page 7 of 19
(1206)The Inverted Pendulum as a Classical Analog of the EFT Paradigm
  • Martin Beneke,
  • Matthias König,
  • Martin Link
abstract + abstract -

The inverted pendulum is a mechanical system with a rapidly oscillating pivot point. Using techniques similar in spirit to the methodology of effective field theories, we derive an effective Lagrangian that allows for the systematic computation of corrections to the so-called Kapitza equation. The derivation of the effective potential of the system requires non-trivial matching conditions, which need to be determined order by order in the power-counting of the problem. The convergence behavior of the series is investigated on the basis of high-order results obtained by this method.

(1205)Branches of a Tree: Taking Derivatives of Programs with Discrete and Branching Randomness in High Energy Physics
  • Michael Kagan,
  • Lukas Heinrich
abstract + abstract -

We propose to apply several gradient estimation techniques to enable the differentiation of programs with discrete randomness in High Energy Physics. Such programs are common in High Energy Physics due to the presence of branching processes and clustering-based analysis. Thus differentiating such programs can open the way for gradient based optimization in the context of detector design optimization, simulator tuning, or data analysis and reconstruction optimization. We discuss several possible gradient estimation strategies, including the recent Stochastic AD method, and compare them in simplified detector design experiments. In doing so we develop, to the best of our knowledge, the first fully differentiable branching program.

(1204)First spatio-spectral Bayesian imaging of SN1006 in X-ray
  • Margret Westerkamp,
  • Vincent Eberle,
  • Matteo Guardiani,
  • Philipp Frank,
  • Lukas Platz
  • +4
  • Philipp Arras,
  • Jakob Knollmüller,
  • Julia Stadler,
  • Torsten Enßlin
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Supernovae are an important source of energy in the interstellar medium. Young remnants of supernovae have a peak emission in the X-ray region, making them interesting objects for X-ray observations. In particular, the supernova remnant SN1006 is of great interest due to its historical record, proximity and brightness. It has therefore been studied by several X-ray telescopes. Improving the X-ray imaging of this and other remnants is important but challenging as it requires to address a spatially varying instrument response in order to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we use Chandra observations to demonstrate the capabilities of Bayesian image reconstruction using information field theory. Our objective is to reconstruct denoised, deconvolved and spatio-spectral resolved images from X-ray observations and to decompose the emission into different morphologies, namely diffuse and point-like. Further, we aim to fuse data from different detectors and pointings into a mosaic and quantify the uncertainty of our result. Utilizing prior knowledge on the spatial and spectral correlation structure of the two components, diffuse emission and point sources, the presented method allows the effective decomposition of the signal into these. In order to accelerate the imaging process, we introduce a multi-step approach, in which the spatial reconstruction obtained for a single energy range is used to derive an informed starting point for the full spatio-spectral reconstruction. The method is applied to 11 Chandra observations of SN1006 from 2008 and 2012, providing a detailed, denoised and decomposed view of the remnant. In particular, the separated view of the diffuse emission should provide new insights into its complex small-scale structures in the center of the remnant and at the shock front profiles.

(1203)Cosmological Constraints from the BOSS DR12 Void Size Function
  • Sofia Contarini,
  • Alice Pisani,
  • Nico Hamaus,
  • Federico Marulli,
  • Lauro Moscardini
  • +1
The Astrophysical Journal (08/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acde54
abstract + abstract -

We present the first cosmological constraints derived from the analysis of the void size function. This work relies on the final Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 12 (DR12) data set, a large spectroscopic galaxy catalog, ideal for the identification of cosmic voids. We extract a sample of voids from the distribution of galaxies, and we apply a cleaning procedure aimed at reaching high levels of purity and completeness. We model the void size function by means of an extension of the popular volume-conserving model, based on two additional nuisance parameters. Relying on mock catalogs specifically designed to reproduce the BOSS DR12 galaxy sample, we calibrate the extended size function model parameters and validate the methodology. We then apply a Bayesian analysis to constrain the Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model and one of its simplest extensions, featuring a constant dark energy equation of state parameter, w. Following a conservative approach, we put constraints on the total matter density parameter and the amplitude of density fluctuations, finding Ωm = 0.29 ± 0.06 and ${\sigma }_{8}={0.79}_{-0.08}^{+0.09}$ . Testing the alternative scenario, we derive w = -1.1 ± 0.2, in agreement with the ΛCDM model. These results are independent and complementary to those derived from standard cosmological probes, opening up new ways to identify the origin of potential tensions in the current cosmological paradigm.

(1202)The Accretion Mode in Sub-Eddington Supermassive Black Holes: Getting into the Central Parsecs of Andromeda
  • C. Alig,
  • A. Prieto,
  • M. Blaña,
  • M. Frischman,
  • C. Metzl
  • +3
  • A. Burkert,
  • O. Zier,
  • A. Streblyanska
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (08/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ace2c3
abstract + abstract -

The inner kiloparsec regions surrounding sub-Eddington (luminosity less than 10-3 in Eddington units, L Edd) supermassive black holes (BHs) often show a characteristic network of dust filaments that terminate in a nuclear spiral in the central parsecs. Here we study the role and fate of these filaments in one of the least accreting BHs known, M31 (10-7 L Edd) using hydrodynamical simulations. The evolution of a streamer of gas particles moving under the barred potential of M31 is followed from kiloparsec distance to the central parsecs. After an exploratory study of initial conditions, a compelling fit to the observed dust/ionized gas morphologies and line-of-sight velocities in the inner hundreds of parsecs is produced. After several million years of streamer evolution, during which friction, thermal dissipation, and self-collisions have taken place, the gas settles into a disk tens of parsecs wide. This is fed by numerous filaments that arise from an outer circumnuclear ring and spiral toward the center. The final configuration is tightly constrained by a critical input mass in the streamer of several 103 M (at an injection rate of 10-4 ${M}_{\odot }\,{{\rm{yr}}}^{-1}$ ); values above or below this lead to filament fragmentation or dispersion respectively, which are not observed. The creation of a hot gas atmosphere in the region of ~106 K is key to the development of a nuclear spiral during the simulation. The final inflow rate at 1 pc from the center is ~1.7 × 10-7 M yr-1, consistent with the quiescent state of the M31 BH.

(1201)Circumgalactic Medium on the Largest Scales: Detecting X-Ray Absorption Lines with Large-area Microcalorimeters
  • Ákos Bogdán,
  • Ildar Khabibullin,
  • Orsolya E. Kovács,
  • Gerrit Schellenberger,
  • John ZuHone
  • +20
  • Joseph N. Burchett,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Eugene Churazov,
  • William R. Forman,
  • Christine Jones,
  • Caroline Kilbourne,
  • Ralph P. Kraft,
  • Erwin Lau,
  • Maxim Markevitch,
  • Dan McCammon,
  • Daisuke Nagai,
  • Dylan Nelson,
  • Anna Ogorzalek,
  • Benjamin D. Oppenheimer,
  • Arnab Sarkar,
  • Yuanyuan Su,
  • Nhut Truong,
  • Sylvain Veilleux,
  • Stephan Vladutescu-Zopp,
  • Irina Zhuravleva
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (08/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acdeec
abstract + abstract -

The circumgalactic medium (CGM) plays a crucial role in galaxy evolution as it fuels star formation, retains metals ejected from the galaxies, and hosts gas flows in and out of galaxies. For Milky Way-type and more-massive galaxies, the bulk of the CGM is in hot phases best accessible at X-ray wavelengths. However, our understanding of the CGM remains largely unconstrained due to its tenuous nature. A promising way to probe the CGM is via X-ray absorption studies. Traditional absorption studies utilize bright background quasars, but this method probes the CGM in a pencil beam, and, due to the rarity of bright quasars, the galaxy population available for study is limited. Large-area, high spectral resolution X-ray microcalorimeters offer a new approach to exploring the CGM in emission and absorption. Here, we demonstrate that the cumulative X-ray emission from cosmic X-ray background sources can probe the CGM in absorption. We construct column density maps of major X-ray ions from the Magneticum simulation and build realistic mock images of nine galaxies to explore the detectability of X-ray absorption lines arising from the large-scale CGM. We conclude that the O VII absorption line is detectable around individual massive galaxies at the 3σ-6σ confidence level. For Milky Way-type galaxies, the O VII and O VIII absorption lines are detectable at the ~ 6σ and ~ 3σ levels even beyond the virial radius when coadding data from multiple galaxies. This approach complements emission studies, does not require additional exposures, and will allow for probing the baryon budget and the CGM at the largest scales.

(1200)Enhanced Charm C P Asymmetries from Final State Interactions
  • I. Bediaga,
  • T. Frederico,
  • P. C. Magalhães
Physical Review Letters (08/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.131.051802
abstract + abstract -

We show that final state interactions (FSI) within a C P T invariant two-channel framework can enhance the charge-parity (C P ) violation difference between D0→π-π+ and D0→K-K+ decays up to the current experimental value. This result relies upon (i) the dominant tree level diagram, (ii) the well-known experimental values for the D0→π-π+ and D0→K-K+ branching ratios, and (iii) the π π →π π and π π →K K scattering data to extract the strong phase difference and inelasticity. Based on well-grounded theoretical properties, we find the sign and bulk value of the Δ AC P and AC P(D0→π-π+) recently observed by the LHCb Collaboration.

(1199)Anomalous Collective Dynamics of Autochemotactic Populations
  • Jasper van der Kolk,
  • Florian Raßhofer,
  • Richard Swiderski,
  • Astik Haldar,
  • Abhik Basu
  • +1
Physical Review Letters (08/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.131.088201
abstract + abstract -

While the role of local interactions in nonequilibrium phase transitions is well studied, a fundamental understanding of the effects of long-range interactions is lacking. We study the critical dynamics of reproducing agents subject to autochemotactic interactions and limited resources. A renormalization group analysis reveals distinct scaling regimes for fast (attractive or repulsive) interactions; for slow signal transduction, the dynamics is dominated by a diffusive fixed point. Furthermore, we present a correction to the Keller-Segel nonlinearity emerging close to the extinction threshold and a novel nonlinear mechanism that stabilizes the continuous transition against the emergence of a characteristic length scale due to a chemotactic collapse.

(1198)The SATIN project - I. Turbulent multiphase ISM in Milky Way simulations with SNe feedback from stellar clusters
  • Rebekka Bieri,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Sam Geen,
  • Jonathan P. Coles,
  • Rüdiger Pakmor
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (08/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1710
abstract + abstract -

We introduce the star formation and supernova (SN) feedback model of the SATIN (Simulating AGNs Through ISM with Non-Equilibrium Effects) project to simulate the evolution of the star forming multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) of entire disc galaxies. This galaxy-wide implementation of a successful ISM feedback model tested in small box simulations naturally covers an order of magnitude in gas surface density, shear and radial motions. It is implemented in the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES at a peak resolution of 9 pc. New stars are represented by star cluster (sink) particles with individual SN delay times for massive stars. With SN feedback, cooling, and gravity, the galactic ISM develops a three-phase structure. The star formation rates naturally follow observed scaling relations for the local Milky Way gas surface density. SNe drive additional turbulence in the warm (300 < T < 104 K) gas and increase the kinetic energy of the cold gas, cooling out of the warm phase. The majority of the gas leaving the galactic ISM is warm and hot with mass loading factors of 3 ≤ η ≤ 10 up to h = 5 kpc away from the galaxy. While the hot gas is leaving the system, the warm and cold gas falls back onto the disc in a galactic fountain flow. The inclusion of other stellar feedback processes from massive stars seems to be needed to reduce the rate at which stars form at higher surface densities and to increase/decrease the amount of warm/cold gas.

(1197)Using PIC and PIC-MHD to investigate cosmic ray acceleration in mildly relativistic shocks
  • Artem Bohdan,
  • Anabella Araudo,
  • Allard Jan van Marle,
  • Fabien Casse,
  • Alexandre Marcowith
abstract + abstract -

Astrophysical shocks create cosmic rays by accelerating charged particles to relativistic speeds. However, the relative contribution of various types of shocks to the cosmic ray spectrum is still the subject of ongoing debate. Numerical studies have shown that in the non-relativistic regime, oblique shocks are capable of accelerating cosmic rays, depending on the Alfvénic Mach number of the shock. We now seek to extend this study into the mildly relativistic regime. In this case, dependence of the ion reflection rate on the shock obliquity is different compared to the nonrelativistic regime. Faster relativistic shocks are perpendicular for the majority of shock obliquity angles therefore their ability to initialize efficient DSA is limited. We define the ion injection rate using fully kinetic PIC simulation where we follow the formation of the shock and determine the fraction of ions that gets involved into formation of the shock precursor in the mildly relativistic regime covering a Lorentz factor range from 1 to 3. Then, with this result, we use a combined PIC-MHD method to model the large-scale evolution of the shock with the ion injection recipe dependent on the local shock obliquity. This methodology accounts for the influence of the self-generated or pre-existing upstream turbulence on the shock obliquity which allows study substantially larger and longer simulations compared to classical hybrid techniques.

(1196)Supernova Simulations Confront SN 1987A Neutrinos
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Malte Heinlein,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka,
  • Georg Raffelt,
  • Edoardo Vitagliano
abstract + abstract -

We return to interpreting the historical SN~1987A neutrino data from a modern perspective. To this end, we construct a suite of spherically symmetric supernova models with the Prometheus-Vertex code, using four different equations of state and five choices of final baryonic neutron-star (NS) mass in the 1.36-1.93 M$_\odot$ range. Our models include muons and proto-neutron star (PNS) convection by a mixing-length approximation. The time-integrated signals of our 1.44 M$_\odot$ models agree reasonably well with the combined data of the four relevant experiments, IMB, Kam-II, BUST, and LSD, but the high-threshold IMB detector alone favors a NS mass of 1.7-1.8 M$_\odot$, whereas Kam-II alone prefers a mass around 1.4 M$_\odot$. The cumulative energy distributions in these two detectors are well matched by models for such NS masses, and the previous tension between predicted mean neutrino energies and the combined measurements is gone, with and without flavor swap. Generally, our predicted signals do not strongly depend on assumptions about flavor mixing, because the PNS flux spectra depend only weakly on antineutrino flavor. While our models show compatibility with the events detected during the first seconds, PNS convection and nucleon correlations in the neutrino opacities lead to short PNS cooling times of 5-9 s, in conflict with the late event bunches in Kam-II and BUST after 8-9 s, which are also difficult to explain by background. Speculative interpretations include the onset of fallback of transiently ejected material onto the NS, a late phase transition in the nuclear medium, e.g., from hadronic to quark matter, or other effects that add to the standard PNS cooling emission and either stretch the signal or provide a late source of energy. More research, including systematic 3D simulations, is needed to assess these open issues.

(1195)Minimal Basis for Exact Time Dependent Kernels in Cosmological Perturbation Theory and Application to $\Lambda$CDM and $w_0w_a$CDM
  • Michael Hartmeier,
  • Mathias Garny
abstract + abstract -

We derive a minimal basis of kernels furnishing the perturbative expansion of the density contrast and velocity divergence in powers of the initial density field that is applicable to cosmological models with arbitrary expansion history, thereby relaxing the commonly adopted Einstein-de-Sitter (EdS) approximation. For this class of cosmological models, the non-linear kernels are at every order given by a sum of terms, each of which factorizes into a time-dependent growth factor and a wavenumber-dependent basis function. We show how to reduce the set of basis functions to a minimal amount, and give explicit expressions up to order $n=5$. We find that for this minimal basis choice, each basis function individually displays the expected scaling behaviour due to momentum conservation, being non-trivial at $n\geq 4$. This is a highly desirable property for numerical evaluation of loop corrections. In addition, it allows us to match the density field to an effective field theory (EFT) description for cosmologies with an arbitrary expansion history, which we explicitly derive at order four. We evaluate the differences to the EdS approximation for $\Lambda$CDM and $w_0w_a$CDM, paying special attention to the irreducible cosmology dependence that cannot be absorbed into EFT terms for the one-loop bispectrum. Finally, we provide algebraic recursion relations for a special generalization of the EdS approximation that retains its simplicity and is relevant for mixed hot and cold dark matter models.

(1194)White and green rust chimneys accumulate RNA in a ferruginous chemical garden
  • Vanessa Helmbrecht,
  • Maximilian Weingart,
  • Frieder Klein,
  • Dieter Braun,
  • William D. Orsi
Geobiology (08/2023) doi:10.1111/gbi.12572
abstract + abstract -

Mechanisms of nucleic acid accumulation were likely critical to life's emergence in the ferruginous oceans of the early Earth. How exactly prebiotic geological settings accumulated nucleic acids from dilute aqueous solutions, is poorly understood. As a possible solution to this concentration problem, we simulated the conditions of prebiotic low-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vents in co-precipitation experiments to investigate the potential of ferruginous chemical gardens to accumulate nucleic acids via sorption. The injection of an alkaline solution into an artificial ferruginous solution under anoxic conditions (O2 < 0.01% of present atmospheric levels) and at ambient temperatures, caused the precipitation of amakinite (“white rust”), which quickly converted to chloride-containing fougerite (“green rust”). RNA was only extractable from the ferruginous solution in the presence of a phosphate buffer, suggesting RNA in solution was bound to Fe2+ ions. During chimney formation, this iron-bound RNA rapidly accumulated in the white and green rust chimney structure from the surrounding ferruginous solution at the fastest rates in the initial white rust phase and correspondingly slower rates in the following green rust phase. This represents a new mechanism for nucleic acid accumulation in the ferruginous oceans of the early Earth, in addition to wet-dry cycles and may have helped to concentrate RNA in a dilute prebiotic ocean.

(1193)Galaxy Cluster simulations with a spectral Cosmic Ray model -- "Wrong Way" Radio Relics
  • Ludwig M. Böss,
  • Ulrich P. Steinwandel,
  • Klaus Dolag
abstract + abstract -

Non-thermal emission from relativistic electrons gives insight into the strength and morphology of intra-cluster magnetic fields, as well as providing powerful tracers of structure formation shocks. Emission caused by Cosmic Ray (CR) protons on the other hand still challenges current observations and is therefore testing models of proton acceleration at intra-cluster shocks. Large-scale simulations including the effects of CRs have been difficult to achieve and have been mainly reduced to simulating an overall energy budget, or tracing CR populations in post-processing of simulation output and has often been done for either protons or electrons. We use an efficient on-the-fly Fokker-Planck solver to evolve distributions of CR protons and electrons within every resolution element of our simulation. The solver accounts for CR acceleration at intra-cluster shocks, based on results of recent PIC simulations, re-acceleration due to shocks and MHD turbulence, adiabatic changes and radiative losses of electrons. We apply this model to zoom simulations of galaxy clusters, recently used to show the evolution of the small-scale turbulent dynamo on cluster scales. For these simulations we use a spectral resolution of 48 bins over 6 orders of magnitude in momentum for electrons and 12 bins over 6 orders of magnitude in momentum for protons. We present preliminary results about a possible formation mechanism for Wrong Way Radio Relics in our simulation.

(1192)Small but mighty: High-resolution spectroscopy of ultra-hot Jupiter atmospheres with compact telescopes. KELT-9 b's transmission spectrum with Wendelstein's FOCES Spectrograph
  • N. W. Borsato,
  • H. J. Hoeijmakers,
  • D. Cont,
  • D. Kitzmann,
  • J. Ehrhardt
  • +7
  • C. Gössl,
  • C. Ries,
  • B. Prinoth,
  • K. Molaverdikhani,
  • B. Ercolano,
  • H. Kellerman,
  • Kevin Heng
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

When observing transmission spectra produced by atmospheres of ultra-hot Jupiters, large telescopes are typically the instrument of choice due to the very weak signal of the planet's atmosphere. This study aims to alleviate the desire for large telescopes by illustrating that the same science is possible with smaller telescope classes. We use the cross-correlation technique to showcase the potential of the high-resolution spectrograph FOCES at Wendelstein Observatory and demonstrate its potential to resolve the atmosphere of the ultra-hot Jupiter, KELT-9 b. A performance comparison is conducted between FOCES and HARPS-N spectrographs, considering both single transit and combined observations over three nights. With FOCES, we have detected seven species in KELT-9 b's atmosphere: Ti II, Fe I, Fe II, Na I, Mg I, Na II, Cr II, Sc II. Although HARPS-N surpasses FOCES in performance, our results reveal that smaller telescope classes are capable of resolving ultra-hot Jupiter atmospheres. This broadens the scope of potential studies, allowing for investigations into phenomena like temporal variations in atmospheric signals and the atmospheric loss characteristics of these close-in planets.

(1191)TeV pion bumps in the gamma-ray spectra of flaring blazars
  • M. Petropoulou,
  • A. Mastichiadis,
  • G. Vasilopoulos,
  • D. Paneque,
  • J. Becerra González
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

(Abridged) Very high-energy (VHE, $E>100$ GeV) observations of the blazar Mrk 501 with MAGIC in 2014 have provided evidence for an unusual narrow spectral feature at about 3 TeV during an extreme X-ray flaring activity. The one-zone synchrotron-self Compton scenario, widely used in blazar broadband spectral modeling, fails to explain the narrow TeV component. Motivated by this rare observation, we propose an alternative model for the production of narrow features in the VHE spectra of flaring blazars. These spectral features may result from the decay of neutral pions ($\pi^0$ bumps) that are in turn produced via interactions of protons (of tens of TeV energy) with energetic photons, whose density increases during hard X-ray flares. We explore the conditions needed for the emergence of narrow $\pi^0$ bumps in VHE blazar spectra during X-ray flares reaching synchrotron energies $\sim100$ keV using time-dependent radiative transfer calculations. We focus on high-synchrotron peaked (HSP) blazars, which consist the majority of VHE detected extragalactic sources. We find that synchrotron-dominated flares with peak energies $\gtrsim100$ keV can be ideal periods for the search of $\pi^0$ bumps in the VHE spectra of HSP blazars. Application of the model to the SED of Mrk 501 on MJD 56857.98 shows that the VHE spectrum of the flare is described well by the sum of an SSC component and a distinct $\pi^0$ bump centered at 3 TeV. Spectral fitting of simulated SSC+$\pi^0$ spectra for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) show that a $\pi^0$ bump could be detected at a 5$\sigma$ significance level with a 30-min exposure.

(1190)The missing quasar image in the gravitationally lensed quasar HE0230$-$2130: implications on dark satellites and the cored lens mass distribution
  • S. Ertl,
  • S. Schuldt,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • P. L. Schechter,
  • A. Halkola
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

The quasar HE0230$-$2130 is lensed by two galaxies at similar redshifts into four observed images. Using modeled quasar positions from fitting the brightness of the quasar images in ground-based imaging data from the Magellan telescope, we find that lens mass models where both galaxies are each parametrized with a singular power-law (PL) profile predict five quasar images. One of the predicted images is unobserved even though it is distinctively offset from the lensing galaxies and is bright enough to be observable. This missing image gives rise to new opportunities to study the galaxies' mass distribution. To interpret the quad configuration of this system, we test different profile assumption with the aim to obtain lens mass models that predicts correctly only four observed images. We test the effect of adopting cored profiles for the lensing galaxies, of external shear, and of additional profiles to represent a dark matter clump. By comparing the Bayesian evidence of different model parametrizations, we favor the model class that consists of two singular PL profiles for the lensing galaxies and a cored isothermal sphere in the region of the previously predicted fifth images (rNIS profile). We estimate the mass of the rNIS clumps inside its Einstein radius and find that 18\% are in the range $10^6 M_{\odot} \leq M_{\rm rNIS}\leq 10^9 M_{\odot}$, which is the predicted mass range of dark matter subhalos in cold dark matter simulations, or the mass of low-mass dark matter satellite galaxies. The second most likely model class, with a relative probability of 94\%, is the model where the smaller lensing galaxy is described by a cored PL profile with external shear. Our study demonstrates that lensed quasar images are sensitive to dark matter structure in the gravitational lens.

(1189)FAUST IX. Multi-band, multi-scale dust study of L1527 IRS. Evidence for dust properties variations within the envelope of a Class 0/I YSO
  • L. Cacciapuoti,
  • E. Macias,
  • A. J. Maury,
  • C. J. Chandler,
  • N. Sakai
  • +23
  • Ł. Tychoniec,
  • S. Viti,
  • A. Natta,
  • M. De Simone,
  • A. Miotello,
  • C. Codella,
  • C. Ceccarelli,
  • L. Podio,
  • D. Fedele,
  • D. Johnstone,
  • Y. Shirley,
  • B. J. Liu,
  • E. Bianchi,
  • Z. E. Zhang,
  • J. Pineda,
  • L. Loinard,
  • F. Ménard,
  • U. Lebreuilly,
  • R. S. Klessen,
  • P. Hennebelle,
  • S. Molinari,
  • L. Testi,
  • S. Yamamoto
  • (less)
Astronomy & Astrophysics (08/2023) e-Print:2306.02852 doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202346204
abstract + abstract -

Early dust grain growth in protostellar envelopes infalling on young discs has been suggested in recent studies, supporting the hypothesis that dust particles start to agglomerate already during the Class 0/I phase of young stellar objects (YSOs). If this early evolution were confirmed, it would impact the usually assumed initial conditions of planet formation, where only particles with sizes ≲0.25μm are usually considered for protostellar envelopes. We aim to determine the maximum grain size of the dust population in the envelope of the Class 0/I protostar L1527 IRS, located in the Taurus star-forming region (140 pc). We use Atacama Large millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) and Atacama Compact Array (ACA) archival data and present new observations, in an effort to both enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the faint extended continuum emission and properly account for the compact emission from the inner disc. Using observations performed in four wavelength bands and extending the spatial range of previous studies, we aim to place tight constraints on the spectral (α) and dust emissivity (β) indices in the envelope of L1527 IRS. We find a rather flat α∼ 3.0 profile in the range 50-2000 au. Accounting for the envelope temperature profile, we derive values for the dust emissivity index, 0.9 < β < 1.6, and reveal a tentative, positive outward gradient. This could be interpreted as a distribution of mainly ISM-like grains at 2000 au, gradually progressing to (sub-)millimetre-sized dust grains in the inner envelope, where at R=300 au, β = 1.1 +/- 0.1. Our study supports a variation of the dust properties in the envelope of L1527 IRS. We discuss how this can be the result of in-situ grain growth, dust differential collapse from the parent core, or upward transport of disc large grains.

(1188)The Role of Chemically Innocent Polyanions in Active, Chemically Fueled Complex Coacervate Droplets
  • Fabian Späth,
  • Anton S. Maier,
  • Michele Stasi,
  • Alexander M. Bergmann,
  • Kerstin Halama
  • +3
  • Monika Wenisch,
  • Bernhard Rieger,
  • Job Boekhoven
  • (less)
Angewandte Chemie (08/2023) doi:10.1002/anie.202309318
abstract + abstract -

Complex coacervation describes the liquid-liquid phase separation of oppositely charged polymers. Active coacervates are droplets in which one of the electrolyte's affinity is regulated by chemical reactions. These droplets are particularly interesting because they are tightly regulated by reaction kinetics. For example, they serve as a model for membraneless organelles that are also often regulated by biochemical transformations such as post-translational modifications. They are also a great protocell model or could be used to synthesize life–they spontaneously emerge in response to reagents, compete, and decay when all nutrients have been consumed. However, the role of the unreactive building blocks, e.g., the polymeric compounds, is poorly understood. Here, we show the important role of the chemically innocent, unreactive polyanion of our chemically fueled coacervation droplets. We show that the polyanion drastically influences the resulting droplets′ life cycle without influencing the chemical reaction cycle–either they are very dynamic or have a delayed dissolution. Additionally, we derive a mechanistic understanding of our observations and show how additives and rational polymer design help to create the desired coacervate emulsion life cycles.

(1187)Factorization at next-to-leading power and endpoint divergences in gg → h production
  • Ze Long Liu,
  • Matthias Neubert,
  • Marvin Schnubel,
  • Xing Wang
Journal of High Energy Physics (07/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP06(2023)183
abstract + abstract -

We derive a factorization theorem for the Higgs-boson production amplitude in gluon-gluon fusion induced by a light-quark loop, working at next-to-leading power in soft-collinear effective theory. The factorization is structurally similar to that obtained for the h → γγ decay amplitude induced by a light-quark loop, but additional complications arise because of external color charges. We show how the refactorization-based subtraction scheme developed in previous work leads to a factorization theorem free of endpoint divergences. We use renormalization-group techniques to predict the logarithmically enhanced terms in the three-loop gg → h form factor of order αs3lnk(−Mh2/mb2 ) with k = 6, 5, 4, 3. We also resum the first three towers of leading logarithms, αsnln2n −k(−Mh2/mb2 ) with k = 0, 1, 2, to all orders of perturbation theory.

(1186)High-Dimensional Bayesian Likelihood Normalisation for CRESST's Background Model
  • G. Angloher,
  • S. Banik,
  • G. Benato,
  • A. Bento,
  • A. Bertolini
  • +57
  • R. Breier,
  • C. Bucci,
  • J. Burkhart,
  • L. Canonica,
  • A. D'Addabbo,
  • S. Di Lorenzo,
  • L. Einfalt,
  • A. Erb,
  • F. v. Feilitzsch,
  • S. Fichtinger,
  • D. Fuchs,
  • A. Garai,
  • V. M. Ghete,
  • P. Gorla,
  • P. V. Guillaumon,
  • S. Gupta,
  • D. Hauff,
  • M. Jeskovsky,
  • J. Jochum,
  • M. Kaznacheeva,
  • A. Kinast,
  • H. Kluck,
  • H. Kraus,
  • S. Kuckuk,
  • A. Langenkaemper,
  • M. Mancuso,
  • L. Marini,
  • L. Meyer,
  • V. Mokina,
  • A. Nilima,
  • M. Olmi,
  • T. Ortmann,
  • C. Pagliarone,
  • L. Pattavina,
  • F. Petricca,
  • W. Potzel,
  • P. Povinec,
  • F. Proebst,
  • F. Pucci,
  • F. Reindl,
  • J. Rothe,
  • K. Schaeffner,
  • J. Schieck,
  • D. Schmiedmayer,
  • S. Schoenert,
  • C. Schwertner,
  • M. Stahlberg,
  • L. Stodolsky,
  • C. Strandhagen,
  • R. Strauss,
  • I. Usherov,
  • F. Wagner,
  • M. Willers,
  • V. Zema,
  • F. Ferella,
  • M. Laubenstein,
  • S. Nisi
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Using CaWO$_4$ crystals as cryogenic calorimeters, the CRESST experiment searches for nuclear recoils caused by the scattering of potential Dark Matter particles. A reliable identification of a potential signal crucially depends on an accurate background model. In this work we introduce an improved normalisation method for CRESST's model of the electromagnetic backgrounds. Spectral templates, based on Geant4 simulations, are normalised via a Bayesian likelihood fit to experimental background data. Contrary to our previous work, no assumption of partial secular equilibrium is required, which results in a more robust and versatile applicability. Furthermore, considering the correlation between all background components allows us to explain 82.7% of the experimental background within [1 keV, 40 keV], an improvement of 18.6% compared to our previous method.

(1185)Kaon Theory: 50 Years Later
  • Andrzej J. Buras
abstract + abstract -

We summarize the status of the Kaon Theory 50 years after the seminal paper of Kobayashi and Maskawa who pointed out that six quarks are necessary to have CP violation in the Standard Model (SM) and presented a parametrization of a $3\times 3$ unitary matrix that after the discovery of the charm quark in 1974 and the $b$ quark in 1977 dominated the field of flavour changing processes. One of the main goals of flavour physics since then was the determination of the four parameters of this matrix, which we will choose here to be $|V_{us}|$, $|V_{cb}|$ and the two angles of the unitarity triangle, $\beta$ and $\gamma$ with $|V_{us}|$ introduced by Cabibbo in 1963. I will summarize recent strategy for determination of these parameters without new physics (NP) infection. It is based on the conjecture of the absence of relevant NP contributions to $\Delta F=2$ processes that indeed can be demonstrated by a negative rapid test: the $|V_{cb}|-\gamma$ plot. This in turn allows to obtain SM predictions for rare $K$ and $B$ decays that are most precise to date. We present strategies for the explanation of the anticipated anomaly in the ratio $\varepsilon'/\varepsilon$ and the observed anomalies in $b\to s\mu^+\mu^-$ transitions that are consistent with our $\Delta F=2$ conjecture. In particular, the absence of NP in the parameter $\varepsilon_K$, still allows for significant NP effects in $\varepsilon'/\varepsilon$ and in rare Kaon decays, moreover in a correlated manner. Similar the absence of NP in $\Delta M_s$ combined with anomalies in $b\to s\mu^+\mu^-$ transitions hints for the presence of right-handed quark currents. We also discuss how the nature of neutrinos, Dirac vs. Majorana one, can be probed in $K\to\pi\nu\bar\nu$ and $B\to K(K^*)\nu\bar\nu$ decays. The present status of the $\Delta I=1/2$ rule and of $\varepsilon'/\varepsilon$ is summarized.

(1184)BIFROST: simulating compact subsystems in star clusters using a hierarchical fourth-order forward symplectic integrator code
  • Antti Rantala,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Francesco Paolo Rizzuto,
  • Matias Mannerkoski,
  • Christian Partmann
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1360
abstract + abstract -

We present BIFROST, an extended version of the GPU-accelerated hierarchical fourth-order forward symplectic integrator code FROST. BIFROST (BInaries in FROST) can efficiently evolve collisional stellar systems with arbitrary binary fractions up to $f_\mathrm{bin}=100~{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ by using secular and regularized integration for binaries, triples, multiple systems, or small clusters around black holes within the fourth-order forward integrator framework. Post-Newtonian (PN) terms up to order PN3.5 are included in the equations of motion of compact subsystems with optional three-body and spin-dependent terms. PN1.0 terms for interactions with black holes are computed everywhere in the simulation domain. The code has several merger criteria (gravitational-wave inspirals, tidal disruption events, and stellar and compact object collisions) with the addition of relativistic recoil kicks for compact object mergers. We show that for systems with N particles the scaling of the code remains good up to NGPU ~ 40 × N/106 GPUs and that the increasing binary fractions up to 100 per cent hardly increase the code running time (less than a factor ~1.5). We also validate the numerical accuracy of BIFROST by presenting a number of star clusters simulations the most extreme ones including a core collapse and a merger of two intermediate mass black holes with a relativistic recoil kick.

(1183)The phase structure of cosmic ray driven outflows in stream fed disc galaxies
  • N. Peschken,
  • M. Hanasz,
  • T. Naab,
  • D. Wóltański,
  • A. Gawryszczak
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1358
abstract + abstract -

Feeding with gas in streams is well established to be an important galaxy growth mechanism. Using an idealized set-up of an isolated galaxy, we study the impact of stream feeding (with 107 MMyr-1 rate) on the star formation and outflows of disc galaxies with ~1011 M baryonic mass. The magnetohydrodynamical simulations are carried out with the PIERNIK code and include star formation, feedback from supernova, and cosmic ray advection and diffusion, on a uniform grid with 195 pc spatial resolution. We find that the introduction of a cold gas stream accreted by the disc enhances galactic star formation. Lower angular momentum streams result in more compact discs, higher star formation rates and stronger outflows. In agreement with previous studies, models including cosmic rays launch stronger outflows travelling much further into the galactic halo. Cosmic ray supported outflows are also cooler than supernova only driven outflows. With cosmic rays, the star formation is suppressed and the thermal pressure is reduced. We find evidence for two distinct outflow phases. The warm outflows have high angular momentum and stay close to the galactic disc, while the hot outflow phase has low angular momentum and escapes from the centre deep into the halo. Cosmic rays can therefore have a strong impact on galaxy evolution by removing low angular momentum, possibly metal enriched gas from the disc and injecting it into the circumgalactic medium.

(1182)The survey of planetary nebulae in Andromeda (M 31) VI. Kinematics of M 31 inner-halo substructures and comparison with major-merger simulation predictions
  • Souradeep Bhattacharya,
  • Magda Arnaboldi,
  • Francois Hammer,
  • Yanbin Yang,
  • Ortwin Gerhard
  • +2
  • Nelson Caldwell,
  • Kenneth C. Freeman
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1378
abstract + abstract -

M 31 has experienced a recent tumultuous merger history, as evidenced from the many substructures that are still present in its inner halo, particularly the G1-Clump, NE-, and W-shelves and the Giant Stream (GS). We present planetary nebulae (PNe) line-of-sight velocity (LOSV) measurements covering the entire spatial extent of these four substructures. We further use predictions for the satellite and host stellar particle phase space distributions for a major merger (mass ratio = 1:4) simulation to help interpret the data. The measured PN LOSVs for the two shelves and GS are consistent with those from red giant branch stars. Their projected radius versus LOSV phase space, links the formation of these substructures in a single unique event, consistent with a major merger. We find the G1-clump to be dynamically cold compared to the M 31 disc ($\rm \sigma _{LOS, PN}=27$ km s-1), consistent with pre-merger disc material. Such a structure can not form in a minor merger (mass ratio ~1:20) and is therefore a smoking gun for the recent major merger event in M 31. The simulation also predicts the formation of a predominantly in situ halo from splashed-out pre-merger disc material, in qualitative agreement with observations of a metal-rich inner halo in M 31. Juxtaposed with previous results for its discs, we conclude that M 31 has had a recent (2.5-4 Gyr ago) 'wet' major merger with the satellite falling along the GS, heating the pre-merger disc to form the M 31 thicker disc, rebuilding the M 31 thin disc, and creating the aforementioned inner-halo substructures.

(1181)Heavy neutron stars from light scalars
  • Reuven Balkin,
  • Javi Serra,
  • Konstantin Springmann,
  • Stefan Stelzl,
  • Andreas Weiler
abstract + abstract -

We study how light scalar fields can change the stellar landscape by triggering a new phase of nuclear matter. Scalars coupled to nucleons can develop a non-trivial expectation value at finite baryon density. This sourcing of a scalar reduces the nucleon mass and provides an additional energy density and pressure source. Under generic conditions, a new ground state of nuclear matter emerges, with striking implications for the configuration of stellar remnants. Notably, neutron stars in the new ground state can be significantly heavier than QCD equations of state currently predict. We also find hybrid stellar compositions and stable self-bound objects with sizes as small as the Compton wavelength of the scalar. We discuss several specific realizations of this scenario: the QCD axion and lighter generalizations thereof and linearly or quadratically coupled scalar fields effectively equivalent to a class of scalar-tensor modification of gravity. Lastly, we explore phenomenological signatures relevant to electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations of neutron stars, such as atypical compactness and instability gaps in radii.

(1180)The first X-ray look at SMSS J114447.77-430859.3: the most luminous quasar in the last 9 Gyr
  • E. S. Kammoun,
  • Z. Igo,
  • J. M. Miller,
  • A. C. Fabian,
  • M. T. Reynolds
  • +16
  • A. Merloni,
  • D. Barret,
  • E. Nardini,
  • P. O. Petrucci,
  • E. Piconcelli,
  • S. Barnier,
  • J. Buchner,
  • T. Dwelly,
  • I. Grotova,
  • M. Krumpe,
  • T. Liu,
  • K. Nandra,
  • A. Rau,
  • M. Salvato,
  • T. Urrutia,
  • J. Wolf
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad952
abstract + abstract -

SMSS J114447.77-430859.3 (z = 0.83) has been identified in the SkyMapper Southern Survey as the most luminous quasar in the last $\sim 9\, \rm Gyr$ . In this paper, we report on the eROSITA/Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) observations of the source from the eROSITA All Sky Survey, along with presenting results from recent monitoring performed using Swift, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR. The source shows a clear variability by factors of ~10 and ~2.7 over time-scales of a year and of a few days, respectively. When fit with an absorbed power law plus high-energy cutoff, the X-ray spectra reveal a Γ = 2.2 ± 0.2 and $E_{\rm cut}=23^{+26}_{-5}\, \rm keV$ . Assuming Comptonization, we estimate a coronal optical depth and electron temperature of $\tau =2.5-5.3\, (5.2-8)$ and $kT=8-18\, (7.5-14)\, \rm keV$ , respectively, for a slab (spherical) geometry. The broadband SED is successfully modelled by assuming either a standard accretion disc illuminated by a central X-ray source, or a thin disc with a slim disc emissivity profile. The former model results in a black hole mass estimate of the order of $10^{10}\, \mathrm{ M}_\odot$ , slightly higher than prior optical estimates; meanwhile, the latter model suggests a lower mass. Both models suggest sub-Eddington accretion when assuming a spinning black hole, and a compact ($\sim 10\, r_{\rm g}$ ) X-ray corona. The measured intrinsic column density and the Eddington ratio strongly suggest the presence of an outflow driven by radiation pressure. This is also supported by variation of absorption by an order of magnitude over the period of $\sim 900 \ \rm d$ .

PhD Thesis
(1179)Specification of Distributed Computing for Small Satellite Control
  • Sebastian Rückerl - Advisor: Ulrich Walter
Thesis (07/2023) link
abstract + abstract -

A distributed system increases flexibility and enables the reuse of components between different CubeSat missions. Within this thesis, we present a suitable distributed system and evaluate its performance regarding distributed real-time applications with a major focus on time synchronization and timed execution capabilities. Additionally, we evaluate the radiation tolerance of a target microcontroller to assure reliable operation in the South Atlantic Anomaly.

(1178)Modelling supernova nebular lines in 3D with EXTRASS
  • Bart F. A. van Baal,
  • Anders Jerkstrand,
  • Annop Wongwathanarat,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1488
abstract + abstract -

We present EXplosive TRAnsient Spectral Simulator (EXTRASS), a newly developed code aimed at generating 3D spectra for supernovae in the nebular phase by using modern multidimensional explosion models as input. It is well established that supernovae are asymmetric by nature, and that the morphology is encoded in the line profiles during the nebular phase, months after the explosion. In this work, we use EXTRASS to study one such simulation of a $3.3\, \mathrm{ M}_\odot$ He-core explosion ($M_\text{ejecta}=1.3\, M_\odot$, $E_\text{kin}=1.05\times 10^{51}\,$erg) modelled with the Prometheus-HotB code and evolved to the homologous phase. Our code calculates the energy deposition from the radioactive decay of 56Ni → 56Co → 56Fe and uses this to determine the Non-Local-Thermodynamic-Equilibrium temperature, excitation, and ionization structure across the nebula. From the physical condition solutions we generate the emissivities to construct spectra depending on viewing angles. Our results show large variations in the line profiles with viewing angles, as diagnosed by the first three moments of the line profiles; shifts, widths, and skewness. We compare line profiles from different elements, and study the morphology of line-of-sight slices that determine the flux at each part of a line profile. We find that excitation conditions can sometimes make the momentum vector of the ejecta emitting in the excited states significantly different from that of the bulk of the ejecta of the respective element, thus giving blueshifted lines for bulk receding material, and vice versa. We compare the 3.3 M He-core model to observations of the Type Ib supernova SN 2007Y.

(1177)THE THREE HUNDRED Project: the evolution of physical baryon profiles
  • Qingyang Li,
  • Weiguang Cui,
  • Xiaohu Yang,
  • Romeel Davé,
  • Elena Rasia
  • +5
  • Stefano Borgani,
  • Meneghetti Massimo,
  • Alexander Knebe,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Jack Sayers
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1521
abstract + abstract -

The distribution of baryons provides a significant way to understand the formation of galaxy clusters by revealing the details of its internal structure and changes over time. In this paper, we present theoretical studies on the scaled profiles of physical properties associated with the baryonic components, including gas density, temperature, metallicity, pressure and entropy as well as stellar mass, metallicity and satellite galaxy number density in galaxy clusters from z = 4 to z = 0 by tracking their progenitors. These mass-complete simulated galaxy clusters are coming from THE THREE HUNDRED with two runs: GIZMO-SIMBA and GADGET-X. Through comparisons between the two simulations, and with observed profiles that are generally available at low redshift, we find that (1) the agreements between the two runs and observations are mostly at outer radii r ≳ 0.3r500, in line with the self-similarity assumption. While GADGET-X shows better agreements with the observed gas profiles in the central regions compared to GIZMO-SIMBA; (2) the evolution trends are generally consistent between the two simulations with slightly better consistency at outer radii. In detail, the gas density profile shows less discrepancy than the temperature and entropy profiles at high redshift. The differences in the cluster centre and gas properties imply different behaviours of the AGN models between GADGET-X and GIZMO-SIMBA, with the latter, maybe too strong for this cluster simulation. The high-redshift difference may be caused by the star formation and feedback models or hydrodynamics treatment, which requires observation constraints and understanding.

(1176)Prospects of detecting soft X-ray emission from typical WHIM filaments around massive clusters and the coma cluster soft excess
  • E. Churazov,
  • I. I. Khabibullin,
  • K. Dolag,
  • N. Lyskova,
  • R. A. Sunyaev
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1514
abstract + abstract -

While hot ICM in galaxy clusters makes these objects powerful X-ray sources, the cluster's outskirts and overdense gaseous filaments might give rise to much fainter sub-keV emission. Cosmological simulations show a prominent 'focusing' effect of rich clusters on the space density of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) filaments up to a distance of $\sim 10\, {\rm Mpc}$ (~ turnaround radius, rta) and beyond. Here, we use Magneticum simulations to characterize their properties in terms of integrated emission measure for a given temperature and overdensity cut and the level of contamination by the more dense gas. We suggest that the annuli $(\sim 0.5-1)\times \, r_{ta}$ around massive clusters might be the most promising sites for the search of the gas with overdensity ≲ 50. We model spectral signatures of the WHIM in the X-ray band and identify two distinct regimes for the gas at temperatures below and above $\sim 10^6\, {\rm K}$. Using this model, we estimate the sensitivity of X-ray telescopes to the WHIM spectral signatures. We found that the WHIM structures are within reach of future high spectral resolution missions, provided that the low-density gas is not extremely metal-poor. We then consider the Coma cluster observed by SRG/eROSITA during the CalPV phase as an example of a nearby massive object. We found that beyond the central r ~ 40 arcmin ($\sim 1100\, {\rm kpc}$) circle, where calibration uncertainties preclude clean separation of the extremely bright cluster emission from a possible softer component, the conservative upper limits are about an order of magnitude larger than the levels expected from simulations.

(1175)The $D^+_s \to K^+ \pi^+ \pi^-$ reaction and the scalar $f_0(500)$, $f_0(980)$ and $K^*_0 (700)$ resonances
  • L. R. Dai,
  • E. Oset
abstract + abstract -

We develop a model to reproduce the mass distributions of pairs of mesons in the Cabibbo-suppressed $D^+_s \to K^+ \pi^+ \pi^-$ decay. The largest contributions to the process comes from the $D^+_s \to K^+ \rho^0$ and $D^+_s \to K^{*0} \pi^+$ decay modes, but the $D^+_s \to K^*_0(1430) \pi^+$ and $D^+_s \to K^+ f_0(1370)$ modes also play a moderate role and all of them are introduced empirically. Instead, the contribution of the $f_0(500)$, $f_0(980)$ and $K^*_0(700)$ resonances is introduced dynamically by looking at the decay modes at the quark level, hadronizing $q \bar{q}$ pairs to give two mesons, and allowing these mesons to interact to finally produce the $K^+ \pi^+ \pi^-$ final state. These last three modes are correlated by means of only one parameter. We obtain a fair reproduction of the experimental data for the three mass distributions as well as the relative weight of the three light scalar mesons, which we see as further support for the nature of these states as dynamically generated from the interaction of pseudoscalar mesons.

(1174)Probing z ≳ six massive black holes with gravitational waves
  • Srija Chakraborty,
  • Simona Gallerani,
  • Tommaso Zana,
  • Alberto Sesana,
  • Milena Valentini
  • +4
  • David Izquierdo-Villalba,
  • Fabio Di Mascia,
  • Fabio Vito,
  • Paramita Barai
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1493
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the coalescence of massive black hole ($M_{\rm BH}\gtrsim 10^{6}~\rm {\rm M}_{\odot }$) binaries (MBHBs) at 6 < z < 10 by adopting a suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation, zoomed-in on biased (>3σ) overdense regions (Mh ~ 1012 M dark matter haloes at z = 6) of the Universe. We first analyse the impact of different resolutions and AGN feedback prescriptions on the merger rate, assuming instantaneous mergers. Then, we compute the halo bias correction factor due to the overdense simulated region. Our simulations predict merger rates that range between 3 and 15 $\rm yr^{-1}$ at z ~6, depending on the run considered, and after correcting for a bias factor of ~20-30. For our fiducial model, we further consider the effect of delay in the MBHB coalescence due to dynamical friction. We find that 83 per cent of MBHBs will merge within the Hubble time, and 21 per cent within 1 Gyr, namely the age of the Universe at z > 6. We finally compute the expected properties of the gravitational wave (GW) signals and find the fraction of LISA detectable events with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR > 5) to range between 66 per cent and 69 per cent. However, identifying the electro-magnetic counterpart of these events remains challenging due to the poor LISA sky localization that, for the loudest signals ($\mathcal {M}_c\sim 10^6~{{\rm M}_{\odot }}$ at z = 6), is around 10 $\rm deg^2$.

(1173)First Evidence of Multi-iron Subpopulations in the Bulge Fossil Fragment Candidate Liller 1
  • Chiara Crociati,
  • Elena Valenti,
  • Francesco R. Ferraro,
  • Cristina Pallanca,
  • Barbara Lanzoni
  • +7
  • Mario Cadelano,
  • Cristiano Fanelli,
  • Livia Origlia,
  • Silvia Leanza,
  • Emanuele Dalessandro,
  • Alessio Mucciarelli,
  • R. Michael Rich
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (07/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acd382
abstract + abstract -

In the context of a project aimed at characterizing the properties of the so-called Bulge Fossil Fragments (the fossil remnants of the bulge formation epoch), here we present the first determination of the metallicity distribution of Liller 1. For a sample of 64 individual member stars we used ESO-MUSE spectra to measure the equivalent width of the Ca II triplet and then derive the iron abundance. To test the validity of the adopted calibration in the metal-rich regime, the procedure was first applied to three reference bulge globular clusters (NGC 6569, NGC 6440, and NGC 6528). In all the three cases, we found single-component iron distributions, with abundance values fully in agreement with those reported in the literature. The application of the same methodology to Liller 1 yielded, instead, a clear bimodal iron distribution, with a subsolar component at [Fe/H] = -0.48 dex (σ = 0.22) and a supersolar component at [Fe/H] = +0.26 dex (σ = 0.17). The latter is found to be significantly more centrally concentrated than the metal-poor population, as expected in a self-enrichment scenario and in agreement with that found in another bulge system, Terzan 5. The obtained metallicity distribution is astonishingly similar to that predicted by the reconstructed star formation history of Liller 1, which is characterized by three main bursts and a low, but constant, activity of star formation over the entire lifetime. These findings provide further support to the possibility that, similar to Terzan 5, Liller 1 is also a Bulge Fossil Fragment. * Based on observations collected at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal (Chile), under the ESO-VLT Multi-Instrument Kinematic Survey (MIKiS survey) programs 106.21N5 and 105.20B9 (PI: Ferraro) and under MUSE science verification programs: 60.A-9489;60.A-9343.

(1172)TDCOSMO. XIII. Cosmological distance measurements in light of the mass-sheet degeneracy: Forecasts from strong lensing and integral field unit stellar kinematics
  • A. Yıldırım,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • G. C. -F. Chen,
  • E. Komatsu
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202142318
abstract + abstract -

Time-delay distance measurements of strongly lensed quasars have provided a powerful and independent probe of the current expansion rate of the Universe (H0). However, in light of the discrepancies between early- and late-time cosmological studies, current efforts revolve around the characterisation of systematic uncertainties in the methods. In this work we focus on the mass-sheet degeneracy (MSD), which is commonly considered a significant source of systematics in time-delay strong lensing studies, and aim to assess the constraining power provided by integral field unit (IFU) stellar kinematics. To this end, we approximated the MSD with a cored, two-parameter extension to the adopted lensing mass profiles (with core radius rc and mass-sheet parameter λint), which introduces a full degeneracy between λint and H0 from lensing data alone. In addition, we utilised spatially resolved mock IFU stellar kinematics of time-delay strong lenses, given the prospects of obtaining such high-quality data with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in the near future. We constructed joint strong lensing and generalised two-integral axisymmetric Jeans models, where the time delays, mock imaging, and IFU observations are used as input to constrain the mass profile of lens galaxies at the individual galaxy level and consequently yield joint constraints on the time-delay distance (DΔt) and the angular diameter distance (Dd) to the lens. We find that mock JWST-like stellar kinematics constrain the amount of internal mass sheet that is physically associated with the lens galaxy and limit its contribution to the uncertainties of DΔt and Dd, each at the ≤4% level, without assumptions on the background cosmological model. Incorporating additional uncertainties due to external mass sheets associated with mass structures along the lens line of sight, these distance constraints would translate to a ≲4% precision measurement on H0 in flat Λ cold dark matter cosmology for a single lens. Our study shows that future IFU stellar kinematics of time-delay lenses will be key in lifting the MSD on a per lens basis, assuming reasonable and physically motivated core sizes. However, even in the limit of infinite rc, where DΔt is fully degenerate with λint and is thus not constrained, stellar kinematics of the deflector, time delays, and imaging data will provide powerful constraints on Dd, which becomes the dominant source of information in the cosmological inference.

(1171)The optimized point-coupling interaction for the relativistic energy density functional of Hartree-Bogoliubov approach quantifying the nuclear bulk properties
  • Zi Xin Liu,
  • Yi Hua Lam,
  • Ning Lu,
  • Peter Ring
Physics Letters B (07/2023) doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2023.137946
abstract + abstract -

We propose a newly optimized nonlinear point-coupling parameterized interaction, PC-L3R, for the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov framework with a further optimized separable pairing force by fitting to observables, i.e., the binding energies of 91 spherical nuclei, charge radii of 63 nuclei, and 12 sets of mean pairing gaps consisting of 54 nuclei in total. The separable pairing force strengths of proton and neutron are optimized together with the point-coupling constants, and are justified in satisfactory reproducing the empirical pairing gaps. The comparison of experimental binding energies compiled in AME2020 for 91 nuclei with the ones generated from the present and other commonly used point-coupling interactions indicates that the implementation of PC-L3R in relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov yields the lowest root-mean-square deviation. The charge radii satisfactory agree with experiment. Meanwhile, PC-L3R is capable of estimating the saturation properties of the symmetric nuclear matter and of appropriately predicting the isospin and mass dependence of binding energy. The experimental odd-even staggering of single nucleon separation energies is well reproduced. The comparison of the estimated binding energies for 7,373 nuclei based on the PC-L3R and other point-coupling interactions is also presented.

(1170)Establishing the impact of luminous AGN with multi-wavelength observations and simulations
  • C. M. Harrison,
  • A. Girdhar,
  • S. R. Ward
abstract + abstract -

Cosmological simulations fail to reproduce realistic galaxy populations without energy injection from active galactic nuclei (AGN) into the interstellar medium (ISM) and circumgalactic medium (CGM); a process called `AGN feedback'. Consequently, observational work searches for evidence that luminous AGN impact their host galaxies. Here, we review some of this work. Multi-phase AGN outflows are common, some with potential for significant impact. Additionally, multiple feedback channels can be observed simultaneously; e.g., radio jets from `radio quiet' quasars can inject turbulence on ISM scales, and displace CGM-scale molecular gas. However, caution must be taken comparing outflows to simulations (e.g., kinetic coupling efficiencies) to infer feedback potential, due to a lack of comparable predictions. Furthermore, some work claims limited evidence for feedback because AGN live in gas-rich, star-forming galaxies. However, simulations do not predict instantaneous, global impact on molecular gas or star formation. The impact is expected to be cumulative, over multiple episodes.

(1169)Khuri-Treiman analysis of J /ψ →π<SUP>+</SUP>π<SUP>-</SUP>π<SUP>0</SUP>
  • M. Albaladejo,
  • S. Gonzàlez-Solís,
  • Ł. Bibrzycki,
  • C. Fernández-Ramírez,
  • N. Hammoud
  • +10
  • V. Mathieu,
  • M. Mikhasenko,
  • G. Montaña,
  • R. J. Perry,
  • A. Pilloni,
  • A. Rodas,
  • W. A. Smith,
  • A. Szczepaniak,
  • D. Winney,
  • JPAC Collaboration
  • (less)
Physical Review D (07/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.108.014035
abstract + abstract -

We study the decay J /ψ →π+π-π0 within the framework of the Khuri-Treiman equations. We find that the BESIII experimental dipion mass distribution in the ρ (770 )-region is well reproduced with a once-subtracted P -wave amplitude. Furthermore, we show that F -wave contributions to the amplitude improve the description of the data in the π π mass region around 1.5 GeV. We also present predictions for the J /ψ →π0γ* transition form factor.

(1168)Effective field theories for dark matter pairs in the early universe: cross sections and widths
  • S. Biondini,
  • N. Brambilla,
  • G. Qerimi,
  • A. Vairo
Journal of High Energy Physics (07/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP07(2023)006
abstract + abstract -

In order to predict the cosmological abundance of dark matter, an estimation of particle rates in an expanding thermal environment is needed. For thermal dark matter, the non-relativistic regime sets the stage for the freeze-out of the dark matter energy density. We compute transition widths and annihilation, bound-state formation, and dissociation cross sections of dark matter fermion pairs in the unifying framework of non-relativistic effective field theories at finite temperature, with the thermal bath modeling the thermodynamical behaviour of the early universe. We reproduce and extend some known results for the paradigmatic case of a dark fermion species coupled to dark gauge bosons. The effective field theory framework allows to highlight their range of validity and consistency, and to identify some possible improvements.

(1167)On a procedure to derive ϵ-factorised differential equations beyond polylogarithms
  • Lennard Görges,
  • Christoph Nega,
  • Lorenzo Tancredi,
  • Fabian J. Wagner
Journal of High Energy Physics (07/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP07(2023)206
abstract + abstract -

In this manuscript, we elaborate on a procedure to derive ϵ-factorised differential equations for multi-scale, multi-loop classes of Feynman integrals that evaluate to special functions beyond multiple polylogarithms. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach to diverse classes of problems, by working out ϵ-factorised differential equations for single- and multi-scale problems of increasing complexity. To start we are reconsidering the well-studied equal-mass two-loop sunrise case, and move then to study other elliptic two-, three- and four-point problems depending on multiple different scales. Finally, we showcase how the same approach allows us to obtain ϵ-factorised differential equations also for Feynman integrals that involve geometries beyond a single elliptic curve.

(1166)Multipole vector dark matter below the GeV scale
  • Xiaoyong Chu,
  • Junji Hisano,
  • Alejandro Ibarra,
  • Jui-Lin Kuo,
  • Josef Pradler
Physical Review D (07/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.108.015029
abstract + abstract -

We consider electrically neutral complex-vector particles V below the GeV mass scale that, from a low-energy perspective, couple to the photon via higher-dimensional form factor interactions. We derive ensuing astrophysical constraints by considering the anomalous energy loss from the Sun, Horizontal Branch, and Red Giant stars as well as from SN1987A that arise from vector pair production in these environments. Under the assumption that the dark states V constitute dark matter, the bounds are then complemented by direct and indirect detection as well as cosmological limits. The relic density from freeze-out and freeze-in mechanisms is also computed. On the basis of a UV-complete model that realizes the considered effective couplings, we also discuss the naturalness of the constrained parameter space, and provide an analysis of the zero mass limit of V .

(1165)Machine learning Post-Minkowskian integrals
  • Ryusuke Jinno,
  • Gregor Kälin,
  • Zhengwen Liu,
  • Henrique Rubira
Journal of High Energy Physics (07/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP07(2023)181
abstract + abstract -

We study a neural network framework for the numerical evaluation of Feynman loop integrals that are fundamental building blocks for perturbative computations of physical observables in gauge and gravity theories. We show that such a machine learning approach improves the convergence of the Monte Carlo algorithm for high-precision evaluation of multi-dimensional integrals compared to traditional algorithms. In particular, we use a neural network to improve the importance sampling. For a set of representative integrals appearing in the computation of the conservative dynamics for a compact binary system in General Relativity, we perform a quantitative comparison between the Monte Carlo integrators VEGAS and i-flow, an integrator based on neural network sampling.

(1164)Regeneration of bottomonia in an open quantum systems approach
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Miguel Ángel Escobedo,
  • Ajaharul Islam,
  • Michael Strickland,
  • Anurag Tiwari
  • +2
  • Antonio Vairo,
  • Peter Vander Griend
  • (less)
Physical Review D (07/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.108.L011502
abstract + abstract -

We demonstrate the importance of quantum jumps in the nonequilibrium evolution of bottomonium states in the quark-gluon plasma. Based on nonrelativistic effective field theory and the open quantum system framework, we evolve the density matrix of color singlet and octet pairs. We show that quantum regeneration of singlet states from octet configurations is necessary to understand experimental results for the suppression of both bottomonium ground and excited states. The values of the heavy-quarkonium transport coefficients used are consistent with recent lattice QCD determinations.

(1163)The cosmic web around the Coma cluster from constrained cosmological simulations. I. Filaments connected to Coma at z = 0
  • Nicola Malavasi,
  • Jenny G. Sorce,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Nabila Aghanim
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245777
abstract + abstract -

Galaxy clusters in the Universe occupy the important position of nodes of the cosmic web. They are connected among them by filaments, elongated structures composed of dark matter, galaxies, and gas. The connection of galaxy clusters to filaments is important, as it is related to the process of matter accretion onto the former. For this reason, investigating the connections to the cosmic web of massive clusters, especially well-known ones for which a lot of information is available, is a hot topic in astrophysics. In a previous work, we performed an analysis of the filament connections of the Coma cluster of galaxies, as detected from the observed galaxy distribution. In this work we resort to a numerical simulation whose initial conditions are constrained to reproduce the local Universe, including the region of the Coma cluster to interpret our observations in an evolutionary context. We detect the filaments connected to the simulated Coma cluster and perform an accurate comparison with the cosmic web configuration we detect in observations. We perform an analysis of the halos' spatial and velocity distributions close to the filaments in the cluster outskirts. We conclude that, although not significantly larger than the average, the flux of accreting matter on the simulated Coma cluster is significantly more collimated close to the filaments with respect to the general isotropic accretion flux. This paper is the first example of such a result and the first installment in a series of publications which will explore the build-up of the Coma cluster system in connection to the filaments of the cosmic web as a function of redshift.

(1162)Cosmic Ray Processes in Galactic Ecosystems
  • Ellis R. Owen,
  • Kinwah Wu,
  • Yoshiyuki Inoue,
  • H. -Y. Karen Yang,
  • Alison M. W. Mitchell
Galaxies (07/2023) doi:10.3390/galaxies11040086
abstract + abstract -

Galaxy evolution is an important topic, and our physical understanding must be complete to establish a correct picture. This includes a thorough treatment of feedback. The effects of thermal–mechanical and radiative feedback have been widely considered; however, cosmic rays (CRs) are also powerful energy carriers in galactic ecosystems. Resolving the capability of CRs to operate as a feedback agent is therefore essential to advance our understanding of the processes regulating galaxies. The effects of CRs are yet to be fully understood, and their complex multi-channel feedback mechanisms operating across the hierarchy of galaxy structures pose a significant technical challenge. This review examines the role of CRs in galaxies, from the scale of molecular clouds to the circumgalactic medium. An overview of their interaction processes, their implications for galaxy evolution, and their observable signatures is provided and their capability to modify the thermal and hydrodynamic configuration of galactic ecosystems is discussed. We present recent advancements in our understanding of CR processes and interpretation of their signatures, and highlight where technical challenges and unresolved questions persist. We discuss how these may be addressed with upcoming opportunities.

(1161)Effects of multiphase gas and projection on X-ray observables in simulated galaxy clusters as seen by eROSITA
  • J. ZuHone,
  • Y. E. Bahar,
  • V. Biffi,
  • K. Dolag,
  • J. Sanders
  • +6
  • E. Bulbul,
  • T. Liu,
  • T. Dauser,
  • O. König,
  • X. Zhang,
  • V. Ghirardini
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245749
abstract + abstract -

Context. Galaxy clusters are the most massive bound objects in the recent history of the universe; the number density of galaxy clusters as a function of mass and redshift is a sensitive function of the cosmological parameters. To use clusters for cosmological parameter studies, it is necessary to determine their masses as accurately as possible, which is typically done via scaling relations between mass and observables.
Aims: X-ray observables can be biased by a number of effects, including multiphase gas and projection effects, especially in the case where cluster temperatures and luminosities are estimated from single-model fits to all of the emission with an overdensity radius such as r500c. Using simulated galaxy clusters from a realistic cosmological simulation, our aim is to determine the importance of these biases in the context of Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma/eROSITA observations of clusters.
Methods: We extracted clusters from the Box2_hr simulation from the Magneticum suite, and simulated synthetic eROSITA observations of these clusters using PHOX to generate the photons and the end-to-end simulator SIXTE to trace them through the optics and simulate the detection process. We fitted the spectra from these observations and compared the fitted temperatures and luminosities to the quantities derived from the simulations. We fitted an intrinsically scattered LX − T scaling relation to these measurements following a Bayesian approach with which we fully took into account the selection effects and the mass function.
Results: The largest biases on the estimated temperature and luminosities of the clusters come from the inadequacy of single-temperature model fits to represent emission from multiphase gas, and from a bias arising from cluster emission within the projected r500c along the line of sight but outside of the spherical r500c. We find that the biases on temperature and luminosity due to the projection of emission from other clusters within r500c is comparatively small. We find eROSITA-like measurements of Magneticum clusters following a LX − T scaling relation that has a broadly consistent but slightly shallower slope compared to the literature values. We also find that the intrinsic scatter of LX at given T is lower compared to the recent observational results where the selection effects are fully considered.

(1160)Dependency of high-mass satellite galaxy abundance on cosmology in Magneticum simulations
  • A. Ragagnin,
  • A. Fumagalli,
  • T. Castro,
  • K. Dolag,
  • A. Saro
  • +2
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202142392
abstract + abstract -

Context. Observational studies carried out to calibrate the masses of galaxy clusters often use mass-richness relations to interpret galaxy number counts.
Aims: Here, we aim to study the impact of the richness-mass relation modelled with cosmological parameters on mock mass calibrations.
Methods: We build a Gaussian process regression emulator of high-mass satellite abundance normalisation and log-slope based on cosmological parameters Ωm, Ωb, σ8, h0, and redshift z. We train our emulator using Magneticum hydrodynamic simulations that span different cosmologies for a given set of feedback scheme parameters.
Results: We find that the normalisation depends, albeit weakly, on cosmological parameters, especially on Ωm and Ωb, and that their inclusion in mock observations increases the constraining power of these latter by 10%. On the other hand, the log-slope is ≈1 in every setup, and the emulator does not predict it with significant accuracy. We also show that satellite abundance cosmology dependency differs between full-physics simulations, dark-matter only, and non-radiative simulations.
Conclusions: Mass-calibration studies would benefit from modelling of the mass-richness relations with cosmological parameters, especially if the satellite abundance cosmology dependency.

(1159)End-to-end Kilonova Models of Neutron Star Mergers with Delayed Black Hole Formation
  • O. Just,
  • V. Vijayan,
  • Z. Xiong,
  • S. Goriely,
  • T. Soultanis
  • +4
  • A. Bauswein,
  • J. Guilet,
  • H. -Th. Janka,
  • G. Martínez-Pinedo
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (07/2023) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/acdad2
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the nucleosynthesis and kilonova properties of binary neutron star (NS) merger models that lead to intermediate remnant lifetimes of ~0.1-1 s until black hole (BH) formation and describe all components of the material ejected during the dynamical merger phase, NS remnant evolution, and final viscous disintegration of the BH torus after gravitational collapse. To this end, we employ a combination of hydrodynamics, nucleosynthesis, and radiative transfer tools to achieve a consistent end-to-end modeling of the system and its observables. We adopt a novel version of the Shakura-Sunyaev scheme allowing the approximate turbulent viscosity inside the NS remnant to vary independently of the surrounding disk. We find that asymmetric progenitors lead to shorter remnant lifetimes and enhanced ejecta masses, although the viscosity affects the absolute values of these characteristics. The integrated production of lanthanides and heavier elements in such binary systems is subsolar, suggesting that the considered scenarios contribute in a subdominant fashion to r-process enrichment. One reason is that BH tori formed after delayed collapse exhibit less neutron-rich conditions than typically found, and often assumed in previous BH torus models, for early BH formation. The outflows in our models feature strong anisotropy as a result of the lanthanide-poor polar neutrino-driven wind pushing aside lanthanide-rich dynamical ejecta. Considering the complexity of the models, the estimated kilonova light curves show promising agreement with AT 2017gfo after times of several days, while the remaining inconsistencies at early times could possibly be overcome in binary configurations with a more dominant neutrino-driven wind relative to the dynamical ejecta.

(1158)Strong Supernova 1987A Constraints on Bosons Decaying to Neutrinos
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Georg G. Raffelt,
  • Edoardo Vitagliano
Physical Review Letters (07/2023) e-Print:2209.11773 doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.131.021001
abstract + abstract -

Majoron-like bosons would emerge from a supernova (SN) core by neutrino coalescence of the form ν ν →ϕ and ν ¯ν ¯→ϕ with 100-MeV-range energies. Subsequent decays to (anti)neutrinos of all flavors provide a flux component with energies much larger than the usual flux from the "neutrino sphere." The absence of 100-MeV-range events in the Kamiokande-II and Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven signal of SN 1987A implies that less than 1% of the total energy was thus emitted and provides the strongest constraint on the Majoron-neutrino coupling of g ≲10-9 MeV /mϕ for 100 eV ≲mϕ≲100 MeV . It is straightforward to extend our new argument to other hypothetical feebly interacting particles.

(1157)Power counting in the standard model effective field theory with applications to $gg \to t \bar t$ and $h \to gg$
  • C. Müller-Salditt - Advisor: G. Buchalla
Thesis (07/2023) doi: doi:10.5282/edoc.32397
abstract + abstract -

A consistent power-counting prescription for the Standard Model Effective Field Theory requires more than the canonical dimension of operators, as they contain no informa tion about the perturbative expansion of the underlying Quantum Field Theory at highenergies. Although this has been noted in the literature for many years, a consistent quantitative approach remains to be completed. In this work, we present a solution for operators of canonical dimension six based on the notion of chiral dimensions. Our results are illustrated by explicit analytic calculations for two major examples at hadron colliders. These are the fusion of two gluons associated with the production of a top-quark pair, and the decay of a Higgs boson into two gluons or photons. We provide numerical studies for both processes to estimate hypothetical deviations from the Standard Model.

(1156)Three-loop master integrals for H+jet production at N$^3$LO: Towards the non-planar topologies
  • Dhimiter D. Canko,
  • Nikolaos Syrrakos
abstract + abstract -

We discuss the recent progress that has been made towards the computation of three-loop non-planar master integrals relevant to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N$^3$LO) corrections to processes such as H+jet production at the LHC. We describe the analytic structure of these integrals, as well as several technical issues regarding their analytic computation using canonical differential equations. Finally, we comment on the remaining steps towards the computation of all relevant three-loop topologies and their application to amplitude calculations.

(1155)Galaxy bias renormalization group
  • Henrique Rubira,
  • Fabian Schmidt
abstract + abstract -

The effective field theory of large-scale structure allows for a consistent perturbative bias expansion of the rest-frame galaxy density field. In this work, we present a systematic approach to renormalize galaxy bias and stochastic parameters using a finite cutoff scale $\Lambda$. We derive the differential equations of the Wilson-Polchinski renormalization group that describe the evolution of the finite-scale bias parameters with $\Lambda$, analogous to the $\beta$-function running in QFT. We further provide the connection between the finite-cutoff scheme and the renormalization procedure for $n$-point functions that has been used as standard in the literature so far; some inconsistencies in the treatment of renormalized bias in current EFT analyses are pointed out as well. The fixed-cutoff scheme allows us to predict, in a principled way, the finite part of loop contributions which is due to perturbative modes and which, in the standard renormalization approach, is absorbed into counterterms. We expect that this will allow for the robust extraction of (a yet-to-be-determined amount of) additional cosmological information from galaxy clustering, both when using field-level techniques and $n$-point functions.

(1154)Observation of a low energy nuclear recoil peak in the neutron calibration data of the CRESST-III experiment
  • G. Angloher,
  • S. Banik,
  • G. Benato,
  • A. Bento,
  • A. Bertolini
  • +56
  • R. Breier,
  • C. Bucci,
  • J. Burkhart,
  • L. Canonica,
  • A. D'Addabbo,
  • S. di Lorenzo,
  • L. Einfalt,
  • A. Erb,
  • F. V. Feilitzsch,
  • S. Fichtinger,
  • D. Fuchs,
  • A. Fuss,
  • A. Garai,
  • V. M. Ghete,
  • S. Gerster,
  • P. Gorla,
  • P. V. Guillaumon,
  • S. Gupta,
  • D. Hauff,
  • M. Ješkovský,
  • J. Jochum,
  • M. Kaznacheeva,
  • A. Kinast,
  • H. Kluck,
  • H. Kraus,
  • A. Langenkämper,
  • M. Mancuso,
  • L. Marini,
  • L. Meyer,
  • V. Mokina,
  • A. Nilima,
  • M. Olmi,
  • T. Ortmann,
  • C. Pagliarone,
  • L. Pattavina,
  • F. Petricca,
  • W. Potzel,
  • P. Povinec,
  • F. Pröbst,
  • F. Pucci,
  • F. Reindl,
  • J. Rothe,
  • K. Schäffner,
  • J. Schieck,
  • D. Schmiedmayer,
  • S. Schönert,
  • C. Schwertner,
  • M. Stahlberg,
  • L. Stodolsky,
  • C. Strandhagen,
  • R. Strauss,
  • I. Usherov,
  • F. Wagner,
  • M. Willers,
  • V. Zema,
  • CRESST Collaboration
  • (less)
Physical Review D (07/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.108.022005
abstract + abstract -

New-generation direct searches for low mass dark matter feature detection thresholds at energies well below 100 eV, much lower than the energies of commonly used x-ray calibration sources. This requires new calibration sources with sub-keV energies. When searching for nuclear recoil signals, the calibration source should ideally cause monoenergetic nuclear recoils in the relevant energy range. Recently, a new calibration method based on the radiative neutron capture on 182W with subsequent deexcitation via single γ -emission leading to a nuclear recoil peak at 112 eV was proposed. The CRESST-III dark matter search operated several CaWO4-based detector modules with detection thresholds below 100 eV in the past years. We report the observation of a peak around the expected energy of 112 eV in the data of three different detector modules recorded while irradiated with neutrons from different AmBe calibration sources. We compare the properties of the observed peaks with GEANT-4 simulations and assess the prospects of using this for the energy calibration of CRESST-III detectors.

(1153)Reconstructing particles in jets using set transformer and hypergraph prediction networks
  • Francesco Armando Di Bello,
  • Etienne Dreyer,
  • Sanmay Ganguly,
  • Eilam Gross,
  • Lukas Heinrich
  • +6
  • Anna Ivina,
  • Marumi Kado,
  • Nilotpal Kakati,
  • Lorenzo Santi,
  • Jonathan Shlomi,
  • Matteo Tusoni
  • (less)
European Physical Journal C (07/2023) doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-023-11677-7
abstract + abstract -

The task of reconstructing particles from low-level detector response data to predict the set of final state particles in collision events represents a set-to-set prediction task requiring the use of multiple features and their correlations in the input data. We deploy three separate set-to-set neural network architectures to reconstruct particles in events containing a single jet in a fully-simulated calorimeter. Performance is evaluated in terms of particle reconstruction quality, properties regression, and jet-level metrics. The results demonstrate that such a high-dimensional end-to-end approach succeeds in surpassing basic parametric approaches in disentangling individual neutral particles inside of jets and optimizing the use of complementary detector information. In particular, the performance comparison favors a novel architecture based on learning hypergraph structure, HGPflow, which benefits from a physically-interpretable approach to particle reconstruction.

(1152)Bulk Landau pole and unitarity of dual conformal field theory
  • Ivo Sachs,
  • Pierre Vanhove
Journal of High Energy Physics (07/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP07(2023)106
abstract + abstract -

The singlet sector of the O(N) ϕ4-model in AdS4 at large-N, gives rise to a dual conformal field theory on the conformal boundary of AdS4, which is a deformation of the generalized free field. We identify and compute an AdS4 three-point one-loop fish diagram that controls the exact large-N dimensions and operator product coefficients (OPE) for all "double trace" operators as a function of the renormalized ϕ4-couplings. We find that the space of ϕ4-coupling is compact with a boundary at the bulk Landau pole. The dual CFT is unitary only in an interval of negative couplings bounded by the Landau pole where the lowest OPE coefficient diverges.

(1151)Semileptonic decays of spin-entangled baryon-antibaryon pairs
  • Varvara Batozskaya,
  • Andrzej Kupsc,
  • Nora Salone,
  • Jakub Wiechnik
Physical Review D (07/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.108.016011
abstract + abstract -

A modular representation for the semileptonic decays of baryons originating from spin-polarized and correlated baryon-antibaryon pairs is derived. The complete spin information of the decaying baryon is propagated to the daughter baryon via a real-valued matrix. It allows us to obtain joint differential distributions in sequential processes involving the semileptonic decay in a straightforward way. The formalism is suitable for extraction of the semileptonic form factors in experiments where strange baryon-antibaryon pairs are produced in electron-positron annihilation or in charmonia decays. We give examples such as the complete angular distributions in the e+e-→Λ Λ ¯ process, where Λ →p e-ν¯e and Λ ¯→p ¯π+. The formalism can also be used to describe the distributions in semileptonic decays of charm and bottom baryons. Using the same principles, the modules to describe electromagnetic and neutral current weak baryon decay processes involving a charged lepton-antilepton pair can be obtained. As an example, we provide the decay matrix for the Dalitz transition between two spin-1 /2 baryons.

(1150)A Comprehensive Study on the Relation between the Metal Enrichment of Ionized and Atomic Gas in Star-forming Galaxies
  • M. Arabsalmani,
  • L. Garratt-Smithson,
  • N. Wijers,
  • J. Schaye,
  • A. Burkert
  • +5
  • C. D. P. Lagos,
  • E. Le Floc'h,
  • D. Obreschkow,
  • C. Peroux,
  • B. Schneider
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (07/2023) e-Print:2301.07738 doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acd4b7
abstract + abstract -

We study the relation between the metallicities of ionized and atomic gas in star-forming galaxies at z = 0-3 using the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations. This is done by constructing a dense grid of sight lines through the simulated galaxies and obtaining the star formation rate- and H I column density-weighted metallicities, Z SFR and Z H I, for each sightline as proxies for the metallicities of ionized and atomic gas, respectively. We find Z SFR ≳ Z H I for almost all sight lines, with their difference generally increasing with decreasing metallicity. The stellar masses of galaxies do not have a significant effect on this trend, but the positions of the sight lines with respect to the galaxy centers play an important role: the difference between the two metallicities decreases when moving toward the galaxy centers, and saturates to a minimum value in the central regions of galaxies, irrespective of redshift and stellar mass. This implies that the mixing of the two gas phases is most efficient in the central regions of galaxies where sight lines generally have high column densities of H I. However, a high H I column density alone does not guarantee a small difference between the two metallicities. In galaxy outskirts, the inefficiency of the mixing of star-forming gas with H I seems to dominate over the dilution of heavy elements in H I through mixing with the pristine gas. We find good agreement between the available observational data and the Z SFR-Z H I relation predicted by the EAGLE simulations. Though, observed regions with a nuclear starburst mode of star formation appear not to follow the same relation.

(1149)Geometry-induced patterns through mechanochemical coupling
  • Laeschkir Würthner,
  • Andriy Goychuk,
  • Erwin Frey
Physical Review E (07/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.108.014404
abstract + abstract -

Intracellular protein patterns regulate a variety of vital cellular processes such as cell division and motility, which often involve dynamic cell-shape changes. These changes in cell shape may in turn affect the dynamics of pattern-forming proteins, hence leading to an intricate feedback loop between cell shape and chemical dynamics. While several computational studies have examined the rich resulting dynamics, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. To elucidate some of these mechanisms, we explore a conceptual model for cell polarity on a dynamic one-dimensional manifold. Using concepts from differential geometry, we derive the equations governing mass-conserving reaction-diffusion systems on time-evolving manifolds. Analyzing these equations mathematically, we show that dynamic shape changes of the membrane can induce pattern-forming instabilities in parts of the membrane, which we refer to as regional instabilities. Deformations of the local membrane geometry can also (regionally) suppress pattern formation and spatially shift already existing patterns. We explain our findings by applying and generalizing the local equilibria theory of mass-conserving reaction-diffusion systems. This allows us to determine a simple onset criterion for geometry-induced pattern-forming instabilities, which is linked to the phase-space structure of the reaction-diffusion system. The feedback loop between membrane shape deformations and reaction-diffusion dynamics then leads to a surprisingly rich phenomenology of patterns, including oscillations, traveling waves, and standing waves, even if these patterns do not occur in systems with a fixed membrane shape. Our paper reveals that the local conformation of the membrane geometry acts as an important dynamical control parameter for pattern formation in mass-conserving reaction-diffusion systems.

(1148)ALMACAL. XI. Over-densities as signposts for proto-clusters? A cautionary tale
  • Jianhang Chen,
  • R. J. Ivison,
  • Martin A. Zwaan,
  • Anne Klitsch,
  • Céline Péroux
  • +4
  • Christopher C. Lovell,
  • Claudia del P. Lagos,
  • Andrew D. Biggs,
  • Victoria Bollo
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202347107
abstract + abstract -

It may be unsurprising that the most common approach to finding proto-clusters is to search for over-densities of galaxies. Upgrades to submillimetre (submm) interferometers and the advent of the James Webb Space Telescope will soon offer the opportunity to find more distant candidate proto-clusters in deep sky surveys without any spectroscopic confirmation. In this Letter, we report the serendipitous discovery of an extremely dense region centred on the blazar, J0217−0820, at z = 0.6 in the ALMACAL sky survey. Its density is eight times higher than that predicted by blind submm surveys. Among the seven submm-bright galaxies, three are as bright as conventional single-dish submm galaxies, with S870 μm > 3 mJy. The over-density is thus comparable to the densest known and confirmed proto-cluster cores. However, their spectra betray a wide range of redshifts. We investigate the likelihood of line-of-sight projection effects using light cones from cosmological simulations, finding that the deeper we search, the higher the chance that we will suffer from such projection effects. The extreme over-density around J0217−0820 demonstrates the strong cosmic variance we may encounter in the deep submm surveys. Thus, we should also question the fidelity of galaxy proto-cluster candidates selected via over-densities of galaxies, where the negative K correction eases the detection of dusty galaxies along an extraordinarily extended line of sight.

(1147)Beyond - ΛCDM constraints from the full shape clustering measurements from BOSS and eBOSS
  • Agne Semenaite,
  • Ariel G. Sánchez,
  • Andrea Pezzotta,
  • Jiamin Hou,
  • Alexander Eggemeier
  • +5
  • Martin Crocce,
  • Cheng Zhao,
  • Joel R. Brownstein,
  • Graziano Rossi,
  • Donald P. Schneider
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad849
abstract + abstract -

We analyse the full shape of anisotropic clustering measurements from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey quasar sample together with the combined galaxy sample from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We obtain constraints on the cosmological parameters independent of the Hubble parameter h for the extensions of the Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) models, focusing on cosmologies with free dark energy equation of state parameter w. We combine the clustering constraints with those from the latest cosmic microwave background data from Planck to obtain joint constraints for these cosmologies for w and the additional extension parameters - its time evolution wa, the physical curvature density ωK and the neutrino mass sum ∑mν. Our joint constraints are consistent with a flat ΛCDM cosmological model within 68 per cent confidence limits. We demonstrate that the Planck data are able to place tight constraints on the clustering amplitude today, σ12, in cosmologies with varying w and present the first constraints for the clustering amplitude for such cosmologies, which is found to be slightly higher than the ΛCDM value. Additionally, we show that when we vary w and allow for non-flat cosmologies and the physical curvature density is used, Planck prefers a curved universe at 4σ significance, which is ~2σ higher than when using the relative curvature density ΩK. Finally, when w is varied freely, clustering provides only a modest improvement (of 0.021 eV) on the upper limit of ∑mν.

(1146)Climbing NLO and NNLO summits of weak decays: 1988-2023
  • Andrzej J. Buras
Physics Reports (06/2023) doi:10.1016/j.physrep.2023.07.002
abstract + abstract -

I describe the history of the calculations of NLO and NNLO QCD corrections to weak decays of mesons, particle-antiparticle mixing and electric dipole moments (EDMs) in the period 1988-2023. Also existing calculations of electroweak and QED corrections to these processes are included in this presentation. These efforts bear some analogies to the climbing of Himalayas and various expeditions by several teams of strongly motivated "climbers" allowed to move this field from the LO through the NLO to the NNLO level. We also summarize the most recent calculations within the Standard Model Effective Field Theory. The material is meant to be an up to date review of this very advanced field in non-technical terms as much as possible and a guide to the rich literature on NLO and NNLO corrections in question. In particular we stress for which processes these calculations are crucial for the tests of the Standard Model and to be able to differentiate between numerous New Physics models. It includes also several anecdotes related to the climbs that I was involved in. I hope that some of the comments made in the course of the presentation could turn out to be not only amusing but also instructive.

(1145)Mapping gas around massive galaxies: cross-correlation of DES Y3 galaxies and Compton-y maps from SPT and Planck
  • J. Sánchez,
  • Y. Omori,
  • C. Chang,
  • L. E. Bleem,
  • T. Crawford
  • +124
  • A. Drlica-Wagner,
  • S. Raghunathan,
  • G. Zacharegkas,
  • T. M. C. Abbott,
  • M. Aguena,
  • A. Alarcon,
  • S. Allam,
  • O. Alves,
  • A. Amon,
  • S. Avila,
  • E. Baxter,
  • K. Bechtol,
  • B. A. Benson,
  • G. M. Bernstein,
  • E. Bertin,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D. L. Burke,
  • A. Campos,
  • J. E. Carlstrom,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • F. J. Castander,
  • R. Cawthon,
  • C. L. Chang,
  • A. Chen,
  • A. Choi,
  • R. Chown,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • A. T. Crites,
  • M. Crocce,
  • L. N. da Costa,
  • M. E. S. Pereira,
  • T. de Haan,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • J. DeRose,
  • S. Desai,
  • H. T. Diehl,
  • M. A. Dobbs,
  • S. Dodelson,
  • P. Doel,
  • J. Elvin-Poole,
  • W. Everett,
  • S. Everett,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • M. Gatti,
  • E. M. George,
  • D. W. Gerdes,
  • G. Giannini,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R. A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • N. W. Halverson,
  • S. R. Hinton,
  • G. P. Holder,
  • D. L. Hollowood,
  • W. L. Holzapfel,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • J. D. Hrubes,
  • D. J. James,
  • L. Knox,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • O. Lahav,
  • A. T. Lee,
  • D. Luong-Van,
  • N. MacCrann,
  • J. L. Marshall,
  • J. McCullough,
  • J. J. McMahon,
  • P. Melchior,
  • J. Mena-Fernández,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • L. Mocanu,
  • J. J. Mohr,
  • J. Muir,
  • J. Myles,
  • T. Natoli,
  • S. Padin,
  • A. Palmese,
  • S. Pandey,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A. Pieres,
  • A. A. Plazas Malagón,
  • A. Porredon,
  • C. Pryke,
  • M. Raveri,
  • C. L. Reichardt,
  • M. Rodriguez-Monroy,
  • A. J. Ross,
  • J. E. Ruhl,
  • E. Rykoff,
  • C. Sánchez,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • K. K. Schaffer,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • E. Sheldon,
  • E. Shirokoff,
  • M. Smith,
  • M. Soares-Santos,
  • Z. Staniszewski,
  • A. A. Stark,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M. E. C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • M. A. Troxel,
  • D. L. Tucker,
  • J. D. Vieira,
  • M. Vincenzi,
  • N. Weaverdyck,
  • R. Williamson,
  • B. Yanny,
  • B. Yin,
  • DES Collaboration,
  • SPT Collaboration
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1167
abstract + abstract -

We cross-correlate positions of galaxies measured in data from the first three years of the Dark Energy Survey with Compton-y maps generated using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the Planck mission. We model this cross-correlation measurement together with the galaxy autocorrelation to constrain the distribution of gas in the Universe. We measure the hydrostatic mass bias or, equivalently, the mean halo bias-weighted electron pressure <bhPe >, using large-scale information. We find <bhPe > to be $[0.16^{+0.03}_{-0.04},0.28^{+0.04}_{-0.05},0.45^{+0.06}_{-0.10},0.54^{+0.08}_{-0.07},0.61^{+0.08}_{-0.06},0.63^{+0.07}_{-0.08}]$ meV cm-3 at redshifts z ~ [0.30, 0.46, 0.62, 0.77, 0.89, 0.97]. These values are consistent with previous work where measurements exist in the redshift range. We also constrain the mean gas profile using small-scale information, enabled by the high-resolution of the SPT data. We compare our measurements to different parametrized profiles based on the cosmo-OWLS hydrodynamical simulations. We find that our data are consistent with the simulation that assumes an AGN heating temperature of 108.5 K but are incompatible with the model that assumes an AGN heating temperature of 108.0 K. These comparisons indicate that the data prefer a higher value of electron pressure than the simulations within r500c of the galaxies' haloes.

(1144)Filament collapse: a two phase process
  • Elena Hoemann,
  • Stefan Heigl,
  • Andreas Burkert
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad852
abstract + abstract -

Using numerical simulations, we investigate the gravitational evolution of filamentary molecular cloud structures and their condensation into dense protostellar cores. One possible process is the so-called edge effect, the pile-up of matter at the end of the filament due to self-gravity. This effect is predicted by theory but only rarely observed. To get a better understanding of the underlying processes we used a simple analytic approach to describe the collapse and the corresponding collapse time. We identify a model of two distinct phases. The first phase is free fall dominated, due to the self-gravity of the filament. In the second phase, after the turning point, the collapse is balanced by the ram pressure, produced by the inside material of the filament, which leads to a constant collapse velocity. This approach reproduces the established collapse time of uniform density filaments and agrees well with our hydrodynamic simulations. In addition, we investigate the influence of different radial density profiles on the collapse. We find that the deviations compared to the uniform filament are less than 10 per cent. Therefore, the analytic collapse model of the uniform density filament is an excellent general approach.

(1143)Opportunistic CP violation
  • Quentin Bonnefoy,
  • Emanuele Gendy,
  • Christophe Grojean,
  • Joshua T. Ruderman
Journal of High Energy Physics (06/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP06(2023)141
abstract + abstract -

In the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, CP violation arises through a very particular interplay between the three quark generations, as described by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mechanism and the single Jarlskog invariant J4. Once generalized to the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT), this peculiar pattern gets modified by higher-dimensional operators, whose associated Wilson coefficients are usually split into CP-even and odd parts. However, CP violation at dimension four, i.e., at the lowest order in the EFT expansion, blurs this distinction: any Wilson coefficient can interfere with J4 and mediate CP violation. In this paper, we study such interferences at first order in the SMEFT expansion,

(1142)Formation of star clusters and enrichment by massive stars in simulations of low-metallicity galaxies with a fully sampled initial stellar mass function
  • Natalia Lahén,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Guinevere Kauffmann,
  • Dorottya Szécsi,
  • Jessica May Hislop
  • +4
  • Antti Rantala,
  • Alexandra Kozyreva,
  • Stefanie Walch,
  • Chia-Yu Hu
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1147
abstract + abstract -

We present new GRIFFIN project hydrodynamical simulations that model the formation of galactic star cluster populations in low-metallicity (Z = 0.00021) dwarf galaxies, including radiation, supernova, and stellar wind feedback of individual massive stars. In the simulations, stars are sampled from the stellar initial mass function (IMF) down to the hydrogen-burning limit of 0.08 M. Mass conservation is enforced within a radius of 1 pc for the formation of massive stars. We find that massive stars are preferentially found in star clusters and follow a correlation set at birth between the highest initial stellar mass and the star cluster mass that differs from pure stochastic IMF sampling. With a fully sampled IMF, star clusters lose mass in the galactic tidal field according to mass-loss rates observed in nearby galaxies. Of the released stellar feedback, 60 per cent of the supernova material and up to 35 per cent of the wind material reside either in the hot interstellar medium (ISM) or in gaseous, metal-enriched outflows. While stellar winds (instantaneously) and supernovae (delayed) start enriching the ISM right after the first massive stars form, the formation of supernova-enriched stars and star clusters is significantly delayed (by >50 Myr) compared to the formation of stars and star clusters enriched by stellar winds. Overall, supernova ejecta dominate the enrichment by mass, while the number of enriched stars is determined by continuous stellar winds. These results present a concept for the formation of chemically distinct populations of stars in bound star clusters, reminiscent of multiple populations in globular clusters.

(1141)Cosmological Probes of Structure Growth and Tests of Gravity
  • Jiamin Hou,
  • Julian Bautista,
  • Maria Berti,
  • Carolina Cuesta-Lazaro,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo
  • +2
Universe (06/2023) doi:10.3390/universe9070302
abstract + abstract -

The current standard cosmological model is constructed within the framework of general relativity with a cosmological constant Λ, which is often associated with dark energy, and phenomenologically explains the accelerated cosmic expansion. Understanding the nature of dark energy is one of the most appealing questions in achieving a self-consistent physical model at cosmological scales. Modification of general relativity could potentially provide a more natural and physical solution to the accelerated expansion. The growth of the cosmic structure is sensitive in constraining gravity models. In this paper, we aim to provide a concise introductory review of modified gravity models from an observational point of view. We will discuss various mainstream cosmological observables, and their potential advantages and limitations as probes of gravity models.

(1140)SILCC - VII. Gas kinematics and multiphase outflows of the simulated ISM at high gas surface densities
  • Tim-Eric Rathjen,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Stefanie Walch,
  • Daniel Seifried,
  • Philipp Girichidis
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1104
abstract + abstract -

We present magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the star-forming multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) in stratified galactic patches with gas surface densities Σgas = 10, 30, 50, and 100 $\mathrm{M_\odot \, pc^{-2}}$. The SILCC project simulation framework accounts for non-equilibrium thermal and chemical processes in the warm and cold ISM. The sink-based star formation and feedback model includes stellar winds, hydrogen-ionizing UV radiation, core-collapse supernovae, and cosmic ray (CR) injection and diffusion. The simulations follow the observed relation between Σgas and the star formation rate surface density ΣSFR. CRs qualitatively change the outflow phase structure. Without CRs, the outflows transition from a two-phase (warm and hot at 1 kpc) to a single-phase (hot at 2 kpc) structure. With CRs, the outflow always has three phases (cold, warm, and hot), dominated in mass by the warm phase. The impact of CRs on mass loading decreases for higher Σgas and the mass loading factors of the CR-supported outflows are of order unity independent of ΣSFR. Similar to observations, vertical velocity dispersions of the warm ionized medium (WIM) and the cold neutral medium (CNM) correlate with the star formation rate as $\sigma _\mathrm{z} \propto \Sigma _\mathrm{SFR}^a$, with a ~ 0.20. In the absence of stellar feedback, we find no correlation. The velocity dispersion of the WIM is a factor ~2.2 higher than that of the CNM, in agreement with local observations. For $\Sigma _\mathrm{SFR} \gtrsim 1.5 \times 10^{-2}\, \mathrm{M}_\odot \, \mathrm{yr}^{-1}\, \mathrm{kpc}^{-2}$ the WIM motions become supersonic.

(1139)FAUST - VIII. The protostellar disc of VLA 1623-2417W and its streamers imaged by ALMA
  • S. Mercimek,
  • L. Podio,
  • C. Codella,
  • L. Chahine,
  • A. López-Sepulcre
  • +23
  • S. Ohashi,
  • L. Loinard,
  • D. Johnstone,
  • F. Menard,
  • N. Cuello,
  • P. Caselli,
  • J. Zamponi,
  • Y. Aikawa,
  • E. Bianchi,
  • G. Busquet,
  • J. E. Pineda,
  • M. Bouvier,
  • M. De Simone,
  • Y. Zhang,
  • N. Sakai,
  • C. J. Chandler,
  • C. Ceccarelli,
  • F. Alves,
  • A. Durán,
  • D. Fedele,
  • N. Murillo,
  • I. Jiménez-Serra,
  • S. Yamamoto
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2023) e-Print:2303.16257 doi:10.1093/mnras/stad964
abstract + abstract -

More than 50 per cent of solar-mass stars form in multiple systems. It is therefore crucial to investigate how multiplicity affects the star and planet formation processes at the protostellar stage. We report continuum and C18O (2-1) observations of the VLA 1623-2417 protostellar system at 50 au angular resolution as part of the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) Large Program FAUST. The 1.3 mm continuum probes the discs of VLA 1623A, B, and W, and the circumbinary disc of the A1 + A2 binary. The C18O emission reveals, for the first time, the gas in the disc envelope of VLA 1623W. We estimate the dynamical mass of VLA 1623W, Mdyn = 0.45 ± 0.08 M, and the mass of its disc, Mdisc ~ 6 × 10-3 M. C18O also reveals streamers that extend up to 1000 au, spatially and kinematically connecting the envelope and outflow cavities of the A1 + A2 + B system with the disc of VLA 1623W. The presence of the streamers, as well as the spatial (~1300 au) and velocity (~2.2 km s-1) offsets of VLA 1623W, suggests that either sources W and A + B formed in different cores, interacting between them, or source W has been ejected from the VLA 1623 multiple system during its formation. In the latter case, the streamers may funnel material from the envelope and cavities of VLA 1623AB on to VLA 1623W, thus concurring to set its final mass and chemical content.

PhD Thesis
(1138)Novel technique to access the strong interaction in three-body systems and Re-evaluated cosmic ray antinuclei fluxes
  • Laura Šerkšnytė - Advisor: Laura Fabbietti
Thesis (06/2023) link
abstract + abstract -

The first part of this work presents the first measurement of the three-baryon femtoscopic correlations to access the final state interactions. The cumulant method was used to estimate genuine three-body effects. A negative cumulant was observed for the p-p-p system, while the p-p-Λ cumulant was compatible with zero. The second part of this work studies the secondary cosmic ray antideuteron and antihelium-3 fluxes and the transparency of the Galaxy to the propagation of such antinuclei.

(1137)Toward the end-to-end optimization of particle physics instruments with differentiable programming
  • Tommaso Dorigo,
  • Andrea Giammanco,
  • Pietro Vischia,
  • Max Aehle,
  • Mateusz Bawaj
  • +31
  • Alexey Boldyrev,
  • Pablo de Castro Manzano,
  • Denis Derkach,
  • Julien Donini,
  • Auralee Edelen,
  • Federica Fanzago,
  • Nicolas R. Gauger,
  • Christian Glaser,
  • Atılım G. Baydin,
  • Lukas Heinrich,
  • Ralf Keidel,
  • Jan Kieseler,
  • Claudius Krause,
  • Maxime Lagrange,
  • Max Lamparth,
  • Lukas Layer,
  • Gernot Maier,
  • Federico Nardi,
  • Helge E. S. Pettersen,
  • Alberto Ramos,
  • Fedor Ratnikov,
  • Dieter Röhrich,
  • Roberto Ruiz de Austri,
  • Pablo Martínez Ruiz del Árbol,
  • Oleg Savchenko,
  • Nathan Simpson,
  • Giles C. Strong,
  • Angela Taliercio,
  • Mia Tosi,
  • Andrey Ustyuzhanin,
  • Haitham Zaraket
  • (less)
Reviews in Physics (06/2023) doi:10.1016/j.revip.2023.100085
abstract + abstract -

The full optimization of the design and operation of instruments whose functioning relies on the interaction of radiation with matter is a super-human task, due to the large dimensionality of the space of possible choices for geometry, detection technology, materials, data-acquisition, and information-extraction techniques, and the interdependence of the related parameters. On the other hand, massive potential gains in performance over standard, "experience-driven" layouts are in principle within our reach if an objective function fully aligned with the final goals of the instrument is maximized through a systematic search of the configuration space. The stochastic nature of the involved quantum processes make the modeling of these systems an intractable problem from a classical statistics point of view, yet the construction of a fully differentiable pipeline and the use of deep learning techniques may allow the simultaneous optimization of all design parameters.

In this white paper, we lay down our plans for the design of a modular and versatile modeling tool for the end-to-end optimization of complex instruments for particle physics experiments as well as industrial and medical applications that share the detection of radiation as their basic ingredient. We consider a selected set of use cases to highlight the specific needs of different applications.

(1136)Flavor solitons in dense neutrino gases
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Georg G. Raffelt
abstract + abstract -

We consider a dense neutrino gas in the "fast-flavor limit" (vanishing neutrino masses). For the first time, we identify exact solutions of the nonlinear wave equation in the form of solitons. They can propagate with both subluminal or superluminal speed, the latter not violating causality. The soliton with infinite speed is a homogeneous solution and coincides with the usual fast-flavor pendulum except that it swings only once instead of being periodic. The subluminal soliton in the static limit corresponds to a one-swing "spatial pendulum." A necessary condition for such solutions to exist is a "crossed" neutrino angle distribution. Based on the Nyquist criterion, we derive a new sufficient condition without solving the dispersion relation. The solitons are very fragile; they are as unstable as the homogeneous neutrino gas alone. Moreover, in the presence of matter, only the solution survives that is homogeneous in a frame comoving with the matter current. Generally, the matter effect cannot be eliminated by transformations in flavor space, but has real physical impact.

(1135)Anomalous Ward identities for on-shell amplitudes at the conformal fixed point
  • Dmitry Chicherin,
  • Johannes Henn,
  • Simone Zoia
Journal of High Energy Physics (06/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP06(2023)110
abstract + abstract -

Conformal symmetry underlies many massless quantum field theories, but little is known about the consequences of this powerful symmetry for on-shell scattering amplitudes. Working in a dimensionally-regularised ϕ3 model at the conformal fixed point, we show that the on-shell renormalised amplitudes satisfy anomalous conformal Ward identities. Each external on-shell state contributes two terms to the anomaly. The first term is proportional to the elementary field anomalous dimension, and thus involves only lower-loop information. We show that the second term can be given as the convolution of a universal collinear function and lower-order amplitudes. The computation of the conformal anomaly is therefore simpler than that of the amplitude at the same perturbative order, which gives our anomalous conformal Ward identities a strong predictive power in perturbation theory. Finally, we show that our result is also of practical importance for dimensionally-regularised amplitudes away from the conformal fixed point.

(1134)Analysis of rescattering effects in 3 π final states
  • Dominik Stamen,
  • Tobias Isken,
  • Bastian Kubis,
  • Mikhail Mikhasenko,
  • Malwin Niehus
European Physical Journal C (06/2023) doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-023-11665-x
abstract + abstract -

Decays into three particles are often described in terms of two-body resonances and a non-interacting spectator particle. To go beyond this simplest isobar model, crossed-channel rescattering effects need to be accounted for. We quantify the importance of these rescattering effects in three-pion systems for different decay masses and angular-momentum quantum numbers. We provide amplitude decompositions for four decay processes with total JPC=0-- , 1--, 1-+, and 2++, all of which decay predominantly as ρ π states. Two-pion rescattering is described in terms of an Omnès function, which incorporates the ρ resonance. Inclusion of crossed-channel effects is achieved by solving the Khuri-Treiman integral equations. The unbinned log-likelihood estimator is used to determine the significance of the rescattering effects beyond two-body resonances; we compute the minimum number of events necessary to unambiguously find these in future Dalitz-plot analyses. Kinematic effects that enhance or dilute the rescattering are identified for the selected set of quantum numbers and various masses.

(1133)pyhf: a pure-Python implementation of HistFactory with tensors and automatic differentiation
  • M. Feickert,
  • L. Heinrich,
  • G. Stark
41st International Conference on High Energy physics (06/2023) doi:10.48550/arXiv.2211.15838
abstract + abstract -

The HistFactory p.d.f. template is per-se independent of its implementation in ROOT and it is useful to be able to run statistical analysis outside of the ROOT, RooFit, RooStats framework. pyhf is a pure-Python implementation of that statistical model for multi-bin histogram-based analysis and its interval estimation is based on the asymptotic formulas of "Asymptotic formulae for likelihood-based tests of new physics". pyhf supports modern computational graph libraries such as TensorFlow, PyTorch, and JAX in order to make use of features such as auto-differentiation and GPU acceleration. In addition, pyhf's JSON serialization specification for HistFactory models has been used to publish 23 full probability models from published ATLAS collaboration analyses to HEPData.

(1132)Mass-Metallicity Relationship of SDSS Star-forming Galaxies: Population Synthesis Analysis and Effects of Star Burst Length, Extinction Law, Initial Mass Function, and Star Formation Rate
  • Eva Sextl,
  • Rolf-Peter Kudritzki,
  • H. Jabran Zahid,
  • I. -Ting Ho
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acc579
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the mass-metallicity relationship of star-forming galaxies by analyzing the absorption line spectra of ~200,000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The galaxy spectra are stacked in bins of stellar mass, and a population synthesis technique is applied yielding the metallicities, ages, and star formation history of the young and old stellar population together with interstellar reddening and extinction. We adopt different lengths of the initial starbursts and different initial mass functions for the calculation of model spectra of the single stellar populations contributing to the total integrated spectrum. We also allow for deviations of the ratio of extinction to reddening R V from 3.1 and determine the value from the spectral fit. We find that burst length and R V have a significant influence on the determination of metallicities, whereas the effect of the initial mass function is small. The R V values are larger than 3.1. The metallicities of the young stellar population agree with extragalactic spectroscopic studies of individual massive supergiant stars and are significantly higher than those of the older stellar population. This confirms galaxy evolution models where metallicity depends on the ratio of gas to stellar mass and where this ratio decreases with time. Star formation history is found to depend on galaxy stellar mass. Massive galaxies are dominated by stars formed at early times.

(1131)The Hateful Eight: Connecting Massive Substructures in Galaxy Clusters like A2744 to Their Dynamical Assembly State Using the Magneticum Simulations
  • Lucas C. Kimmig,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Veronica Biffi
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acc740
abstract + abstract -

Substructures are known to be good tracers for the dynamical states and recent accretion histories of the most massive collapsed structures in the universe, galaxy clusters. Observations find extremely massive substructures in some clusters, especially Abell 2744 (A2744), which are potentially in tension with the ΛCDM paradigm because they are not found in simulations directly. However, the methods to measure substructure masses strongly differ between observations and simulations. Using the fully hydrodynamical cosmological simulation suite MAGNETICUM PATHFINDER, we develop a method to measure substructure masses in projection from simulations, similarly to the observational approach. We identify a simulated A2744 counterpart that not only has eight substructures of similar mass fractions but also exhibits similar features in the hot gas component. This cluster formed only recently through a major merger together with at least six massive minor merger events since z = 1, where previously the most massive component had a mass of less than 1 × 1014 M . We show that the mass fraction of all substructures and of the eighth substructure separately are excellent tracers for the dynamical state and assembly history for all galaxy cluster mass ranges, with high fractions indicating merger events within the last 2 Gyr. Finally, we demonstrate that the differences between subhalo masses measured directly from simulations as bound and those measured in projection are due to methodology, with the latter generally 2-3 times larger than the former. We provide a predictor function to estimate projected substructure masses from SUBFIND masses for future comparison studies between simulations and observations.

(1130)Sensitivity Modeling for LiteBIRD
  • T. Hasebe,
  • P. A. R. Ade,
  • A. Adler,
  • E. Allys,
  • D. Alonso
  • +277
  • K. Arnold,
  • D. Auguste,
  • J. Aumont,
  • R. Aurlien,
  • J. Austermann,
  • S. Azzoni,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • A. J. Banday,
  • R. Banerji,
  • R. B. Barreiro,
  • N. Bartolo,
  • S. Basak,
  • E. Battistelli,
  • L. Bautista,
  • J. Beall,
  • D. Beck,
  • S. Beckman,
  • K. Benabed,
  • J. Bermejo-Ballesteros,
  • M. Bersanelli,
  • J. Bonis,
  • J. Borrill,
  • F. Bouchet,
  • F. Boulanger,
  • S. Bounissou,
  • M. Brilenkov,
  • M. L. Brown,
  • M. Bucher,
  • E. Calabrese,
  • M. Calvo,
  • P. Campeti,
  • A. Carones,
  • F. J. Casas,
  • A. Catalano,
  • A. Challinor,
  • V. Chan,
  • K. Cheung,
  • Y. Chinone,
  • J. Cliche,
  • F. Columbro,
  • W. Coulton,
  • J. Cubas,
  • A. Cukierman,
  • D. Curtis,
  • G. D'Alessandro,
  • K. Dachlythra,
  • P. de Bernardis,
  • T. de Haan,
  • E. de la Hoz,
  • M. De Petris,
  • S. Della Torre,
  • C. Dickinson,
  • P. Diego-Palazuelos,
  • M. Dobbs,
  • T. Dotani,
  • D. Douillet,
  • L. Duband,
  • A. Ducout,
  • S. Duff,
  • J. M. Duval,
  • K. Ebisawa,
  • T. Elleflot,
  • H. K. Eriksen,
  • J. Errard,
  • T. Essinger-Hileman,
  • F. Finelli,
  • R. Flauger,
  • C. Franceschet,
  • U. Fuskeland,
  • S. Galli,
  • M. Galloway,
  • K. Ganga,
  • J. R. Gao,
  • R. T. Genova-Santos,
  • M. Gerbino,
  • M. Gervasi,
  • T. Ghigna,
  • S. Giardiello,
  • E. Gjerløw,
  • M. L. Gradziel,
  • J. Grain,
  • L. Grandsire,
  • F. Grupp,
  • A. Gruppuso,
  • J. E. Gudmundsson,
  • N. W. Halverson,
  • J. Hamilton,
  • P. Hargrave,
  • M. Hasegawa,
  • M. Hattori,
  • M. Hazumi,
  • S. Henrot-Versillé,
  • L. T. Hergt,
  • D. Herman,
  • D. Herranz,
  • C. A. Hill,
  • G. Hilton,
  • E. Hivon,
  • R. A. Hlozek,
  • T. D. Hoang,
  • A. L. Hornsby,
  • Y. Hoshino,
  • J. Hubmayr,
  • K. Ichiki,
  • T. Iida,
  • H. Imada,
  • K. Ishimura,
  • H. Ishino,
  • G. Jaehnig,
  • M. Jones,
  • T. Kaga,
  • S. Kashima,
  • N. Katayama,
  • A. Kato,
  • T. Kawasaki,
  • R. Keskitalo,
  • T. Kisner,
  • Y. Kobayashi,
  • N. Kogiso,
  • A. Kogut,
  • K. Kohri,
  • E. Komatsu,
  • K. Komatsu,
  • K. Konishi,
  • N. Krachmalnicoff,
  • I. Kreykenbohm,
  • C. L. Kuo,
  • A. Kushino,
  • L. Lamagna,
  • J. V. Lanen,
  • G. Laquaniello,
  • M. Lattanzi,
  • A. T. Lee,
  • C. Leloup,
  • F. Levrier,
  • E. Linder,
  • T. Louis,
  • G. Luzzi,
  • J. Macias-Perez,
  • T. Maciaszek,
  • B. Maffei,
  • D. Maino,
  • M. Maki,
  • S. Mandelli,
  • M. Maris,
  • E. Martínez-González,
  • S. Masi,
  • M. Massa,
  • S. Matarrese,
  • F. T. Matsuda,
  • T. Matsumura,
  • L. Mele,
  • A. Mennella,
  • M. Migliaccio,
  • Y. Minami,
  • K. Mitsuda,
  • A. Moggi,
  • A. Monfardini,
  • J. Montgomery,
  • L. Montier,
  • G. Morgante,
  • B. Mot,
  • Y. Murata,
  • J. A. Murphy,
  • M. Nagai,
  • Y. Nagano,
  • T. Nagasaki,
  • R. Nagata,
  • S. Nakamura,
  • R. Nakano,
  • T. Namikawa,
  • F. Nati,
  • P. Natoli,
  • S. Nerval,
  • T. Nishibori,
  • H. Nishino,
  • F. Noviello,
  • C. O'Sullivan,
  • K. Odagiri,
  • H. Ogawa,
  • H. Ogawa,
  • S. Oguri,
  • H. Ohsaki,
  • I. S. Ohta,
  • N. Okada,
  • N. Okada,
  • L. Pagano,
  • A. Paiella,
  • D. Paoletti,
  • A. Passerini,
  • G. Patanchon,
  • V. Pelgrim,
  • J. Peloton,
  • F. Piacentini,
  • M. Piat,
  • G. Pisano,
  • G. Polenta,
  • D. Poletti,
  • T. Prouvé,
  • G. Puglisi,
  • D. Rambaud,
  • C. Raum,
  • S. Realini,
  • M. Reinecke,
  • M. Remazeilles,
  • A. Ritacco,
  • G. Roudil,
  • J. Rubino-Martin,
  • M. Russell,
  • H. Sakurai,
  • Y. Sakurai,
  • M. Sandri,
  • M. Sasaki,
  • G. Savini,
  • D. Scott,
  • J. Seibert,
  • Y. Sekimoto,
  • B. Sherwin,
  • K. Shinozaki,
  • M. Shiraishi,
  • P. Shirron,
  • G. Signorelli,
  • G. Smecher,
  • F. Spinella,
  • S. Stever,
  • R. Stompor,
  • S. Sugiyama,
  • R. Sullivan,
  • A. Suzuki,
  • J. Suzuki,
  • T. L. Svalheim,
  • E. Switzer,
  • R. Takaku,
  • H. Takakura,
  • S. Takakura,
  • Y. Takase,
  • Y. Takeda,
  • A. Tartari,
  • D. Tavagnacco,
  • A. Taylor,
  • E. Taylor,
  • Y. Terao,
  • J. Thermeau,
  • H. Thommesen,
  • K. L. Thompson,
  • B. Thorne,
  • T. Toda,
  • M. Tomasi,
  • M. Tominaga,
  • N. Trappe,
  • M. Tristram,
  • M. Tsuji,
  • M. Tsujimoto,
  • C. Tucker,
  • J. Ullom,
  • L. Vacher,
  • G. Vermeulen,
  • P. Vielva,
  • F. Villa,
  • M. Vissers,
  • N. Vittorio,
  • B. Wandelt,
  • W. Wang,
  • K. Watanuki,
  • I. K. Wehus,
  • J. Weller,
  • B. Westbrook,
  • J. Wilms,
  • B. Winter,
  • E. J. Wollack,
  • N. Y. Yamasaki,
  • T. Yoshida,
  • J. Yumoto,
  • A. Zacchei,
  • M. Zannoni,
  • A. Zonca,
  • LiteBIRD Collaboration
  • (less)
Journal of Low Temperature Physics (06/2023) doi:10.1007/s10909-022-02921-7
abstract + abstract -

LiteBIRD is a future satellite mission designed to observe the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation in order to probe the inflationary universe. LiteBIRD is set to observe the sky using three telescopes with transition-edge sensor bolometers. In this work we estimated the LiteBIRD instrumental sensitivity using its current design. We estimated the detector noise due to the optical loadings using physical optics and ray-tracing simulations. The noise terms associated with thermal carrier and readout noise were modeled in the detector noise calculation. We calculated the observational sensitivities over fifteen bands designed for the LiteBIRD telescopes using assumed observation time efficiency.

(1129)The Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure and Multi-tracer II: redshift space and realistic tracers
  • Thiago Mergulhão,
  • Henrique Rubira,
  • Rodrigo Voivodic
abstract + abstract -

We extend the multi-tracer (MT) formalism of the effective field theory of large-scale structure to redshift space, comparing the results of MT to a single-tracer analysis when extracting cosmological parameters from simulations. We used a sub-halo abundance matching method to obtain more realistic multi-tracer galaxy catalogs constructed from N-body simulations. Considering different values for the sample shot noise and volume, we show that the MT error bars on $A_s$, $\omega_{\rm cdm}$, and $h$ in a full-shape analysis are approximately $50\%$ smaller relative to ST. We find that cosmological and bias coefficients from MT are less degenerate, indicating that the MT parameter basis is more orthogonal. We conclude that using MT combined with perturbation theory is a robust and competitive way to accommodate the information present in the mildly non-linear scales.

(1128)HOLISMOKES -- XI. Evaluation of supervised neural networks for strong-lens searches in ground-based imaging surveys
  • R. Canameras,
  • S. Schuldt,
  • Y. Shu,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • S. Taubenberger
  • +8
  • I. T. Andika,
  • S. Bag,
  • K. T. Inoue,
  • A. T. Jaelani,
  • L. Leal-Taixe,
  • T. Meinhardt,
  • A. Melo,
  • A. More
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

While supervised neural networks have become state of the art for identifying the rare strong gravitational lenses from large imaging data sets, their selection remains significantly affected by the large number and diversity of nonlens contaminants. This work evaluates and compares systematically the performance of neural networks in order to move towards a rapid selection of galaxy-scale strong lenses with minimal human input in the era of deep, wide-scale surveys. We used multiband images from PDR2 of the HSC Wide survey to build test sets mimicking an actual classification experiment, with 189 strong lenses previously found over the HSC footprint and 70,910 nonlens galaxies in COSMOS. Multiple networks were trained on different sets of realistic strong-lens simulations and nonlens galaxies, with various architectures and data pre-processing. The overall performances strongly depend on the construction of the ground-truth training data and they typically, but not systematically, improve using our baseline residual network architecture. Improvements are found when applying random shifts to the image centroids and square root stretches to the pixel values, adding z band, or using random viewpoints of the original images, but not when adding difference images to subtract emission from the central galaxy. The most significant gain is obtained with committees of networks trained on different data sets, and showing a moderate overlap between populations of false positives. Nearly-perfect invariance to image quality can be achieved by training networks either with large number of bands, or jointly with the PSF and science frames. Overall, we show the possibility to reach a TPR0 as high as 60% for the test sets under consideration, which opens promising perspectives for pure selection of strong lenses without human input using the Rubin Observatory and other forthcoming ground-based surveys.

(1127)The PEPSI Exoplanet Transit Survey (PETS). III. The detection of Fe I, Cr I, and Ti I in the atmosphere of MASCARA-1 b through high-resolution emission spectroscopy
  • G. Scandariato,
  • F. Borsa,
  • A. S. Bonomo,
  • B. S. Gaudi,
  • Th. Henning
  • +17
  • I. Ilyin,
  • M. C. Johnson,
  • L. Malavolta,
  • M. Mallonn,
  • K. Molaverdikhani,
  • V. Nascimbeni,
  • J. Patience,
  • L. Pino,
  • K. Poppenhaeger,
  • E. Schlawin,
  • E. L. Shkolnik,
  • D. Sicilia,
  • A. Sozzetti,
  • K. G. Strassmeier,
  • C. Veillet,
  • J. Wang,
  • F. Yan
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245539
abstract + abstract -

Context. Hot giant planets such as MASCARA-1 b are expected to have thermally inverted atmospheres, which makes them perfect laboratories for atmospheric characterization through high-resolution spectroscopy. Nonetheless, previous attempts at detecting the atmosphere of MASCARA-1 b in transmission have led to negative results.
Aims: We aim to detect the optical emission spectrum of MASCARA-1 b.
Methods: We used the high-resolution spectrograph PEPSI to observe MASCARA-1 (spectral type A8) near the secondary eclipse of the planet. We cross-correlated the spectra with synthetic templates computed for several atomic and molecular species.
Results: We detect Fe I, Cr I, and Ti I in the atmosphere of MASCARA-1 b with a S/N ≈ 7, 4, and 5, respectively, and confirm the expected systemic velocity of ≈13 km s−1 and the radial velocity semi-amplitude of MASCARA-1 b of ≈200 km s−1. The detection of Ti is of particular importance in the context of the recently proposed phenomenon of Ti cold-trapping below a certain planetary equilibrium temperature.
Conclusions: We confirm the presence of an atmosphere around MASCARA-1 b through emission spectroscopy. We conclude that the atmospheric non-detection in transmission spectroscopy is due to the strong gravity of the planet and/or to the overlap between the planetary track and its Doppler shadow.

(1126)The Young and the Wild: What Happens to Protoclusters Forming at Redshift z ≈ 4?
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Helmut Dannerbauer
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/accb91
abstract + abstract -

Using one of the largest volumes of the hydrodynamical cosmological simulation suit Magneticum, we study the evolution of protoclusters identified at redshift ≈ 4, with properties similar to the well-observed protocluster SPT2349-56. We identify 42 protoclusters in the simulation as massive and equally rich in substructures as observed, confirming that these observed structures can already be virialized. The dynamics of the internally fast-rotating member galaxies within these protoclusters resemble observations, merging rapidly to form the cores of the brightest cluster galaxies of the assembling clusters. Half of the gas reservoir of these structures is in a hot phase, with the metal enrichment at a very early stage. These systems show a good agreement with the observed amount of cold star-forming gas, largely enriched to solar values. We predict that some of the member galaxies are already quenched at z ≈ 4, rendering them undetectable through measurements of their gas reservoirs. Tracing the evolution of protoclusters reveals that none of the typical mass indicators at high redshift are good tracers to predict the present-day mass of the system. We find that none of the simulated protoclusters at z = 4.3 are among the top ten most massive clusters at redshift z = 0.2, with some barely reaching masses of M ≈ 2 × 1014 M . Although the average star formation and mass growth rates in the simulated galaxies match observations at high redshift reasonably well, the simulation fails to reproduce the extremely high total star formation rates within the observed protoclusters, indicating that the subgrid models are lacking the ability to reproduce a higher star formation efficiency (or lower depletion timescales).

(1125)The Orbital Structure and Selection Effects of the Galactic Center S-Star Cluster
  • Andreas Burkert,
  • Stefan Gillessen,
  • Douglas N. C. Lin,
  • Xiaochen Zheng,
  • Philipp Schoeller
  • +2
  • Frank Eisenhauer,
  • Reinhard Genzel
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The orbital distribution of the S-star cluster surrounding the supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way is analyzed. A tight, roughly exponential dependence of the pericenter distance r$_{p}$ on orbital eccentricity e$_{\star}$ is found, $\log ($r$_p)\sim$(1-e$_{\star}$), which cannot be explained simply by a random distribution of semi-major axes and eccentricities. No stars are found in the region with high e$_{\star}$ and large log r$_{p}$ or in the region with low e$_{\star}$ and small log r$_{p}$. G-clouds follow the same correlation. The likelihood P(log r$_p$,(1-e$_{\star}$)) to determine the orbital parameters of S-stars is determined. P is very small for stars with large e$_{\star}$ and large log r$_{p}$. S-stars might exist in this region. To determine their orbital parameters, one however needs observations over a longer time period. On the other hand, if stars would exist in the region of low log r$_{p}$ and small e$_{\star}$, their orbital parameters should by now have been determined. That this region is unpopulated therefore indicates that no S-stars exist with these orbital characteristics, providing constraints for their formation. We call this region, defined by $\log$ (r$_p$/AU) $<$ 1.57+2.6(1-e$_{\star})$, the zone of avoidance. Finally, it is shown that the observed frequency of eccentricities and pericenter distances is consistent with a random sampling of log r$_{p}$ and e$_{\star}$. However, only if one takes into account that no stars exist in the zone of avoidance and that orbital parameters cannot yet be determined for stars with large r$_{p}$ and large e$_{\star}$.

(1124)Hierarchical Neural Simulation-Based Inference Over Event Ensembles
  • Lukas Heinrich,
  • Siddharth Mishra-Sharma,
  • Chris Pollard,
  • Philipp Windischhofer
abstract + abstract -

When analyzing real-world data it is common to work with event ensembles, which comprise sets of observations that collectively constrain the parameters of an underlying model of interest. Such models often have a hierarchical structure, where "local" parameters impact individual events and "global" parameters influence the entire dataset. We introduce practical approaches for optimal dataset-wide probabilistic inference in cases where the likelihood is intractable, but simulations can be realized via forward modeling. We construct neural estimators for the likelihood(-ratio) or posterior and show that explicitly accounting for the model's hierarchical structure can lead to tighter parameter constraints. We ground our discussion using case studies from the physical sciences, focusing on examples from particle physics (particle collider data) and astrophysics (strong gravitational lensing observations).

(1123)Radiative Corrections: From Medium to High Energy Experiments
  • Andrei Afanasev,
  • Jan C. Bernauer,
  • Peter Blunden,
  • Johannes Blümlein,
  • Ethan W. Cline
  • +14
  • Jan M. Friedrich,
  • Franziska Hagelstein,
  • Tomáš Husek,
  • Michael Kohl,
  • Fred Myhrer,
  • Gil Paz,
  • Susan Schadmand,
  • Axel Schmidt,
  • Vladyslava Sharkovska,
  • Adrian Signer,
  • Oleksandr Tomalak,
  • Egle Tomasi-Gustafsson,
  • Yannick Ulrich,
  • Marc Vanderhaeghen
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Radiative corrections are crucial for modern high-precision physics experiments, and are an area of active research in the experimental and theoretical community. Here we provide an overview of the state of the field of radiative corrections with a focus on several topics: lepton-proton scattering, QED corrections in deep-inelastic scattering, and in radiative light-hadron decays. Particular emphasis is placed on the two-photon exchange, believed to be responsible for the proton form-factor discrepancy, and associated Monte-Carlo codes. We encourage the community to continue developing theoretical techniques to treat radiative corrections, and perform experimental tests of these corrections.

(1122)The Isotropic Center of NGC 5419-A Core in Formation?
  • Bianca Neureiter,
  • Jens Thomas,
  • Antti Rantala,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Kianusch Mehrgan
  • +3
  • Roberto Saglia,
  • Stefano de Nicola,
  • Ralf Bender
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/accffa
abstract + abstract -

With its cored surface brightness profile, the elliptical galaxy NGC 5419 appears as a typical high-mass early-type galaxy (ETG). However, the galaxy hosts two distinct nuclei in its center. We use high-signal MUSE (Multi-unit Spectroscopic Explorer (Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO program 099.B-0193(A).)) spectral observations and novel triaxial dynamical orbit models to reveal a surprisingly isotropic central orbit distribution in NGC 5419. Recent collisionless simulations of merging massive ETGs suggest a two-phase core formation model, in which the low-density stellar core forms rapidly by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) sinking into the center due to dynamical friction. Only afterwards do the SMBHs form a hard binary, and the black hole scouring process slowly changes the central orbit distribution from isotropic to tangential. The observed cored density profile, the double nucleus, and the isotropic center of NGC 5419 together thus point to an intermediate evolutionary state where the first phase of core formation has taken place, yet the scouring process is only beginning. This implies that the double nucleus is an SMBH binary. Our triaxial dynamical models indicate a total mass of the two SMBHs in the center of NGC 5419 of M BH = (1.0 ± 0.08) × 1010 M . Moreover, we find that NGC 5419's complex kinematically distinct core can be explained by a coherent flip of the direction of orbital rotation of stars on tube orbits at ~3 kpc distance from the galaxy center together with projection effects. This is also in agreement with merger simulations hosting SMBHs in the same mass regime.

(1121)Multimessenger Characterization of Markarian 501 during Historically Low X-Ray and γ-Ray Activity
  • H. Abe,
  • S. Abe,
  • V. A. Acciari,
  • I. Agudo,
  • T. Aniello
  • +318
  • S. Ansoldi,
  • L. A. Antonelli,
  • A. Arbet-Engels,
  • C. Arcaro,
  • M. Artero,
  • K. Asano,
  • D. Baack,
  • A. Babić,
  • A. Baquero,
  • U. Barres de Almeida,
  • J. A. Barrio,
  • I. Batković,
  • J. Baxter,
  • J. Becerra González,
  • W. Bednarek,
  • E. Bernardini,
  • M. Bernardos,
  • A. Berti,
  • J. Besenrieder,
  • W. Bhattacharyya,
  • C. Bigongiari,
  • A. Biland,
  • O. Blanch,
  • G. Bonnoli,
  • Ž. Bošnjak,
  • I. Burelli,
  • G. Busetto,
  • R. Carosi,
  • M. Carretero-Castrillo,
  • A. J. Castro-Tirado,
  • G. Ceribella,
  • Y. Chai,
  • A. Chilingarian,
  • S. Cikota,
  • E. Colombo,
  • J. L. Contreras,
  • J. Cortina,
  • S. Covino,
  • G. D'Amico,
  • V. D'Elia,
  • P. da Vela,
  • F. Dazzi,
  • A. de Angelis,
  • B. de Lotto,
  • A. Del Popolo,
  • M. Delfino,
  • J. Delgado,
  • C. Delgado Mendez,
  • D. Depaoli,
  • F. di Pierro,
  • L. di Venere,
  • E. Do Souto Espiñeira,
  • D. Dominis Prester,
  • A. Donini,
  • D. Dorner,
  • M. Doro,
  • D. Elsaesser,
  • G. Emery,
  • J. Escudero,
  • V. Fallah Ramazani,
  • L. Fariña,
  • A. Fattorini,
  • L. Foffano,
  • L. Font,
  • C. Fruck,
  • S. Fukami,
  • Y. Fukazawa,
  • R. J. García López,
  • M. Garczarczyk,
  • S. Gasparyan,
  • M. Gaug,
  • J. G. Giesbrecht Paiva,
  • N. Giglietto,
  • F. Giordano,
  • P. Gliwny,
  • N. Godinović,
  • R. Grau,
  • D. Green,
  • J. G. Green,
  • D. Hadasch,
  • A. Hahn,
  • T. Hassan,
  • L. Heckmann,
  • J. Herrera,
  • D. Hrupec,
  • M. Hütten,
  • R. Imazawa,
  • T. Inada,
  • R. Iotov,
  • K. Ishio,
  • I. Jiménez Martínez,
  • J. Jormanainen,
  • D. Kerszberg,
  • Y. Kobayashi,
  • H. Kubo,
  • J. Kushida,
  • A. Lamastra,
  • D. Lelas,
  • F. Leone,
  • E. Lindfors,
  • L. Linhoff,
  • S. Lombardi,
  • F. Longo,
  • R. López-Coto,
  • M. López-Moya,
  • A. López-Oramas,
  • S. Loporchio,
  • A. Lorini,
  • E. Lyard,
  • B. Machado de Oliveira Fraga,
  • P. Majumdar,
  • M. Makariev,
  • G. Maneva,
  • N. Mang,
  • M. Manganaro,
  • S. Mangano,
  • K. Mannheim,
  • M. Mariotti,
  • M. Martínez,
  • A. Mas-Aguilar,
  • D. Mazin,
  • S. Menchiari,
  • S. Mender,
  • S. Mićanović,
  • D. Miceli,
  • T. Miener,
  • J. M. Miranda,
  • R. Mirzoyan,
  • E. Molina,
  • H. A. Mondal,
  • A. Moralejo,
  • D. Morcuende,
  • V. Moreno,
  • T. Nakamori,
  • C. Nanci,
  • L. Nava,
  • V. Neustroev,
  • M. Nievas Rosillo,
  • C. Nigro,
  • K. Nilsson,
  • K. Nishijima,
  • T. Njoh Ekoume,
  • K. Noda,
  • S. Nozaki,
  • Y. Ohtani,
  • T. Oka,
  • A. Okumura,
  • J. Otero-Santos,
  • S. Paiano,
  • M. Palatiello,
  • D. Paneque,
  • R. Paoletti,
  • J. M. Paredes,
  • L. Pavletić,
  • M. Persic,
  • M. Pihet,
  • G. Pirola,
  • F. Podobnik,
  • P. G. Prada Moroni,
  • E. Prandini,
  • G. Principe,
  • C. Priyadarshi,
  • W. Rhode,
  • M. Ribó,
  • J. Rico,
  • C. Righi,
  • A. Rugliancich,
  • N. Sahakyan,
  • T. Saito,
  • S. Sakurai,
  • K. Satalecka,
  • F. G. Saturni,
  • B. Schleicher,
  • K. Schmidt,
  • F. Schmuckermaier,
  • J. L. Schubert,
  • T. Schweizer,
  • J. Sitarek,
  • V. Sliusar,
  • D. Sobczynska,
  • A. Spolon,
  • A. Stamerra,
  • J. Strišković,
  • D. Strom,
  • M. Strzys,
  • Y. Suda,
  • T. Surić,
  • H. Tajima,
  • M. Takahashi,
  • R. Takeishi,
  • F. Tavecchio,
  • P. Temnikov,
  • K. Terauchi,
  • T. Terzić,
  • M. Teshima,
  • L. Tosti,
  • S. Truzzi,
  • A. Tutone,
  • S. Ubach,
  • J. van Scherpenberg,
  • M. Vazquez Acosta,
  • S. Ventura,
  • V. Verguilov,
  • I. Viale,
  • C. F. Vigorito,
  • V. Vitale,
  • I. Vovk,
  • R. Walter,
  • M. Will,
  • C. Wunderlich,
  • T. Yamamoto,
  • D. Zarić,
  • MAGIC Collaboration,
  • M. Cerruti,
  • J. A. Acosta-Pulido,
  • G. Apolonio,
  • R. Bachev,
  • M. Baloković,
  • E. Benítez,
  • I. Björklund,
  • V. Bozhilov,
  • L. F. Brown,
  • A. Bugg,
  • W. Carbonell,
  • M. I. Carnerero,
  • D. Carosati,
  • C. Casadio,
  • W. Chamani,
  • W. P. Chen,
  • R. A. Chigladze,
  • G. Damljanovic,
  • K. Epps,
  • A. Erkenov,
  • M. Feige,
  • J. Finke,
  • A. Fuentes,
  • K. Gazeas,
  • M. Giroletti,
  • T. S. Grishina,
  • A. C. Gupta,
  • ,
  • M. A. Gurwell,
  • E. Heidemann,
  • D. Hiriart,
  • W. J. Hou,
  • T. Hovatta,
  • S. Ibryamov,
  • M. D. Joner,
  • S. G. Jorstad,
  • J. Kania,
  • S. Kiehlmann,
  • G. N. Kimeridze,
  • E. N. Kopatskaya,
  • M. Kopp,
  • M. Korte,
  • B. Kotas,
  • S. Koyama,
  • J. A. Kramer,
  • L. Kunkel,
  • S. O. Kurtanidze,
  • O. M. Kurtanidze,
  • A. Lähteenmäki,
  • J. M. López,
  • V. M. Larionov,
  • E. G. Larionova,
  • L. V. Larionova,
  • C. Leto,
  • C. Lorey,
  • R. Mújica,
  • G. M. Madejski,
  • N. Marchili,
  • A. P. Marscher,
  • M. Minev,
  • A. Modaressi,
  • D. A. Morozova,
  • T. Mufakharov,
  • I. Myserlis,
  • A. A. Nikiforova,
  • M. G. Nikolashvili,
  • E. Ovcharov,
  • M. Perri,
  • C. M. Raiteri,
  • A. C. S. Readhead,
  • A. Reimer,
  • D. Reinhart,
  • S. Righini,
  • K. Rosenlehner,
  • A. C. Sadun,
  • S. S. Savchenko,
  • A. Scherbantin,
  • L. Schneider,
  • K. Schoch,
  • D. Seifert,
  • E. Semkov,
  • L. A. Sigua,
  • C. Singh,
  • P. Sola,
  • Y. Sotnikova,
  • M. Spencer,
  • R. Steineke,
  • M. Stojanovic,
  • A. Strigachev,
  • M. Tornikoski,
  • E. Traianou,
  • A. Tramacere,
  • Yu. V. Troitskaya,
  • I. S. Troitskiy,
  • J. B. Trump,
  • A. Tsai,
  • A. Valcheva,
  • A. A. Vasilyev,
  • F. Verrecchia,
  • M. Villata,
  • O. Vince,
  • K. Vrontaki,
  • Z. R. Weaver,
  • E. Zaharieva,
  • N. Zottmann
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (06/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4365/acc181
abstract + abstract -

We study the broadband emission of Mrk 501 using multiwavelength observations from 2017 to 2020 performed with a multitude of instruments, involving, among others, MAGIC, Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT), NuSTAR, Swift, GASP-WEBT, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. Mrk 501 showed an extremely low broadband activity, which may help to unravel its baseline emission. Nonetheless, significant flux variations are detected at all wave bands, with the highest occurring at X-rays and very-high-energy (VHE) γ-rays. A significant correlation (>3σ) between X-rays and VHE γ-rays is measured, supporting leptonic scenarios to explain the variable parts of the emission, also during low activity. This is further supported when we extend our data from 2008 to 2020, and identify, for the first time, significant correlations between the Swift X-Ray Telescope and Fermi-LAT. We additionally find correlations between high-energy γ-rays and radio, with the radio lagging by more than 100 days, placing the γ-ray emission zone upstream of the radio-bright regions in the jet. Furthermore, Mrk 501 showed a historically low activity in X-rays and VHE γ-rays from mid-2017 to mid-2019 with a stable VHE flux (>0.2 TeV) of 5% the emission of the Crab Nebula. The broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) of this 2 yr long low state, the potential baseline emission of Mrk 501, can be characterized with one-zone leptonic models, and with (lepto)-hadronic models fulfilling neutrino flux constraints from IceCube. We explore the time evolution of the SED toward the low state, revealing that the stable baseline emission may be ascribed to a standing shock, and the variable emission to an additional expanding or traveling shock.

(1120)Electron-Ion Temperature Ratio in Astrophysical Shocks
  • John C. Raymond,
  • Parviz Ghavamian,
  • Artem Bohdan,
  • Dongsu Ryu,
  • Jacek Niemiec
  • +7
  • Lorenzo Sironi,
  • Aaron Tran,
  • Elena Amato,
  • Masahiro Hoshino,
  • Martin Pohl,
  • Takanobu Amano,
  • Frederico Fiuza
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acc528
abstract + abstract -

Collisionless shock waves in supernova remnants and the solar wind heat electrons less effectively than they heat ions, as is predicted by kinetic simulations. However, the values of T e /T p inferred from the Hα profiles of supernova remnant shocks behave differently as a function of Mach number or Alfvén Mach number than what is measured in the solar wind or predicted by simulations. Here we determine T e /T p for supernova remnant shocks using Hα profiles, shock speeds from proper motions, and electron temperatures from X-ray spectra. We also improve the estimates of sound speed and Alfvén speed used to determine Mach numbers. We find that the Hα determinations are robust and that the discrepancies among supernova remnant shocks, solar wind shocks, and computer-simulated shocks remain. We discuss some possible contributing factors, including shock precursors, turbulence, and varying preshock conditions.

(1119)Exploring the cosmological synergy between galaxy cluster and cosmic void number counts
  • D. Pelliciari,
  • S. Contarini,
  • F. Marulli,
  • L. Moscardini,
  • C. Giocoli
  • +2
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad956
abstract + abstract -

Galaxy clusters and cosmic voids, the most extreme objects in our Universe in terms of mass and size, trace two opposite sides of the large-scale matter density field. By studying their abundance as a function of their mass and radius, respectively, i.e. the halo mass function (HMF) and void size function (VSF), it is possible to achieve fundamental constraints on the cosmological model. While the HMF has already been extensively exploited, providing robust constraints on the main cosmological model parameters (e.g. Ωm, σ8, and S8), the VSF is still emerging as a viable and effective cosmological probe. Given the expected complementarity of these statistics, in this work, we aim at estimating the costraining power deriving from their combination. To this end, we exploit realistic mock samples of galaxy clusters and voids extracted from state-of-the-art large hydrodynamical simulations, in the redshift range 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 1. We perform an accurate calibration of the free parameters of the HMF and VSF models, needed to take into account the differences between the types of mass tracers used in this work and those considered in previous literature analyses. Then, we obtain constraints on Ωm and σ8 by performing a Bayesian analysis. We find that cluster and void counts represent powerful independent and complementary probes to test the cosmological framework. In particular, the constraining power of the HMF on Ωm and σ8 improves with the VSF contribution, increasing the S8 constraint precision by a factor of about 60 per cent.

(1118)Towards cosmological simulations of the magnetized intracluster medium with resolved Coulomb collision scale
  • Ulrich P. Steinwandel,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Ludwig Böss,
  • Tirso Marin-Gilabert
abstract + abstract -

We present the first results of one extremely high resolution, non-radiative magnetohydrodynamical cosmological zoom-in simulation of a massive cluster with a virial mass M$_\mathrm{vir} = 2.0 \times 10^{15}$ solar masses. We adopt a mass resolution of $4 \times 10^5$ M$_{\odot}$ with a maximum spatial resolution of around 250 pc in the central regions of the cluster. We follow the detailed amplification process in a resolved small-scale turbulent dynamo in the Intracluster medium (ICM) with strong exponential growth until redshift 4, after which the field grows weakly in the adiabatic compression limit until redshift 2. The energy in the field is slightly reduced as the system approaches redshift zero in agreement with adiabatic decompression. The field structure is highly turbulent in the center and shows field reversals on a length scale of a few 10 kpc and an anti-correlation between the radial and angular field components in the central region that is ordered by small-scale turbulent dynamo action. The large-scale field on Mpc scales is almost isotropic, indicating that the structure formation process in massive galaxy cluster formation is suppressing memory of both the initial field configuration and the amplified morphology via the turbulent dynamo in the central regions. We demonstrate that extremely high-resolution simulations of the magnetized ICM are in reach that can resolve the small-scale magnetic field structure which is of major importance for the injection of and transport of cosmic rays in the ICM. This work is a major cornerstone for follow-up studies with an on-the-fly treatment of cosmic rays to model in detail electron-synchrotron and gamma-ray emissions.

(1117)Bias-Free Estimation of Signals on Top of Unknown Backgrounds
  • Johannes Diehl,
  • Jakob Knollmüller,
  • Oliver Schulz
abstract + abstract -

We present a method for obtaining unbiased signal estimates in the presence of a significant background, eliminating the need for a parametric model for the background itself. Our approach is based on a minimal set of conditions for observation and background estimators, which are typically satisfied in practical scenarios. To showcase the effectiveness of our method, we apply it to simulated data from the planned dielectric axion haloscope MADMAX.

(1116)Simulating $\mathbb{Z}_2$ Lattice Gauge Theory with the Variational Quantum Thermalizer
  • Michael Fromm,
  • Owe Philipsen,
  • Michael Spannowsky,
  • Christopher Winterowd
abstract + abstract -

The properties of strongly-coupled lattice gauge theories at finite density as well as in real time have largely eluded first-principles studies on the lattice. This is due to the failure of importance sampling for systems with a complex action. An alternative to evade the sign problem is quantum simulation. Although still in its infancy, a lot of progress has been made in devising algorithms to address these problems. In particular, recent efforts have addressed the question of how to produce thermal Gibbs states on a quantum computer. In this study, we apply a variational quantum algorithm to a low-dimensional model which has a local abelian gauge symmetry. We demonstrate how this approach can be applied to obtain information regarding the phase diagram as well as unequal-time correlation functions at non-zero temperature.

(1115)Star Formation in the Dwarf Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4395: Evidence for Both AGN and SN Feedback?
  • Payel Nandi,
  • C. S. Stalin,
  • D. J. Saikia,
  • S. Muneer,
  • George Mountrichas
  • +3
  • Dominika Wylezalek,
  • R. Sagar,
  • Markus Kissler-Patig
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present a detailed multi-wavelength study of star formation in the dwarf galaxy NGC 4395 which hosts an active galactic nucleus (AGN). From our observations with the Ultra-Violet Imaging Telescope, we have compiled a catalogue of 284 star forming (SF) regions, out of which we could detect 120 SF regions in Hα observations. Across the entire galaxy, we found the extinction corrected star formation rate (SFR) in the far ultra-violet (FUV) to range from 2.0 × 10−5 M⊙yr−1 to 1.5 × 10−2 M⊙yr−1 with a median of 3.0 × 10−4 M⊙yr−1 and age to lie in the range of ∼ 1 to 98 Myr with a median of 14 Myr. In Hα we found the SFR to range from 7.2 × 10−6 M⊙yr−1 to 2.7 × 10−2 M⊙yr−1 with a median of 1.7 × 10−4 M⊙yr−1 and age to lie between 3 to 6 Myr with a median of 5 Myr. The stellar ages derived from Hα show a gradual decline with galactocentric distance. We found three SF regions close to the center of NGC~4395 with high SFR both from Hα and UV which could be attributed to feedback effects from the AGN. We also found six other SF regions in one of the spiral arms having higher SFR. These are very close to supernovae remnants which could have enhanced the SFR locally. We obtained a specific SFR (SFR per unit mass) for the whole galaxy 4.64 × 10−10 yr−1.

(1114)The impact of dust evolution on the dead zone outer edge in magnetized protoplanetary disks
  • Timmy N. Delage,
  • Matías Gárate,
  • Satoshi Okuzumi,
  • Chao-Chin Yang,
  • Paola Pinilla
  • +3
  • Mario Flock,
  • Sebastian Markus Stammler,
  • Tilman Birnstiel
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244731
abstract + abstract -

Context. The dead zone outer edge corresponds to the transition from the magnetically dead to the magnetorotational instability (MRI) active regions in the outer protoplanetary disk midplane. It has been previously hypothesized to be a prime location for dust particle trapping. A more consistent approach to access such an idea has yet to be developed, since the interplay between dust evolution and MRI-driven accretion over millions of years has been poorly understood.
Aims: We provide an important step toward a better understanding of the MRI-dust coevolution in protoplanetary disks. In this pilot study, we present a proof of concept that dust evolution ultimately plays a crucial role in the MRI activity.
Methods: First, we study how a fixed power-law dust size distribution with varying parameters impacts the MRI activity, especially the steady-state MRI-driven accretion, by employing and improving our previous 1+1D MRI-driven turbulence model. Second, we relax the steady-state accretion assumption in this disk accretion model, and partially couple it to a dust evolution model in order to investigate how the evolution of dust (dynamics and grain growth processes combined) and MRI-driven accretion are intertwined on million-year timescales, from a more sophisticated modeling of the gas ionization degree.
Results: Dust coagulation and settling lead to a higher gas ionization degree in the protoplanetary disk, resulting in stronger MRI-driven turbulence as well as a more compact dead zone. On the other hand, fragmentation has an opposite effect because it replenishes the disk in small dust particles which are very efficient at sweeping up free electrons and ions from the gas phase. Since the dust content of the disk decreases over millions of years of evolution due to radial drift, the MRI-driven turbulence overall becomes stronger and the dead zone more compact until the disk dust-gas mixture eventually behaves as a grain-free plasma. Furthermore, our results show that dust evolution alone does not lead to a complete reactivation of the dead zone. For typical T-Tauri stars, we find that the dead zone outer edge is expected to be located roughly between 10 au and 50 au during the disk lifetime for our choice of the magnetic field strength and configuration. Finally, the MRI activity evolution is expected to be crucially sensitive to the choice made for the minimum grain size of the dust distribution.
Conclusions: The MRI activity evolution (hence the temporal evolution of the MRI-induced α parameter) is controlled by dust evolution and occurs on a timescale of local dust growth, as long as there are enough dust particles in the disk to dominate the recombination process for the ionization chemistry. Once that is no longer the case, the MRI activity evolution is expected to be controlled by gas evolution and occurs on a viscous evolution timescale.

(1113)AAfrag 2.01: interpolation routines for Monte Carlo results on secondary production including light antinuclei in hadronic interactions
  • M. Kachelrieß,
  • S. Ostapchenko,
  • J. Tjemsland
Computer Physics Communications (06/2023) doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2023.108698
abstract + abstract -

Light antinuclei, like antideuteron and antihelium-3, are ideal probes for new, exotic physics because their astrophysical backgrounds are suppressed at low energies. In order to exploit fully the inherent discovery potential of light antinuclei, a reliable description of their production cross sections in cosmic ray interactions is crucial. We provide therefore the cross sections of antideuteron and antihelium-3 production in pp, pHe, Hep, HeHe, p bar p and p bar He collisions at energies relevant for secondary production in the Milky Way, in a tabulated form which is convinient to use. These predictions are based on QGSJET-II-04m and the state of the art coalescence model WiFunC, which evaluates the coalesence probability on an event-by-event basis, including both momentum correlations and the dependence on the emission volume. In addition, we comment on the importance of a Monte Carlo description of the antideuteron production and on the use of event generators in general. In particular, we discuss the effect of two-particle momentum correlations provided by Monte Carlo event generators on antinuclei production.

(1112)A quantitative comparison between velocity dependent SIDM cross sections constrained by the gravothermal and isothermal models
  • Shengqi Yang,
  • Fangzhou Jiang,
  • Andrew Benson,
  • Yi-Ming Zhong,
  • Charlie Mace
  • +4
  • Xiaolong Du,
  • Zhichao Carton Zeng,
  • Annika H. G. Peter,
  • Moritz S. Fischer
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

One necessary step for probing the nature of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) particles with astrophysical observations is to pin down any possible velocity dependence in the SIDM cross section. Major challenges for achieving this goal include eliminating, or mitigating, the impact of the baryonic components and tidal effects within the dark matter halos of interest -- the effects of these processes can be highly degenerate with those of dark matter self-interactions at small scales. In this work we select 9 isolated galaxies and brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with baryonic components small enough such that the baryonic gravitational potentials do not significantly influence the halo gravothermal evolution processes. We then constrain the parameters of Rutherford and Moller scattering cross section models with the measured rotation curves and stellar kinematics through the gravothermal fluid formalism and isothermal method. Cross sections constrained by the two methods are consistent at $1\sigma$ confidence level, but the isothermal method prefers cross sections greater than the gravothermal approach constraints by a factor of $\sim3$.

(1111)Applications of machine learning to detecting fast neutrino flavor instabilities in core-collapse supernova and neutron star merger models
  • Sajad Abbar
Physical Review D (05/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.103006
abstract + abstract -

Neutrinos propagating in a dense neutrino gas, such as those expected in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and neutron star mergers (NSMs), can experience fast flavor conversions on relatively short scales. This can happen if the neutrino electron lepton number (ν ELN ) angular distribution crosses zero in a certain direction. Despite this, most of the state-of-the-art CCSN and NSM simulations do not provide such detailed angular information and instead, supply only a few moments of the neutrino angular distributions. In this study we employ, for the first time, a machine learning (ML) approach to this problem and show that it can be extremely successful in detecting ν ELN crossings on the basis of its zeroth and first moments. We observe that an accuracy of ∼95 % can be achieved by the ML algorithms, which almost corresponds to the Bayes error rate of our problem. Considering its remarkable efficiency and agility, the ML approach provides one with an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate the occurrence of fast flavor conversions in CCSN and NSM simulations on the fly. We also provide our ML methodologies on GitHub.

(1110)First look at the evaluation of three-loop non-planar Feynman diagrams for Higgs plus jet production
  • Johannes M. Henn,
  • Jungwon Lim,
  • William J. Torres Bobadilla
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2023)026
abstract + abstract -

We present new computations for Feynman integrals relevant to Higgs plus jet production at three loops, including first results for a non-planar class of integrals. The results are expressed in terms of generalised polylogarithms up to transcendental weight six. We also provide the full canonical differential equations, which allows us to make structural observations on the answer. In particular, we find a counterexample to previously conjectured adjacency relations, for a planar integral of the tennis-court type. Additionally, for a non-planar triple ladder diagram, we find two novel alphabet letters. This information may be useful for future bootstrap approaches.

(1109)Impact of systematic nuclear uncertainties on composition and decay heat of dynamical and disk ejecta in compact binary mergers
  • I. Kullmann,
  • S. Goriely,
  • O. Just,
  • A. Bauswein,
  • H. -T. Janka
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (05/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stad1458
abstract + abstract -

Theoretically predicted yields of elements created by the rapid neutron capture (r-) process carry potentially large uncertainties associated with incomplete knowledge of nuclear properties and approximative hydrodynamical modelling of the matter ejection processes. We present an in-depth study of the nuclear uncertainties by varying theoretical nuclear input models that describe the experimentally unknown neutron-rich nuclei. This includes two frameworks for calculating the radiative neutron capture rates and 14 different models for nuclear masses, β-decay rates and fission properties. Our r-process nuclear network calculations are based on detailed hydrodynamical simulations of dynamically ejected material from NS-NS or NS-BH binary mergers plus the secular ejecta from BH-torus systems. The impact of nuclear uncertainties on the r-process abundance distribution and the early radioactive heating rate is found to be modest (within a factor of ~20 for individual A > 90 abundances and a factor of 2 for the heating rate). However, the impact on the late-time heating rate is more significant and depends strongly on the contribution from fission. We witness significantly higher sensitivity to the nuclear physics input if only a single trajectory is used compared to considering ensembles with a much larger number of trajectories (ranging between 150 and 300), and the quantitative effects of the nuclear uncertainties strongly depend on the adopted conditions for the individual trajectory. We use the predicted Th/U ratio to estimate the cosmochronometric age of six metal-poor stars and find the impact of the nuclear uncertainties to be up to 2 Gyr.

(1108)HOLISMOKES. X. Comparison between neural network and semi-automated traditional modeling of strong lenses
  • S. Schuldt,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • R. Cañameras,
  • Y. Shu,
  • S. Taubenberger
  • +2
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244534
abstract + abstract -

Modeling of strongly gravitationally lensed galaxies is often required in order to use them as astrophysical or cosmological probes. With current and upcoming wide-field imaging surveys, the number of detected lenses is increasing significantly such that automated and fast modeling procedures for ground-based data are urgently needed. This is especially pertinent to short-lived lensed transients in order to plan follow-up observations. Therefore, we present in a companion paper a neural network predicting the parameter values with corresponding uncertainties of a singular isothermal ellipsoid (SIE) mass profile with external shear. In this work, we also present a newly developed pipeline that can be used to model any galaxy-scale lensing system consistently. In contrast to previous automated modeling pipelines that require high-resolution space-based images, is optimized to work well on ground-based images such as those from the Hyper-Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program or the upcoming Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time. We further present, a flexible automation code for individual modeling that has no direct decisions and assumptions implemented on the lens system setup or image resolution. Both pipelines, in addition to our modeling network, minimize the user input time drastically and thus are important for future modeling efforts. We applied the network to 31 real galaxy-scale lenses of HSC and compare the results to traditional, Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling-based models obtained from our semi-autonomous pipelines. In the direct comparison, we find a very good match for the Einstein radius. The lens mass center and ellipticity show reasonable agreement. The main discrepancies pretrain to the external shear, as is expected from our tests on mock systems where the neural network always predicts values close to zero for the complex components of the shear. In general, our study demonstrates that neural networks are a viable and ultra fast approach for measuring the lens-galaxy masses from ground-based data in the upcoming era with ~105 lenses expected.

(1107)Template-based information transfer in chemically fueled dynamic combinatorial libraries
  • Christine Kriebisch,
  • Ludwig Burger,
  • Oleksii Zozulia,
  • Michele Stasi,
  • Alexander Floroni
  • +3
  • Dieter Braun,
  • Ulrich Gerland,
  • Job Boekhoven
  • (less)
preprint NaturePortfolio (05/2023) doi:10.21203/
abstract + abstract -

One of science’s greatest challenges is how life can spontaneously emerge from a mixture of abiotic molecules. A complicating factor is that life is inherently unstable, and, by extension, so are its molecules—RNA and proteins are prone to hydrolysis and denaturation. For the synthesis of life or to better understand its emergence at its origin, selection mechanisms are needed for such inherently unstable molecules. Here, we present a chemically-fueled dynamic combinatorial library as a model for RNA oligomerization and deoligomerization that shines new light on selection and purification mechanisms under kinetic control. In the experiments, nucleotide oligomers can only sustain by continuous production. We find that hybridization is a powerful tool for selecting unstable molecules as it offers feedback on oligomerization and deoligomerization rates. Template-based copying can thereby select molecules of specific lengths and sequences. Moreover, we find that templation can also be used to purify libraries of oligomers. Further, template-based copying within coacervate-based protocells changes its compartment’s physical properties, like their ability to fuse. Such reciprocal coupling between information sequences and physical properties is a key step toward synthetic life.