomery,
  • L. Montier,
  • G. Morgante,
  • B. Mot,
  • Y. Nagano,
  • T. Nagasaki,
  • R. Nagata,
  • R. Nakano,
  • T. Namikawa,
  • F. Nati,
  • P. Natoli,
  • S. Nerval,
  • F. Noviello,
  • K. Odagiri,
  • S. Oguri,
  • H. Ohsaki,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • A. Passerini,
  • G. Patanchon,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • M. Piat,
  • G. Pisano,
  • G. Polenta,
  • D. Poletti,
  • T. Prouvé,
  • G. Puglisi,
  • D. Rambaud,
  • C. Raum,
  • S. Realini,
  • M. Reinecke,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • G. Roudil,
  • J. A. Rubino-Martin,
  • M. Russell,
  • H. Sakurai,
  • Y. Sakurai,
  • M. Sasaki,
  • D. Scott,
  • Y. Sekimoto,
  • K. Shinozaki,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • P. Shirron,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • F. Spinella,
  • S. Stever,
  • R. Stompor,
  • S. Sugiyama,
  • R. M. Sullivan,
  • A. Suzuki,
  • T. L. Svalheim,
  • E. Switzer,
  • R. Takaku,
  • H. Takakura,
  • Y. Takase,
  • A. Tartari,
  • Y. Terao,
  • J. Thermeau,
  • H. Thommesen,
  • K. L. Thompson,
  • M. Tomasi,
  • M. Tominaga,
  • M. Tristram,
  • M. Tsuji,
  • M. Tsujimoto,
  • L. Vacher,
  • P. Vielva,
  • N. Vittorio,
  • W. Wang,
  • K. Watanuki,
  • I. K. Wehus,
  • J. Weller,
  • B. Westbrook,
  • J. Wilms,
  • B. Winter,
  • E. J. Wollack,
  • J. Yumoto,
  • M. Zannoni,
  • Collaboration LiteB I R D
  • (less)
Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (04/2023) doi:10.1093/ptep/ptac150
abstract + abstract -

LiteBIRD, the Lite (Light) satellite for the study of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection, is a space mission for primordial cosmology and fundamental physics. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) selected LiteBIRD in May 2019 as a strategic large-class (L-class) mission, with an expected launch in the late 2020s using JAXA's H3 rocket. LiteBIRD is planned to orbit the Sun-Earth Lagrangian point L2, where it will map the cosmic microwave background polarization over the entire sky for three years, with three telescopes in 15 frequency bands between 34 and 448 GHz, to achieve an unprecedented total sensitivity of $2.2\, \mu$K-arcmin, with a typical angular resolution of 0.5 at 100 GHz. The primary scientific objective of LiteBIRD is to search for the signal from cosmic inflation, either making a discovery or ruling out well-motivated inflationary models. The measurements of LiteBIRD will also provide us with insight into the quantum nature of gravity and other new physics beyond the standard models of particle physics and cosmology. We provide an overview of the LiteBIRD project, including scientific objectives, mission and system requirements, operation concept, spacecraft and payload module design, expected scientific outcomes, potential design extensions, and synergies with other projects.

(1046)Increased Flexibility and Reliability for CubeSats through Distributed Telemetry and Control
  • Sebastian Rückerl,
  • Martin J. Losekamm
Computing Frontiers (04/2023) doi:10.1145/3587135.3592767
abstract + abstract -

At the Laboratory for Rapid Space Missions, we develop CubeSat missions and ISS-based experiments with diverging requirements. Due to limited manpower and resources, we cannot develop new and specifically tailored software and hardware for each of these projects. Instead, we propose the use of a distributed approach with well-defined and statically checked components that can be reconfigured and reused for several missions. The DOSIS framework developed at the Technical University of Munich provides the features required for such a setup. We present the conceptual design of the framework and briefly introduce the first missions using the DOSIS hardware and software setup.

(1045)Carbon depletion in the early Solar system
  • Fabian Binkert,
  • Til Birnstiel
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (04/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad182
abstract + abstract -

Earth and other rocky objects in the inner Solar system are depleted in carbon compared to objects in the outer Solar system, the Sun, or the ISM. It is believed that this is a result of the selective removal of refractory carbon from primordial circumstellar material. In this work, we study the irreversible release of carbon into the gaseous environment via photolysis and pyrolysis of refractory carbonaceous material during the disc phase of the early Solar system. We analytically solve the one-dimensional advection equation and derive an explicit expression that describes the depletion of carbonaceous material in solids under the influence of radial and vertical transport. We find both depletion mechanisms individually fail to reproduce Solar system abundances under typical conditions. While radial transport only marginally restricts photodecomposition, it is the inefficient vertical transport that limits carbon depletion under these conditions. We show explicitly that an increase in the vertical mixing efficiency, and/or an increase in the directly irradiated disc volume, favours carbon depletion. Thermal decomposition requires a hot inner disc (>500 K) beyond 3 au to deplete the formation region of Earth and chondrites. We find FU Ori-type outbursts to produce these conditions such that moderately refractory compounds are depleted. However, such outbursts likely do not deplete the most refractory carbonaceous compounds beyond the innermost disc region. Hence, the refractory carbon abundance at 1 au typically does not reach terrestrial levels. Nevertheless, under specific conditions, we find photolysis and pyrolysis combined to reproduce Solar system abundances.

(1044)Dynamics of confined monopoles and similarities with confined quarks.
  • Dvali G.,
  • Valbuena-Bermúdez J.S.,
  • and Zantedeschi M.
Phys. Rev. D (04/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.076003
abstract + abstract -

In this work, we study the annihilation of a pair of ‘t Hooft-Polyakov monopoles due to confinement by a string. We analyze the regime in which the scales of monopoles and strings are comparable. We compute the spectrum of the emitted gravitational waves and find it to agree with the previously calculated pointlike case for wavelengths longer than the system width and before the collision. However, we observe that in a head-on collision, monopoles are never recreated. Correspondingly, not even once the string oscillates. Instead, the system decays into waves of Higgs and gauge fields. We explain this phenomenon by the loss of coherence in the annihilation process. Due to this, the entropy suppression makes the recreation of a monopole pair highly improbable. We argue that in a similar regime, analogous behavior is expected for the heavy quarks connected by a QCD string. There too, instead of restretching a long string after the first collapse, the system hadronizes and decays in a high multiplicity of mesons and glueballs. We discuss the implications of our results.



(1043)Machine learning amplitudes for faster event generation
  • Fady Bishara,
  • Marc Montull
Physical Review D (04/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.L071901
abstract + abstract -

We propose to replace the exact amplitudes used in Monte Carlo event generators for trained machine learning regressors, with the aim of speeding up the evaluation of slow amplitudes. As a proof of concept, we study the process g g →Z Z , whose leading-order amplitude is loop induced. We show that gradient boosting machines like XGBoost can predict the fully differential distributions with errors below 0.1%, and with prediction times O (103) faster than the evaluation of the exact function. This is achieved with training times ∼ 23 minutes and regressors of size ≲ 22 Mb . We also find that XGBoost performs well over the entire phase space, while interpolation gives much larger errors in regions where the function is peaked. These results suggest a possible new avenue to speed up Monte Carlo event generators.

(1042)Emergence of Gravitational Potential and Time Dilation from Non-interacting Systems Coupled to a Global Quantum Clock
  • Ashmeet Singh,
  • Oliver Friedrich
arXiv e-prints (04/2023) e-Print:2304.01263
abstract + abstract -

We study gravitational back-reaction within relational time formulations of quantum mechanics by considering two versions of time: a time coordinate, modelled as a global quantum degree of freedom, and the proper time of a given physical system, modelled via an internal degree of freedom serving as a local quantum "clock". We show that interactions between coordinate time and mass-energy in a global Wheeler-DeWitt-like constraint lead to gravitational time dilation. In the presence of a massive object this agrees with time dilation in a Schwarzchild metric at leading order in $G$. Furthermore, if two particles couple independently to the time coordinate we show that Newtonian gravitational interaction between those particles emerges in the low energy limit. We also observe features of renormalization of high energy divergences.

(1041)The Kormendy relation of early-type galaxies as a function of wavelength in Abell S1063, MACS J0416.1-2403, and MACS J1149.5+2223
  • L. Tortorelli,
  • A. Mercurio,
  • G. Granata,
  • P. Rosati,
  • C. Grillo
  • +7
  • M. Nonino,
  • A. Acebron,
  • G. Angora,
  • P. Bergamini,
  • G. B. Caminha,
  • U. Meštrić,
  • E. Vanzella
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The wavelength dependence of the Kormendy relation (KR) is well characterised at low redshift but poorly studied at intermediate redshifts. The KR provides information on the evolution of the population of early-type galaxies (ETGs). Therefore, by studying it, we may shed light on the assembly processes of these objects and their size evolution. As studies at different redshifts are generally conducted in different rest-frame wavebands, it is important to investigate whether the KR is dependent on wavelength. Knowledge of such a dependence is fundamental to correctly interpreting the conclusions we might draw from these studies. We analyse the KRs of the three Hubble Frontier Fields clusters, Abell S1063 (z = 0.348), MACSJ0416.1-2403 (z = 0.396), and MACS J1149.5+2223 (z = 0.542), as a function of wavelength. This is the first time the KR of ETGs has been explored consistently over such a large range of wavelengths at intermediate redshifts. We exploit very deep HST photometry, ranging from the observed B-band to the H-band, and MUSE integral field spectroscopy. We improve the structural parameter estimation we performed in a previous work by means of a newly developed Python package called morphofit. With its use on cluster ETGs, we find that the KR slopes increase smoothly with wavelength from the optical to the near-infrared (NIR) bands in all three clusters, with the intercepts becoming fainter at lower redshifts due to the passive ageing of the ETG stellar populations. The slope trend is consistent with previous findings at lower redshifts. The slope increase with wavelength implies that smaller ETGs are more centrally concentrated than larger ETGs in the NIR with respect to the optical regime. As different bands probe different stellar populations in galaxies, the slope increase also implies that smaller ETGs have stronger internal gradients with respect to larger ETGs.

(1040)morphofit: An automated galaxy structural parameters fitting package
  • Luca Tortorelli,
  • Amata Mercurio
Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences (03/2023) e-Print:2302.07890 doi:10.3389/fspas.2023.989443
abstract + abstract -

In today's modern wide-field galaxy surveys, there is the necessity for parametric surface brightness decomposition codes characterised by accuracy, small degree of user intervention, and high degree of parallelisation. We try to address this necessity by introducing morphofit, a highly parallelisable Python package for the estimate of galaxy structural parameters. The package makes use of wide-spread and reliable codes, namely SExtractor and GALFIT. It has been optimised and tested in both low-density and crowded environments, where blending and diffuse light makes the structural parameters estimate particularly challenging. morphofit allows the user to fit multiple surface brightness components to each individual galaxy, among those currently implemented in the code. Using simulated images of single Sérsic and bulge plus disk galaxy light profiles with different bulge-to-total luminosity (B/T) ratios, we show that morphofit is able to recover the input structural parameters of the simulated galaxies with good accuracy. We also compare its estimates against existing literature studies, finding consistency within the errors. We use the package in Tortorelli et al. 2023 to measure the structural parameters of cluster galaxies in order to study the wavelength dependence of the Kormendy relation of early-type galaxies. The package is available on github (this https URL) and on the Pypi server (this https URL).

(1039)4MOST Complete Calibration of the Colour-Redshift Relation (4C3R2)
  • Gruen,
  • D. ; McCullough,
  • J.; Amon,
  • A. ; Bernstein,
  • G. ; van den Busch
  • +17
  • J. L. ; Canning,
  • R. ; Castander,
  • F. ; DeRose,
  • J. ; Hartley,
  • W. ; Hildebrandt,
  • H. ; Kuijken,
  • K. ; Liske,
  • J. ; Masters,
  • D. ; Miquel,
  • R. ; Yuste,
  • A. P. ; Roodman,
  • A. ; Seitz,
  • S. ; Saglia,
  • R. ; Stern,
  • D. ; Tortorelli,
  • L. ; Wright,
  • A. H.
  • (less)
The Messenger (03/2023) doi:10.18727/0722-6691/5307
abstract + abstract -

Accurate knowledge of the redshift distributions of faint samples of galaxies selected by broad-band photometry is a prerequisite for future weak lensing experiments to deliver precision tests of our cosmological model. The most direct way to measure these redshift distributions is spectroscopic follow-up of representative galaxies. For this to be efficient and accurate, targets have to be selected such that they systematically cover a space defined by apparent colours in which there is little variation in redshift at any point. 4C3R2 will follow this strategy to observe over 100 000 galaxies selected by their KiDS-VIKING ugriZYJHKs photometry over a footprint identical to that of the WAVES survey, to constrain the colour-redshift relation with high multiplicity across two-thirds of the colour space of future Euclid and Rubin samples.

(1038)A Landau Pole in Conformal Field Theory
  • Ivo Sachs,
  • Pierre Vanhove
abstract + abstract -

The singlet sector of the $O(N),$ $\phi^4$-model in AdS$_4$ at large-$N$, gives rise to a (non-local) dual conformal field theory on the conformal boundary of AdS$_4$, which is a deformation of the generalized free field. We identify and compute a AdS$_4$ 3-point 1-loop fish diagram that controls the exact large-$N$ dimensions and operator product coefficients (OPE) for all "double trace" operators as a function of the renormalized $\phi^4$-coupling. We find that the space of $\phi^4$-coupling is compact with a boundary at the bulk Landau pole where the lowest OPE coefficient diverges.

(1037)Stellar limits on scalars from electron-nucleus bremsstrahlung
  • Salvatore Bottaro,
  • Andrea Caputo,
  • Georg Raffelt,
  • Edoardo Vitagliano
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (03/2023) e-Print:2303.00778 doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2023/07/071
abstract + abstract -

We revisit stellar energy-loss bounds on the Yukawa couplings $g_{\rm B,L}$ of baryophilic and leptophilic scalars $\phi$. The white-dwarf luminosity function yields $g_{\rm B}\lesssim 7 \times 10^{-13}$ and $g_{\rm L}\lesssim 4 \times 10^{-16}$, based on bremsstrahlung from ${}^{12}{\rm C}$ and ${}^{16}{\rm O}$ collisions with electrons. In models with a Higgs portal, this also implies a bound on the scalar-Higgs mixing angle $\sin \theta \lesssim 2 \times 10^{-10}$. Our new bounds apply for $m_\phi\lesssim {\rm 1~keV}$ and are among the most restrictive ones, whereas for $m_\phi\lesssim 0.5\,{\rm eV}$ long-range force measurements dominate. Besides a detailed calculation of the bremsstrahlung rate for degenerate and semi-relativistic electrons, we prove with a simple argument that non-relativistic bremsstrahlung by the heavy partner is suppressed relative to that by the light one by their squared-mass ratio. This large reduction was overlooked in previous much stronger bounds on $g_{\rm B}$. In an Appendix, we provide fitting formulas (few percent precision) for the bremsstrahlung emission of baryophilic and leptophilic scalars as well as axions for white-dwarf conditions, i.e., degenerate, semi-relativistic electrons and ion-ion correlations in the ``liquid'' phase.

(1036)Iron-Mediated Peptide Formation in Water and Liquid Sulfur Dioxide under Prebiotically Plausible Conditions
  • C. Sydow,
  • F. Sauer,
  • A. F. Siegle,
  • O. Trapp
ChemSystemsChem (03/2023) doi:10.1002/syst.202200034
abstract + abstract -

Peptides have essential structural and catalytic functions in living organisms. The formation of peptides requires the overcoming of thermodynamic and kinetic barriers. In recent years, various formation scenarios that may have occurred during the origin of life have been investigated, including iron(III)-catalyzed condensations. However, iron(III)-catalysts require elevated temperatures and the catalytic activity in peptide bond forming reactions is often low. It is likely that in an anoxic environment such as that of the early Earth, reduced iron compounds were abundant, both on the Earth's surface itself and as a major component of iron meteorites. In this work, we show that reduced iron activated by acetic acid mediates efficiently peptide formation. We recently demonstrated that, compared to water, liquid sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a superior reaction medium for peptide formations. We thus investigated both and observed up to four amino acid/peptide coupling steps in each solvent. Reaction with diglycine (G2) formed 2.0 % triglycine (G3) and 7.6 % tetraglycine (G4) in 21 d. Addition of G3 and dialanine (A2) yielded 8.7 % G4. Therefore, this is an efficient and plausible route for the formation of the first peptides as simple catalysts for further transformations in such environments.

(1035)Oscillations of Fluid Tori around Neutron Stars
  • Eva Šrámková,
  • Monika Matuszková,
  • Kateřina Klimovičová,
  • Jiři Horák,
  • Odele Straub
  • +5
  • Gabriela Urbancová,
  • Martin Urbanec,
  • Vladimír Karas,
  • Gabriel Török,
  • Debora Lančová
  • (less)
(03/2023) e-Print:2303.03859
abstract + abstract -

We examine the influence of quadrupole moment of a slowly rotating neutron star (NS) on the oscillations of a fluid accretion disk (torus) orbiting a compact object the spacetime around which is described by the Hartle-Thorne geometry. Explicit formulae for non-geodesic orbital epicyclic and precession frequencies, as well as their simplified practical versions that allow for an expeditious application of the universal relations determining the NS properties, are obtained and examined. We demonstrate that the difference in the accretion disk precession frequencies for NSs of the same mass and angular momentum, but different oblateness, can reach up to tens of percent. Even higher differences can arise when NSs with the same mass and rotational frequency, but different equations of state (EoS), are considered. In particular, the Lense-Thirring precession frequency defined in the innermost parts of the accretion region can differ by more than one order of magnitude across NSs with different EoS. Our results have clear implications for models of the LMXBs variability.

(1034)Ribozyme-mediated RNA synthesis and replication in a model Hadean microenvironment
  • Annalena Salditt,
  • Leonie Karr,
  • Elia Salibi,
  • Kristian Le Vay,
  • Dieter Braun
  • +1
Nature Communications (03/2023) doi:10.1038/s41467-023-37206-4
abstract + abstract -

Enzyme-catalyzed replication of nucleic acid sequences is a prerequisite for the survival and evolution of biological entities. Before the advent of protein synthesis, genetic information was most likely stored in and replicated by RNA. However, experimental systems for sustained RNA-dependent RNA-replication are difficult to realise, in part due to the high thermodynamic stability of duplex products and the low chemical stability of catalytic RNAs. Using a derivative of a group I intron as a model for an RNA replicase, we show that heated air-water interfaces that are exposed to a plausible CO2-rich atmosphere enable sense and antisense RNA replication as well as template-dependent synthesis and catalysis of a functional ribozyme in a one-pot reaction. Both reactions are driven by autonomous oscillations in salt concentrations and pH, resulting from precipitation of acidified dew droplets, which transiently destabilise RNA duplexes. Our results suggest that an abundant Hadean microenvironment may have promoted both replication and synthesis of functional RNAs.

(1033)Soft-collinear gravity with fermionic matter
  • Martin Beneke,
  • Patrick Hager,
  • Dominik Schwienbacher
Journal of High Energy Physics (03/2023) e-Print:2212.02525 doi:10.1007/JHEP03(2023)076
abstract + abstract -

We extend the effective field theory for soft and collinear gravitons to interactions with fermionic matter fields. The full theory features a local Lorentz symmetry in addition to the usual diffeomorphisms, which requires incorporating the former into the soft-collinear gravity framework. The local Lorentz symmetry gives rise to Wilson lines in the effective theory that strongly resemble those in SCET for non-abelian gauge interactions, whereas the diffeomorphisms can be treated in the same fashion as in the case of scalar matter. The basic structure of soft-collinear gravity, which features a homogeneous soft background field, giving rise to a covariant derivative and multipole-expanded covariant Riemann-tensor interactions, remains unaltered and generalises in a natural way to fermion fields.

(1032)VLA Legacy Survey of Molecular Gas in Massive Star-forming Galaxies at High Redshift
  • Marta Frias Castillo,
  • Jacqueline Hodge,
  • Matus Rybak,
  • Paul van der Werf,
  • Ian Smail
  • +16
  • Jack E. Birkin,
  • Chian-Chou Chen,
  • Scott C. Chapman,
  • Ryley Hill,
  • Claudia del P. Lagos,
  • Cheng-Lin Liao,
  • Elisabete da Cunha,
  • Gabriela Calistro Rivera,
  • Jianhang Chen,
  • E. F. Jiménez-Andrade,
  • Eric J. Murphy,
  • Douglas Scott,
  • A. M. Swinbank,
  • Fabian Walter,
  • R. J. Ivison,
  • Helmut Dannerbauer
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (03/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acb931
abstract + abstract -

We present the initial results of an ongoing survey with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array targeting the CO(J = 1-0) transition in a sample of 30 submillimeter-selected, dusty star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z = 2-5 with existing mid-J CO detections from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array, of which 17 have been fully observed. We detect CO(1-0) emission in 11 targets, along with three tentative (~1.5σ-2σ) detections; three galaxies are undetected. Our results yield total molecular gas masses of 6-23 × 1010CO/1) M , with gas mass fractions, f gas = M mol/(M *+M mol), of 0.1-0.8 and a median depletion time of (140 ± 70) Myr. We find median CO excitation ratios of r 31 = 0.75 ± 0.39 and r 41 = 0.63 ± 0.44, with significant scatter. We find no significant correlation between the excitation ratio and a number of key parameters such as redshift, CO(1-0) line width, or ΣSFR. We only find a tentative positive correlation between r 41 and the star-forming efficiency, but we are limited by our small sample size. Finally, we compare our results to predictions from the SHARK semi-analytical model, finding a good agreement between the molecular gas masses, depletion times, and gas fractions of our sources and their SHARK counterparts. Our results highlight the heterogeneous nature of the most massive SFGs at high redshift, and the importance of CO(1-0) observations to robustly constrain their total molecular gas content and interstellar medium properties.

(1031)Impact of Half-wave Plate Systematics on the Measurement of CMB B-mode Polarization
  • Marta Monelli,
  • Eiichiro Komatsu,
  • Tommaso Ghigna,
  • Tomotake Matsumura,
  • Giampaolo Pisano and Ryota Takaku
abstract + abstract -

Polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) can probe new parity-violating physics such as cosmic birefringence (CB), which requires exquisite control over instrumental systematics. The non-idealities of the half-wave plate (HWP) represent a source of systematics when used as a polarization modulator. We study their impact on the CMB angular power spectra, which is partially degenerate with CB and miscalibration of the polarization angle. We use full-sky beam convolution simulations including HWP to generate mock noiseless time-ordered data, process them through a bin averaging map-maker, and calculate the power spectra including TB and EB correlations. We also derive analytical formulae which accurately model the observed spectra. For our choice of HWP parameters, the HWP-induced angle amounts to a few degrees, which could be misinterpreted as CB. Accurate knowledge of the HWP is required to mitigate this. Our simulation and analytical formulae will be useful for deriving requirements for the accuracy of HWP calibration.

(1030)Ultra-High-Resolution Detector Simulation with Intra-Event Aware GAN and Self-Supervised Relational Reasoning
  • Hosein Hashemi,
  • Nikolai Hartmann,
  • Sahand Sharifzadeh,
  • James Kahn,
  • Thomas Kuhr
abstract + abstract -

Simulating high-resolution detector responses is a storage-costly and computationally intensive process that has long been challenging in particle physics. Despite the ability of deep generative models to make this process more cost-efficient, ultra-high-resolution detector simulation still proves to be difficult as it contains correlated and fine-grained mutual information within an event. To overcome these limitations, we propose Intra-Event Aware GAN (IEA-GAN), a novel fusion of Self-Supervised Learning and Generative Adversarial Networks. IEA-GAN presents a Relational Reasoning Module that approximates the concept of an ''event'' in detector simulation, allowing for the generation of correlated layer-dependent contextualized images for high-resolution detector responses with a proper relational inductive bias. IEA-GAN also introduces a new intra-event aware loss and a Uniformity loss, resulting in significant enhancements to image fidelity and diversity. We demonstrate IEA-GAN's application in generating sensor-dependent images for the high-granularity Pixel Vertex Detector (PXD), with more than 7.5M information channels and a non-trivial geometry, at the Belle II Experiment. Applications of this work include controllable simulation-based inference and event generation, high-granularity detector simulation such as at the HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC), and fine-grained density estimation and sampling. To the best of our knowledge, IEA-GAN is the first algorithm for faithful ultra-high-resolution detector simulation with event-based reasoning.

(1029)New members of the Lupus I cloud based on Gaia astrometry. Physical and accretion properties from X-shooter spectra
  • F. Z. Majidi,
  • J. M. Alcalá,
  • A. Frasca,
  • S. Desidera,
  • C. F. Manara
  • +11
  • G. Beccari,
  • V. D'Orazi,
  • A. Bayo,
  • K. Biazzo,
  • R. Claudi,
  • E. Covino,
  • G. Mantovan,
  • M. Montalto,
  • D. Nardiello,
  • G. Piotto,
  • E. Rigliaco
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2023) e-Print:2301.04463 doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245261
abstract + abstract -

We characterize twelve young stellar objects (YSOs) located in the Lupus I region, spatially overlapping with the Upper Centaurus Lupus (UCL) sub-stellar association. The aim of this study is to understand whether the Lupus I cloud has more members than what has been claimed so far in the literature and gain a deeper insight into the global properties of the region. We selected our targets using the Gaia DR2 catalog based on their consistent kinematic properties with the Lupus I bona fide members. In our sample of twelve YSOs observed by X-shooter, we identified ten Lupus I members. We could not determine the membership status of two of our targets, namely Gaia DR2 6014269268967059840 and 2MASS J15361110-3444473 due to technical issues. We found out that four of our targets are accretors, among them, 2MASS J15551027-3455045, with a mass of ∼0.03 M, is one of the least massive accretors in the Lupus complex identified to date. Several of our targets (including accretors) are formed in situ and off-cloud with respect to the main filaments of Lupus I; hence, our study may hint that there are diffused populations of M dwarfs around Lupus I main filaments. In this context, we would like to emphasize that our kinematic analysis with Gaia catalogs played a key role in identifying the new members of the Lupus I cloud.

Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory at Paranal under program 105.20P9.001.

(1028)Offset between X-ray and optical centers in clusters of galaxies: Connecting eROSITA data with simulations
  • R. Seppi,
  • J. Comparat,
  • K. Nandra,
  • K. Dolag,
  • V. Biffi
  • +4
  • E. Bulbul,
  • A. Liu,
  • V. Ghirardini,
  • J. Ider-Chitham
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245138
abstract + abstract -

Context. The characterization of the dynamical state of galaxy clusters is key to studying their evolution, evaluating their selection, and using them as a cosmological probe. In this context, the offsets between different definitions of the center have been used to estimate the cluster disturbance.
Aims: Our goal is to study the distribution of the offset between the X-ray and optical centers in clusters of galaxies. We study the offset for clusters detected by the extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array (eROSITA) on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) observatory. We aim to connect observations to predictions by hydrodynamical simulations and N-body models. We assess the astrophysical effects affecting the displacements.
Methods: We measured the offset for clusters observed in the eROSITA Final Equatorial-Depth Survey (eFEDS) and the first eROSITA all-sky survey (eRASS1). We focus on a subsample of 87 massive eFEDS clusters at low redshift, with M500c > 1×1014 M and 0.15 < z < 0.4. We compared the displacements in such sample to those predicted by the TNG and the Magneticum simulations. We additionally link the observations to the offset parameter Xoff measured for dark matter halos in N-body simulations, using the hydrodynamical simulations as a bridge.
Results: We find that, on average, the eFEDS clusters show a smaller offset compared to eRASS1 because the latter contains a larger fraction of massive and disturbed structures. We measured an average offset of ΔX−O = 76.3−27.1+30.1 kpc, when focusing on the subsample of 87 eFEDS clusters. This is in agreement with the predictions from TNG and Magneticum, and the distribution of Xoff from dark matter only (DMO) simulations. However, the tails of the distributions are different. Using ΔX − O to classify relaxed and disturbed clusters, we measured a relaxed fraction of 31% in the eFEDS subsample. Finally, we found a correlation between the offset measured on hydrodynamical simulations and Xoff measured on their parent dark-matter-only run and we calibrated the relation between them.
Conclusions: We conclude that there is good agreement between the offsets measured in eROSITA data and the predictions from simulations. Baryonic effects cause a decrement (increment) in the low (high) offset regime compared to the Xoff distribution from dark matter-only simulations. The offset-Xoff relation provides an accurate prediction of the true Xoff distribution in Magneticum and TNG. It allows for the offsets to be introduced in a cosmological context with a new method in order to marginalize over selection effects related to the cluster dynamical state.

(1027)The ice cone family and iterated integrals for Calabi-Yau varieties
  • Claude Duhr,
  • Albrecht Klemm,
  • Christoph Nega,
  • Lorenzo Tancredi
Journal of High Energy Physics (03/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP02(2023)228
abstract + abstract -

We present for the first time fully analytic results for multi-loop equal-mass ice cone graphs in two dimensions. By analysing the leading singularities of these integrals, we find that the maximal cuts in two dimensions can be organised into two copies of the same periods that describe the Calabi-Yau varieties for the equal-mass banana integrals. We obtain a conjectural basis of master integrals at an arbitrary number of loops, and we solve the system of differential equations satisfied by the master integrals in terms of the same class of iterated integrals that have appeared earlier in the context of equal-mass banana integrals. We then go on and show that, when expressed in terms of the canonical coordinate on the moduli space, our results can naturally be written as iterated integrals involving the geometrical invariants of the Calabi-Yau varieties. Our results indicate how the concept of pure functions and transcendental weight can be extended to the case of Calabi-Yau varieties. Finally, we also obtain a novel representation of the periods of the Calabi-Yau varieties in terms of the same class of iterated integrals, and we show that the well-known quadratic relations among the periods reduce to simple shuffle relations among these iterated integrals.

(1026)Physical non-equilibria for prebiotic nucleic acid chemistry
  • Alan Ianeselli,
  • Annalena Salditt,
  • Christof Mast,
  • Barbara Ercolano,
  • Corinna L. Kufner
  • +2
Nature Reviews Physics (03/2023) doi:10.1038/s42254-022-00550-3
abstract + abstract -

The prebiotic replication of DNA and RNA is a complex interplay between chemistry and the environment. Factors that have direct and indirect effects on prebiotic chemistry include temperature, concentration of monovalent and bivalent ions, the pH of water, ultraviolet irradiation and the presence of gaseous CO2. We discuss various primordial conditions to host the first replication reactions on the early Earth, including heated rock pores, hydrothermal vents, evaporating water ponds, freezing-thawing ice compartments, ultraviolet irradiation and high CO2 concentrations. We review how the interplay of replication chemistry with the strand separation and length selectivity of non-equilibrium physics can be provided by plausible geo-environments. Fast molecular evolution has been observed over a few hours in such settings when a polymerase protein is used as replicator. Such experimental findings make us optimistic that it will soon also be possible to probe evolution dynamics with much slower prebiotic replication chemistries using RNA. Our expectation is that the unique autonomous evolution dynamics provided by microfluidic non-equilibria make the origin of life understandable and experimentally testable in the near future.

(1025)Taming Calabi-Yau Feynman Integrals: The Four-Loop Equal-Mass Banana Integral
  • Sebastian Pögel,
  • Xing Wang,
  • Stefan Weinzierl
Physical Review Letters (03/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.101601
abstract + abstract -

Certain Feynman integrals are associated to Calabi-Yau geometries. We demonstrate how these integrals can be computed with the method of differential equations. The four-loop equal-mass banana integral is the simplest Feynman integral whose geometry is a nontrivial Calabi-Yau manifold. We show that its differential equation can be cast into an ϵ -factorized form. This allows us to obtain the solution to any desired order in the dimensional regularization parameter ϵ . The method generalizes to other Calabi-Yau Feynman integrals. Our calculation also shows that the four-loop banana integral is only minimally more complicated than the corresponding Feynman integrals at two or three loops.

(1024)Antipodal Self-Duality for a Four-Particle Form Factor
  • Lance J. Dixon,
  • Ömer Gürdoǧan,
  • Yu-Ting Liu,
  • Andrew J. McLeod,
  • Matthias Wilhelm
Physical Review Letters (03/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.111601
abstract + abstract -

We bootstrap the symbol of the maximal-helicity-violating four-particle form factor for the chiral part of the stress-tensor supermultiplet in planar N =4 super-Yang-Mills theory at two loops. When minimally normalized, this symbol involves only 34 letters and obeys the extended Steinmann relations in all partially overlapping three-particle momentum channels. In addition, the remainder function for this form factor exhibits an antipodal self-duality: It is invariant under the combined operation of the antipodal map defined on multiple polylogarithms—which reverses the order of the symbol letters—and a simple kinematic map. This self-duality holds on a four-dimensional parity-preserving kinematic hypersurface. It implies the antipodal duality recently noticed between the three-particle form factor and the six-particle amplitude in this theory.

(1023)Exciting spiral arms in protoplanetary discs from flybys
  • Jeremy L. Smallwood,
  • Chao-Chin Yang,
  • Zhaohuan Zhu,
  • Rebecca G. Martin,
  • Ruobing Dong
  • +2
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (03/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad742
abstract + abstract -

Spiral arms are observed in numerous protoplanetary discs. These spiral arms can be excited by companions, either on bound or unbound orbits. We simulate a scenario where an unbound perturber, i.e. a flyby, excites spiral arms during a periastron passage. We run three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of a parabolic flyby encountering a gaseous protoplanetary disc. The perturber mass ranges from $10\, \rm M_J$ to $1\, \rm {\rm M}_{\odot }$. The perturber excites a two-armed spiral structure, with a more prominent spiral feature for higher mass perturbers. The two arms evolve over time, eventually winding up, consistent with previous works. We focus on analysing the pattern speed and pitch angle of these spirals during the whole process. The initial pattern speed of the two arms are close to the angular velocity of the perturber at periastron, and then it decreases over time. The pitch angle also decreases over time as the spiral winds up. The spirals disappear after several local orbital times. An inclined prograde orbit flyby induces similar disc substructures as a coplanar flyby. A solar-mass flyby event causes increased eccentricity growth in the protoplanetary disc, leading to an eccentric disc structure which dampens over time. The spirals' morphology and the disc eccentricity can be used to search for potential unbound stars or planets around discs where a flyby is suspected. Future disc observations at high resolution and dedicated surveys will help to constrain the frequency of such stellar encounters in nearby star-forming regions.

(1022)Perfecting one-loop BCJ numerators in SYM and supergravity
  • Alex Edison,
  • Song He,
  • Henrik Johansson,
  • Oliver Schlotterer,
  • Fei Teng
  • +1
Journal of High Energy Physics (03/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP02(2023)164
abstract + abstract -

We take a major step towards computing D-dimensional one-loop amplitudes in general gauge theories, compatible with the principles of unitarity and the color-kinematics duality. For n-point amplitudes with either supersymmetry multiplets or generic non-supersymmetric matter in the loop, simple all-multiplicity expressions are obtained for the maximal cuts of kinematic numerators of n-gon diagrams. At n = 6, 7 points with maximal supersymmetry, we extend the cubic-diagram numerators to encode all contact terms, and thus solve the long-standing problem of simultaneously realizing the following properties: color-kinematics duality, manifest locality, optimal power counting of loop momenta, quadratic rather than linearized Feynman propagators, compatibility with double copy as well as all graph symmetries. Color-kinematics dual representations with similar properties are presented in the half-maximally supersymmetric case at n = 4, 5 points. The resulting gauge-theory integrands and their supergravity counterparts obtained from the double copy are checked to reproduce the expected ultraviolet divergences.

(1021)$D$-Module Techniques for Solving Differential Equations in the Context of Feynman Integrals
  • Johannes Henn,
  • Elizabeth Pratt,
  • Anna-Laura Sattelberger,
  • Simone Zoia
abstract + abstract -

Feynman integrals are solutions to linear partial differential equations with polynomial coefficients. Using a triangle integral with general exponents as a case in point, we compare $D$-module methods to dedicated methods developed for solving differential equations appearing in the context of Feynman integrals, and provide a dictionary of the relevant concepts. In particular, we implement an algorithm due to Saito, Sturmfels, and Takayama to derive canonical series solutions of regular holonomic $D$-ideals, and compare them to asymptotic series derived by the respective Fuchsian systems.

(1020)Mass Metallicity Relationship of SDSS Star Forming Galaxies: Population Synthesis Analysis and Effects of Star Burst Length, Extinction Law, Initial Mass Function and Star Formation Rate
  • Eva Sextl,
  • Rolf-Peter Kudritzki,
  • H. Jabran Zahid,
  • I-Ting Ho
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the mass-metallicity relationship of star forming galaxies by analysing the absorption line spectra of $\sim$200,000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The galaxy spectra are stacked in bins of stellar mass and a population synthesis technique is applied yielding metallicities, ages and star formation history of the young and old stellar population together with interstellar reddening and extinction. We adopt different lengths of the initial starbursts and different initial mass functions for the calculation of model spectra of the single stellar populations contributing to the total integrated spectrum. We also allow for deviations of the ratio of extinction to reddening RV from 3.1 and determine the value from the spectral fit. We find that burst length and RV have a significant influence on the determination of metallicities whereas the effect of the initial mass function is small. RV values are larger than 3.1. The metallicities of the young stellar population agree with extragalactic spectroscopic studies of individual massive supergiant stars and are significantly higher than those of the older stellar population. This confirms galaxy evolution models where metallicity depends on the ratio of gas to stellar mass and where this ratio decreases with time. Star formation history is found to depend on galaxy stellar mass. Massive galaxies are dominated by stars formed at early times.

(1019)Perturbation theory with dispersion and higher cumulants: Framework and linear theory
  • Mathias Garny,
  • Dominik Laxhuber,
  • Román Scoccimarro
Physical Review D (03/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.063539
abstract + abstract -

The standard perturbation theory (SPT) approach to gravitational clustering is based on a fluid approximation of the underlying Vlasov-Poisson dynamics, taking only the zeroth and first cumulant of the phase-space distribution function into account (density and velocity fields). This assumption breaks down when dark matter particle orbits cross and leads to well-known problems, e.g., an anomalously large backreaction of small-scale modes onto larger scales that compromises predictivity. We extend SPT by incorporating second and higher cumulants generated by orbit crossing. For collisionless matter, their equations of motion are completely fixed by the Vlasov-Poisson system, and thus we refer to this approach as Vlasov Perturbation Theory (VPT). Even cumulants develop a background value, and they enter the hierarchy of coupled equations for the fluctuations. The background values are in turn sourced by power spectra of the fluctuations. The latter can be brought into a form that is formally analogous to SPT, but with an extended set of variables and linear as well as nonlinear terms, that we derive explicitly. In this paper, we focus on linear solutions, which are far richer than in SPT, showing that modes that cross the dispersion scale set by the second cumulant are highly suppressed. We derive stability conditions on the background values of even cumulants from the requirement that exponential instabilities be absent. We also compute the expected magnitude of averaged higher cumulants for various halo models and show that they satisfy the stability conditions. Finally, we derive self-consistent solutions of perturbations and background values for a scaling universe and study the convergence of the cumulant expansion. The VPT framework provides a conceptually straightforward and deterministic extension of SPT that accounts for the decoupling of small-scale modes.

(1018)Disk Evolution Study Through Imaging of Nearby Young Stars (DESTINYS): Characterization of the young star T CrA and its circumstellar environment
  • E. Rigliaco,
  • R. Gratton,
  • S. Ceppi,
  • C. Ginski,
  • M. Hogerheijde
  • +13
  • M. Benisty,
  • T. Birnstiel,
  • M. Dima,
  • S. Facchini,
  • A. Garufi,
  • J. Bae,
  • M. Langlois,
  • G. Lodato,
  • E. Mamajek,
  • C. F. Manara,
  • F. Ménard,
  • A. Ribas,
  • A. Zurlo
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245192
abstract + abstract -

Context. In recent years, a new hot topic has emerged in the star and planet formation field, namely, the interaction between the circumstellar disk and its birth cloud. The birth environments of young stars leave strong imprints on the star itself and their surroundings. In this context, we present a detailed analysis of the rich circumstellar environment around the young Herbig Ae/Be star T CrA.
Aims: Our aim is to understand the nature of the stellar system and the extended circumstellar structures, as seen in scattered light images.
Methods: We conducted our analysis on the basis of a set of combined archival data and new adaptive optics images at a high contrast and high resolution.
Results: The scattered light images reveal the presence of a complex environment around T CrA, composed of a bright, forward-scattering rim of the disk's surface that is seen at very high inclinations, along with a dark lane of the disk midplane, bipolar outflows, and streamer features that are likely tracing infalling material from the surrounding birth cloud onto the disk. The analysis of the light curve suggests that the star is a binary with a period of 29.6 yr, confirming previous assertions based on spectro-astrometry. The comparison of the scattered light images with the ALMA continuum and 12CO (2-1) line emission shows that the disk is in Keplerian rotation and the northern side of the outflowing material is receding, while the southern side is approaching the observer. The overall system lies on different geometrical planes. The orbit of the binary star is perpendicular to the outflows and is seen edge on. The disk is itself seen edge-on, with a position angle of ~7°. The direction of the outflows seen in scattered light is in agreement with the direction of the more distant molecular hydrogen emission-line objects (MHOs) associated with the star. Modeling of the spectral energy distribution using a radiative transfer scheme is in good agreement with the proposed configuration, as well as the hydrodynamical simulation performed using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code.
Conclusions: We find evidence of streamers of accreting material around T CrA. These streamers connect the filament, along which T CrA is forming along with the outer parts of the disk, suggesting that the strong misalignment between the inner and outer disk is due to a change in the direction of the angular momentum of the material accreting on the disk during the late phase of star formation. This impacts the accretion taking place in the components of the binary, favoring the growth of the primary with respect the secondary, in contrast to the case of aligned disks.

Reduced images are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

(1017)Gravitational wave constraints on extended dark matter structures
  • Djuna Croon,
  • Seyda Ipek,
  • David McKeen
Physical Review D (03/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.063012
abstract + abstract -

We generalize existing constraints on primordial black holes to dark objects with extended sizes using the aLIGO design sensitivity. We show that LIGO is sensitive to dark objects with radius O (10 −103 km ) if they make up more than ∼O (10-2−10-3) of dark matter.

(1016)Enzyme-Enriched Condensates Show Self-Propulsion, Positioning, and Coexistence
  • Leonardo Demarchi,
  • Andriy Goychuk,
  • Ivan Maryshev,
  • Erwin Frey
Physical Review Letters (03/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.128401
abstract + abstract -

Enzyme-enriched condensates can organize the spatial distribution of their substrates by catalyzing nonequilibrium reactions. Conversely, an inhomogeneous substrate distribution induces enzyme fluxes through substrate-enzyme interactions. We find that condensates move toward the center of a confining domain when this feedback is weak. Above a feedback threshold, they exhibit self-propulsion, leading to oscillatory dynamics. Moreover, catalysis-driven enzyme fluxes can lead to interrupted coarsening, resulting in equidistant condensate positioning, and to condensate division.

(1015)Dark Matter Dilution Mechanism through the Lens of Large-Scale Structure
  • Miha Nemevšek,
  • Yue Zhang
Physical Review Letters (03/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.121002
abstract + abstract -

Entropy production is a necessary ingredient for addressing the overpopulation of thermal relics. It is widely employed in particle physics models for explaining the origin of dark matter. A long-lived particle that decays to the known particles, while dominating the universe, plays the role of the dilutor. We point out the impact of its partial decay to dark matter on the primordial matter power spectrum. For the first time, we derive a stringent limit on the branching ratio of the dilutor to dark matter from large scale structure observation using the sloan digital sky survey data. This offers a novel tool for testing models with a dark matter dilution mechanism. We apply it to the left-right symmetric model and show that it firmly excludes a large portion of parameter space for right-handed neutrino warm dark matter.

(1014)The Bactrian? Broad-lined Type-Ic supernova SN 2022xxf with extraordinary two-humped light curves
  • H. Kuncarayakti,
  • J. Sollerman,
  • L. Izzo,
  • K. Maeda,
  • S. Yang
  • +58
  • S. Schulze,
  • C. R. Angus,
  • M. Aubert,
  • K. Auchettl,
  • M. Della Valle,
  • L. Dessart,
  • K. Hinds,
  • E. Kankare,
  • M. Kawabata,
  • P. Lundqvist,
  • T. Nakaoka,
  • D. Perley,
  • S. I. Raimundo,
  • N. L. Strotjohann,
  • K. Taguchi,
  • Y. -Z. Cai,
  • P. Charalampopoulos,
  • Q. Fang,
  • M. Fraser,
  • C. P. Gutierrez,
  • R. Imazawa,
  • T. Kangas,
  • K. S. Kawabata,
  • R. Kotak,
  • T. Kravtsov,
  • K. Matilainen,
  • S. Mattila,
  • S. Moran,
  • I. Murata,
  • I. Salmaso,
  • J. P. Anderson,
  • C. Ashall,
  • E. C. Bellm,
  • S. Benetti,
  • K. C. Chambers,
  • T. -W. Chen,
  • M. Coughlin,
  • F. De Colle,
  • C. Fremling,
  • L. Galbany,
  • A. Gal-Yam,
  • M. Gromadzki,
  • S. L. Groom,
  • A. Hajela,
  • C. Inserra,
  • M. M. Kasliwal,
  • A. A. Mahabal,
  • A. Martin-Carrillo,
  • T. Moore,
  • T. E. Muller-Bravo,
  • M. Nicholl,
  • F. Ragosta,
  • R. L. Riddle,
  • Y. Sharma,
  • S. Srivastav,
  • M. D. Stritzinger,
  • A. Wold,
  • D. R. Young
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We report on our study of SN 2022xxf during the first four months of its evolution. The light curves (LCs) display two humps at similar maximum brightness separated by 75d, unprecedented for a broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN IcBL). SN~2022xxf is the most nearby SN IcBL to date (in NGC~3705, $z = 0.0037$, 20 Mpc). Optical and NIR photometry and spectroscopy are used to identify the energy source powering the LC. Nearly 50 epochs of high S/N-ratio spectroscopy were obtained within 130d, comprising an unparalleled dataset for a SN IcBL, and one of the best-sampled SN datasets to date. The global spectral appearance and evolution of SN~2022xxf points to typical SN Ic/IcBL, with broad features (up to $\sim14000$ km~s$^{-1}$) and a gradual transition from the photospheric to the nebular phase. However, narrow emission lines (corresponding to $\sim1000-2500$ km~s$^{-1}$) are present from the time of the second rise, suggesting slower-moving circumstellar material (CSM). These lines are subtle, but some are readily noticeable at late times such as in Mg~I $\lambda$5170 and [O~I] $\lambda$5577. Unusually, the near-infrared spectra show narrow line peaks, especially among features formed by ions of O and Mg. We infer the presence of CSM that is free of H and He. We propose that the radiative energy from the ejecta-CSM interaction is a plausible explanation for the second LC hump. This interaction scenario is supported by the color evolution, which progresses to the blue as the light curve evolves along the second hump, and the slow second rise and subsequent rapid LC drop. SN~2022xxf may be related to an emerging number of CSM-interacting SNe Ic, which show slow, peculiar LCs, blue colors, and subtle CSM interaction lines. The progenitor stars of these SNe likely experienced an episode of mass loss shortly prior to explosion consisting of H/He-free material.

(1013)Heavy quark diffusion coefficient with gradient flow
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Viljami Leino,
  • Julian Mayer-Steudte,
  • Peter Petreczky,
  • Tumqcd Collaboration
Physical Review D (03/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.054508
abstract + abstract -

We calculate chromoelectric and chromomagnetic correlators in quenched QCD at 1.5 Tc and 104Tc , with the aim to estimate the heavy quark diffusion coefficient at leading order in the inverse heavy quark mass expansion, κE , as well as the coefficient of the first mass-suppressed correction, κB. We use gradient flow for noise reduction. At 1.5 Tc we obtain 1.70 ≤κE/T3≤3.12 and 1.03 <κB/T3<2.61 . The latter implies that the mass-suppressed effects in the heavy quark diffusion coefficient are 20% for bottom quarks and 34% for charm quarks at this temperature.

(1012)Euclid preparation. XXIV. Calibration of the halo mass function in Λ(ν)CDM cosmologies
  • Euclid Collaboration,
  • T. Castro,
  • A. Fumagalli,
  • R. E. Angulo,
  • S. Bocquet
  • +177
  • S. Borgani,
  • C. Carbone,
  • J. Dakin,
  • K. Dolag,
  • C. Giocoli,
  • P. Monaco,
  • A. Ragagnin,
  • A. Saro,
  • E. Sefusatti,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • A. M. C. Le Brun,
  • P. -S. Corasaniti,
  • A. Amara,
  • L. Amendola,
  • M. Baldi,
  • R. Bender,
  • C. Bodendorf,
  • E. Branchini,
  • M. Brescia,
  • S. Camera,
  • V. Capobianco,
  • J. Carretero,
  • M. Castellano,
  • S. Cavuoti,
  • A. Cimatti,
  • R. Cledassou,
  • G. Congedo,
  • L. Conversi,
  • Y. Copin,
  • L. Corcione,
  • F. Courbin,
  • A. Da Silva,
  • H. Degaudenzi,
  • M. Douspis,
  • F. Dubath,
  • C. A. J. Duncan,
  • X. Dupac,
  • S. Farrens,
  • S. Ferriol,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • M. Frailis,
  • E. Franceschi,
  • S. Galeotta,
  • B. Garilli,
  • B. Gillis,
  • A. Grazian,
  • F. Grupp,
  • S. V. H. Haugan,
  • F. Hormuth,
  • A. Hornstrup,
  • P. Hudelot,
  • K. Jahnke,
  • S. Kermiche,
  • T. Kitching,
  • M. Kunz,
  • H. Kurki-Suonio,
  • P. B. Lilje,
  • I. Lloro,
  • O. Mansutti,
  • O. Marggraf,
  • F. Marulli,
  • M. Meneghetti,
  • E. Merlin,
  • G. Meylan,
  • M. Moresco,
  • L. Moscardini,
  • E. Munari,
  • S. M. Niemi,
  • C. Padilla,
  • S. Paltani,
  • F. Pasian,
  • K. Pedersen,
  • V. Pettorino,
  • S. Pires,
  • G. Polenta,
  • M. Poncet,
  • L. Popa,
  • L. Pozzetti,
  • F. Raison,
  • R. Rebolo,
  • A. Renzi,
  • J. Rhodes,
  • G. Riccio,
  • E. Romelli,
  • R. Saglia,
  • D. Sapone,
  • B. Sartoris,
  • P. Schneider,
  • G. Seidel,
  • G. Sirri,
  • L. Stanco,
  • P. Tallada Crespí,
  • A. N. Taylor,
  • R. Toledo-Moreo,
  • F. Torradeflot,
  • I. Tutusaus,
  • E. A. Valentijn,
  • L. Valenziano,
  • T. Vassallo,
  • Y. Wang,
  • J. Weller,
  • A. Zacchei,
  • G. Zamorani,
  • S. Andreon,
  • S. Bardelli,
  • E. Bozzo,
  • C. Colodro-Conde,
  • D. Di Ferdinando,
  • M. Farina,
  • J. Graciá-Carpio,
  • V. Lindholm,
  • C. Neissner,
  • V. Scottez,
  • M. Tenti,
  • E. Zucca,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • A. Balaguera-Antolínez,
  • M. Ballardini,
  • F. Bernardeau,
  • A. Biviano,
  • A. Blanchard,
  • A. S. Borlaff,
  • C. Burigana,
  • R. Cabanac,
  • A. Cappi,
  • C. S. Carvalho,
  • S. Casas,
  • G. Castignani,
  • A. Cooray,
  • J. Coupon,
  • H. M. Courtois,
  • S. Davini,
  • G. De Lucia,
  • G. Desprez,
  • H. Dole,
  • J. A. Escartin,
  • S. Escoffier,
  • F. Finelli,
  • K. Ganga,
  • J. Garcia-Bellido,
  • K. George,
  • G. Gozaliasl,
  • H. Hildebrandt,
  • I. Hook,
  • S. Ilić,
  • V. Kansal,
  • E. Keihanen,
  • C. C. Kirkpatrick,
  • A. Loureiro,
  • J. Macias-Perez,
  • M. Magliocchetti,
  • R. Maoli,
  • S. Marcin,
  • M. Martinelli,
  • N. Martinet,
  • S. Matthew,
  • M. Maturi,
  • R. B. Metcalf,
  • G. Morgante,
  • S. Nadathur,
  • A. A. Nucita,
  • L. Patrizii,
  • A. Peel,
  • V. Popa,
  • C. Porciani,
  • D. Potter,
  • A. Pourtsidou,
  • M. Pöntinen,
  • A. G. Sánchez,
  • Z. Sakr,
  • M. Schirmer,
  • M. Sereno,
  • A. Spurio Mancini,
  • R. Teyssier,
  • J. Valiviita,
  • A. Veropalumbo,
  • M. Viel
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244674
abstract + abstract -

Euclid's photometric galaxy cluster survey has the potential to be a very competitive cosmological probe. The main cosmological probe with observations of clusters is their number count, within which the halo mass function (HMF) is a key theoretical quantity. We present a new calibration of the analytic HMF, at the level of accuracy and precision required for the uncertainty in this quantity to be subdominant with respect to other sources of uncertainty in recovering cosmological parameters from Euclid cluster counts. Our model is calibrated against a suite of N-body simulations using a Bayesian approach taking into account systematic errors arising from numerical effects in the simulation. First, we test the convergence of HMF predictions from different N-body codes, by using initial conditions generated with different orders of Lagrangian Perturbation theory, and adopting different simulation box sizes and mass resolution. Then, we quantify the effect of using different halo finder algorithms, and how the resulting differences propagate to the cosmological constraints. In order to trace the violation of universality in the HMF, we also analyse simulations based on initial conditions characterised by scale-free power spectra with different spectral indexes, assuming both Einstein-de Sitter and standard ΛCDM expansion histories. Based on these results, we construct a fitting function for the HMF that we demonstrate to be sub-percent accurate in reproducing results from 9 different variants of the ΛCDM model including massive neutrinos cosmologies. The calibration systematic uncertainty is largely sub-dominant with respect to the expected precision of future mass-observation relations; with the only notable exception of the effect due to the halo finder, that could lead to biased cosmological inference.

(1011)Cosmology inference at the field level from biased tracers in redshift-space
  • Julia Stadler,
  • Fabian Schmidt,
  • Martin Reinecke
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, (03/2023) e-Print:2303.09876 doi:10.48550/arXiv.2303.09876
abstract + abstract -

Cosmology inference of galaxy clustering at the field level with the EFT likelihood in principle allows for extracting all non-Gaussian information from quasi-linear scales, while robustly marginalizing over any astrophysical uncertainties. A pipeline in this spirit is implemented in the \texttt{LEFTfield} code, which we extend in this work to describe the clustering of galaxies in redshift space. Our main additions are: the computation of the velocity field in the LPT gravity model, the fully nonlinear displacement of the evolved, biased density field to redshift space, and a systematic expansion of velocity bias. We test the resulting analysis pipeline by applying it to synthetic data sets with a known ground truth at increasing complexity: mock data generated from the perturbative forward model itself, sub-sampled matter particles, and dark matter halos in N-body simulations. By fixing the initial-time density contrast to the ground truth, while varying the growth rate $f$, bias coefficients and noise amplitudes, we perform a stringent set of checks. These show that indeed a systematic higher-order expansion of the velocity bias is required to infer a growth rate consistent with the ground truth within errors. Applied to dark matter halos, our analysis yields unbiased constraints on $f$ at the level of a few percent for a variety of halo masses at redshifts $z=0,\,0.5,\,1$ and for a broad range of cutoff scales $0.08\,h/\mathrm{Mpc} \leq \Lambda \leq 0.20\,h/\mathrm{Mpc}$. Importantly, deviations between true and inferred growth rate exhibit the scaling with halo mass, redshift and cutoff that one expects based on the EFT of Large Scale Structure. Further, we obtain a robust detection of velocity bias through its effect on the redshift-space density field and are able to disentangle it from higher-derivative bias contributions.

(1010)The effect of non-equal emission times and space-time correlations on (anti-) nuclei production
  • M. Kachelriess,
  • S. Ostapchenko,
  • J. Tjemsland
abstract + abstract -

Light (anti-) nuclei are a powerful tool both in collider physics and astrophysics. In searches for new and exotic physics, the expected small astrophysical backgrounds at low energies make these antinuclei ideal probes for, e.g., dark matter. At the same time, their composite structure and small binding energies imply that they can be used in collider experiments to probe the hadronisation process and two-particle correlations. For the proper interpretation of such experimental studies, an improved theoretical understanding of (anti-) nuclei production in specific kinematic regions and detector setups is needed. In this work, we develop a coalescence framework for (anti-) deuteron production which accounts for both the emission volume and momentum correlations on an event-by-event basis. This framework goes beyond the equal-time approximation, which has been commonly assumed in femtoscopy experiments and (anti-) nucleus production models until now. Using PYTHIA~8 as an event generator, we find that the equal-time approximation leads to an error of O(10%) in low-energy processes like $\Upsilon$ decays, while the errors are negligible at LHC energies. The framework introduced in this work paves the way for tuning event generators to (anti-) nuclei measurements.

(1009)The imprint of clump formation at high redshift. II. The chemistry of the bulge
  • Victor P. Debattista,
  • David J. Liddicott,
  • Oscar A. Gonzalez,
  • Leandro Beraldo e Silva,
  • Joao A. S. Amarante
  • +9
  • Ilin Lazar,
  • Manuela Zoccali,
  • Elena Valenti,
  • Deanne B. Fisher,
  • Tigran Khachaturyants,
  • David L. Nidever,
  • Thomas R. Quinn,
  • Min Du,
  • Susan Kassin
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

In Paper I we showed that clumps in high-redshift galaxies, having a high star formation rate density (\Sigma_SFR), produce disks with two tracks in the [Fe/H]-[\alpha/Fe] chemical space, similar to that of the Milky Way's (MW's) thin + thick disks. Here we investigate the effect of clumps on the bulge's chemistry. The chemistry of the MW's bulge is comprised of a single track with two density peaks separated by a trough. We show that the bulge chemistry of an N-body + smoothed particle hydrodynamics clumpy simulation also has a single track. Star formation within the bulge is itself in the high-\Sigma_SFR clumpy mode, which ensures that the bulge's chemical track follows that of the thick disk at low [Fe/H] and then extends to high [Fe/H], where it peaks. The peak at low metallicity instead is comprised of a mixture of in-situ stars and stars accreted via clumps. As a result, the trough between the peaks occurs at the end of the thick disk track. We find that the high-metallicity peak dominates near the mid-plane and declines in relative importance with height, as in the MW. The bulge is already rapidly rotating by the end of the clump epoch, with higher rotation at low [\alpha/Fe]. Thus clumpy star formation is able to simultaneously explain the chemodynamic trends of the MW's bulge, thin + thick disks and the Splash.

(1008)Insights on the Origin of Odd Radio Circles from Cosmological Simulations
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Ludwig M. Böss,
  • Bärbel S. Koribalski,
  • Ulrich P. Steinwandel,
  • Milena Valentini
The Astrophysical Journal (03/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acb5f5
abstract + abstract -

We investigate shock structures driven by merger events in high-resolution simulations that result in a galaxy with a virial mass M ≈ 1012 M . We find that the sizes and morphologies of the internal shocks resemble remarkably well those of the newly detected class of odd radio circles (ORCs). This would highlight a so-far overlooked mechanism to form radio rings, shells, and even more complex structures around elliptical galaxies. Mach numbers of ${ \mathcal M }$ = 2-3 for such internal shocks are in agreement with the spectral indices of the observed ORCs. We estimate that ~5% of galaxies could undergo merger events, which occasionally lead to such prominent structures within the galactic halo during their lifetime, explaining the low number of observed ORCs. At the time when the shock structures are matching the physical sizes of the observed ORCs, the central galaxies are typically classified as early-type galaxies, with no ongoing star formation, in agreement with observational findings. Although the energy released by such mergers could potentially power the observed radio luminosity already in Milky Way-like halos, our predicted luminosity from a simple, direct shock acceleration model is much smaller than the observed one. Considering the estimated number of candidates from our cosmological simulations and the higher observed energies, we suggest that the proposed scenario is more likely for halo masses around 1013 M in agreement with the observed stellar masses of the galaxies at the center of ORCs. Such shocks might be detectable with next-generation X-ray instruments like the Line Emission Mapper (LEM).

(1007)HOLISMOKES. IX. Neural network inference of strong-lens parameters and uncertainties from ground-based images
  • S. Schuldt,
  • R. Cañameras,
  • Y. Shu,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • S. Taubenberger
  • +2
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244325
abstract + abstract -

Modeling of strong gravitational lenses is a necessity for further applications in astrophysics and cosmology. With the large number of detections in current and upcoming surveys, such as the Rubin Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST), it is pertinent to investigate automated and fast analysis techniques beyond the traditional and time-consuming Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods. Building upon our (simple) convolutional neural network (CNN), we present here another CNN, specifically a residual neural network (ResNet), that predicts the five mass parameters of a singular isothermal ellipsoid (SIE) profile (lens center x and y, ellipticity ex and ey, Einstein radius θE) and the external shear (γext, 1, γext, 2) from ground-based imaging data. In contrast to our previous CNN, this ResNet further predicts the 1σ uncertainty for each parameter. To train our network, we use our improved pipeline to simulate lens images using real images of galaxies from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey (HSC) and from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field as lens galaxies and background sources, respectively. We find very good recoveries overall for the SIE parameters, especially for the lens center in comparison to our previous CNN, while significant differences remain in predicting the external shear. From our multiple tests, it appears that most likely the low ground-based image resolution is the limiting factor in predicting the external shear. Given the run time of milli-seconds per system, our network is perfectly suited to quickly predict the next appearing image and time delays of lensed transients. Therefore, we use the network-predicted mass model to estimate these quantities and compare to those values obtained from our simulations. Unfortunately, the achieved precision allows only a first-order estimate of time delays on real lens systems and requires further refinement through follow-up modeling. Nonetheless, our ResNet is able to predict the SIE and shear parameter values in fractions of a second on a single CPU, meaning that we are able to efficiently process the huge amount of galaxy-scale lenses expected in the near future.

The network code is available under