page 7 of 17
(1020)$D$-Module Techniques for Solving Differential Equations in the Context of Feynman Integrals
  • Johannes Henn,
  • Elizabeth Pratt,
  • Anna-Laura Sattelberger,
  • Simone Zoia
abstract + abstract -

Feynman integrals are solutions to linear partial differential equations with polynomial coefficients. Using a triangle integral with general exponents as a case in point, we compare $D$-module methods to dedicated methods developed for solving differential equations appearing in the context of Feynman integrals, and provide a dictionary of the relevant concepts. In particular, we implement an algorithm due to Saito, Sturmfels, and Takayama to derive canonical series solutions of regular holonomic $D$-ideals, and compare them to asymptotic series derived by the respective Fuchsian systems.


RU-D
(1019)Mass Metallicity Relationship of SDSS Star Forming Galaxies: Population Synthesis Analysis and Effects of Star Burst Length, Extinction Law, Initial Mass Function and Star Formation Rate
  • Eva Sextl,
  • Rolf-Peter Kudritzki,
  • H. Jabran Zahid,
  • I-Ting Ho
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the mass-metallicity relationship of star forming galaxies by analysing the absorption line spectra of $\sim$200,000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The galaxy spectra are stacked in bins of stellar mass and a population synthesis technique is applied yielding metallicities, ages and star formation history of the young and old stellar population together with interstellar reddening and extinction. We adopt different lengths of the initial starbursts and different initial mass functions for the calculation of model spectra of the single stellar populations contributing to the total integrated spectrum. We also allow for deviations of the ratio of extinction to reddening RV from 3.1 and determine the value from the spectral fit. We find that burst length and RV have a significant influence on the determination of metallicities whereas the effect of the initial mass function is small. RV values are larger than 3.1. The metallicities of the young stellar population agree with extragalactic spectroscopic studies of individual massive supergiant stars and are significantly higher than those of the older stellar population. This confirms galaxy evolution models where metallicity depends on the ratio of gas to stellar mass and where this ratio decreases with time. Star formation history is found to depend on galaxy stellar mass. Massive galaxies are dominated by stars formed at early times.


RU-C
(1018)Constraint on Early Dark Energy from Isotropic Cosmic Birefringence
  • Johannes R. Eskilt,
  • Laura Herold,
  • Eiichiro Komatsu,
  • Kai Murai,
  • Toshiya Namikawa
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

Polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is sensitive to new physics violating parity symmetry, such as the presence of a pseudoscalar "axionlike" field. Such a field may be responsible for early dark energy (EDE), which is active prior to recombination and provides a solution to the so-called Hubble tension. The EDE field coupled to photons in a parity-violating manner would rotate the plane of linear polarization of the CMB and produce a cross-correlation power spectrum of $E$- and $B$-mode polarization fields with opposite parities. In this paper, we fit the $EB$ power spectrum predicted by the photon-axion coupling of the EDE model with a potential $V(\phi)\propto [1-\cos(\phi/f)]^3$ to polarization data from Planck. We find that the unique shape of the predicted $EB$ power spectrum is not favored by the data and obtain a first constraint on the photon-axion coupling constant, $g=(0.04\pm 0.16)M_{\text{Pl}}^{-1}$ (68% CL), for the EDE model that best fits the CMB and galaxy clustering data. This constraint is independent of the miscalibration of polarization angles of the instrument or the polarized Galactic foreground emission. Our limit on $g$ may have important implications for embedding EDE in fundamental physics, such as string theory.


CN-3
RU-C
(1017)Perturbation theory with dispersion and higher cumulants: Framework and linear theory
  • Mathias Garny,
  • Dominik Laxhuber,
  • Román Scoccimarro
Physical Review D (03/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.063539
abstract + abstract -

The standard perturbation theory (SPT) approach to gravitational clustering is based on a fluid approximation of the underlying Vlasov-Poisson dynamics, taking only the zeroth and first cumulant of the phase-space distribution function into account (density and velocity fields). This assumption breaks down when dark matter particle orbits cross and leads to well-known problems, e.g., an anomalously large backreaction of small-scale modes onto larger scales that compromises predictivity. We extend SPT by incorporating second and higher cumulants generated by orbit crossing. For collisionless matter, their equations of motion are completely fixed by the Vlasov-Poisson system, and thus we refer to this approach as Vlasov Perturbation Theory (VPT). Even cumulants develop a background value, and they enter the hierarchy of coupled equations for the fluctuations. The background values are in turn sourced by power spectra of the fluctuations. The latter can be brought into a form that is formally analogous to SPT, but with an extended set of variables and linear as well as nonlinear terms, that we derive explicitly. In this paper, we focus on linear solutions, which are far richer than in SPT, showing that modes that cross the dispersion scale set by the second cumulant are highly suppressed. We derive stability conditions on the background values of even cumulants from the requirement that exponential instabilities be absent. We also compute the expected magnitude of averaged higher cumulants for various halo models and show that they satisfy the stability conditions. Finally, we derive self-consistent solutions of perturbations and background values for a scaling universe and study the convergence of the cumulant expansion. The VPT framework provides a conceptually straightforward and deterministic extension of SPT that accounts for the decoupling of small-scale modes.


RU-D
(1016)Disk Evolution Study Through Imaging of Nearby Young Stars (DESTINYS): Characterization of the young star T CrA and its circumstellar environment
  • E. Rigliaco,
  • R. Gratton,
  • S. Ceppi,
  • C. Ginski,
  • M. Hogerheijde
  • +13
  • M. Benisty,
  • T. Birnstiel,
  • M. Dima,
  • S. Facchini,
  • A. Garufi,
  • J. Bae,
  • M. Langlois,
  • G. Lodato,
  • E. Mamajek,
  • C. F. Manara,
  • F. Ménard,
  • A. Ribas,
  • A. Zurlo
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245192
abstract + abstract -

Context. In recent years, a new hot topic has emerged in the star and planet formation field, namely, the interaction between the circumstellar disk and its birth cloud. The birth environments of young stars leave strong imprints on the star itself and their surroundings. In this context, we present a detailed analysis of the rich circumstellar environment around the young Herbig Ae/Be star T CrA.
Aims: Our aim is to understand the nature of the stellar system and the extended circumstellar structures, as seen in scattered light images.
Methods: We conducted our analysis on the basis of a set of combined archival data and new adaptive optics images at a high contrast and high resolution.
Results: The scattered light images reveal the presence of a complex environment around T CrA, composed of a bright, forward-scattering rim of the disk's surface that is seen at very high inclinations, along with a dark lane of the disk midplane, bipolar outflows, and streamer features that are likely tracing infalling material from the surrounding birth cloud onto the disk. The analysis of the light curve suggests that the star is a binary with a period of 29.6 yr, confirming previous assertions based on spectro-astrometry. The comparison of the scattered light images with the ALMA continuum and 12CO (2-1) line emission shows that the disk is in Keplerian rotation and the northern side of the outflowing material is receding, while the southern side is approaching the observer. The overall system lies on different geometrical planes. The orbit of the binary star is perpendicular to the outflows and is seen edge on. The disk is itself seen edge-on, with a position angle of ~7°. The direction of the outflows seen in scattered light is in agreement with the direction of the more distant molecular hydrogen emission-line objects (MHOs) associated with the star. Modeling of the spectral energy distribution using a radiative transfer scheme is in good agreement with the proposed configuration, as well as the hydrodynamical simulation performed using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code.
Conclusions: We find evidence of streamers of accreting material around T CrA. These streamers connect the filament, along which T CrA is forming along with the outer parts of the disk, suggesting that the strong misalignment between the inner and outer disk is due to a change in the direction of the angular momentum of the material accreting on the disk during the late phase of star formation. This impacts the accretion taking place in the components of the binary, favoring the growth of the primary with respect the secondary, in contrast to the case of aligned disks.

Reduced images are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via https://cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/671/A82


MIAPbP
(1015)Gravitational wave constraints on extended dark matter structures
  • Djuna Croon,
  • Seyda Ipek,
  • David McKeen
Physical Review D (03/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.063012
abstract + abstract -

We generalize existing constraints on primordial black holes to dark objects with extended sizes using the aLIGO design sensitivity. We show that LIGO is sensitive to dark objects with radius O (10 −103 km ) if they make up more than ∼O (10-2−10-3) of dark matter.


(1014)Enzyme-Enriched Condensates Show Self-Propulsion, Positioning, and Coexistence
  • Leonardo Demarchi,
  • Andriy Goychuk,
  • Ivan Maryshev,
  • Erwin Frey
Physical Review Letters (03/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.128401
abstract + abstract -

Enzyme-enriched condensates can organize the spatial distribution of their substrates by catalyzing nonequilibrium reactions. Conversely, an inhomogeneous substrate distribution induces enzyme fluxes through substrate-enzyme interactions. We find that condensates move toward the center of a confining domain when this feedback is weak. Above a feedback threshold, they exhibit self-propulsion, leading to oscillatory dynamics. Moreover, catalysis-driven enzyme fluxes can lead to interrupted coarsening, resulting in equidistant condensate positioning, and to condensate division.


(1013)Dark Matter Dilution Mechanism through the Lens of Large-Scale Structure
  • Miha Nemevšek,
  • Yue Zhang
Physical Review Letters (03/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.121002
abstract + abstract -

Entropy production is a necessary ingredient for addressing the overpopulation of thermal relics. It is widely employed in particle physics models for explaining the origin of dark matter. A long-lived particle that decays to the known particles, while dominating the universe, plays the role of the dilutor. We point out the impact of its partial decay to dark matter on the primordial matter power spectrum. For the first time, we derive a stringent limit on the branching ratio of the dilutor to dark matter from large scale structure observation using the sloan digital sky survey data. This offers a novel tool for testing models with a dark matter dilution mechanism. We apply it to the left-right symmetric model and show that it firmly excludes a large portion of parameter space for right-handed neutrino warm dark matter.


(1012)The Bactrian? Broad-lined Type-Ic supernova SN 2022xxf with extraordinary two-humped light curves
  • H. Kuncarayakti,
  • J. Sollerman,
  • L. Izzo,
  • K. Maeda,
  • S. Yang
  • +58
  • S. Schulze,
  • C. R. Angus,
  • M. Aubert,
  • K. Auchettl,
  • M. Della Valle,
  • L. Dessart,
  • K. Hinds,
  • E. Kankare,
  • M. Kawabata,
  • P. Lundqvist,
  • T. Nakaoka,
  • D. Perley,
  • S. I. Raimundo,
  • N. L. Strotjohann,
  • K. Taguchi,
  • Y. -Z. Cai,
  • P. Charalampopoulos,
  • Q. Fang,
  • M. Fraser,
  • C. P. Gutierrez,
  • R. Imazawa,
  • T. Kangas,
  • K. S. Kawabata,
  • R. Kotak,
  • T. Kravtsov,
  • K. Matilainen,
  • S. Mattila,
  • S. Moran,
  • I. Murata,
  • I. Salmaso,
  • J. P. Anderson,
  • C. Ashall,
  • E. C. Bellm,
  • S. Benetti,
  • K. C. Chambers,
  • T. -W. Chen,
  • M. Coughlin,
  • F. De Colle,
  • C. Fremling,
  • L. Galbany,
  • A. Gal-Yam,
  • M. Gromadzki,
  • S. L. Groom,
  • A. Hajela,
  • C. Inserra,
  • M. M. Kasliwal,
  • A. A. Mahabal,
  • A. Martin-Carrillo,
  • T. Moore,
  • T. E. Muller-Bravo,
  • M. Nicholl,
  • F. Ragosta,
  • R. L. Riddle,
  • Y. Sharma,
  • S. Srivastav,
  • M. D. Stritzinger,
  • A. Wold,
  • D. R. Young
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We report on our study of SN 2022xxf during the first four months of its evolution. The light curves (LCs) display two humps at similar maximum brightness separated by 75d, unprecedented for a broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN IcBL). SN~2022xxf is the most nearby SN IcBL to date (in NGC~3705, $z = 0.0037$, 20 Mpc). Optical and NIR photometry and spectroscopy are used to identify the energy source powering the LC. Nearly 50 epochs of high S/N-ratio spectroscopy were obtained within 130d, comprising an unparalleled dataset for a SN IcBL, and one of the best-sampled SN datasets to date. The global spectral appearance and evolution of SN~2022xxf points to typical SN Ic/IcBL, with broad features (up to $\sim14000$ km~s$^{-1}$) and a gradual transition from the photospheric to the nebular phase. However, narrow emission lines (corresponding to $\sim1000-2500$ km~s$^{-1}$) are present from the time of the second rise, suggesting slower-moving circumstellar material (CSM). These lines are subtle, but some are readily noticeable at late times such as in Mg~I $\lambda$5170 and [O~I] $\lambda$5577. Unusually, the near-infrared spectra show narrow line peaks, especially among features formed by ions of O and Mg. We infer the presence of CSM that is free of H and He. We propose that the radiative energy from the ejecta-CSM interaction is a plausible explanation for the second LC hump. This interaction scenario is supported by the color evolution, which progresses to the blue as the light curve evolves along the second hump, and the slow second rise and subsequent rapid LC drop. SN~2022xxf may be related to an emerging number of CSM-interacting SNe Ic, which show slow, peculiar LCs, blue colors, and subtle CSM interaction lines. The progenitor stars of these SNe likely experienced an episode of mass loss shortly prior to explosion consisting of H/He-free material.


CN-7
(1011)Heavy quark diffusion coefficient with gradient flow
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Viljami Leino,
  • Julian Mayer-Steudte,
  • Peter Petreczky,
  • Tumqcd Collaboration
Physical Review D (03/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.054508
abstract + abstract -

We calculate chromoelectric and chromomagnetic correlators in quenched QCD at 1.5 Tc and 104Tc , with the aim to estimate the heavy quark diffusion coefficient at leading order in the inverse heavy quark mass expansion, κE , as well as the coefficient of the first mass-suppressed correction, κB. We use gradient flow for noise reduction. At 1.5 Tc we obtain 1.70 ≤κE/T3≤3.12 and 1.03 <κB/T3<2.61 . The latter implies that the mass-suppressed effects in the heavy quark diffusion coefficient are 20% for bottom quarks and 34% for charm quarks at this temperature.


CN-3
RU-D
(1010)Euclid preparation. XXIV. Calibration of the halo mass function in Λ(ν)CDM cosmologies
  • Euclid Collaboration,
  • T. Castro,
  • A. Fumagalli,
  • R. E. Angulo,
  • S. Bocquet
  • +177
  • S. Borgani,
  • C. Carbone,
  • J. Dakin,
  • K. Dolag,
  • C. Giocoli,
  • P. Monaco,
  • A. Ragagnin,
  • A. Saro,
  • E. Sefusatti,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • A. M. C. Le Brun,
  • P. -S. Corasaniti,
  • A. Amara,
  • L. Amendola,
  • M. Baldi,
  • R. Bender,
  • C. Bodendorf,
  • E. Branchini,
  • M. Brescia,
  • S. Camera,
  • V. Capobianco,
  • J. Carretero,
  • M. Castellano,
  • S. Cavuoti,
  • A. Cimatti,
  • R. Cledassou,
  • G. Congedo,
  • L. Conversi,
  • Y. Copin,
  • L. Corcione,
  • F. Courbin,
  • A. Da Silva,
  • H. Degaudenzi,
  • M. Douspis,
  • F. Dubath,
  • C. A. J. Duncan,
  • X. Dupac,
  • S. Farrens,
  • S. Ferriol,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • M. Frailis,
  • E. Franceschi,
  • S. Galeotta,
  • B. Garilli,
  • B. Gillis,
  • A. Grazian,
  • F. Grupp,
  • S. V. H. Haugan,
  • F. Hormuth,
  • A. Hornstrup,
  • P. Hudelot,
  • K. Jahnke,
  • S. Kermiche,
  • T. Kitching,
  • M. Kunz,
  • H. Kurki-Suonio,
  • P. B. Lilje,
  • I. Lloro,
  • O. Mansutti,
  • O. Marggraf,
  • F. Marulli,
  • M. Meneghetti,
  • E. Merlin,
  • G. Meylan,
  • M. Moresco,
  • L. Moscardini,
  • E. Munari,
  • S. M. Niemi,
  • C. Padilla,
  • S. Paltani,
  • F. Pasian,
  • K. Pedersen,
  • V. Pettorino,
  • S. Pires,
  • G. Polenta,
  • M. Poncet,
  • L. Popa,
  • L. Pozzetti,
  • F. Raison,
  • R. Rebolo,
  • A. Renzi,
  • J. Rhodes,
  • G. Riccio,
  • E. Romelli,
  • R. Saglia,
  • D. Sapone,
  • B. Sartoris,
  • P. Schneider,
  • G. Seidel,
  • G. Sirri,
  • L. Stanco,
  • P. Tallada Crespí,
  • A. N. Taylor,
  • R. Toledo-Moreo,
  • F. Torradeflot,
  • I. Tutusaus,
  • E. A. Valentijn,
  • L. Valenziano,
  • T. Vassallo,
  • Y. Wang,
  • J. Weller,
  • A. Zacchei,
  • G. Zamorani,
  • S. Andreon,
  • S. Bardelli,
  • E. Bozzo,
  • C. Colodro-Conde,
  • D. Di Ferdinando,
  • M. Farina,
  • J. Graciá-Carpio,
  • V. Lindholm,
  • C. Neissner,
  • V. Scottez,
  • M. Tenti,
  • E. Zucca,
  • C. Baccigalupi,
  • A. Balaguera-Antolínez,
  • M. Ballardini,
  • F. Bernardeau,
  • A. Biviano,
  • A. Blanchard,
  • A. S. Borlaff,
  • C. Burigana,
  • R. Cabanac,
  • A. Cappi,
  • C. S. Carvalho,
  • S. Casas,
  • G. Castignani,
  • A. Cooray,
  • J. Coupon,
  • H. M. Courtois,
  • S. Davini,
  • G. De Lucia,
  • G. Desprez,
  • H. Dole,
  • J. A. Escartin,
  • S. Escoffier,
  • F. Finelli,
  • K. Ganga,
  • J. Garcia-Bellido,
  • K. George,
  • G. Gozaliasl,
  • H. Hildebrandt,
  • I. Hook,
  • S. Ilić,
  • V. Kansal,
  • E. Keihanen,
  • C. C. Kirkpatrick,
  • A. Loureiro,
  • J. Macias-Perez,
  • M. Magliocchetti,
  • R. Maoli,
  • S. Marcin,
  • M. Martinelli,
  • N. Martinet,
  • S. Matthew,
  • M. Maturi,
  • R. B. Metcalf,
  • G. Morgante,
  • S. Nadathur,
  • A. A. Nucita,
  • L. Patrizii,
  • A. Peel,
  • V. Popa,
  • C. Porciani,
  • D. Potter,
  • A. Pourtsidou,
  • M. Pöntinen,
  • A. G. Sánchez,
  • Z. Sakr,
  • M. Schirmer,
  • M. Sereno,
  • A. Spurio Mancini,
  • R. Teyssier,
  • J. Valiviita,
  • A. Veropalumbo,
  • M. Viel
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244674
abstract + abstract -

Euclid's photometric galaxy cluster survey has the potential to be a very competitive cosmological probe. The main cosmological probe with observations of clusters is their number count, within which the halo mass function (HMF) is a key theoretical quantity. We present a new calibration of the analytic HMF, at the level of accuracy and precision required for the uncertainty in this quantity to be subdominant with respect to other sources of uncertainty in recovering cosmological parameters from Euclid cluster counts. Our model is calibrated against a suite of N-body simulations using a Bayesian approach taking into account systematic errors arising from numerical effects in the simulation. First, we test the convergence of HMF predictions from different N-body codes, by using initial conditions generated with different orders of Lagrangian Perturbation theory, and adopting different simulation box sizes and mass resolution. Then, we quantify the effect of using different halo finder algorithms, and how the resulting differences propagate to the cosmological constraints. In order to trace the violation of universality in the HMF, we also analyse simulations based on initial conditions characterised by scale-free power spectra with different spectral indexes, assuming both Einstein-de Sitter and standard ΛCDM expansion histories. Based on these results, we construct a fitting function for the HMF that we demonstrate to be sub-percent accurate in reproducing results from 9 different variants of the ΛCDM model including massive neutrinos cosmologies. The calibration systematic uncertainty is largely sub-dominant with respect to the expected precision of future mass-observation relations; with the only notable exception of the effect due to the halo finder, that could lead to biased cosmological inference.


CN-4
RU-C
(1009)Cosmology inference at the field level from biased tracers in redshift-space
  • Julia Stadler,
  • Fabian Schmidt,
  • Martin Reinecke
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, (03/2023) e-Print:2303.09876 doi:10.48550/arXiv.2303.09876
abstract + abstract -

Cosmology inference of galaxy clustering at the field level with the EFT likelihood in principle allows for extracting all non-Gaussian information from quasi-linear scales, while robustly marginalizing over any astrophysical uncertainties. A pipeline in this spirit is implemented in the \texttt{LEFTfield} code, which we extend in this work to describe the clustering of galaxies in redshift space. Our main additions are: the computation of the velocity field in the LPT gravity model, the fully nonlinear displacement of the evolved, biased density field to redshift space, and a systematic expansion of velocity bias. We test the resulting analysis pipeline by applying it to synthetic data sets with a known ground truth at increasing complexity: mock data generated from the perturbative forward model itself, sub-sampled matter particles, and dark matter halos in N-body simulations. By fixing the initial-time density contrast to the ground truth, while varying the growth rate $f$, bias coefficients and noise amplitudes, we perform a stringent set of checks. These show that indeed a systematic higher-order expansion of the velocity bias is required to infer a growth rate consistent with the ground truth within errors. Applied to dark matter halos, our analysis yields unbiased constraints on $f$ at the level of a few percent for a variety of halo masses at redshifts $z=0,\,0.5,\,1$ and for a broad range of cutoff scales $0.08\,h/\mathrm{Mpc} \leq \Lambda \leq 0.20\,h/\mathrm{Mpc}$. Importantly, deviations between true and inferred growth rate exhibit the scaling with halo mass, redshift and cutoff that one expects based on the EFT of Large Scale Structure. Further, we obtain a robust detection of velocity bias through its effect on the redshift-space density field and are able to disentangle it from higher-derivative bias contributions.


(1008)The effect of non-equal emission times and space-time correlations on (anti-) nuclei production
  • M. Kachelriess,
  • S. Ostapchenko,
  • J. Tjemsland
abstract + abstract -

Light (anti-) nuclei are a powerful tool both in collider physics and astrophysics. In searches for new and exotic physics, the expected small astrophysical backgrounds at low energies make these antinuclei ideal probes for, e.g., dark matter. At the same time, their composite structure and small binding energies imply that they can be used in collider experiments to probe the hadronisation process and two-particle correlations. For the proper interpretation of such experimental studies, an improved theoretical understanding of (anti-) nuclei production in specific kinematic regions and detector setups is needed. In this work, we develop a coalescence framework for (anti-) deuteron production which accounts for both the emission volume and momentum correlations on an event-by-event basis. This framework goes beyond the equal-time approximation, which has been commonly assumed in femtoscopy experiments and (anti-) nucleus production models until now. Using PYTHIA~8 as an event generator, we find that the equal-time approximation leads to an error of O(10%) in low-energy processes like $\Upsilon$ decays, while the errors are negligible at LHC energies. The framework introduced in this work paves the way for tuning event generators to (anti-) nuclei measurements.


(1007)The imprint of clump formation at high redshift. II. The chemistry of the bulge
  • Victor P. Debattista,
  • David J. Liddicott,
  • Oscar A. Gonzalez,
  • Leandro Beraldo e Silva,
  • Joao A. S. Amarante
  • +9
  • Ilin Lazar,
  • Manuela Zoccali,
  • Elena Valenti,
  • Deanne B. Fisher,
  • Tigran Khachaturyants,
  • David L. Nidever,
  • Thomas R. Quinn,
  • Min Du,
  • Susan Kassin
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

In Paper I we showed that clumps in high-redshift galaxies, having a high star formation rate density (\Sigma_SFR), produce disks with two tracks in the [Fe/H]-[\alpha/Fe] chemical space, similar to that of the Milky Way's (MW's) thin + thick disks. Here we investigate the effect of clumps on the bulge's chemistry. The chemistry of the MW's bulge is comprised of a single track with two density peaks separated by a trough. We show that the bulge chemistry of an N-body + smoothed particle hydrodynamics clumpy simulation also has a single track. Star formation within the bulge is itself in the high-\Sigma_SFR clumpy mode, which ensures that the bulge's chemical track follows that of the thick disk at low [Fe/H] and then extends to high [Fe/H], where it peaks. The peak at low metallicity instead is comprised of a mixture of in-situ stars and stars accreted via clumps. As a result, the trough between the peaks occurs at the end of the thick disk track. We find that the high-metallicity peak dominates near the mid-plane and declines in relative importance with height, as in the MW. The bulge is already rapidly rotating by the end of the clump epoch, with higher rotation at low [\alpha/Fe]. Thus clumpy star formation is able to simultaneously explain the chemodynamic trends of the MW's bulge, thin + thick disks and the Splash.


C2PAP
CN-5
RU-D
(1006)Insights on the Origin of Odd Radio Circles from Cosmological Simulations
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Ludwig M. Böss,
  • Bärbel S. Koribalski,
  • Ulrich P. Steinwandel,
  • Milena Valentini
The Astrophysical Journal (03/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acb5f5
abstract + abstract -

We investigate shock structures driven by merger events in high-resolution simulations that result in a galaxy with a virial mass M ≈ 1012 M . We find that the sizes and morphologies of the internal shocks resemble remarkably well those of the newly detected class of odd radio circles (ORCs). This would highlight a so-far overlooked mechanism to form radio rings, shells, and even more complex structures around elliptical galaxies. Mach numbers of ${ \mathcal M }$ = 2-3 for such internal shocks are in agreement with the spectral indices of the observed ORCs. We estimate that ~5% of galaxies could undergo merger events, which occasionally lead to such prominent structures within the galactic halo during their lifetime, explaining the low number of observed ORCs. At the time when the shock structures are matching the physical sizes of the observed ORCs, the central galaxies are typically classified as early-type galaxies, with no ongoing star formation, in agreement with observational findings. Although the energy released by such mergers could potentially power the observed radio luminosity already in Milky Way-like halos, our predicted luminosity from a simple, direct shock acceleration model is much smaller than the observed one. Considering the estimated number of candidates from our cosmological simulations and the higher observed energies, we suggest that the proposed scenario is more likely for halo masses around 1013 M in agreement with the observed stellar masses of the galaxies at the center of ORCs. Such shocks might be detectable with next-generation X-ray instruments like the Line Emission Mapper (LEM).


(1005)HOLISMOKES. IX. Neural network inference of strong-lens parameters and uncertainties from ground-based images
  • S. Schuldt,
  • R. Cañameras,
  • Y. Shu,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • S. Taubenberger
  • +2
Astronomy and Astrophysics (03/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244325
abstract + abstract -

Modeling of strong gravitational lenses is a necessity for further applications in astrophysics and cosmology. With the large number of detections in current and upcoming surveys, such as the Rubin Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST), it is pertinent to investigate automated and fast analysis techniques beyond the traditional and time-consuming Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods. Building upon our (simple) convolutional neural network (CNN), we present here another CNN, specifically a residual neural network (ResNet), that predicts the five mass parameters of a singular isothermal ellipsoid (SIE) profile (lens center x and y, ellipticity ex and ey, Einstein radius θE) and the external shear (γext, 1, γext, 2) from ground-based imaging data. In contrast to our previous CNN, this ResNet further predicts the 1σ uncertainty for each parameter. To train our network, we use our improved pipeline to simulate lens images using real images of galaxies from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey (HSC) and from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field as lens galaxies and background sources, respectively. We find very good recoveries overall for the SIE parameters, especially for the lens center in comparison to our previous CNN, while significant differences remain in predicting the external shear. From our multiple tests, it appears that most likely the low ground-based image resolution is the limiting factor in predicting the external shear. Given the run time of milli-seconds per system, our network is perfectly suited to quickly predict the next appearing image and time delays of lensed transients. Therefore, we use the network-predicted mass model to estimate these quantities and compare to those values obtained from our simulations. Unfortunately, the achieved precision allows only a first-order estimate of time delays on real lens systems and requires further refinement through follow-up modeling. Nonetheless, our ResNet is able to predict the SIE and shear parameter values in fractions of a second on a single CPU, meaning that we are able to efficiently process the huge amount of galaxy-scale lenses expected in the near future.

The network code is available under https://github.com/shsuyu/HOLISMOKES-public/tree/main/HOLISMOKES_IX


CN-3
RU-C
(1004)Perturbation theory with dispersion and higher cumulants: Nonlinear regime
  • Mathias Garny,
  • Dominik Laxhuber,
  • Román Scoccimarro
Physical Review D (03/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.063540
abstract + abstract -

We present nonlinear solutions of Vlasov perturbation theory (VPT), describing gravitational clustering of collisionless dark matter with dispersion and higher cumulants induced by orbit crossing. We show that VPT can be cast into a form that is formally analogous to standard perturbation theory (SPT), but including additional perturbation variables, nonlinear interactions, and a more complex propagation. VPT nonlinear kernels have a crucial decoupling property: for fixed total momentum, the kernels become strongly suppressed when any of the individual momenta cross the dispersion scale into the nonlinear regime. This screening of UV modes allows us to compute nonlinear corrections to power spectra even for cosmologies with very blue power-law input spectra, for which SPT diverges. We compare predictions for the density and velocity divergence power spectra as well as the bispectrum at one-loop order to N -body results in a scaling universe with spectral indices -1 ≤ns≤+2 . We find a good agreement up to the nonlinear scale for all cases, with a reach that increases with the spectral index ns. We discuss the generation of vorticity as well as vector and tensor modes of the velocity dispersion, showing that neglecting vorticity when including dispersion would lead to a violation of momentum conservation. We verify momentum conservation when including vorticity, and compute the vorticity power spectrum at two-loop order, necessary to recover the correct large-scale limit with slope nw=2 . Comparing to our N -body measurements confirms the cross-over from k4 to k2 scaling at large scales. Our results provide a proof-of-principle that perturbative techniques for dark matter clustering can be systematically improved based on the known underlying collisionless dynamics.


CN-2
RU-E
(1003)A Carbodiimide-Fueled Reaction Cycle That Forms Transient 5(4H)-Oxazolones
  • Xiaoyao Chen,
  • Michele Stasi,
  • Jennifer Rodon-Fores,
  • Paula F. Großmann,
  • Alexander M. Bergmann
  • +4
  • Kun Dai,
  • Marta Tena-Solsona,
  • Bernhard Rieger,
  • and Job Boekhoven
  • (less)
J. Am. Chem. Soc. (03/2023) doi:10.1021/jacs.3c00273
abstract + abstract -

In life, molecular architectures, like the cytoskeletal proteins or the nucleolus, catalyze the conversion of chemical fuels to perform their functions. For example, tubulin catalyzes the hydrolysis of GTP to form a dynamic cytoskeletal network. In contrast, myosin uses the energy obtained by catalyzing the hydrolysis of ATP to exert forces. Artificial examples of such beautiful architectures are scarce partly because synthetic chemically fueled reaction cycles are relatively rare. Here, we introduce a new chemical reaction cycle driven by the hydration of a carbodiimide. Unlike other carbodiimide-fueled reaction cycles, the proposed cycle forms a transient 5(4H)-oxazolone. The reaction cycle is efficient in forming the transient product and is robust to operate under a wide range of fuel inputs, pH, and temperatures. The versatility of the precursors is vast, and we demonstrate several molecular designs that yield chemically fueled droplets, fibers, and crystals. We anticipate that the reaction cycle can offer a range of other assemblies and, due to its versatility, can also be incorporated into molecular motors and machines.


(1002)Direct detection of supernova progenitor stars with ZTF and LSST
  • Nora L. Strotjohann,
  • Eran O. Ofek,
  • Avishay Gal-Yam,
  • Jesper Sollerman,
  • Ping Chen
  • +7
  • Ofer Yaron,
  • Barak Zackay,
  • Nabeel Rehemtulla,
  • Phillipe Gris,
  • Frank J. Masci,
  • Ben Rusholme,
  • Josiah Purdum
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The direct detection of core-collapse supernova (SN) progenitor stars is a powerful way of probing the last stages of stellar evolution. However, detections in archival Hubble Space Telescope images are limited to about one per year. Here, we explore whether we can increase the detection rate by using data from ground-based wide-field surveys. Due to crowding and atmospheric blurring, progenitor stars can typically not be identified in pre-explosion images alone. Instead, we combine many pre-SN and late-time images to search for the disappearance of the progenitor star. As a proof of concept, we implement our search for ZTF data. For a few hundred images, we achieve limiting magnitudes of about 23 mag in the g and r band. However, no progenitor stars or long-lived outbursts are detected for 29 SNe within z<0.01, and the ZTF limits are typically several magnitudes less constraining than detected progenitors in the literature. Next, we estimate progenitor detection rates for the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) with the Vera C. Rubin telescope by simulating a population of nearby SNe. The background from bright host galaxies reduces the nominal LSST sensitivity by, on average, 0.4 mag. Over the ten-year survey, we expect the detection of about 50 red supergiant progenitors and several yellow and blue supergiants. The progenitors of SNe Ib and Ic are detectable if they are brighter than -4.7 mag or -4.0 mag in the LSST i band, respectively. In addition, we expect the detection of hundreds of pre-SN outbursts depending on their brightness and duration.


CN-3
RU-D
(1001)RC100: Rotation Curves of 100 Massive Star-forming Galaxies at z = 0.6-2.5 Reveal Little Dark Matter on Galactic Scales
  • A. Nestor Shachar,
  • S. H. Price,
  • N. M. Förster Schreiber,
  • R. Genzel,
  • T. T. Shimizu
  • +17
  • L. J. Tacconi,
  • H. Übler,
  • A. Burkert,
  • R. I. Davies,
  • A. Dekel,
  • R. Herrera-Camus,
  • L. L. Lee,
  • D. Liu,
  • D. Lutz,
  • T. Naab,
  • R. Neri,
  • A. Renzini,
  • R. Saglia,
  • K. F. Schuster,
  • A. Sternberg,
  • E. Wisnioski,
  • S. Wuyts
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (02/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aca9cf
abstract + abstract -

We analyze Hα or CO rotation curves extending out to several galaxy effective radii for 100 massive, large, star-forming disk galaxies (SFGs) across the peak of cosmic galaxy star formation (z ~ 0.6-2.5), more than doubling the previous sample presented by Genzel et al. and Price et al. The observations were taken with SINFONI and KMOS integral-field spectrographs at the ESO-Very Large Telescope, LUCI-LBT, NOEMA-IRAM, and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. We fit the major-axis kinematics with beam-convolved, forward models of turbulent rotating disks with bulges embedded in dark matter (DM) halos, including the effects of pressure support. The fraction of dark to total matter within the disk effective radius (R e ~ 5 kpc), f DM(R e) = V 2 DM(R e)/V 2 circ(R e) decreases with redshift: at z ~ 1 (z ~ 2) the median DM fraction is 0.38 ± 0.23 (0.27 ± 0.18), and a third (half) of all galaxies are maximal disks with f DM(R e) < 0.28. DM fractions correlate inversely with the baryonic surface density, and the low DM fractions can be explained with a flattened, or cored, inner DM density distribution. At z ~ 2, there is ≈40% less DM mass on average within R e compared to expected values based on cosmological stellar-mass-halo-mass relations. The DM deficit is more evident at high star formation rate surface densities (≳2.5 M yr-1 kpc2) and galaxies with massive bulges (≥1010 M ). A combination of stellar or active galactic nucleus feedback, and/or heating due to dynamical friction, may drive the DM from cuspy into cored mass distributions, pointing to an efficient buildup of massive bulges and central black holes at z ~ 2 SFGs.


(1000)Beam functions for N-jettiness at N<SUP>3</SUP>LO in perturbative QCD
  • Daniel Baranowski,
  • Arnd Behring,
  • Kirill Melnikov,
  • Lorenzo Tancredi,
  • Christopher Wever
Journal of High Energy Physics (02/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP02(2023)073
abstract + abstract -

We present a calculation of all matching coefficients for N-jettiness beam functions at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N3LO) in perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Our computation is performed starting from the respective collinear splitting kernels, which we integrate using the axial gauge. We use reverse unitarity to map the relevant phase-space integrals to loop integrals, which allows us to employ multi-loop techniques including integration-by-parts identities and differential equations. We find a canonical basis and use an algorithm to establish non-trivial partial fraction relations among the resulting master integrals, which allows us to reduce their number substantially. By use of regularity conditions, we express all necessary boundary constants in terms of an independent set, which we compute by direct integration of the corresponding integrals in the soft limit. In this way, we provide an entirely independent calculation of the matching coefficients which were previously computed in ref. [1].


CN-2
RU-D
RU-E
(999)Cyanopolyyne Chemistry in the L1544 Prestellar Core: New Insights from GBT Observations
  • Eleonora Bianchi,
  • Anthony Remijan,
  • Claudio Codella,
  • Cecilia Ceccarelli,
  • Francois Lique
  • +7
  • Silvia Spezzano,
  • Nadia Balucani,
  • Paola Caselli,
  • Eric Herbst,
  • Linda Podio,
  • Charlotte Vastel,
  • Brett McGuire
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (02/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acb5e8
abstract + abstract -

We report a comprehensive study of the cyanopolyyne chemistry in the prototypical prestellar core L1544. Using the 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, we observe three emission lines of HC3N, nine lines of HC5N, five lines of HC7N, and nine lines of HC9N. HC9N is detected for the first time toward the source. The high spectral resolution (~0.05 km s-1) reveals double-peak spectral line profiles with the redshifted peak a factor 3-5 brighter. Resolved maps of the core in other molecular tracers indicate that the southern region is redshifted. Therefore, the bulk of the cyanopolyyne emission is likely associated with the southern region of the core, where free carbon atoms are available to form long chains, thanks to the more efficient illumination of the interstellar field radiation. We perform a simultaneous modeling of the HC5N, HC7N, and HC9N lines to investigate the origin of the emission. To enable this analysis, we performed new calculation of the collisional coefficients. The simultaneous fitting indicates a gas kinetic temperature of 5-12 K, a source size of 80″, and a gas density larger than 100 cm-3. The HC5N:HC7N:HC9N abundance ratios measured in L1544 are about 1:6:4. We compare our observations with those toward the well-studied starless core TMC-1 and with the available measurements in different star-forming regions. The comparison suggests that a complex carbon chain chemistry is active in other sources and is related to the presence of free gaseous carbon. Finally, we discuss the possible formation and destruction routes in light of the new observations.


CN-7
(998)Slow and fast collective neutrino oscillations: Invariants and reciprocity
  • Damiano F. G. Fiorillo,
  • Georg G. Raffelt
abstract + abstract -

The flavor evolution of a neutrino gas can show "slow" or "fast" collective motion. In terms of the usual Bloch vectors to describe the mean-field density matrices of a homogeneous neutrino gas, the slow two-flavor equations of motion (EOMs) are P˙ω=(ω B +μ P )×Pω, where ω =Δ m2/2 E , μ =√{2 }GF(nν+nν ¯), B is a unit vector in the mass direction in flavor space, and P =∫d ω Pω. For an axisymmetric angle distribution, the fast EOMs are D˙v=μ (D0-v D1)×Dv, where Dv is the Bloch vector for lepton number, v =cos θ is the velocity along the symmetry axis, D0=∫d v Dv, and D1=∫d v v Dv. We discuss similarities and differences between these generic cases. Both systems can have pendulumlike instabilities (soliton solutions), both have similar Gaudin invariants, and both are integrable in the classical and quantum case. Describing fast oscillations in a frame comoving with D1 (which itself may execute pendulumlike motions) leads to transformed EOMs that are equivalent to an abstract slow system. These conclusions carry over to three flavors.


RU-D
(997)PHANGS-JWST First Results: Massive Young Star Clusters and New Insights from JWST Observations of NGC 1365
  • Bradley C. Whitmore,
  • Rupali Chandar,
  • M. Jimena Rodríguez,
  • Janice C. Lee,
  • Eric Emsellem
  • +26
  • Matthew Floyd,
  • Hwihyun Kim,
  • J. M. Diederik Kruijssen,
  • Angus Mok,
  • Mattia C. Sormani,
  • Médéric Boquien,
  • Daniel A. Dale,
  • Christopher M. Faesi,
  • Kiana F. Henny,
  • Stephen Hannon,
  • David A. Thilker,
  • Richard L. White,
  • Ashley T. Barnes,
  • F. Bigiel,
  • Mélanie Chevance,
  • Jonathan D. Henshaw,
  • Ralf S. Klessen,
  • Adam K. Leroy,
  • Daizhong Liu,
  • Daniel Maschmann,
  • Sharon E. Meidt,
  • Erik Rosolowsky,
  • Eva Schinnerer,
  • Jiayi Sun,
  • Elizabeth J. Watkins,
  • Thomas G. Williams
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (02/2023) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/acae94
abstract + abstract -

A primary new capability of JWST is the ability to penetrate the dust in star-forming galaxies to identify and study the properties of young star clusters that remain embedded in dust and gas. In this Letter we combine new infrared images taken with JWST with our optical Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the starbursting barred (Seyfert2) spiral galaxy NGC 1365. We find that this galaxy has the richest population of massive young clusters of any known galaxy within 30 Mpc, with ~30 star clusters that are more massive than 106 M and younger than 10 Myr. Sixteen of these clusters are newly discovered from our JWST observations. An examination of the optical images reveals that 4 of 30 (~13%) are so deeply embedded that they cannot be seen in the Hubble I band (A V ≳ 10 mag), and that 11 of 30 (~37%) are missing in the HST B band, so age and mass estimates from optical measurements alone are challenging. These numbers suggest that massive clusters in NGC 1365 remain completely obscured in the visible for ~1.3 ± 0.7 Myr and are either completely or partially obscured for ~3.7 ± 1.1 Myr. We also use the JWST observations to gain new insights into the triggering of star cluster formation by the collision of gas and dust streamers with gas and dust in the bar. The JWST images reveal previously unknown structures (e.g., bridges and overshoot regions from stars that form in the bar) that help us better understand the orbital dynamics of barred galaxies and associated star-forming rings. Finally, we note that the excellent spatial resolution of the NIRCAM F200W filter provides a better way to separate barely resolved compact clusters from individual stars based on their sizes.


CN-4
RU-C
(996)SN 2019ewu: A Peculiar Supernova with Early Strong Carbon and Weak Oxygen Features from a New Sample of Young SN Ic Spectra
  • Marc Williamson,
  • Christian Vogl,
  • Maryam Modjaz,
  • Wolfgang Kerzendorf,
  • Jaladh Singhal
  • +15
  • Teresa Boland,
  • Jamison Burke,
  • Zhihao Chen,
  • Daichi Hiramatsu,
  • Lluís Galbany,
  • Estefania Padilla Gonzalez,
  • D. Andrew Howell,
  • Saurabh W. Jha,
  • Lindsey A. Kwok,
  • Curtis McCully,
  • Megan Newsome,
  • Craig Pellegrino,
  • Jeonghee Rho,
  • Giacomo Terreran,
  • Xiaofeng Wang
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (02/2023) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/acb549
abstract + abstract -

With the advent of high-cadence, all-sky automated surveys, supernovae (SNe) are now discovered closer than ever to their dates of explosion. However, young premaximum light follow-up spectra of Type Ic SNe (SNe Ic), probably arising from the most-stripped massive stars, remain rare despite their importance. In this Letter, we present a set of 49 optical spectra observed with the Las Cumbres Observatory through the Global Supernova Project for 6 SNe Ic, including a total of 17 premaximum spectra, of which 8 are observed more than a week before V-band maximum light. This data set increases the total number of publicly available premaximum-light SN Ic spectra by 25%, and we provide publicly available SNID templates that will significantly aid in the fast identification of young SNe Ic in the future. We present a detailed analysis of these spectra, including Fe II 5169 velocity measurements, O I 7774 line strengths, and continuum shapes. We compare our results to published samples of stripped SNe in the literature and find one SN in our sample that stands out. SN 2019ewu has a unique combination of features for an SN Ic: an extremely blue continuum, high absorption velocities, a P Cygni-shaped feature almost 2 weeks before maximum light that TARDIS radiative transfer modeling attributes to C II rather than Hα, and weak or nonexistent O I 7774 absorption feature until maximum light.


(995)Searches for heavy QCD axions via dimuon final states
  • Raymond T. Co,
  • Soubhik Kumar,
  • Zhen Liu
Journal of High Energy Physics (02/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP02(2023)111
abstract + abstract -

Heavy QCD axions are well-motivated extensions of the QCD axion that address the quality problem while still solving the strong CP problem. Owing to the gluon coupling, critical for solving the strong CP problem, these axions can be produced in significant numbers in beam dump and collider environments for axion decay constants as large as PeV, relevant for addressing the axion quality problem. In addition, if these axions have leptonic couplings, they can give rise to long-lived decay into lepton pairs, in particular, dominantly into muons above the dimuon threshold and below the GeV scale in a broad class of axion models. Considering existing constraints, primarily from rare meson decays, we demonstrate that current and future neutrino facilities and long-lived particle searches have the potential to probe significant parts of the heavy QCD axion parameter space via dimuon final states.


(994)Scattering amplitudes and N-body post-Minkowskian Hamiltonians in general relativity and beyond
  • Callum R. T. Jones,
  • Mikhail Solon
Journal of High Energy Physics (02/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP02(2023)105
abstract + abstract -

We present a general framework for calculating post-Minskowskian, classical, conservative Hamiltonians for N non-spinning bodies in general relativity from relativistic scattering amplitudes. Novel features for N > 2 are described including the subtraction of tree-like iteration contributions and the calculation of non-trivial many-body Fourier transform integrals needed to construct position space potentials. A new approach to calculating these integrals as an expansion in the hierarchical limit is described based on the method of regions. As an explicit example, we present the O (G2) 3-body momentum space potential in general relativity as well as for charged bodies in Einstein-Maxwell. The result is shown to be in perfect agreement with previous post-Newtonian calculations in general relativity up to O (G2v4). Furthermore, in appropriate limits the result is shown to agree perfectly with relativistic probe scattering in multi-center extremal black hole backgrounds and with the scattering of slowly-moving extremal black holes in the moduli space approximation.


RU-D
(993)PHANGS-JWST First Results: Tracing the Diffuse Interstellar Medium with JWST Imaging of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission in Nearby Galaxies
  • Karin M. Sandstrom,
  • Eric W. Koch,
  • Adam K. Leroy,
  • Erik Rosolowsky,
  • Eric Emsellem
  • +41
  • Rowan J. Smith,
  • Oleg V. Egorov,
  • Thomas G. Williams,
  • Kirsten L. Larson,
  • Janice C. Lee,
  • Eva Schinnerer,
  • David A. Thilker,
  • Ashley T. Barnes,
  • Francesco Belfiore,
  • F. Bigiel,
  • Guillermo A. Blanc,
  • Alberto D. Bolatto,
  • Médéric Boquien,
  • Yixian Cao,
  • Jérémy Chastenet,
  • Mélanie Chevance,
  • I-Da Chiang,
  • Daniel A. Dale,
  • Christopher M. Faesi,
  • Simon C. O. Glover,
  • Kathryn Grasha,
  • Brent Groves,
  • Hamid Hassani,
  • Jonathan D. Henshaw,
  • Annie Hughes,
  • Jaeyeon Kim,
  • Ralf S. Klessen,
  • Kathryn Kreckel,
  • J. M. Diederik Kruijssen,
  • Laura A. Lopez,
  • Daizhong Liu,
  • Sharon E. Meidt,
  • Eric J. Murphy,
  • Hsi-An Pan,
  • Miguel Querejeta,
  • Toshiki Saito,
  • Amy Sardone,
  • Mattia C. Sormani,
  • Jessica Sutter,
  • Antonio Usero,
  • Elizabeth J. Watkins
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (02/2023) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aca972
abstract + abstract -

JWST observations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission provide some of the deepest and highest resolution views of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in nearby galaxies. If PAHs are well mixed with the atomic and molecular gas and illuminated by the average diffuse interstellar radiation field, PAH emission may provide an approximately linear, high-resolution, high-sensitivity tracer of diffuse gas surface density. We present a pilot study that explores using PAH emission in this way based on Mid-Infrared Instrument observations of IC 5332, NGC 628, NGC 1365, and NGC 7496 from the Physics at High Angular resolution in Nearby GalaxieS-JWST Treasury. Using scaling relationships calibrated in Leroy et al., scaled F1130W provides 10-40 pc resolution and 3σ sensitivity of Σgas ~ 2 M pc-2. We characterize the surface densities of structures seen at <7 M pc-2 in our targets, where we expect the gas to be H I-dominated. We highlight the existence of filaments, interarm emission, and holes in the diffuse ISM at these low surface densities. Below ~10 M pc-2 for NGC 628, NGC 1365, and NGC 7496 the gas distribution shows a "Swiss cheese"-like topology due to holes and bubbles pervading the relatively smooth distribution of the diffuse ISM. Comparing to recent galaxy simulations, we observe similar topology for the low-surface-density gas, though with notable variations between simulations with different setups and resolution. Such a comparison of high-resolution, low-surface-density gas with simulations is not possible with existing atomic and molecular gas maps, highlighting the unique power of JWST maps of PAH emission.


RU-D
(992)PHANGS-JWST First Results: Multiwavelength View of Feedback-driven Bubbles (the Phantom Voids) across NGC 628
  • Ashley. T. Barnes,
  • Elizabeth J. Watkins,
  • Sharon E. Meidt,
  • Kathryn Kreckel,
  • Mattia C. Sormani
  • +49
  • Robin G. Treß,
  • Simon C. O. Glover,
  • Frank Bigiel,
  • Rupali Chandar,
  • Eric Emsellem,
  • Janice C. Lee,
  • Adam K. Leroy,
  • Karin M. Sandstrom,
  • Eva Schinnerer,
  • Erik Rosolowsky,
  • Francesco Belfiore,
  • Guillermo A. Blanc,
  • Médéric Boquien,
  • Jakob den Brok,
  • Yixian Cao,
  • Mélanie Chevance,
  • Daniel A. Dale,
  • Oleg V. Egorov,
  • Cosima Eibensteiner,
  • Kathryn Grasha,
  • Brent Groves,
  • Hamid Hassani,
  • Jonathan D. Henshaw,
  • Sarah Jeffreson,
  • María J. Jiménez-Donaire,
  • Benjamin W. Keller,
  • Ralf S. Klessen,
  • Eric W. Koch,
  • J. M. Diederik Kruijssen,
  • Kirsten L. Larson,
  • Jing Li,
  • Daizhong Liu,
  • Laura A. Lopez,
  • Eric J. Murphy,
  • Lukas Neumann,
  • Jérôme Pety,
  • Francesca Pinna,
  • Miguel Querejeta,
  • Florent Renaud,
  • Toshiki Saito,
  • Sumit K. Sarbadhicary,
  • Amy Sardone,
  • Rowan J. Smith,
  • Sophia K. Stuber,
  • Jiayi Sun,
  • David A. Thilker,
  • Antonio Usero,
  • Bradley C. Whitmore,
  • Thomas G. Williams
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (02/2023) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aca7b9
abstract + abstract -

We present a high-resolution view of bubbles within the Phantom Galaxy (NGC 628), a nearby (~10 Mpc), star-forming (~2 M yr-1), face-on (i ~ 9°) grand-design spiral galaxy. With new data obtained as part of the Physics at High Angular resolution in Nearby GalaxieS (PHANGS)-JWST treasury program, we perform a detailed case study of two regions of interest, one of which contains the largest and most prominent bubble in the galaxy (the Phantom Void, over 1 kpc in diameter), and the other being a smaller region that may be the precursor to such a large bubble (the Precursor Phantom Void). When comparing to matched-resolution Hα observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, we see that the ionized gas is brightest in the shells of both bubbles, and is coincident with the youngest (~1 Myr) and most massive (~105 M ) stellar associations. We also find an older generation (~20 Myr) of stellar associations is present within the bubble of the Phantom Void. From our kinematic analysis of the H I, H2 (CO), and H II gas across the Phantom Void, we infer a high expansion speed of around 15 to 50 km s-1. The large size and high expansion speed of the Phantom Void suggest that the driving mechanism is sustained stellar feedback due to multiple mechanisms, where early feedback first cleared a bubble (as we observe now in the Precursor Phantom Void), and since then supernovae have been exploding within the cavity and have accelerated the shell. Finally, comparison to simulations shows a striking resemblance to our JWST observations, and suggests that such large-scale, stellar-feedback-driven bubbles should be common within other galaxies.


(991)Two-loop QCD corrections to the V →q q ¯g helicity amplitudes with axial-vector couplings
  • Thomas Gehrmann,
  • Tiziano Peraro,
  • Lorenzo Tancredi
Journal of High Energy Physics (02/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP02(2023)041
abstract + abstract -

We compute the two-loop corrections to the helicity amplitudes for the coupling of a massive vector boson to a massless quark-antiquark pair and a gluon, accounting for vector and axial-vector couplings of the vector boson and distinguishing isospin non-singlet and singlet contributions. A new four-dimensional basis for the decomposition of the amplitudes into 12 invariant tensor structures is introduced. The associated form factors are then computed up to two loops in QCD using dimensional regularization. After performing renormalization and infrared subtraction, the finite parts of the renormalized non-singlet vector and axial-vector form factors are shown agree with each other, and to reproduce the previously known two-loop amplitudes. The singlet axial-vector amplitude receives a contribution from the axial anomaly from two loops onwards. This amplitude is computed for massless and massive internal quarks. Our results provide the last missing two-loop amplitudes entering the NNLO QCD corrections of vector-boson-plus-jet production at hadron colliders.


CN-3
RU-C
(990)Sensitivity of halo shape measurements
  • Moritz S. Fischer,
  • Lucas M. Valenzuela
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245031
abstract + abstract -

Shape measurements of galaxies and galaxy clusters are widespread in the analysis of cosmological simulations. But the limitations of those measurements have been poorly investigated. In this Letter, we explain why the quality of the shape measurement does not only depend on the numerical resolution, but also on the density gradient. In particular, this can limit the quality of measurements in the central regions of haloes. We propose a criterion to estimate the sensitivity of the measured shapes based on the density gradient of the halo and to apply it to cosmological simulations of collisionless and self-interacting dark matter. By this, we demonstrate where reliable measurements of the halo shape are possible and how cored density profiles limit their applicability.


RU-D
(989)PHANGS-JWST First Results: Rapid Evolution of Star Formation in the Central Molecular Gas Ring of NGC 1365
  • Eva Schinnerer,
  • Eric Emsellem,
  • Jonathan D. Henshaw,
  • Daizhong Liu,
  • Sharon E. Meidt
  • +34
  • Miguel Querejeta,
  • Florent Renaud,
  • Mattia C. Sormani,
  • Jiayi Sun,
  • Oleg V. Egorov,
  • Kirsten L. Larson,
  • Adam K. Leroy,
  • Erik Rosolowsky,
  • Karin M. Sandstrom,
  • T. G. Williams,
  • Ashley. T. Barnes,
  • F. Bigiel,
  • Mélanie Chevance,
  • Yixian Cao,
  • Rupali Chandar,
  • Daniel A. Dale,
  • Cosima Eibensteiner,
  • Simon C. O. Glover,
  • Kathryn Grasha,
  • Stephen Hannon,
  • Hamid Hassani,
  • Jaeyeon Kim,
  • Ralf S. Klessen,
  • J. M. Diederik Kruijssen,
  • Eric J. Murphy,
  • Justus Neumann,
  • Hsi-An Pan,
  • Jérôme Pety,
  • Toshiki Saito,
  • Sophia K. Stuber,
  • Robin G. Treß,
  • Antonio Usero,
  • Elizabeth J. Watkins,
  • Bradley C. Whitmore
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (02/2023) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/acac9e
abstract + abstract -

Large-scale bars can fuel galaxy centers with molecular gas, often leading to the development of dense ringlike structures where intense star formation occurs, forming a very different environment compared to galactic disks. We pair ~0.″3 (30 pc) resolution new JWST/MIRI imaging with archival ALMA CO(2-1) mapping of the central ~5 kpc of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1365 to investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for this extreme star formation. The molecular gas morphology is resolved into two well-known bright bar lanes that surround a smooth dynamically cold gas disk (R gal ~ 475 pc) reminiscent of non-star-forming disks in early-type galaxies and likely fed by gas inflow triggered by stellar feedback in the lanes. The lanes host a large number of JWST-identified massive young star clusters. We find some evidence for temporal star formation evolution along the ring. The complex kinematics in the gas lanes reveal strong streaming motions and may be consistent with convergence of gas streamlines expected there. Indeed, the extreme line widths are found to be the result of inter-"cloud" motion between gas peaks; SCOUSEPY decomposition reveals multiple components with line widths of <σ CO,scouse> ≈ 19 km s-1 and surface densities of $\langle \,{{\rm{\Sigma }}}_{{{\rm{H}}}_{2},\mathrm{scouse}}\rangle \,\approx \,800\,{M}_{\odot }\,{\mathrm{pc}}^{-2}$ , similar to the properties observed throughout the rest of the central molecular gas structure. Tailored hydrodynamical simulations exhibit many of the observed properties and imply that the observed structures are transient and highly time-variable. From our study of NGC 1365, we conclude that it is predominantly the high gas inflow triggered by the bar that is setting the star formation in its CMZ.


(988)Polarity and chirality control of an active fluid by passive nematic defects
  • Alfredo Sciortino,
  • Lukas J. Neumann,
  • Timo Krüger,
  • Ivan Maryshev,
  • Tetsuhiko F. Teshima
  • +3
  • Bernhard Wolfrum,
  • Erwin Frey,
  • Andreas R. Bausch
  • (less)
Nature Materials (02/2023) doi:10.1038/s41563-022-01432-w
abstract + abstract -

Much like passive materials, active systems can be affected by the presence of imperfections in their microscopic order, called defects, that influence macroscopic properties. This suggests the possibility to steer collective patterns by introducing and controlling defects in an active system. Here we show that a self-assembled, passive nematic is ideally suited to control the pattern formation process of an active fluid. To this end, we force microtubules to glide inside a passive nematic material made from actin filaments. The actin nematic features self-assembled half-integer defects that steer the active microtubules and lead to the formation of macroscopic polar patterns. Moreover, by confining the nematic in circular geometries, chiral loops form. We find that the exact positioning of nematic defects in the passive material deterministically controls the formation and the polarity of the active flow, opening the possibility of efficiently shaping an active material using passive defects.


(987)Framework for the architecture of exoplanetary systems. II. Nature versus nurture: Emergent formation pathways of architecture classes
  • Lokesh Mishra,
  • Yann Alibert,
  • Stéphane Udry,
  • Christoph Mordasini
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244705
abstract + abstract -

In the first paper of this series, we proposed a model-independent framework for characterising the architecture of planetary systems at the system level. There are four classes of planetary system architecture: similar, mixed, anti-ordered, and ordered. In this paper, we investigate the formation pathways leading to these four architecture classes. To understand the role of nature versus nurture in sculpting the final (mass) architecture of a system, we apply our architecture framework to synthetic planetary systems - formed via core-accretion - using the Bern model. General patterns emerge in the formation pathways of the four architecture classes. Almost all planetary systems emerging from protoplanetary disks whose initial solid mass was less than one Jupiter mass are similar. Systems emerging from heavier disks may become mixed, anti-ordered, or ordered. Increasing dynamical interactions (planet-planet, planet-disk) tends to shift a system's architecture from mixed to anti-ordered to ordered. Our model predicts the existence of a new metallicity-architecture correlation. Similar systems have very high occurrence around low-metallicity stars. The occurrence of the anti-ordered and ordered classes increases with increasing metallicity. The occurrence of mixed architecture first increases and then decreases with increasing metallicity. In our synthetic planetary systems, the role of nature is disentangled from the role of nurture. Nature (or initial conditions) pre-determines whether the architecture of a system becomes similar; otherwise nurture influences whether a system becomes mixed, anti-ordered, or ordered. We propose the `Aryabhata formation scenario' to explain some planetary systems which host only water-rich worlds. We finish this paper with a discussion of future observational and theoretical works that may support or refute the results of this paper.


RU-B
(986)Primordial lepton asymmetries in the precision cosmology era: Current status and future sensitivities from BBN and the CMB
  • Miguel Escudero,
  • Alejandro Ibarra,
  • Victor Maura
Physical Review D (02/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.035024
abstract + abstract -

Using a new sample of extremely metal poor systems, the EMPRESS survey has recently reported a primordial helium abundance that is 3 σ smaller than the prediction from the standard big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) scenario. This measurement could be interpreted as a hint for a primordial lepton asymmetry in the electron neutrino flavor. Motivated by the EMPRESS results, we present a comprehensive analysis of the lepton asymmetry using measurements of the abundances of primordial elements, along with cosmic microwave background (CMB) data from Planck. Assuming that there is no dark radiation in our Universe, we find an electron neutrino chemical potential ξνe=0.043 ±0.015 , which deviates from zero by 2.9 σ . If no assumption is made on the abundance of dark radiation in the Universe, the chemical potential is ξνe=0.046 ±0.021 , which deviates from zero by 2.2 σ . We also find that this result is rather insensitive to the choice of nuclear reaction rates. If the true helium abundance corresponds to the EMPRESS central value, future CMB observations from the Simons Observatory and CMB-S4 will increase the significance for a nonzero lepton asymmetry to 4 σ and 5 σ respectively, assuming no dark radiation, or to 3 σ when no assumption is made on the abundance of dark radiation.


(985)Robust Field-level Inference of Cosmological Parameters with Dark Matter Halos
  • Helen Shao,
  • Francisco Villaescusa-Navarro,
  • Pablo Villanueva-Domingo,
  • Romain Teyssier,
  • Lehman H. Garrison
  • +11
  • Marco Gatti,
  • Derek Inman,
  • Yueying Ni,
  • Ulrich P. Steinwandel,
  • Mihir Kulkarni,
  • Eli Visbal,
  • Greg L. Bryan,
  • Daniel Anglés-Alcázar,
  • Tiago Castro,
  • Elena Hernández-Martínez,
  • Klaus Dolag
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (02/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/acac7a
abstract + abstract -

We train graph neural networks on halo catalogs from Gadget N-body simulations to perform field-level likelihood-free inference of cosmological parameters. The catalogs contain ≲5000 halos with masses ≳1010 h -1 M in a periodic volume of ${(25\,{h}^{-1}\,\mathrm{Mpc})}^{3}$ ; every halo in the catalog is characterized by several properties such as position, mass, velocity, concentration, and maximum circular velocity. Our models, built to be permutationally, translationally, and rotationally invariant, do not impose a minimum scale on which to extract information and are able to infer the values of Ωm and σ 8 with a mean relative error of ~6%, when using positions plus velocities and positions plus masses, respectively. More importantly, we find that our models are very robust: they can infer the value of Ωm and σ 8 when tested using halo catalogs from thousands of N-body simulations run with five different N-body codes: Abacus, CUBEP3M, Enzo, PKDGrav3, and Ramses. Surprisingly, the model trained to infer Ωm also works when tested on thousands of state-of-the-art CAMELS hydrodynamic simulations run with four different codes and subgrid physics implementations. Using halo properties such as concentration and maximum circular velocity allow our models to extract more information, at the expense of breaking the robustness of the models. This may happen because the different N-body codes are not converged on the relevant scales corresponding to these parameters.


(984)VLA Legacy Survey of Molecular Gas in Massive Star-forming Galaxies at High Redshift
  • Marta Frias Castillo,
  • Jacqueline Hodge,
  • Matus Rybak,
  • Paul van der Werf,
  • Ian Smail
  • +16
  • Jack Birkin,
  • Chian-Chou Chen,
  • Scott Chapman,
  • Ryley Hill,
  • Claudia del P. Lagos,
  • Cheng-Lin Liao,
  • Elisabete da Cunha,
  • Gabriela Calistro Rivera,
  • Jianhang Chen,
  • Eric Jimenez Andrade,
  • Eric Murphy,
  • Douglas Scott,
  • Mark Swinbank,
  • Fabian Walter,
  • Rob Ivison,
  • Helmut Dannerbauer
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We present initial results of an ongoing survey with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array targeting the CO($J$ = 1-0) transition in a sample of 30 submillimeter-selected, dusty star-forming galaxies at $z =$ 2-5 with existing mid--$J$ CO detections from ALMA and NOEMA, of which 17 have been fully observed. We detect CO(1-0) emission in 11 targets, along with three tentative ($\sim$1.5-2$\sigma$) detections; three galaxies are undetected. Our results yield total molecular gas masses of 6-23$\times$10$^{10}$ ($\alpha_\mathrm{CO}$/1) M$_\odot$, with gas mass fractions, $f_\mathrm{gas}$=$M_\mathrm{mol}$/($M_*$+$M_\mathrm{mol}$), of 0.1-0.8 and a median depletion time of (140$\pm$70) Myr. We find median CO excitation ratios of $r_{31}$ = 0.75$\pm$0.39 and $r_{41}$ = 0.63$\pm$0.44, with a significant scatter. We find no significant correlation between the excitation ratio and a number of key parameters such as redshift, CO(1-0) line width or $\Sigma_\mathrm{SFR}$. We only find a tentative positive correlation between $r_{41}$ and the star-forming efficiency, but we are limited by our small sample size. Finally, we compare our results to predictions from the SHARK semi-analytical model, finding a good agreement between the molecular gas masses, depletion times and gas fractions of our sources and their SHARK counterparts. Our results highlight the heterogeneous nature of the most massive star-forming galaxies at high-redshift, and the importance of CO(1--0) observations to robustly constrain their total molecular gas content and ISM properties.


CN-4
RU-C
(983)The Intrinsic Alignment of Red Galaxies in DES Y1 redMaPPer Galaxy Clusters
  • C. Zhou,
  • A. Tong,
  • M.A. Troxel,
  • J. Blazek,
  • C. Lin
  • +77
  • D. Bacon,
  • L. Bleem,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • C. Chang,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • J. DeRose,
  • J.P. Dietrich,
  • A. Drlica-Wagner,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • B. Hoyle,
  • M. Jarvis,
  • N. MacCrann,
  • B. Mawdsley,
  • T. McClintock,
  • P. Melchior,
  • J. Prat,
  • A. Pujol,
  • E. Rozo,
  • E.S. Rykoff,
  • S. Samuroff,
  • C. Sánchez,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • E. Sheldon,
  • T. Shin,
  • D.L. Tucker,
  • T.N. Varga,
  • B. Yanny,
  • Y. Zhang,
  • J. Zuntz,
  • O. Alves,
  • A. Amon,
  • E. Bertin,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • T.M. Davis,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • P. Doel,
  • S. Everett,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • J. Frieman,
  • D.W. Gerdes,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • S.R. Hinton,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D.J. James,
  • T. Jeltema,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • O. Lahav,
  • M. Lima,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • J. Mena-Fernández,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • A. Palmese,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A. Pieres,
  • A.A. Plazas Malagón,
  • A. Porredon,
  • M. Raveri,
  • A.K. Romer,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • M. Smith,
  • M. Soares-Santos,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M.E.C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • C. To,
  • N. Weaverdyck,
  • J. Weller,
  • P. Wiseman
  • (less)
(02/2023) e-Print:2302.12325
abstract + abstract -

Clusters of galaxies are sensitive to the most nonlinear peaks in the cosmic density field. The weak gravitational lensing of background galaxies by clusters can allow us to infer their masses. However, galaxies associated with the local environment of the cluster can also be intrinsically aligned due to the local tidal gradient, contaminating any cosmology derived from the lensing signal. We measure this intrinsic alignment in Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 redMaPPer clusters. We find evidence of a non-zero mean radial alignment of galaxies within clusters between redshift 0.1-0.7. We find a significant systematic in the measured ellipticities of cluster satellite galaxies that we attribute to the central galaxy flux and other intracluster light. We attempt to correct this signal, and fit a simple model for intrinsic alignment amplitude ($A_{\textrm{IA}}$) to the measurement, finding $A_{\textrm{IA}}=0.15\pm 0.04$, when excluding data near the edge of the cluster. We find a significantly stronger alignment of the central galaxy with the cluster dark matter halo at low redshift and with higher richness and central galaxy absolute magnitude (proxies for cluster mass). This is an important demonstration of the ability of large photometric data sets like DES to provide direct constraints on the intrinsic alignment of galaxies within clusters. These measurements can inform improvements to small-scale modeling and simulation of the intrinsic alignment of galaxies to help improve the separation of the intrinsic alignment signal in weak lensing studies.


CN-2
CN-8
RU-E
(982)Formation, stabilization and fate of acetaldehyde and higher aldehydes in an autonomously changing prebiotic system emerging from acetylene
  • Philippe Diederich,
  • Thomas Geisberger,
  • Yingfei Yan,
  • Christian Seitz,
  • Alexander Ruf
  • +2
abstract + abstract -

Many essential building blocks of life, including amino acids, sugars, and nucleosides, require

aldehydes for prebiotic synthesis. Pathways for their formation under early earth conditions

are therefore of great importance. We investigated the formation of aldehydes by an

experimental simulation of primordial early earth conditions, in line with the metal-sulfur

world theory in an acetylene-containing atmosphere. We describe a pH-driven, intrinsically

autoregulatory environment that concentrates acetaldehyde and other higher molecular

weight aldehydes. We demonstrate that acetaldehyde is rapidly formed from acetylene over a

nickel sulfide catalyst in an aqueous solution, followed by sequential reactions progressively

increasing the molecular diversity and complexity of the reaction mixture. Interestingly,

through inherent pH changes, the evolution of this complex matrix leads to auto-stabilization

of de novo synthesized aldehydes and alters the subsequent synthesis of relevant biomo-

lecules rather than yielding uncontrolled polymerization products. Our results emphasize the

impact of progressively generated compounds on the overall reaction conditions and

strengthen the role of acetylene in forming essential building blocks that are fundamental for

the emergence of terrestrial life.


CN-6
(981)Pre-acceleration in the Electron Foreshock. II. Oblique Whistler Waves
  • Paul J. Morris,
  • Artem Bohdan,
  • Martin S. Weidl,
  • Michelle Tsirou,
  • Karol Fulat
  • +1
abstract + abstract -

Thermal electrons have gyroradii many orders of magnitude smaller than the finite width of a shock, thus need to be pre-accelerated before they can cross it and be accelerated by diffusive shock acceleration. One region where pre-acceleration may occur is the inner foreshock, which upstream electrons must pass through before any potential downstream crossing. In this paper, we perform a large-scale particle-in-cell simulation that generates a single shock with parameters motivated from supernova remnants. Within the foreshock, reflected electrons excite the oblique whistler instability and produce electromagnetic whistler waves, which comove with the upstream flow and as nonlinear structures eventually reach radii of up to 5 ion-gyroradii. We show that the inner electromagnetic configuration of the whistlers evolves into complex nonlinear structures bound by a strong magnetic field around four times the upstream value. Although these nonlinear structures do not in general interact with cospatial upstream electrons, they resonate with electrons that have been reflected at the shock. We show that they can scatter, or even trap, reflected electrons, confining around 0.8% of the total upstream electron population to the region close to the shock where they can undergo substantial pre-acceleration. This acceleration process is similar to, yet approximately three times more efficient than, stochastic shock drift acceleration.


RU-C
(980)Towards optimal and robust $f_{\rm NL}$ constraints with multi-tracer analyses
  • Alexandre Barreira,
  • Elisabeth Krause
abstract + abstract -

We discuss the potential of the multi-tracer technique to improve observational constraints of the local primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) parameter $f_{\rm NL}$ from the galaxy power spectrum. For two galaxy samples $A$ and $B$, we show the constraining power is $\propto |b_1^B b_\phi^A - b_1^A b_\phi^B|$, where $b_1$ and $b_\phi$ are the linear and PNG galaxy bias parameters. This allows for significantly improved constraints compared to the traditional expectation $\propto |b_1^A - b_1^B|$ based on naive universality-like relations where $b_\phi \propto b_1$. Using IllustrisTNG galaxy simulation data, we find that different equal galaxy number splits of the full sample lead to different $|b_1^B b_\phi^A - b_1^A b_\phi^B|$, and thus have different constraining power. Of all of the strategies explored, splitting by $g-r$ color is the most promising, more than doubling the significance of detecting $f_{\rm NL}b_\phi \neq 0$. Importantly, since these are constraints on $f_{\rm NL}b_\phi$ and not $f_{\rm NL}$, they do not require priors on the $b_\phi(b_1)$ relation. For direct constraints on $f_{\rm NL}$, we show that multi-tracer constraints can be significantly more robust than single-tracer to $b_\phi$ misspecifications and uncertainties; this relaxes the precision and accuracy requirements for $b_\phi$ priors. Our results present new opportunities to improve our chances to detect and robustly constrain $f_{\rm NL}$, and strongly motivate galaxy formation simulation campaigns to calibrate the $b_\phi(b_1)$ relation.


(979)Gauge invariance of radiative jet functions in SCET
  • Geoffrey T. Bodwin,
  • June-Haak Ee,
  • Daekyoung Kang,
  • Xiang-Peng Wang
abstract + abstract -

In subleading powers of soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), the Lagrangian contains couplings between soft quarks and hard-collinear quarks. Matrix elements of the hard-collinear part of these couplings are radiative jet functions. Although the radiative jet functions are constructed to contain hard-collinear modes, we find that, in order to render the radiative jet functions gauge invariant, it is necessary, in general, to include in the radiative jet functions certain contributions that contain a soft-quark propagator. In gauges other than the Feynman gauge, the soft-quark propagator is canceled by ``gauge terms'' in the gluon propagator, leaving a purely hard-collinear contribution.


RU-C
(978)Constraints on compensated isocurvature perturbations from BOSS DR12 galaxy data
  • Alexandre Barreira
abstract + abstract -

We use the BOSS DR12 galaxy power spectrum to constrain compensated isocurvature perturbations (CIP), which are opposite-sign primordial baryon and dark matter perturbations that leave the total matter density unchanged. Long-wavelength CIP $\sigma(\vec{x})$ enter the galaxy density contrast as $\delta_g(\vec{x}) \supset b_\sigma\sigma(\vec{x})$, with $b_\sigma$ the linear CIP galaxy bias parameter. We parameterize the CIP spectra as $P_{\sigma\sigma} = A^2P_{\mathcal{R}\mathcal{R}}$ and $P_{\sigma\mathcal{R}} = \xi\sqrt{P_{\sigma\sigma}P_{\mathcal{R}\mathcal{R}}}$, where $A$ is the CIP amplitude and $\xi$ is the correlation with the curvature perturbations $\mathcal{R}$. We find a significance of detection of $Ab_\sigma \neq 0$ of $1.8\sigma$ for correlated ($\xi = 1$) and $3.7\sigma$ for uncorrelated ($\xi = 0$) CIP. Large-scale data systematics have a bigger impact for uncorrelated CIP, which may explain the large significance of detection. The constraints on $A$ depend on the assumed priors for the $b_\sigma$ parameter, which we estimate using separate universe simulations. Assuming $b_\sigma$ values representative of all halos we find $\sigma_A = 145$ for correlated CIP and $\sigma_{|A|} = 475$ for uncorrelated CIP. Our strongest uncorrelated CIP constraint is for $b_\sigma$ representative of the $33\%$ most concentrated halos, $\sigma_{|A|} = 197$, which is better than the current CMB bounds $|A| \lesssim 360$. We also discuss the impact of the local primordial non-Gaussianity parameter $f_{\rm NL}$ in CIP constraints. Our results demonstrate the power of galaxy data to place tight constraints on CIP, and motivate works to understand better the impact of data systematics, as well as to determine theory priors for $b_\sigma$.


CN-1
CN-3
CN-6
CN-8
RU-A
RU-B
(977)Erasure of strings and vortices.
  • Dvali G. and Valbuena-Bermúdez J.S
Phys. Rev. D (02/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.035001
abstract + abstract -

The interaction of defects can lead to a phenomenon of erasure. During this process, a lower-dimensional object gets absorbed and dissolved by a higher-dimensional one. The phenomenon is very general and has a wide range of implications, both cosmological and fundamental. In particular, all types of strings, such as cosmic strings, QCD flux tubes, or fundamental strings, get erased when encountering a defect, either solitonic or a D-brane that deconfines their fluxes. This leads to a novel mechanism of cosmic string breakup, accompanied by gravitational and electromagnetic radiations. The arguments based on loss of coherence and the entropy count suggest that the erasure probability is very close to one, and strings never make it through the deconfining layer. We confirm this by a numerical simulation of the system, which effectively captures the essence of the phenomenon: a 2+1-dimensional problem of interaction between a Nielsen-Olesen vortex of a U(1) Higgs model and a domain wall, inside which the U(1) gauge group is un-Higgsed and the magnetic flux is deconfined. In accordance with the entropy argument, in our simulation, the vortex never makes it across the wall.


(976)Hydrostatic mass profiles of galaxy clusters in the eROSITA survey
  • Dominik Scheck,
  • Jeremy S. Sanders,
  • Veronica Biffi,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Esra Bulbul
  • +1
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244582
abstract + abstract -

Context. To assume hydrostatic equilibrium between the intracluster medium and the gravitational potential of galaxy clusters is an extensively used method to investigate their total masses.
Aims: We want to test hydrostatic masses obtained with an observational code in the context of the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma/eROSITA survey.
Methods: We used the hydrostatic modeling code MBProj2 to fit surface-brightness profiles to simulated clusters with idealized properties as well as to a sample of 93 clusters taken from the Magneticum Pathfinder simulations. We investigated the latter under the assumption of idealized observational conditions and also for realistic eROSITA data quality. The comparison of the fitted cumulative total mass profiles and the true mass profiles provided by the simulations allows us to gain knowledge both about the validity of hydrostatic equilibrium in each cluster and the reliability of our approach. Furthermore, we used the true profiles for gas density and pressure to compute hydrostatic mass profiles based on theory for every cluster.
Results: For an idealized cluster that was simulated to fulfill perfect hydrostatic equilibrium, we find that the cumulative total mass at the true r500 and r200 can be reproduced with deviations of less than 7%. For the clusters from the Magneticum Pathfinder simulations under idealized observational conditions, the median values of the fitted cumulative total masses at the true r500 and r200 are in agreement with our expectations, taking into account the hydrostatic mass bias. Nevertheless, we find a tendency towards steeper cumulative total mass profiles in the outskirts than expected. For realistic eROSITA data quality, this steepness problem intensifies for clusters with high redshifts and leads to excessive cumulative total masses at r200. For the hydrostatic masses based on the true profiles known from the simulations, we find good agreement with our expectations concerning the hydrostatic mass.


CN-7
RU-A
(975)Can Neutron Star Mergers Alone Explain the r-process Enrichment of the Milky Way?
  • Chiaki Kobayashi,
  • Ilya Mandel,
  • Krzysztof Belczynski,
  • Stephane Goriely,
  • Thomas H. Janka
  • +7
  • Oliver Just,
  • Ashley J. Ruiter,
  • Dany Vanbeveren,
  • Matthias U. Kruckow,
  • Max M. Briel,
  • Jan J. Eldridge,
  • Elizabeth Stanway
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (02/2023) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/acad82
abstract + abstract -

Comparing Galactic chemical evolution models to the observed elemental abundances in the Milky Way, we show that neutron star mergers can be a leading r-process site only if at low metallicities such mergers have very short delay times and significant ejecta masses that are facilitated by the masses of the compact objects. Namely, black hole-neutron star mergers, depending on the black hole spins, can play an important role in the early chemical enrichment of the Milky Way. We also show that none of the binary population synthesis models used in this Letter, i.e., COMPAS, StarTrack, Brussels, ComBinE, and BPASS, can currently reproduce the elemental abundance observations. The predictions are problematic not only for neutron star mergers, but also for Type Ia supernovae, which may point to shortcomings in binary evolution models.


RU-D
(974)Reflections on nebulae around young stars. A systematic search for late-stage infall of material onto Class II disks
  • A. Gupta,
  • A. Miotello,
  • C. F. Manara,
  • J. P. Williams,
  • S. Facchini
  • +8
  • G. Beccari,
  • T. Birnstiel,
  • C. Ginski,
  • A. Hacar,
  • M. Küffmeier,
  • L. Testi,
  • L. Tychoniec,
  • H. -W. Yen
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245254
abstract + abstract -

Context. While it is generally assumed that Class II sources evolve largely in isolation from their environment, many still lie close to molecular clouds and may continue to interact with them. This may result in late accretion of material onto the disk that can significantly influence disk processes and planet formation.
Aims: In order to systematically study late infall of gas onto disks, we identify candidate Class II sources in close vicinity to a reflection nebula (RN) that may be undergoing this process.
Methods: First we targeted Class II sources with known kilo-au scale gas structures - possibly due to late infall of material - and we searched for RNe in their vicinity in optical and near-infrared images. Second, we compiled a catalogue of Class II sources associated with RNe and looked for the large-scale CO structures in archival ALMA data. Using the catalogues of protostars and RNe, we also estimated the probability of Class II sources interacting with surrounding material.
Results: All of the sources with large-scale gas structures also exhibit some reflection nebulosity in their vicinity. Similarly, at least five Class II objects associated with a prominent RNe, and for which adequate ALMA observations are available, were found to have spirals or stream-like structures which may be due to late infall. We report the first detection of these structures around S CrA.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that a non-negligible fraction of Class II disks in nearby star-forming regions may be associated with RNe and could therefore be undergoing late accretion of gas. Surveys of RNe and kilo-au scale gas structures around Class II sources will allow us to better understand the frequency and impact of late-infall phenomena.


CN-1
(973)Accelerations of stars in the central 2-7 arcsec from Sgr A*
  • A. Young,
  • S. Gillessen,
  • T. de Zeeuw,
  • Y. Dallilar,
  • A. Drescher
  • +8
  • F. Eisenhauer,
  • R. Genzel,
  • F. Mang,
  • T. Ott,
  • J. Stadler,
  • O. Straub,
  • S. von Fellenburg,
  • F. Widmann
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244966
abstract + abstract -

This work presents the results from extending the long-term monitoring program of stellar motions within the Galactic Center to include stars with separations of 2-7 arcsec from the compact radio source, Sgr A*. In comparison to the well studied inner 2 arcsec, a longer baseline in time is required to study these stars. With 17 years of data, a sufficient number of positions along the orbits of these outer stars can now be measured. This was achieved by designing a source finder to track the positions of ∼2000 stars in NACO/VLT adaptive-optics-assisted images of the Galactic Center from 2002 to 2019. Of the studied stars, 54 exhibit significant accelerations toward Sgr A*, most of which have separations of between 2 and 3 arcsec from the black hole. A further 20 of these stars have measurable radial velocities from SINFONI/VLT stellar spectra, which allows for the calculation of the orbital elements for these stars, thus increasing the number of known orbits in the Galactic Center by ∼40%. With orbits, we can consider which structural features within the Galactic Center nuclear star cluster these stars belong to. Most of the stars have orbital solutions that are consistent with the known clockwise rotating disk feature. Further, by employing Monte Carlo sampling for stars without radial velocity measurements, we show that many stars have a subset of possible orbits that are consistent with one of the known disk features within the Galactic Center.


CN-2
RU-E
(972)Sequence dependent UV damage of complete pools of oligonucleotides
  • Corinna L. Kufner,
  • Stefan Krebs,
  • Marlis Fischaleck,
  • Julia Philippou-Massier,
  • Helmut Blum
  • +4
  • Dominik B. Bucher,
  • Dieter Braun,
  • Wolfgang Zinth,
  • Christof B. Mast
  • (less)
Scientific Reports (02/2023) doi:10.1038/s41598-023-29833-0
abstract + abstract -

Understanding the sequence-dependent DNA damage formation requires probing a complete pool of sequences over a wide dose range of the damage-causing exposure. We used high throughput sequencing to simultaneously obtain the dose dependence and quantum yields for oligonucleotide damages for all possible 4096 DNA sequences with hexamer length. We exposed the DNA to ultraviolet radiation at 266 nm and doses of up to 500 absorbed photons per base. At the dimer level, our results confirm existing literature values of photodamage, whereas we now quantified the susceptibility of sequence motifs to UV irradiation up to previously inaccessible polymer lengths. This revealed the protective effect of the sequence context in preventing the formation of UV-lesions. For example, the rate to form dipyrimidine lesions is strongly reduced by nearby guanine bases. Our results provide a complete picture of the sensitivity of oligonucleotides to UV irradiation and allow us to predict their abundance in high-UV environments.


RU-A
(971)Natural Suppression of FCNCs at the One-Loop Level in $Z^\prime$ Models with Implications for K, D and B Decays
  • Andrzej J. Buras
abstract + abstract -

We analyse $Z^\prime$ contributions to FCNC processes at the one-loop level. In analogy to the CKM matrix we introduce two $3\times3$ unitary matrices $\hat\Delta_d(Z^\prime)$ and $\hat\Delta_u(Z^\prime)$ which are also hermitian. They govern the flavour interactions mediated by $Z^\prime$ between down-quarks and up-quarks, respectively, with $\hat\Delta_d(Z^\prime)=\hat\Delta_u(Z^\prime)\equiv \hat\Delta_L(Z^\prime)$ for left-handed currents due to the unbroken $\text{SU(2)}_L$ gauge symmetry. This assures the suppression of these contributions to all $Z^\prime$ mediated FCNC processes at the one-loop level. As, in contrast to the GIM mechanism, one-loop $Z^\prime$ contributions to flavour observables in $K$ and $B_{s,d}$ systems are governed by down-quark masses, they are ${\cal O}(m^2_b/M^2_{Z^\prime})$ and negligible. With the ${\cal O}(m^2_t/M^2_{Z^\prime})$ suppression they are likely negligible also in the $D$ system. We present an explicit parametrization of $\hat\Delta_L(Z^\prime)$ in terms of two mixing angles and two complex phases that distinguishes it profoundly from the CKM matrix. This framework can be generalized to purely leptonic decays with matrices analogous to the PMNS matrix but profoundly different from it. Interestingly, the breakdown of flavour universality between the first two generations and the third one, both for quark and lepton couplings to $Z^\prime$, is identified as a consequence of $\hat\Delta_L(Z^\prime)$ being hermitian. The importance of the unitarity for both $\hat\Delta_L(Z^\prime)$ and the CKM matrix in the light of the Cabibbo anomaly is emphasized.


C2PAP
CN-5
RU-D
(970)CRESCENDO: an on-the-fly Fokker-Planck solver for spectral cosmic rays in cosmological simulations
  • Ludwig M. Böss,
  • Ulrich P. Steinwandel,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Harald Lesch
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (02/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac3584
abstract + abstract -

Non-thermal emission from relativistic cosmic ray (CR) electrons gives insight into the strength and morphology of intra-cluster magnetic fields, as well as providing powerful tracers of structure formation shocks. Emission caused by CR protons on the other hand still challenges current observations and is therefore testing models of proton acceleration at intra-cluster shocks. Large-scale simulations including the effects of CRs have been difficult to achieve and have been mainly reduced to simulating an overall energy budget, or tracing CR populations in post-processing of simulation output and has often been done for either protons or electrons. We introduce CRESCENDO: Cosmic Ray Evolution with SpeCtral Electrons aND prOtons, an efficient on-the-fly Fokker-Planck solver to evolve distributions of CR protons and electrons within every resolution element of our simulation. The solver accounts for CR (re-)acceleration at intra-cluster shocks, based on results of recent particle-in-cell simulations, adiabatic changes, and radiative losses of electrons. We show its performance in test cases as well as idealized galaxy cluster (GC) simulations. We apply the model to an idealized GC merger following best-fitting parameters for CIZA J2242.4 + 5301-1 and study CR injection, radio relic morphology, spectral steepening, and synchrotron emission.


CN-3
CN-4
RU-C
RU-D
(969)Euclid: Forecasts from the void-lensing cross-correlation
  • M. Bonici,
  • C. Carbone,
  • S. Davini,
  • P. Vielzeuf,
  • L. Paganin
  • +128
  • V. Cardone,
  • N. Hamaus,
  • A. Pisani,
  • A. J. Hawken,
  • A. Kovacs,
  • S. Nadathur,
  • S. Contarini,
  • G. Verza,
  • I. Tutusaus,
  • F. Marulli,
  • L. Moscardini,
  • M. Aubert,
  • C. Giocoli,
  • A. Pourtsidou,
  • S. Camera,
  • S. Escoffier,
  • A. Caminata,
  • S. Di Domizio,
  • M. Martinelli,
  • M. Pallavicini,
  • V. Pettorino,
  • Z. Sakr,
  • D. Sapone,
  • G. Testera,
  • S. Tosi,
  • V. Yankelevich,
  • A. Amara,
  • N. Auricchio,
  • M. Baldi,
  • D. Bonino,
  • E. Branchini,
  • M. Brescia,
  • J. Brinchmann,
  • V. Capobianco,
  • J. Carretero,
  • M. Castellano,
  • S. Cavuoti,
  • R. Cledassou,
  • G. Congedo,
  • L. Conversi,
  • Y. Copin,
  • L. Corcione,
  • F. Courbin,
  • M. Cropper,
  • A. Da Silva,
  • H. Degaudenzi,
  • M. Douspis,
  • F. Dubath,
  • C. A. J. Duncan,
  • X. Dupac,
  • S. Dusini,
  • A. Ealet,
  • S. Farrens,
  • S. Ferriol,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • M. Frailis,
  • E. Franceschi,
  • M. Fumana,
  • P. Gómez-Alvarez,
  • B. Garilli,
  • B. Gillis,
  • A. Grazian,
  • F. Grupp,
  • L. Guzzo,
  • S. V. H. Haugan,
  • W. Holmes,
  • F. Hormuth,
  • A. Hornstrup,
  • K. Jahnke,
  • M. Kümmel,
  • S. Kermiche,
  • A. Kiessling,
  • M. Kilbinger,
  • M. Kunz,
  • H. Kurki-Suonio,
  • R. Laureijs,
  • S. Ligori,
  • P. B. Lilje,
  • I. Lloro,
  • E. Maiorano,
  • O. Mansutti,
  • O. Marggraf,
  • K. Markovic,
  • R. Massey,
  • E. Medinaceli,
  • M. Melchior,
  • M. Meneghetti,
  • G. Meylan,
  • M. Moresco,
  • E. Munari,
  • S. M. Niemi,
  • C. Padilla,
  • S. Paltani,
  • F. Pasian,
  • K. Pedersen,
  • W. J. Percival,
  • S. Pires,
  • G. Polenta,
  • M. Poncet,
  • L. Popa,
  • F. Raison,
  • R. Rebolo,
  • A. Renzi,
  • J. Rhodes,
  • E. Rossetti,
  • R. Saglia,
  • B. Sartoris,
  • M. Scodeggio,
  • A. Secroun,
  • G. Seidel,
  • C. Sirignano,
  • G. Sirri,
  • L. Stanco,
  • J. -L. Starck,
  • C. Surace,
  • P. Tallada-Crespí,
  • D. Tavagnacco,
  • A. N. Taylor,
  • I. Tereno,
  • R. Toledo-Moreo,
  • F. Torradeflot,
  • E. A. Valentijn,
  • L. Valenziano,
  • Y. Wang,
  • J. Weller,
  • G. Zamorani,
  • J. Zoubian,
  • S. Andreon
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244445
abstract + abstract -

The Euclid space telescope will survey a large dataset of cosmic voids traced by dense samples of galaxies. In this work we estimate its expected performance when exploiting angular photometric void clustering, galaxy weak lensing, and their cross-correlation. To this aim, we implemented a Fisher matrix approach tailored for voids from the Euclid photometric dataset and we present the first forecasts on cosmological parameters that include the void-lensing correlation. We examined two different probe settings, pessimistic and optimistic, both for void clustering and galaxy lensing. We carried out forecast analyses in four model cosmologies, accounting for a varying total neutrino mass, Mν, and a dynamical dark energy (DE) equation of state, w(z), described by the popular Chevallier-Polarski-Linder parametrization. We find that void clustering constraints on h and Ωb are competitive with galaxy lensing alone, while errors on ns decrease thanks to the orthogonality of the two probes in the 2D-projected parameter space. We also note that, as a whole, with respect to assuming the two probes as independent, the inclusion of the void-lensing cross-correlation signal improves parameter constraints by 10 − 15%, and enhances the joint void clustering and galaxy lensing figure of merit (FoM) by 10% and 25%, in the pessimistic and optimistic scenarios, respectively. Finally, when further combining with the spectroscopic galaxy clustering, assumed as an independent probe, we find that, in the most competitive case, the FoM increases by a factor of 4 with respect to the combination of weak lensing and spectroscopic galaxy clustering taken as independent probes. The forecasts presented in this work show that photometric void clustering and its cross-correlation with galaxy lensing deserve to be exploited in the data analysis of the Euclid galaxy survey and promise to improve its constraining power, especially on h, Ωb, the neutrino mass, and the DE evolution.

This paper is published on behalf of the Euclid Consortium.


CN-1
CN-3
RU-D
(968)Accuracy and precision of triaxial orbit models I: SMBH mass, stellar mass, and dark-matter halo
  • B. Neureiter,
  • S. de Nicola,
  • J. Thomas,
  • R. Saglia,
  • R. Bender
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (02/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac3652
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the accuracy and precision of triaxial dynamical orbit models by fitting 2D mock observations of a realistic N-body merger simulation resembling a massive early-type galaxy with a supermassive black hole. We show that we can reproduce the triaxial N-body merger remnant's correct black hole mass, stellar mass-to-light ratio and total enclosed mass (inside the half-light radius) for several different tested orientations with an unprecedented accuracy of 5-10 per cent. Our dynamical models use the entire non-parametric line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) rather than parametric LOSVDs or velocity moments as constraints. Our results strongly suggest that state-of-the-art integral-field projected kinematic data contain only minor degeneracies with respect to the mass and anisotropy recovery. Moreover, this also demonstrates the strength of the Schwarzschild method in general. We achieve the proven high recovery accuracy and precision with our newly developed modelling machinery by combining several advancements: (i) our new semiparametric deprojection code probes degeneracies and allows us to constrain the viewing angles of a triaxial galaxy; (ii) our new orbit modelling code SMART uses a 5-dim orbital starting space to representatively sample in particular near-Keplerian orbits in galaxy centres; (iii) we use a generalized information criterion AICp to optimize the smoothing and to compare different mass models to avoid biases that occur in χ2-based models with varying model flexibilities.


(967)Accretion Flow Morphology in Numerical Simulations of Black Holes from the ngEHT Model Library: The Impact of Radiation Physics
  • Koushik Chatterjee,
  • Andrew Chael,
  • Paul Tiede,
  • Yosuke Mizuno,
  • Razieh Emami
  • +16
  • Christian Fromm,
  • Angelo Ricarte,
  • Lindy Blackburn,
  • Freek Roelofs,
  • Michael D. Johnson,
  • Sheperd S. Doeleman,
  • Philipp Arras,
  • Antonio Fuentes,
  • Jakob Knollmüller,
  • Nikita Kosogorov,
  • Greg Lindahl,
  • Hendrik Müller,
  • Nimesh Patel,
  • Alexander Raymond,
  • Efthalia Traianou,
  • Justin Vega
  • (less)
Galaxies (02/2023) doi:10.3390/galaxies11020038
abstract + abstract -

In the past few years, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has provided the first-ever event horizon-scale images of the supermassive black holes (BHs) M87* and Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). The next-generation EHT project is an extension of the EHT array that promises larger angular resolution and higher sensitivity to the dim, extended flux around the central ring-like structure, possibly connecting the accretion flow and the jet. The ngEHT Analysis Challenges aim to understand the science extractability from synthetic images and movies to inform the ngEHT array design and analysis algorithm development. In this work, we compare the accretion flow structure and dynamics in numerical fluid simulations that specifically target M87* and Sgr A*, and were used to construct the source models in the challenge set. We consider (1) a steady-state axisymmetric radiatively inefficient accretion flow model with a time-dependent shearing hotspot, (2) two time-dependent single fluid general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations from the H-AMR code, (3) a two-temperature GRMHD simulation from the BHAC code, and (4) a two-temperature radiative GRMHD simulation from the KORAL code. We find that the different models exhibit remarkably similar temporal and spatial properties, except for the electron temperature, since radiative losses substantially cool down electrons near the BH and the jet sheath, signaling the importance of radiative cooling even for slowly accreting BHs such as M87*. We restrict ourselves to standard torus accretion flows, and leave larger explorations of alternate accretion models to future work.


RU-D
(966)Massive quiescent galaxies at z 3: A comparison of selection, stellar population, and structural properties with simulation predictions
  • Peter Lustig,
  • Veronica Strazzullo,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus,
  • Chiara D'Eugenio,
  • Emanuele Daddi
  • +10
  • Andreas Burkert,
  • Gabriella De Lucia,
  • Ivan Delvecchio,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Fabio Fontanot,
  • Raphael Gobat,
  • Joseph J. Mohr,
  • Masato Onodera,
  • Maurilio Pannella,
  • Annalisa Pillepich
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (02/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac3450
abstract + abstract -

We study stellar population and structural properties of massive log (M/M) > 11 galaxies at z ≈ 2.7 in the Magneticum and IllustrisTNG hydrodynamical simulations and GAEA semi-analytic model. We find stellar mass functions broadly consistent with observations, with no scarcity of massive, quiescent galaxies at z ≈ 2.7, but with a higher quiescent galaxy fraction at high masses in IllustrisTNG. Average ages of simulated quiescent galaxies are between ≈0.8 and ${1.0\, \textrm {Gyr}}$, older by a factor ≈2 than observed in spectroscopically confirmed quiescent galaxies at similar redshift. Besides being potentially indicative of limitations of simulations in reproducing observed star formation histories, this discrepancy may also reflect limitations in the estimation of observed ages. We investigate the purity of simulated UVJ rest-frame colour-selected massive quiescent samples with photometric uncertainties typical of deep surveys (e.g. COSMOS). We find evidence for significant contamination (up to ${60\, \rm {per\, cent}}$) by dusty star-forming galaxies in the UVJ region that is typically populated by older quiescent sources. Furthermore, the completeness of UVJ-selected quiescent samples at this redshift may be reduced by $\approx {30\, \rm {per\, cent}}$ due to a high fraction of young quiescent galaxies not entering the UVJ quiescent region. Massive, quiescent galaxies in simulations have on average lower angular momenta and higher projected axis ratios and concentrations than star-forming counterparts. Average sizes of simulated quiescent galaxies are broadly consistent with observations within the uncertainties. The average size ratio of quiescent and star-forming galaxies in the probed mass range is formally consistent with observations, although this result is partly affected by poor statistics.


CN-3
CN-5
CN-8
RU-B
(965)Gravitational waves from defect-driven phase transitions: domain walls
  • Simone Blasi,
  • Ryusuke Jinno,
  • Thomas Konstandin,
  • Henrique Rubira,
  • Isak Stomberg
abstract + abstract -

We discuss the gravitational wave spectrum produced by first-order phase transitions seeded by domain wall networks. This setup is important for many two-step phase transitions as seen for example in the singlet extension of the standard model. Whenever the correlation length of the domain wall network is larger than the typical bubble size, this setup leads to a gravitational wave signal that is shifted to lower frequencies and with an enhanced amplitude compared to homogeneous phase transitions without domain walls. We discuss our results in light of the recent PTA hints for gravitational waves.


(964)COMET: Clustering observables modelled by emulated perturbation theory
  • Alexander Eggemeier,
  • Benjamin Camacho-Quevedo,
  • Andrea Pezzotta,
  • Martin Crocce,
  • Román Scoccimarro
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (02/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac3667
abstract + abstract -

In this paper, we present COMET, a Gaussian process emulator of the galaxy power spectrum multipoles in redshift space. The model predictions are based on one-loop perturbation theory and we consider two alternative descriptions of redshift-space distortions: one that performs a full expansion of the real- to redshift-space mapping, as in recent effective field theory models, and another that preserves the non-perturbative impact of small-scale velocities by means of an effective damping function. The outputs of COMET can be obtained at arbitrary redshifts, for arbitrary fiducial background cosmologies, and for a large parameter space that covers the shape parameters ωc, ωb, and ns, as well as the evolution parameters h, As, ΩK, w0, and wa. This flexibility does not impair COMET's accuracy, since we exploit an exact degeneracy between the evolution parameters that allows us to train the emulator on a significantly reduced parameter space. While the predictions are sped up by two orders of magnitude, validation tests reveal an accuracy of $0.1\, {{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ for the monopole and quadrupole ($0.3\, {{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ for the hexadecapole), or alternatively, better than $0.25\, \sigma$ for all three multipoles in comparison to statistical uncertainties expected for the Euclid survey with a tenfold increase in volume. We show that these differences translate into shifts in mean posterior values that are at most of the same size, meaning that COMET can be used with the same confidence as the exact underlying models. COMET is a publicly available PYTHON package that also provides the tree-level bispectrum multipoles and Gaussian covariance matrices.


RU-A
(963)$Z^\prime$-Tandem Mechanism for the Suppression of New Physics in Quark Mixing with Implications for K, D and B Decays
  • Andrzej J. Buras
abstract + abstract -

$Z^\prime$ models belong to the ones that can most easily explain the anomalies in $b\to s \mu^+\mu^-$ transitions. However, such an explanation by a single $Z^\prime$ gauge boson, as done in the literature, is severly constrained by the $B^0_s-\bar B_s^0$ mixing. Also the recent finding, hat the mass differences $\Delta M_s$, $\Delta M_d$, the CP-violating parameter $\varepsilon_K$, and the mixing induced CP-asymmetries $S_{\psi K_S}$ and $S_{\psi \phi}$ can be simultaneously well described within the SM without new physics (NP) contributions, is a challenge for $Z^\prime$ models with a single $Z^\prime$ contributing at tree-level to quark mixing. We point out that including a second $Z^\prime$ in the model allows to eliminate simultaneously tree-level contributions to the five $\Delta F=2$ observables used in the determination of the CKM parameters while leaving the room for NP in $\Delta M_K$ and $\Delta M_D$. The latter one can be removed at the price of infecting $\Delta M_s$ or $\Delta M_d$ by NP which is presently disfavoured. This pattern is transparently seen using the new mixing matrix for $Z^\prime$ interactions with quarks. This strategy allows significant tree-level contributions to $K$, $B_s$ and $B_d$ decays thereby allowing to explain the existing anomalies in $b\to s\mu^+\mu^-$ transitions and the anticipated anomaly in the ratio $\varepsilon'/\varepsilon$ much easier than in $Z^\prime$-Single scenarios. The proposed $Z^\prime$-Tandem mechanism bears some similarities to the GIM mechanism for the suppression of the FCNCs in the SM with the role of the charm quark played here by the second $Z^\prime$. However, it differs from the latter profoundly in that only NP contributions to quark mixing are eliminated at tree-level. We discuss briefly the implied flavour patterns in $K$ and $B$ decay observables in this NP scenario.


(962)Signal-background interference effects in Higgs-mediated diphoton production beyond NLO
  • Piotr Bargieła,
  • Federico Buccioni,
  • Fabrizio Caola,
  • Federica Devoto,
  • Andreas von Manteuffel
  • +1
European Physical Journal C (02/2023) doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-023-11337-w
abstract + abstract -

In this paper we consider signal-background interference effects in Higgs-mediated diphoton production at the LHC. After reviewing earlier works that show how to use these effects to constrain the Higgs boson total decay width, we provide predictions beyond NLO accuracy for the interference and related observables, and study the impact of QCD radiative corrections on the Higgs width determination. In particular, we use the so-called soft-virtual approximation to estimate interference effects at NNLO in QCD. The inclusion of these effects reduces the NNLO prediction for the total Higgs cross-section in the diphoton channel by about 1.7%. We study in detail the impact of QCD corrections on the Higgs-boson line-shape and its implications for the Higgs boson width extraction. In particular, we find that the shift of the Higgs resonance peak arising from interference effects gets reduced by about 30% with respect to the NLO prediction. Assuming an experimental resolution of about 150 MeV on interference-induced modifications of the Higgs-boson line-shape, our NNLO analysis shows that one could constrain the Higgs-boson total width to about 10-20 times its Standard Model value.


CN-6
(961)Long-term multi-wavelength study of 1ES 0647+250
  • MAGIC Collaboration,
  • V. A. Acciari,
  • T. Aniello,
  • S. Ansoldi,
  • L. A. Antonelli
  • +215
  • A. Arbet Engels,
  • C. Arcaro,
  • M. Artero,
  • K. Asano,
  • D. Baack,
  • A. Babić,
  • A. Baquero,
  • U. Barres de Almeida,
  • J. A. Barrio,
  • I. Batković,
  • J. Becerra González,
  • W. Bednarek,
  • E. Bernardini,
  • M. Bernardos,
  • A. Berti,
  • J. Besenrieder,
  • W. Bhattacharyya,
  • C. Bigongiari,
  • A. Biland,
  • O. Blanch,
  • H. Bökenkamp,
  • G. Bonnoli,
  • Ž. Bošnjak,
  • I. Burelli,
  • G. Busetto,
  • R. Carosi,
  • M. Carretero-Castrillo,
  • G. Ceribella,
  • Y. Chai,
  • A. Chilingarian,
  • S. Cikota,
  • E. Colombo,
  • J. L. Contreras,
  • J. Cortina,
  • S. Covino,
  • G. D'Amico,
  • V. D'Elia,
  • P. da Vela,
  • F. Dazzi,
  • A. de Angelis,
  • B. de Lotto,
  • A. Del Popolo,
  • M. Delfino,
  • J. Delgado,
  • C. Delgado Mendez,
  • D. Depaoli,
  • F. di Pierro,
  • L. di Venere,
  • E. Do Souto Espiñeira,
  • D. Dominis Prester,
  • A. Donini,
  • D. Dorner,
  • M. Doro,
  • D. Elsaesser,
  • G. Emery,
  • V. Fallah Ramazani,
  • L. Fariña,
  • A. Fattorini,
  • L. Font,
  • C. Fruck,
  • S. Fukami,
  • Y. Fukazawa,
  • R. J. García López,
  • M. Garczarczyk,
  • S. Gasparyan,
  • M. Gaug,
  • J. G. Giesbrecht Paiva,
  • N. Giglietto,
  • F. Giordano,
  • P. Gliwny,
  • N. Godinović,
  • J. G. Green,
  • D. Green,
  • D. Hadasch,
  • A. Hahn,
  • T. Hassan,
  • L. Heckmann,
  • J. Herrera,
  • D. Hrupec,
  • M. Hütten,
  • T. Inada,
  • R. Iotov,
  • K. Ishio,
  • Y. Iwamura,
  • I. Jiménez Martínez,
  • J. Jormanainen,
  • D. Kerszberg,
  • Y. Kobayashi,
  • H. Kubo,
  • J. Kushida,
  • A. Lamastra,
  • D. Lelas,
  • F. Leone,
  • E. Lindfors,
  • L. Linhoff,
  • S. Lombardi,
  • F. Longo,
  • R. López-Coto,
  • M. López-Moya,
  • A. López-Oramas,
  • S. Loporchio,
  • A. Lorini,
  • E. Lyard,
  • B. Machado de Oliveira Fraga,
  • P. Majumdar,
  • M. Makariev,
  • G. Maneva,
  • M. Manganaro,
  • S. Mangano,
  • K. Mannheim,
  • M. Mariotti,
  • M. Martínez,
  • A. Mas Aguilar,
  • D. Mazin,
  • S. Menchiari,
  • S. Mender,
  • S. Mićanović,
  • D. Miceli,
  • T. Miener,
  • J. M. Miranda,
  • R. Mirzoyan,
  • E. Molina,
  • H. A. Mondal,
  • A. Moralejo,
  • D. Morcuende,
  • V. Moreno,
  • T. Nakamori,
  • C. Nanci,
  • L. Nava,
  • V. Neustroev,
  • M. Nievas Rosillo,
  • C. Nigro,
  • K. Nilsson,
  • K. Nishijima,
  • T. Njoh Ekoume,
  • K. Noda,
  • S. Nozaki,
  • Y. Ohtani,
  • T. Oka,
  • J. Otero-Santos,
  • S. Paiano,
  • M. Palatiello,
  • D. Paneque,
  • R. Paoletti,
  • J. M. Paredes,
  • L. Pavletić,
  • M. Persic,
  • M. Pihet,
  • F. Podobnik,
  • P. G. Prada Moroni,
  • E. Prandini,
  • G. Principe,
  • C. Priyadarshi,
  • I. Puljak,
  • W. Rhode,
  • M. Ribó,
  • J. Rico,
  • C. Righi,
  • A. Rugliancich,
  • N. Sahakyan,
  • T. Saito,
  • S. Sakurai,
  • K. Satalecka,
  • F. G. Saturni,
  • B. Schleicher,
  • K. Schmidt,
  • F. Schmuckermaier,
  • J. L. Schubert,
  • T. Schweizer,
  • J. Sitarek,
  • V. Sliusar,
  • D. Sobczynska,
  • A. Spolon,
  • A. Stamerra,
  • J. Strišković,
  • D. Strom,
  • M. Strzys,
  • Y. Suda,
  • T. Surić,
  • M. Takahashi,
  • R. Takeishi,
  • F. Tavecchio,
  • P. Temnikov,
  • T. Terzić,
  • M. Teshima,
  • L. Tosti,
  • S. Truzzi,
  • A. Tutone,
  • S. Ubach,
  • J. van Scherpenberg,
  • G. Vanzo,
  • M. Vazquez Acosta,
  • S. Ventura,
  • V. Verguilov,
  • I. Viale,
  • C. F. Vigorito,
  • V. Vitale,
  • I. Vovk,
  • R. Walter,
  • M. Will,
  • C. Wunderlich,
  • T. Yamamoto,
  • D. Zarić,
  • J. A. Acosta-Pulido,
  • F. D'Ammando,
  • T. Hovatta,
  • S. Kiehlmann,
  • I. Liodakis,
  • C. Leto,
  • W. Max-Moerbeck,
  • L. Pacciani,
  • M. Perri,
  • A. C. S. Readhead,
  • R. A. Reeves,
  • F. Verrecchia
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244477
abstract + abstract -

Context. The BL Lac object 1ES 0647+250 is one of the few distant γ-ray emitting blazars detected at very high energies (VHEs; ≳100 GeV) during a non-flaring state. It was detected with the MAGIC telescopes during a period of low activity in the years 2009−2011 as well as during three flaring activities in the years 2014, 2019, and 2020, with the highest VHE flux in the last epoch. An extensive multi-instrument data set was collected as part of several coordinated observing campaigns over these years.
Aims: We aim to characterise the long-term multi-band flux variability of 1ES 0647+250, as well as its broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) during four distinct activity states selected in four different epochs, in order to constrain the physical parameters of the blazar emission region under certain assumptions.
Methods: We evaluated the variability and correlation of the emission in the different energy bands with the fractional variability and the Z-transformed discrete correlation function, as well as its spectral evolution in X-rays and γ rays. Owing to the controversy in the redshift measurements of 1ES 0647+250 reported in the literature, we also estimated its distance in an indirect manner through a comparison of the GeV and TeV spectra from simultaneous observations with Fermi-LAT and MAGIC during the strongest flaring activity detected to date. Moreover, we interpret the SEDs from the four distinct activity states within the framework of one-component and two-component leptonic models, proposing specific scenarios that are able to reproduce the available multi-instrument data.
Results: We find significant long-term variability, especially in X-rays and VHE γ rays. Furthermore, significant (3−4σ) correlations were found between the radio, optical, and high-energy (HE) γ-ray fluxes, with the radio emission delayed by about ∼400 days with respect to the optical and γ-ray bands. The spectral analysis reveals a harder-when-brighter trend during the non-flaring state in the X-ray domain. However, no clear patterns were observed for either the enhanced states or the HE (30 MeV < E < 100 GeV) and VHE γ-ray emission of the source. The indirect estimation of the redshift yielded a value of z = 0.45 ± 0.05, which is compatible with some of the values reported in the literature. The SEDs related to the low-activity state and the three flaring states of 1ES 0647+250 can be described reasonably well with the both one-component and two-component leptonic scenarios. However, the long-term correlations indicate the need for an additional radio-producing region located about 3.6 pc downstream from the gamma-ray producing region.


RU-D
(960)Leaky dust traps: How fragmentation impacts dust filtering by planets
  • Sebastian Markus Stammler,
  • Tim Lichtenberg,
  • Joanna Drążkowska,
  • Tilman Birnstiel
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245512
abstract + abstract -

The nucleosynthetic isotope dichotomy between carbonaceous (CC) and non-carbonaceous (NC) meteorites has been interpreted as evidence for spatial separation and the coexistence of two distinct planet-forming reservoirs for several million years in the solar protoplanetary disk. The rapid formation of Jupiter's core within one million years after the formation of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs) has been suggested as a potential mechanism for spatial and temporal separation. In this scenario, Jupiter's core would open a gap in the disk and trap inward-drifting dust grains in the pressure bump at the outer edge of the gap, separating the inner and outer disk materials from each other. We performed simulations of dust particles in a protoplanetary disk with a gap opened by an early-formed Jupiter core, including dust growth and fragmentation as well as dust transport, using the dust evolution software DustPy. Our numerical experiments indicate that particles trapped in the outer edge of the gap rapidly fragment and are transported through the gap, contaminating the inner disk with outer disk material on a timescale that is inconsistent with the meteoritic record. This suggests that other processes must have initiated or at least contributed to the isotopic separation between the inner and outer Solar System.


CN-4
RU-C
(959)Family dispute: do Type IIP supernova siblings agree on their distance?
  • Géza Csörnyei,
  • Christian Vogl,
  • Stefan Taubenberger,
  • Andreas Flörs,
  • Stéphane Blondin
  • +5
  • Maria Gabriela Cudmani,
  • Alexander Holas,
  • Sabrina Kressierer,
  • Bruno Leibundgut,
  • Wolfgang Hillebrandt
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Context: Type II supernovae provide a direct way to estimate distances through the expanding photosphere method, which is independent of the cosmic distance ladder. A recently introduced Gaussian process-based method allows for a fast and precise modelling of spectral time series, which puts accurate and computationally cheap Type II-based absolute distance determinations within reach. Aims: The goal of the paper is to assess the internal consistency of this new modelling technique coupled with the distance estimation empirically, using the spectral time series of supernova siblings, i.e. supernovae that exploded in the same host galaxy. Methods: We use a recently developed spectral emulator code, which is trained on \textsc{Tardis} radiative transfer models and is capable of a fast maximum likelihood parameter estimation and spectral fitting. After calculating the relevant physical parameters of supernovae we apply the expanding photosphere method to estimate their distances. Finally, we test the consistency of the obtained values by applying the formalism of Bayes factors. Results: The distances to four different host galaxies were estimated based on two supernovae in each. The distance estimates are not only consistent within the errors for each of the supernova sibling pairs, but in the case of two hosts they are precise to better than 5\%. Conclusions: Even though the literature data we used was not tailored for the requirements of our analysis, the agreement of the final estimates shows that the method is robust and is capable of inferring both precise and consistent distances. By using high-quality spectral time series, this method can provide precise distance estimates independent of the distance ladder, which are of high value for cosmology.


(958)Compact jets dominate the continuum emission in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei
  • J. A. Fernández-Ontiveros,
  • X. López-López,
  • A. Prieto
Astronomy and Astrophysics (02/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202243547
abstract + abstract -

Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGN) are special among their kind due to the profound structural changes that the central engine experiences at low accretion rates (≲ 10−3 in Eddington units). The disappearance of the accretion disc - the blue bump - leaves behind a faint optical nuclear continuum whose nature has been largely debated. This is mainly due to serious limitations on the observational side imposed by the starlight contamination from the host galaxy and the absorption by hydrogen, preventing the detection of these weak nuclei in the infrared (IR) to ultraviolet (UV) range. We addressed these challenges by combining multi-wavelength sub-arcsecond resolution observations - able to isolate the genuine nuclear continuum - with nebular lines in the mid-IR, which allowed us to indirectly probe the shape of the extreme UV continuum. We found that eight of the nearest prototype LLAGN are compatible with pure compact jet emission over more than ten orders of magnitude in frequency. This consists of self-absorbed synchrotron emission from radio to the UV plus the associated synchrotron self-Compton component dominating the emission in the UV to X-ray range. Additionally, the LLAGN continua show two particular characteristics when compared with the typical jet spectrum seen in radio galaxies: (i) a very steep spectral slope in the IR-to-optical/UV range (−3.7 < α0 < −1.3; Fν ∝ να0); and (ii) a very high turnover frequency (0.2-30 THz; 1.3 mm-10 μm) that separates the optically thick radio emission from the optically thin continuum in the IR-to-optical/UV range. These attributes can be explained if the synchrotron continuum is mainly dominated by thermalised particles at the jet base or the corona with considerably high temperatures, whereas only a small fraction of the energy (∼20%) would be distributed along the high-energy power-law tail of accelerated particles. On the other hand, the nebular gas excitation in LLAGN is in agreement with photo-ionisation from inverse Compton radiation (αx ∼ −0.7), which would dominate the nuclear continuum shortwards of ∼3000 Å, albeit a possible contribution from low-velocity shocks (< 500 km s−1) to the line excitation cannot be discarded. No sign of a standard hot accretion disc is seen in our sample of LLAGN, nevertheless, a weak cold disc (< 3000 K) is detected at the nucleus of the Sombrero galaxy, though its contribution to the nebular gas excitation is negligible. Our results suggest that the continuum emission in LLAGN is dominated at all wavelengths by undeveloped jets, powered by a thermalised particle distribution with high energies, on average. This is in agreement with their compact morphology and their high turnover frequencies. This behaviour is similar to that observed in peaked-spectrum radio sources and also compact jets in quiescent black hole X-ray binaries. Nevertheless, the presence of extended jet emission at kiloparsec scales for some of the objects in the sample is indicative of past jet activity, suggesting that these nuclei may undergo a rejuvenation event after a more active phase that produced their extended jets. These results imply that the dominant channel for energy release in LLAGN is mainly kinetic via the jet, rather than the radiative one. This has important implications in the context of galaxy evolution, since LLAGN probably represent a major but underestimated source of kinetic feedback in galaxies.

The flux distribution of the nine LLAGN in the sample are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via https://cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/670/A22


CN-4
(957)It takes two to know one: Computing accurate one-point PDF covariances from effective two-point PDF models
  • Cora Uhlemann,
  • Oliver Friedrich,
  • Aoife Boyle,
  • Alex Gough,
  • Alexandre Barthelemy
  • +2
  • Francis Bernardeau,
  • Sandrine Codis
  • (less)
The Open Journal of Astrophysics (01/2023) e-Print:2210.07819 doi:10.21105/astro.2210.07819
abstract + abstract -

One-point probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the cosmic matter density are powerful cosmological probes that extract non-Gaussian properties of the matter distribution and complement two-point statistics. Computing the covariance of one-point PDFs is key for building a robust galaxy survey analysis for upcoming surveys like Euclid and the Rubin Observatory LSST and requires good models for the two-point PDFs characterising spatial correlations. In this work, we obtain accurate PDF covariances using effective shifted lognormal two-point PDF models for the mildly non-Gaussian weak lensing convergence and validate our predictions against large sets of Gaussian and non-Gaussian maps. We show how the dominant effects in the covariance matrix capturing super-sample covariance arise from a large-separation expansion of the two-point PDF and discuss differences between the covariances obtained from small patches and full sky maps. Finally, we describe how our formalism can be extended to characterise the PDF covariance for 3D-dimensional spectroscopic fields using the 3D matter PDF as an example. We describe how covariances from simulated boxes with fixed overall density can be supplemented with the missing super-sample covariance effect by relying on theoretical predictions validated against separate-universe style simulations.


(956)Long term neutron irradiation studies of square meter sized resistive strip micromegas detectors
  • Fabian Vogel,
  • Otmar Biebel,
  • Christoph Jagfeld,
  • Katrin Penski,
  • Maximilian Rinnagel
  • +2
  • Chrysostomos Valderanis,
  • Ralf Hertenberger
  • (less)
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A (01/2023) doi:10.1016/j.nima.2022.167653
abstract + abstract -

Resistive strip Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GAseous Structure) detectors provide even at square meter sizes a high spatial resolution for the reconstruction of Minimum Ionizing Particles (MIPs) like muons. Micromegas detectors consist of three parallel planar structures. A cathode, a grounded mesh and a segmented anode structure form the detector. Square meter sizes challenge the high-voltage stability during operation, especially when using the frequently used gas mixture of Ar:CO2 (93:7 vol%) with low quencher content. To improve the HV-stability and to enhance the discharge quenching different gas mixtures have been investigated. A very promising one has an 2% admixture of isobutane forming the ternary gas Ar:CO2:iC4H10 (93:5:2 vol%). Long term irradiation studies investigating both gas mixtures interrupted by cosmic muon tracking efficiency measurements have been performed by irradiation with neutrons and gammas from a 10 GBq Am-Be source for a period of two years. The comparison shows gain increase under Ar:CO2:iC4H10 and a considerably improved HV-stable operation of the detector. It is investigated for any performance deterioration for each of the two gas mixtures with focus on pulse-height and changes of efficiency.


(955)Directing Min protein patterns with advective bulk flow
  • Sabrina Meindlhumer,
  • Fridtjof Brauns,
  • Jernej Rudi Finžgar,
  • Jacob Kerssemakers,
  • Cees Dekker
  • +1
Nature Communications (01/2023) doi:10.1038/s41467-023-35997-0
abstract + abstract -

The Min proteins constitute the best-studied model system for pattern formation in cell biology. We theoretically predict and experimentally show that the propagation direction of in vitro Min protein patterns can be controlled by a hydrodynamic flow of the bulk solution. We find downstream propagation of Min wave patterns for low MinE:MinD concentration ratios, upstream propagation for large ratios, but multistability of both propagation directions in between. Whereas downstream propagation can be described by a minimal model that disregards MinE conformational switching, upstream propagation can be reproduced by a reduced switch model, where increased MinD bulk concentrations on the upstream side promote protein attachment. Our study demonstrates that a differential flow, where bulk flow advects protein concentrations in the bulk, but not on the surface, can control surface-pattern propagation. This suggests that flow can be used to probe molecular features and to constrain mathematical models for pattern-forming systems.


(954)Indirect upper limits on ℓ<SUB>i</SUB>→ℓ<SUB>j</SUB>γ γ from ℓ<SUB>i</SUB>→ℓ<SUB>j</SUB>γ
  • Fabiola Fortuna,
  • Alejandro Ibarra,
  • Xabier Marcano,
  • Marcela Marín,
  • Pablo Roig
Physical Review D (01/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.015027
abstract + abstract -

We perform an effective field theory analysis to correlate the charged lepton flavor violating processes ℓi→ℓjγ γ and ℓi→ℓjγ . Using the current upper bounds on the rate for ℓi→ℓjγ , we derive model-independent upper limits on the rates for ℓi→ℓjγ γ . Our indirect limits are about three orders of magnitude stronger than the direct bounds from current searches for μ →e γ γ , and four orders of magnitude better than current bounds for τ →ℓγ γ . We also stress the relevance of Belle II or a Super Tau Charm Facility to discover the rare decay τ →ℓγ γ .


CN-3
RU-B
(953)Enhanced prospects for direct detection of inelastic dark matter from a non-galactic diffuse component
  • Gonzalo Herrera,
  • Alejandro Ibarra,
  • Satoshi Shirai
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (01/2023) e-Print:2301.00870 doi:10.48550/arXiv.2301.00870
abstract + abstract -

In some scenarios, the dark matter particle predominantly scatters inelastically with the target, producing a heavier neutral particle in the final state. In this class of scenarios, the reach in parameter space of direct detection experiments is limited by the velocity of the dark matter particle, usually taken as the escape velocity from the Milky Way. On the other hand, it has been argued that a fraction of the dark matter particles in the Solar System could be bound to the envelope of the Local Group or to the Virgo Supercluster, and not to our Galaxy, and therefore could carry velocities larger than the escape velocity from the Milky Way. In this paper we estimate the enhancement in sensitivity of current direct detection experiments to inelastic dark matter scatterings with nucleons or electrons due to the non-galactic diffuse components, and we discuss the implications for some well motivated models.


(952)Resolution tests for ΛCDM : A comparison of three cosmological codes
  • Flor Lozano-Rodríguez,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Luis Arturo Ureña-López
Astronomische Nachrichten (01/2023) doi:10.1002/asna.20220110

CN-2
RU-D
(951)The effect of stellar contamination on low-resolution transmission spectroscopy: needs identified by NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program Study Analysis Group 21
  • Benjamin V. Rackham,
  • Néstor Espinoza,
  • Svetlana V. Berdyugina,
  • Heidi Korhonen,
  • Ryan J. MacDonald
  • +56
  • Benjamin T. Montet,
  • Brett M. Morris,
  • Mahmoudreza Oshagh,
  • Alexander I. Shapiro,
  • Yvonne C. Unruh,
  • Elisa V. Quintana,
  • Robert T. Zellem,
  • Dániel Apai,
  • Thomas Barclay,
  • Joanna K. Barstow,
  • Giovanni Bruno,
  • Ludmila Carone,
  • Sarah L. Casewell,
  • Heather M. Cegla,
  • Serena Criscuoli,
  • Catherine Fischer,
  • Damien Fournier,
  • Mark S. Giampapa,
  • Helen Giles,
  • Aishwarya Iyer,
  • Greg Kopp,
  • Nadiia M. Kostogryz,
  • Natalie Krivova,
  • Matthias Mallonn,
  • Chima McGruder,
  • Karan Molaverdikhani,
  • Elisabeth R. Newton,
  • Mayukh Panja,
  • Sarah Peacock,
  • Kevin Reardon,
  • Rachael M. Roettenbacher,
  • Gaetano Scandariato,
  • Sami Solanki,
  • Keivan G. Stassun,
  • Oskar Steiner,
  • Kevin B. Stevenson,
  • Jeremy Tregloan-Reed,
  • Adriana Valio,
  • Sven Wedemeyer,
  • Luis Welbanks,
  • Jie Yu,
  • Munazza K. Alam,
  • James R. A. Davenport,
  • Drake Deming,
  • Chuanfei Dong,
  • Elsa Ducrot,
  • Chloe Fisher,
  • Emily Gilbert,
  • Veselin Kostov,
  • Mercedes López-Morales,
  • Mike Line,
  • Teo Močnik,
  • Susan Mullally,
  • Rishi R. Paudel,
  • Ignasi Ribas,
  • Jeff A. Valenti
  • (less)
RAS Techniques and Instruments (01/2023) doi:10.1093/rasti/rzad009
abstract + abstract -

Study Analysis Group 21 (SAG21) of NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program Analysis Group was organized to study the effect of stellar contamination on space-based transmission spectroscopy, a method for studying exoplanetary atmospheres by measuring the wavelength-dependent radius of a planet as it transits its star. Transmission spectroscopy relies on a precise understanding of the spectrum of the star being occulted. However, stars are not homogeneous, constant light sources but have temporally evolving photospheres and chromospheres with inhomogeneities like spots, faculae, plages, granules, and flares. This SAG brought together an interdisciplinary team of more than 100 scientists, with observers and theorists from the heliophysics, stellar astrophysics, planetary science, and exoplanetary atmosphere research communities, to study the current research needs that can be addressed in this context to make the most of transit studies from current NASA facilities like Hubble Space Telescope and JWST. The analysis produced 14 findings, which fall into three science themes encompassing (i) how the Sun is used as our best laboratory to calibrate our understanding of stellar heterogeneities ('The Sun as the Stellar Benchmark'), (ii) how stars other than the Sun extend our knowledge of heterogeneities ('Surface Heterogeneities of Other Stars'), and (iii) how to incorporate information gathered for the Sun and other stars into transit studies ('Mapping Stellar Knowledge to Transit Studies'). In this invited review, we largely reproduce the final report of SAG21 as a contribution to the peer-reviewed literature.


(950)ΛCDM with baryons versus MOND: The time evolution of the universal acceleration scale in the Magneticum simulations
  • Alexander C. Mayer,
  • Adelheid F. Teklu,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (01/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac3017
abstract + abstract -

MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) is an alternative to the standard Cold Dark Matter (CDM) paradigm which proposes an alteration of Newton's laws of motion at low accelerations, characterized by a universal acceleration scale a0. It attempts to explain observations of galactic rotation curves and predicts a specific scaling relation of the baryonic and total acceleration in galaxies, referred to as the Rotational Acceleration Relation (RAR), which can be equivalently formulated as a Mass Discrepancy Acceleration Relation (MDAR). The appearance of these relations in observational data such as SPARC has lead to investigations into the existence of similar relations in cosmological simulations using the standard ΛCDM model. Here, we report the existence of an RAR and MDAR similar to that predicted by MOND in ΛCDM using a large sample of galaxies extracted from a cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation (Magneticum). Furthermore, by using galaxies in Magneticum at different redshifts, a prediction for the evolution of the inferred acceleration parameter a0 with cosmic time is derived by fitting a MOND force law to these galaxies. In Magneticum, the best fit for a0 is found to increase by a factor ≃3 from redshift z = 0 to z = 2.3. This offers a powerful test from cosmological simulations to distinguish between MOND and ΛCDM observationally.


RU-A
RU-B
(949)Electroweak resummation of neutralino dark-matter annihilation into high-energy photons
  • Martin Beneke,
  • Stefan Lederer,
  • Clara Peset
Journal of High Energy Physics2211.14341 (01/2023) e-Print:2211.14341 doi:doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2023)171
abstract + abstract -

We consider the resummation of large electroweak Sudakov logarithms for the annihilation of neutralino DM with (TeV) mass to high-energy photons in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, extending previous work on the minimal wino and Higgsino models. We find that NLL resummation reduces the yield of photons by about 20% for Higgsino-dominated DM at masses around 1~TeV, and up to 45% for neutralinos with larger wino admixture at heavier masses near 3~TeV. This sizable effect is relevant when observations or exclusion limits are translated into MSSM parameter-space constraints.


(948)The ngEHT Analysis Challenges
  • Freek Roelofs,
  • Lindy Blackburn,
  • Greg Lindahl,
  • Sheperd S. Doeleman,
  • Michael D. Johnson
  • +13
  • Philipp Arras,
  • Koushik Chatterjee,
  • Razieh Emami,
  • Christian Fromm,
  • Antonio Fuentes,
  • Jakob Knollmüller,
  • Nikita Kosogorov,
  • Hendrik Müller,
  • Nimesh Patel,
  • Alexander Raymond,
  • Paul Tiede,
  • Efthalia Traianou,
  • Justin Vega
  • (less)
Galaxies (01/2023) doi:10.3390/galaxies11010012
abstract + abstract -

The next-generation Event Horizon Telescope (ngEHT) will be a significant enhancement of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) array, with ∼10 new antennas and instrumental upgrades of existing antennas. The increased uv-coverage, sensitivity, and frequency coverage allow a wide range of new science opportunities to be explored. The ngEHT Analysis Challenges have been launched to inform the development of the ngEHT array design, science objectives, and analysis pathways. For each challenge, synthetic EHT and ngEHT datasets are generated from theoretical source models and released to the challenge participants, who analyze the datasets using image reconstruction and other methods. The submitted analysis results are evaluated with quantitative metrics. In this work, we report on the first two ngEHT Analysis Challenges. These have focused on static and dynamical models of M87* and Sgr A* and shown that high-quality movies of the extended jet structure of M87* and near-horizon hourly timescale variability of Sgr A* can be reconstructed by the reference ngEHT array in realistic observing conditions using current analysis algorithms. We identify areas where there is still room for improvement of these algorithms and analysis strategies. Other science cases and arrays will be explored in future challenges.


(947)Suppressing variance in 21 cm signal simulations during reionization
  • Sambit K. Giri,
  • Aurel Schneider,
  • Francisco Maion,
  • Raul E. Angulo
Astronomy and Astrophysics (01/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244986
abstract + abstract -

Current best limits on the 21 cm signal during reionization are provided at large scales (≳100 Mpc). To model these scales, enormous simulation volumes are required, which are computationally expensive. We find that the primary source of uncertainty at these large scales is sample variance, which determines the minimum size of simulations required to analyse current and upcoming observations. In large-scale structure simulations, the method of `fixing' the initial conditions (ICs) to exactly follow the initial power spectrum and `pairing' two simulations with exactly out-of-phase ICs has been shown to significantly reduce sample variance. Here we apply this `fixing and pairing' (F&P) approach to reionization simulations whose clustering signal originates from both density fluctuations and reionization bubbles. Using a semi-numerical code, we show that with the traditional method, simulation boxes of L ≃ 500 (300) Mpc are required to model the large-scale clustering signal at k = 0.1 Mpc−1 with a precision of 5 (10)%. Using F&P, the simulation boxes can be reduced by a factor of 2 to obtain the same precision level. We conclude that the computing costs can be reduced by at least a factor of 4 when using the F&P approach.


CN-3
RU-B
(946)Towards an automated data cleaning with deep learning in CRESST
  • G. Angloher,
  • S. Banik,
  • D. Bartolot,
  • G. Benato,
  • A. Bento
  • +61
  • A. Bertolini,
  • R. Breier,
  • C. Bucci,
  • J. Burkhart,
  • L. Canonica,
  • A. D'Addabbo,
  • S. Diâ Lorenzo,
  • L. Einfalt,
  • A. Erb,
  • F. V. Feilitzsch,
  • N. Ferreiro Iachellini,
  • S. Fichtinger,
  • D. Fuchs,
  • A. Fuss,
  • A. Garai,
  • V. M. Ghete,
  • S. Gerster,
  • P. Gorla,
  • P. V. Guillaumon,
  • S. Gupta,
  • D. Hauff,
  • M. Ješkovský,
  • J. Jochum,
  • M. Kaznacheeva,
  • A. Kinast,
  • H. Kluck,
  • H. Kraus,
  • M. Lackner,
  • A. Langenkämper,
  • M. Mancuso,
  • L. Marini,
  • L. Meyer,
  • V. Mokina,
  • A. Nilima,
  • M. Olmi,
  • T. Ortmann,
  • C. Pagliarone,
  • L. Pattavina,
  • F. Petricca,
  • W. Potzel,
  • P. Povinec,
  • F. Pröbst,
  • F. Pucci,
  • F. Reindl,
  • D. Rizvanovic,
  • J. Rothe,
  • K. Schäffner,
  • J. Schieck,
  • D. Schmiedmayer,
  • S. Schönert,
  • C. Schwertner,
  • M. Stahlberg,
  • L. Stodolsky,
  • C. Strandhagen,
  • R. Strauss,
  • I. Usherov,
  • F. Wagner,
  • M. Willers,
  • V. Zema,
  • W. Waltenberger,
  • CRESST Collaboration
  • (less)
European Physical Journal Plus (01/2023) doi:10.1140/epjp/s13360-023-03674-2
abstract + abstract -

The CRESST experiment employs cryogenic calorimeters for the sensitive measurement of nuclear recoils induced by dark matter particles. The recorded signals need to undergo a careful cleaning process to avoid wrongly reconstructed recoil energies caused by pile-up and read-out artefacts. We frame this process as a time series classification task and propose to automate it with neural networks. With a data set of over one million labeled records from 68 detectors, recorded between 2013 and 2019 by CRESST, we test the capability of four commonly used neural network architectures to learn the data cleaning task. Our best performing model achieves a balanced accuracy of 0.932 on our test set. We show on an exemplary detector that about half of the wrongly predicted events are in fact wrongly labeled events, and a large share of the remaining ones have a context-dependent ground truth. We furthermore evaluate the recall and selectivity of our classifiers with simulated data. The results confirm that the trained classifiers are well suited for the data cleaning task.


RU-C
(945)CCAT-prime Collaboration: Science Goals and Forecasts with Prime-Cam on the Fred Young Submillimeter Telescope
  • CCAT-Prime Collaboration,
  • Manuel Aravena,
  • Jason E. Austermann,
  • Kaustuv Basu,
  • Nicholas Battaglia
  • +83
  • Benjamin Beringue,
  • Frank Bertoldi,
  • Frank Bigiel,
  • J. Richard Bond,
  • Patrick C. Breysse,
  • Colton Broughton,
  • Ricardo Bustos,
  • Scott C. Chapman,
  • Maude Charmetant,
  • Steve K. Choi,
  • Dongwoo T. Chung,
  • Susan E. Clark,
  • Nicholas F. Cothard,
  • Abigail T. Crites,
  • Ankur Dev,
  • Kaela Douglas,
  • Cody J. Duell,
  • Rolando Dünner,
  • Haruki Ebina,
  • Jens Erler,
  • Michel Fich,
  • Laura M. Fissel,
  • Simon Foreman,
  • R. G. Freundt,
  • Patricio A. Gallardo,
  • Jiansong Gao,
  • Pablo García,
  • Riccardo Giovanelli,
  • Joseph E. Golec,
  • Christopher E. Groppi,
  • Martha P. Haynes,
  • Douglas Henke,
  • Brandon Hensley,
  • Terry Herter,
  • Ronan Higgins,
  • Renée Hložek,
  • Anthony Huber,
  • Zachary Huber,
  • Johannes Hubmayr,
  • Rebecca Jackson,
  • Douglas Johnstone,
  • Christos Karoumpis,
  • Laura C. Keating,
  • Eiichiro Komatsu,
  • Yaqiong Li,
  • Benjamin Magnelli,
  • Brenda C. Matthews,
  • Philip D. Mauskopf,
  • Jeffrey J. McMahon,
  • P. Daniel Meerburg,
  • Joel Meyers,
  • Vyoma Muralidhara,
  • Norman W. Murray,
  • Michael D. Niemack,
  • Thomas Nikola,
  • Yoko Okada,
  • Roberto Puddu,
  • Dominik A. Riechers,
  • Erik Rosolowsky,
  • Kayla Rossi,
  • Kaja Rotermund,
  • Anirban Roy,
  • Sarah I. Sadavoy,
  • Reinhold Schaaf,
  • Peter Schilke,
  • Douglas Scott,
  • Robert Simon,
  • Adrian K. Sinclair,
  • Gregory R. Sivakoff,
  • Gordon J. Stacey,
  • Amelia M. Stutz,
  • Juergen Stutzki,
  • Mehrnoosh Tahani,
  • Karun Thanjavur,
  • Ralf A. Timmermann,
  • Joel N. Ullom,
  • Alexander van Engelen,
  • Eve M. Vavagiakis,
  • Michael R. Vissers,
  • Jordan D. Wheeler,
  • Simon D. M. White,
  • Yijie Zhu,
  • Bugao Zou
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (01/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4365/ac9838
abstract + abstract -

We present a detailed overview of the science goals and predictions for the Prime-Cam direct-detection camera-spectrometer being constructed by the CCAT-prime collaboration for dedicated use on the Fred Young Submillimeter Telescope (FYST). The FYST is a wide-field, 6 m aperture submillimeter telescope being built (first light in late 2023) by an international consortium of institutions led by Cornell University and sited at more than 5600 m on Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile. Prime-Cam is one of two instruments planned for FYST and will provide unprecedented spectroscopic and broadband measurement capabilities to address important astrophysical questions ranging from Big Bang cosmology through reionization and the formation of the first galaxies to star formation within our own Milky Way. Prime-Cam on the FYST will have a mapping speed that is over 10 times greater than existing and near-term facilities for high-redshift science and broadband polarimetric imaging at frequencies above 300 GHz. We describe details of the science program enabled by this system and our preliminary survey strategies.


CN-4
RU-C
(944)Joint analysis of Dark Energy Survey Year 3 data and CMB lensing from SPT and Planck. I. Construction of CMB lensing maps and modeling choices
  • Y. Omori,
  • E. J. Baxter,
  • C. Chang,
  • O. Friedrich,
  • A. Alarcon
  • +160
  • O. Alves,
  • A. Amon,
  • F. Andrade-Oliveira,
  • K. Bechtol,
  • M. R. Becker,
  • G. M. Bernstein,
  • J. Blazek,
  • L. E. Bleem,
  • H. Camacho,
  • A. Campos,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • R. Cawthon,
  • R. Chen,
  • A. Choi,
  • J. Cordero,
  • T. M. Crawford,
  • M. Crocce,
  • C. Davis,
  • J. DeRose,
  • S. Dodelson,
  • C. Doux,
  • A. Drlica-Wagner,
  • K. Eckert,
  • T. F. Eifler,
  • F. Elsner,
  • J. Elvin-Poole,
  • S. Everett,
  • X. Fang,
  • A. Ferté,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • M. Gatti,
  • G. Giannini,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R. A. Gruendl,
  • I. Harrison,
  • K. Herner,
  • H. Huang,
  • E. M. Huff,
  • D. Huterer,
  • M. Jarvis,
  • E. Krause,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • P. -F. Leget,
  • P. Lemos,
  • A. R. Liddle,
  • N. MacCrann,
  • J. McCullough,
  • J. Muir,
  • J. Myles,
  • A. Navarro-Alsina,
  • S. Pandey,
  • Y. Park,
  • A. Porredon,
  • J. Prat,
  • M. Raveri,
  • R. P. Rollins,
  • A. Roodman,
  • R. Rosenfeld,
  • A. J. Ross,
  • E. S. Rykoff,
  • C. Sánchez,
  • J. Sanchez,
  • L. F. Secco,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • E. Sheldon,
  • T. Shin,
  • M. A. Troxel,
  • I. Tutusaus,
  • T. N. Varga,
  • N. Weaverdyck,
  • R. H. Wechsler,
  • W. L. K. Wu,
  • B. Yanny,
  • B. Yin,
  • Y. Zhang,
  • J. Zuntz,
  • T. M. C. Abbott,
  • M. Aguena,
  • S. Allam,
  • J. Annis,
  • D. Bacon,
  • B. A. Benson,
  • E. Bertin,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D. L. Burke,
  • J. E. Carlstrom,
  • J. Carretero,
  • C. L. Chang,
  • R. Chown,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • L. N. da Costa,
  • A. T. Crites,
  • M. E. S. Pereira,
  • T. de Haan,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • H. T. Diehl,
  • M. A. Dobbs,
  • P. Doel,
  • W. Everett,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • D. Friedel,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • E. M. George,
  • T. Giannantonio,
  • N. W. Halverson,
  • S. R. Hinton,
  • G. P. Holder,
  • D. L. Hollowood,
  • W. L. Holzapfel,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • J. D. Hrubes,
  • D. J. James,
  • L. Knox,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • O. Lahav,
  • A. T. Lee,
  • M. Lima,
  • D. Luong-Van,
  • M. March,
  • J. J. McMahon,
  • P. Melchior,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • S. S. Meyer,
  • R. Miquel,
  • L. Mocanu,
  • J. J. Mohr,
  • R. Morgan,
  • T. Natoli,
  • S. Padin,
  • A. Palmese,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A. Pieres,
  • A. A. Plazas Malagón,
  • C. Pryke,
  • C. L. Reichardt,
  • A. K. Romer,
  • J. E. Ruhl,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • K. K. Schaffer,
  • M. Schubnell,
  • S. Serrano,
  • E. Shirokoff,
  • M. Smith,
  • Z. Staniszewski,
  • A. A. Stark,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • C. To,
  • J. D. Vieira,
  • J. Weller,
  • R. Williamson,
  • DES,
  • SPT Collaborations
  • (less)
Physical Review D (01/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.023529
abstract + abstract -

Joint analyses of cross-correlations between measurements of galaxy positions, galaxy lensing, and lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) offer powerful constraints on the large-scale structure of the Universe. In a forthcoming analysis, we will present cosmological constraints from the analysis of such cross-correlations measured using Year 3 data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES), and CMB data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. Here we present two key ingredients of this analysis: (1) an improved CMB lensing map in the SPT-SZ survey footprint and (2) the analysis methodology that will be used to extract cosmological information from the cross-correlation measurements. Relative to previous lensing maps made from the same CMB observations, we have implemented techniques to remove contamination from the thermal Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect, enabling the extraction of cosmological information from smaller angular scales of the cross-correlation measurements than in previous analyses with DES Year 1 data. We describe our model for the cross-correlations between these maps and DES data, and validate our modeling choices to demonstrate the robustness of our analysis. We then forecast the expected cosmological constraints from the galaxy survey-CMB lensing auto and cross-correlations. We find that the galaxy-CMB lensing and galaxy shear-CMB lensing correlations will on their own provide a constraint on S88√{Ωm/0.3 } at the few percent level, providing a powerful consistency check for the DES-only constraints. We explore scenarios where external priors on shear calibration are removed, finding that the joint analysis of CMB lensing cross-correlations can provide constraints on the shear calibration amplitude at the 5% to 10% level.


CN-3
RU-B
(943)Anapole moment of Majorana fermions and implications for direct detection of neutralino dark matter
  • Alejandro Ibarra,
  • Merlin Reichard,
  • Ryo Nagai
Journal of High Energy Physics (01/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP01(2023)086
abstract + abstract -

For Majorana fermions the anapole moment is the only allowed electromagnetic multipole moment. In this work we calculate the anapole moment induced at one-loop by the Yukawa and gauge interactions of a Majorana fermion, using the pinch technique to ensure the finiteness and gauge-invariance of the result. As archetypical example of a Majorana fermion, we calculate the anapole moment for the lightest neutralino in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, and specifically in the bino, wino and higgsino limits. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications of the anapole moment for the direct detection of dark matter in the form of Majorana fermions.


(942)Asymptotic dynamics and charges for FLRW spacetimes
  • Martín Enríquez Rojo,
  • Till Heckelbacher,
  • Roberto Oliveri
Physical Review D (01/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.024039
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the asymptotia of decelerating and spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetimes at future null infinity. We find that the asymptotic algebra of diffeomorphisms can be enlarged to the recently discovered Weyl-Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra for asymptotically flat spacetimes by relaxing the boundary conditions. This algebra remains undeformed in the cosmological setting contrary to previous extensions of the BMS algebra. We then study the equations of motion for asymptotically FLRW spacetimes with finite fluxes and show that the dynamics is fully constrained by the energy-momentum tensor of the source. Finally, we propose an expression for the charges that are associated with the cosmological supertranslations and whose evolution equation features a novel contribution arising from the Hubble-Lemaître flow.


RU-D
(941)Decomposition of galactic X-ray emission with PHOX. Contributions from hot gas and X-ray binaries
  • S. Vladutescu-Zopp,
  • V. Biffi,
  • K. Dolag
Astronomy and Astrophysics (01/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244726
abstract + abstract -

Context. X-ray observations of galaxies with high spatial resolution instruments such as Chandra have revealed that major contributions to their diffuse emission originate from X-ray-bright point sources in the galactic stellar field. It has been established that these point sources, called X-ray binaries, are accreting compact objects with stellar donors in a binary configuration. They are classified according to the predominant accretion process: wind-fed in the case of high-mass donors and Roche-lobe mass transfer in the case of low-mass donors. Observationally, it is challenging to reliably disentangle these two populations from each other because of their similar spectra.
Aims: We provide a numerical framework with which spatially and spectrally accurate representations of X-ray binary populations can be studied from hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. We construct average spectra, accounting for a hot gas component, and verify the emergence of observed scaling relations between galaxy-wide X-ray luminosity (LX) and stellar mass (M*) and between LX and the star-formation rate (SFR).
Methods: Using simulated galaxy halos extracted from the (48 h−1 cMpc)3 volume of the Magneticum Pathfinder cosmological simulations at z = 0.07, we generate mock spectra with the X-ray photon-simulator PHOX. We extend the PHOX code to account for the stellar component in the simulation and study the resulting contribution in composite galactic spectra.
Results: Well-known X-ray binary scaling relations with galactic SFR and M* emerge self-consistently, verifying our numerical approach. Average X-ray luminosity functions are perfectly reproduced up to the one-photon luminosity limit. Comparing our resulting LX − SFR − M* relation for X-ray binaries with recent observations of field galaxies in the Virgo galaxy cluster, we find significant overlap. Invoking a metallicity-dependent model for high-mass X-ray binaries yields an anticorrelation between mass-weighted stellar metallicity and SFR-normalized luminosity. The spatial distribution of high-mass X-ray binaries coincides with star-formation regions of simulated galaxies, while low-mass X-ray binaries follow the stellar mass surface density. X-ray binary emission is the dominant contribution in the hard X-ray band (2-10 keV) in the absence of an actively accreting central super-massive black hole, and it provides a ∼50% contribution in the soft X-ray band (0.5-2 keV), rivaling the hot gas component.
Conclusions: We conclude that our modeling remains consistent with observations despite the uncertainties connected to our approach. The predictive power and easily extendable framework hold great value for future investigations of galactic X-ray spectra.


CN-4
RU-C
(940)Joint analysis of Dark Energy Survey Year 3 data and CMB lensing from SPT and P l a n c k . II. Cross-correlation measurements and cosmological constraints
  • C. Chang,
  • Y. Omori,
  • E. J. Baxter,
  • C. Doux,
  • A. Choi
  • +163
  • S. Pandey,
  • A. Alarcon,
  • O. Alves,
  • A. Amon,
  • F. Andrade-Oliveira,
  • K. Bechtol,
  • M. R. Becker,
  • G. M. Bernstein,
  • F. Bianchini,
  • J. Blazek,
  • L. E. Bleem,
  • H. Camacho,
  • A. Campos,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • R. Cawthon,
  • R. Chen,
  • J. Cordero,
  • T. M. Crawford,
  • M. Crocce,
  • C. Davis,
  • J. DeRose,
  • S. Dodelson,
  • A. Drlica-Wagner,
  • K. Eckert,
  • T. F. Eifler,
  • F. Elsner,
  • J. Elvin-Poole,
  • S. Everett,
  • X. Fang,
  • A. Ferté,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • O. Friedrich,
  • M. Gatti,
  • G. Giannini,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R. A. Gruendl,
  • I. Harrison,
  • K. Herner,
  • H. Huang,
  • E. M. Huff,
  • D. Huterer,
  • M. Jarvis,
  • A. Kovacs,
  • E. Krause,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • P. -F. Leget,
  • P. Lemos,
  • A. R. Liddle,
  • N. MacCrann,
  • J. McCullough,
  • J. Muir,
  • J. Myles,
  • A. Navarro-Alsina,
  • Y. Park,
  • A. Porredon,
  • J. Prat,
  • M. Raveri,
  • R. P. Rollins,
  • A. Roodman,
  • R. Rosenfeld,
  • A. J. Ross,
  • E. S. Rykoff,
  • C. Sánchez,
  • J. Sanchez,
  • L. F. Secco,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • E. Sheldon,
  • T. Shin,
  • M. A. Troxel,
  • I. Tutusaus,
  • T. N. Varga,
  • N. Weaverdyck,
  • R. H. Wechsler,
  • W. L. K. Wu,
  • B. Yanny,
  • B. Yin,
  • Y. Zhang,
  • J. Zuntz,
  • T. M. C. Abbott,
  • M. Aguena,
  • S. Allam,
  • J. Annis,
  • D. Bacon,
  • B. A. Benson,
  • E. Bertin,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D. L. Burke,
  • J. E. Carlstrom,
  • J. Carretero,
  • C. L. Chang,
  • R. Chown,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • L. N. da Costa,
  • A. T. Crites,
  • M. E. S. Pereira,
  • T. de Haan,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • H. T. Diehl,
  • M. A. Dobbs,
  • P. Doel,
  • W. Everett,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • D. Friedel,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • E. M. George,
  • T. Giannantonio,
  • N. W. Halverson,
  • S. R. Hinton,
  • G. P. Holder,
  • D. L. Hollowood,
  • W. L. Holzapfel,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • J. D. Hrubes,
  • D. J. James,
  • L. Knox,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • O. Lahav,
  • A. T. Lee,
  • M. Lima,
  • D. Luong-Van,
  • M. March,
  • J. J. McMahon,
  • P. Melchior,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • S. S. Meyer,
  • R. Miquel,
  • L. Mocanu,
  • J. J. Mohr,
  • R. Morgan,
  • T. Natoli,
  • S. Padin,
  • A. Palmese,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A. Pieres,
  • A. A. Plazas Malagón,
  • C. Pryke,
  • C. L. Reichardt,
  • M. Rodríguez-Monroy,
  • A. K. Romer,
  • J. E. Ruhl,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • K. K. Schaffer,
  • M. Schubnell,
  • S. Serrano,
  • E. Shirokoff,
  • M. Smith,
  • Z. Staniszewski,
  • A. A. Stark,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • C. To,
  • J. D. Vieira,
  • J. Weller,
  • R. Williamson,
  • DES,
  • SPT Collaborations
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Cross-correlations of galaxy positions and galaxy shears with maps of gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are sensitive to the distribution of large-scale structure in the Universe. Such cross-correlations are also expected to be immune to some of the systematic effects that complicate correlation measurements internal to galaxy surveys. We present measurements and modeling of the cross-correlations between galaxy positions and galaxy lensing measured in the first three years of data from the Dark Energy Survey with CMB lensing maps derived from a combination of data from the 2500 deg2 SPT-SZ survey conducted with the South Pole Telescope and full-sky data from the Planck satellite. The CMB lensing maps used in this analysis have been constructed in a way that minimizes biases from the thermal Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect, making them well suited for cross-correlation studies. The total signal-to-noise of the cross-correlation measurements is 23.9 (25.7) when using a choice of angular scales optimized for a linear (nonlinear) galaxy bias model. We use the cross-correlation measurements to obtain constraints on cosmological parameters. For our fiducial galaxy sample, which consist of four bins of magnitude-selected galaxies, we find constraints of Ωm=0.272-0.052+0.032 and S8≡σ8√{Ωm/0.3 }=0.736-0.028+0.032m=0.245-0.044+0.026 and S8=0.734-0.028+0.035 ) when assuming linear (nonlinear) galaxy bias in our modeling. Considering only the cross-correlation of galaxy shear with CMB lensing, we find Ωm=0.270-0.061+0.043 and S8=0.740-0.029+0.034 . Our constraints on S8 are consistent with recent cosmic shear measurements, but lower than the values preferred by primary CMB measurements from Planck.


CN-2
RU-D
(939)Towards a population synthesis of discs and planets. II. Confronting disc models and observations at the population level
  • Alexandre Emsenhuber,
  • Remo Burn,
  • Jesse Weder,
  • Kristina Monsch,
  • Giovanni Picogna
  • +2
  • Barbara Ercolano,
  • Thomas Preibisch
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

Aims. We want to find the distribution of initial conditions that best reproduces disc observations at the population level. Methods. We first ran a parameter study using a 1D model that includes the viscous evolution of a gas disc, dust, and pebbles, coupled with an emission model to compute the millimetre flux observable with ALMA. This was used to train a machine learning surrogate model that can compute the relevant quantity for comparison with observations in seconds. This surrogate model was used to perform parameter studies and synthetic disc populations. Results. Performing a parameter study, we find that internal photoevaporation leads to a lower dependency of disc lifetime on stellar mass than external photoevaporation. This dependence should be investigated in the future. Performing population synthesis, we find that under the combined losses of internal and external photoevaporation, discs are too short lived. Conclusions. To match observational constraints, future models of disc evolution need to include one or a combination of the following processes: infall of material to replenish the discs, shielding of the disc from internal photoevaporation due to magnetically driven disc winds, and extinction of external high-energy radiation. Nevertheless, disc properties in low-external-photoevaporation regions can be reproduced by having more massive and compact discs. Here, the optimum values of the $\alpha$ viscosity parameter lie between $3\times10^{-4}$ and $10^{-3}$ and with internal photoevaporation being the main mode of disc dispersal.


(938)Implications for the Δ A<SUB>F B</SUB> anomaly in B<SUP>¯0</SUP>→D<SUP>*+</SUP><SUP>ℓ-</SUP>ν ¯ using a new Monte Carlo event generator
  • Bhubanjyoti Bhattacharya,
  • Thomas E. Browder,
  • Quinn Campagna,
  • Alakabha Datta,
  • Shawn Dubey
  • +2
  • Lopamudra Mukherjee,
  • Alexei Sibidanov
  • (less)
Physical Review D (01/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.015011
abstract + abstract -

Recent experimental results in B physics from Belle, BABAR, and LHCb suggest new physics (NP) in the weak b →c charged-current processes. Here we focus specifically on the decay modes B¯0→D*+ℓ-ν¯ with ℓ=e and μ . The world averages of the ratios RD and RD* currently differ from the Standard Model (SM) predictions by 3.4 σ while recently a new anomaly has been observed in the forward-backward asymmetry measurement, AFB , in B¯0→D*+μ-ν ¯ decay. It is found that Δ AFB=AFB(B →D*μ ν )-AFB(B →D*e ν ) is around 4.1 σ away from the SM prediction in an analysis of 2019 Belle data. In this work we explore possible solutions to the Δ AFB anomaly and point out correlated NP signals in other angular observables. These correlations between angular observables must be present in the case of beyond the Standard Model physics. We stress the importance of Δ type observables that are obtained by taking the difference of the observable for the muon and the electron mode. These quantities cancel form-factor uncertainties in the SM and allow for clean tests of NP. These intriguing results also suggest an urgent need for improved simulation and analysis techniques in B¯0→D*+ℓ-ν¯ decays. Here we also describe a new Monte Carlo event generator tool based on EVTGEN that we developed to allow simulation of the NP signatures in B¯0→D*+ℓ-ν, which arise due to the interference between the SM and NP amplitudes. We then discuss prospects for improved observables sensitive to NP couplings with 1, 5, 50, and 250 ab -1 of Belle II data, which seem to be ideally suited for this class of measurements.


IDSL
RU-E
(937)A heated rock crack captures and polymerizes primordial DNA and RNA
  • Christina F. Dirscherl,
  • Alan Ianeselli,
  • Damla Tetiker,
  • Thomas Matreux,
  • Robbin Queener
  • +1
PCCP (01/2023) doi:10.1039/D2CP04538A
abstract + abstract -

Life is based on informational polymers such as DNA or RNA. For their polymerization, high concentrations of complex monomer building blocks are required. Therefore, the dilution by diffusion poses a major problem before early life could establish a non-equilibrium of compartmentalization. Here, we explored a natural non-equilibrium habitat to polymerize RNA and DNA. A heat flux across thin rock cracks is shown to accumulate and maintain nucleotides. This boosts the polymerization to RNA and DNA inside the crack. Moreover, the polymers remain localized, aiding both the creation of longer polymers and fostering downstream evolutionary steps. In a closed system, we found single nucleotides concentrate 104-fold at the bottom of the crack compared to the top after 24 hours. We detected enhanced polymerization for 2 different activation chemistries: aminoimidazole-activated DNA nucleotides and 2′,3′-cyclic RNA nucleotides. The copolymerization of 2′,3′-cGMP and 2′,3′-cCMP in the thermal pore showed an increased heterogeneity in sequence composition compared to isothermal drying. Finite element models unravelled the combined polymerization and accumulation kinetics and indicated that the escape of the nucleotides from such a crack is negligible over a time span of years. The thermal non-equilibrium habitat establishes a cell-like compartment that actively accumulates nucleotides for polymerization and traps the resulting oligomers. We argue that the setting creates a pre-cellular non-equilibrium steady state for the first steps of molecular evolution.


RU-D
(936)Metal enrichment of ionised and neutral gas of galaxies in the EAGLE simulations
  • M. Arabsalmani,
  • L. Garratt-Smithson,
  • N. Wijers,
  • J. Schaye,
  • A. Burkert
  • +5
  • C. D. P. Lagos,
  • E. Le Floc'h,
  • D. Obreschkow,
  • C. Peroux,
  • B. Schneider
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

We study the relation between the metallicities of ionised and neutral gas in star-forming galaxies at z=1-3 using the EAGLE cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations. This is done by constructing a dense grid of sightlines through the simulated galaxies and obtaining the star formation rate- and HI column density-weighted metallicities, Z_{SFR} and Z_{HI}, for each sightline as proxies for the metallicities of ionised and neutral gas, respectively. We find Z_{SFR} > Z_{HI} for almost all sightlines, with their difference generally increasing with decreasing metallicity. The stellar masses of galaxies do not have a significant effect on this trend, but the positions of the sightlines with respect to the galaxy centres play an important role: the difference between the two metallicities decreases when moving towards the galaxy centres, and saturates to a minimum value in the central regions of galaxies, irrespective of redshift and stellar mass. This implies that the mixing of the two gas phases is most efficient in the central regions of galaxies where sightlines generally have high column densities of HI. However, a high HI column density alone does not guarantee a small difference between the two metallicities. In galaxy outskirts, the inefficiency of the mixing of star-forming gas with HI seems to dominate over the dilution of heavy elements in HI through mixing with the pristine gas. We find good agreement between the limited amount of available observational data and the Z_{SFR}-Z_{HI} relation predicted by the EAGLE simulations, but more data is required for stringent tests.


RU-A
(935)Standard Model predictions for rare K and B decays without new physics infection
  • Andrzej J. Buras
European Physical Journal C (01/2023) doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-023-11222-6
abstract + abstract -

The Standard Model (SM) does not contain by definition any new physics (NP) contributions to any observable but contains four CKM parameters which are not predicted by this model. We point out that if these four parameters are determined in a global fit which includes processes that are infected by NP and therefore by sources outside the SM, the resulting so-called SM contributions to rare decay branching ratios cannot be considered as genuine SM contributions to the latter. On the other hand genuine SM predictions, that are free from the CKM dependence, can be obtained for suitable ratios of the K and B rare decay branching ratios to Δ Ms , Δ Md and | εK| , all calculated within the SM. These three observables contain by now only small hadronic uncertainties and are already well measured so that rather precise SM predictions for the ratios in question can be obtained. In this context the rapid test of NP infection in the Δ F =2 sector is provided by a | Vcb|-γ plot that involves Δ Ms , Δ Md , | εK| , and the mixing induced CP-asymmetry Sψ KS. As with the present hadronic matrix elements this test turns out to be negative, assuming negligible NP infection in the Δ F =2 sector and setting the values of these four observables to the experimental ones, allows to obtain SM predictions for all K and B rare decay branching ratios that are most accurate to date and as a byproduct to obtain the full CKM matrix on the basis of Δ F =2 transitions alone. Using this strategy we obtain SM predictions for 26 branching ratios for rare semileptonic and leptonic K and B decays with the μ+μ- pair or the ν ν ¯ pair in the final state. Most interesting turn out to be the anomalies in the low q2 bin in B+→K+μ+μ- (5.1 σ ) and Bs→ϕ μ+μ- (4.8 σ ).


(934)Disintegration of beauty: a precision study
  • Alexander Lenz,
  • Maria Laura Piscopo,
  • Aleksey V. Rusov
Journal of High Energy Physics (01/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP01(2023)004
abstract + abstract -

We update the Standard Model (SM) predictions for B-meson lifetimes within the heavy quark expansion (HQE). Including for the first time the contribution of the Darwin operator, SU(3)F breaking corrections to the matrix element of dimension-six four-quark operators and the so-called eye-contractions, we obtain for the total widths Γ (B+)=(0.58−0.07+0.11)ps−1,Γ (Bd)=(0.63−0.07+0.11)ps−1,Γ (Bs)=(0.63−0.07+0.11)ps−1, and for the lifetime ratios τ(B+)/τ(Bd) = 1.086 ± 0.022, τ(Bs)/τ(Bd) = 1.003 ± 0.006 (1.028 ± 0.011). The two values for the last observable arise from using two different sets of input for the non-perturbative parameters μπ2(Bd),μG2(Bd), and ρD3(Bd) as well as from different estimates of the SU(3)F breaking in these parameters. Our results are overall in very good agreement with the corresponding experimental data, however, there seems to emerge a tension in τ(Bs)/τ(Bd) when considering the second set of input parameters. Specifically, this observable is extremely sensitive to the size of the parameter ρD3(Bd) and of the SU(3)F breaking effects in μπ2G2 and ρD3; hence, it is of utmost importance to be able to better constrain all these parameters. In this respect, an extraction of μπ2(Bs),μG2(Bs),ρD3(Bs) from future experimental data on inclusive semileptonic Bs-meson decays or from direct non-perturbative calculations, as well as more insights about the value of ρD3(B ) extracted from fits to inclusive semileptonic B-decays, would be very helpful in reducing the corresponding theory uncertainties.


(933)STRIDES: automated uniform models for 30 quadruply imaged quasars
  • T. Schmidt,
  • T. Treu,
  • S. Birrer,
  • A. J. Shajib,
  • C. Lemon
  • +67
  • M. Millon,
  • D. Sluse,
  • A. Agnello,
  • T. Anguita,
  • M. W. Auger-Williams,
  • R. G. McMahon,
  • V. Motta,
  • P. Schechter,
  • C. Spiniello,
  • I. Kayo,
  • F. Courbin,
  • S. Ertl,
  • C. D. Fassnacht,
  • J. A. Frieman,
  • A. More,
  • S. Schuldt,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • M. Aguena,
  • F. Andrade-Oliveira,
  • J. Annis,
  • D. Bacon,
  • E. Bertin,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D. L. Burke,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • C. Conselice,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • L. N. da Costa,
  • M. E. S. Pereira,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • P. Doel,
  • S. Everett,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • D. Friedel,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R. A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • S. R. Hinton,
  • D. L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D. J. James,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • O. Lahav,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • A. Palmese,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A. Pieres,
  • A. A. Plazas Malagón,
  • J. Prat,
  • M. Rodriguez-Monroy,
  • A. K. Romer,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • M. Smith,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • G. Tarle,
  • C. To,
  • T. N. Varga,
  • DES Collaboration
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (01/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2235
abstract + abstract -

Gravitational time delays provide a powerful one-step measurement of H0, independent of all other probes. One key ingredient in time-delay cosmography are high-accuracy lens models. Those are currently expensive to obtain, both, in terms of computing and investigator time (105-106 CPU hours and ~0.5-1 yr, respectively). Major improvements in modelling speed are therefore necessary to exploit the large number of lenses that are forecast to be discovered over the current decade. In order to bypass this roadblock, we develop an automated modelling pipeline and apply it to a sample of 31 lens systems, observed by the Hubble Space Telescope in multiple bands. Our automated pipeline can derive models for 30/31 lenses with few hours of human time and <100 CPU hours of computing time for a typical system. For each lens, we provide measurements of key parameters and predictions of magnification as well as time delays for the multiple images. We characterize the cosmography-readiness of our models using the stability of differences in the Fermat potential (proportional to time delay) with respect to modelling choices. We find that for 10/30 lenses, our models are cosmography or nearly cosmography grade (<3 per cent and 3-5 per cent variations). For 6/30 lenses, the models are close to cosmography grade (5-10 per cent). These results utilize informative priors and will need to be confirmed by further analysis. However, they are also likely to improve by extending the pipeline modelling sequence and options. In conclusion, we show that uniform cosmography grade modelling of large strong lens samples is within reach.


(932)Strong gravitational lensing and microlensing of supernovae
  • Sherry H. Suyu,
  • Ariel Goobar,
  • Thomas Collett,
  • Anupreeta More,
  • Giorgos Vernardos
abstract + abstract -

Strong gravitational lensing and microlensing of supernovae (SNe) are emerging as a new probe of cosmology and astrophysics in recent years. We provide an overview of this nascent research field, starting with a summary of the first discoveries of strongly lensed SNe. We describe the use of the time delays between multiple SN images as a way to measure cosmological distances and thus constrain cosmological parameters, particularly the Hubble constant, whose value is currently under heated debates. New methods for measuring the time delays in lensed SNe have been developed, and the sample of lensed SNe from the upcoming Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) is expected to provide competitive cosmological constraints. Lensed SNe are also powerful astrophysical probes. We review the usage of lensed SNe to constrain SN progenitors, acquire high-z SN spectra through lensing magnifications, infer SN sizes via microlensing, and measure properties of dust in galaxies. The current challenge in the field is the rarity and difficulty in finding lensed SNe. We describe various methods and ongoing efforts to find these spectacular explosions, forecast the properties of the expected sample of lensed SNe from upcoming surveys particularly the LSST, and summarize the observational follow-up requirements to enable the various scientific studies. We anticipate the upcoming years to be exciting with a boom in lensed SN discoveries.


(931)KiDS-1000 cosmology: Constraints from density split statistics
  • Pierre A. Burger,
  • Oliver Friedrich,
  • Joachim Harnois-Déraps,
  • Peter Schneider,
  • Marika Asgari
  • +11
  • Maciej Bilicki,
  • Hendrik Hildebrandt,
  • Angus H. Wright,
  • Tiago Castro,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Catherine Heymans,
  • Benjamin Joachimi,
  • Konrad Kuijken,
  • Nicolas Martinet,
  • HuanYuan Shan,
  • Tilman Tröster
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (01/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244673
abstract + abstract -

Context. Weak lensing and clustering statistics beyond two-point functions can capture non-Gaussian information about the matter density field, thereby improving the constraints on cosmological parameters relative to the mainstream methods based on correlation functions and power spectra.
Aims: This paper presents a cosmological analysis of the fourth data release of the Kilo Degree Survey based on the density split statistics, which measures the mean shear profiles around regions classified according to foreground densities. The latter is constructed from a bright galaxy sample, which we further split into red and blue samples, allowing us to probe their respective connection to the underlying dark matter density.
Methods: We used the state-of-the-art model of the density splitting statistics and validated its robustness against mock data infused with known systematic effects such as intrinsic galaxy alignment and baryonic feedback.
Results: After marginalising over the photometric redshift uncertainty and the residual shear calibration bias, we measured for the full KiDS-bright sample a structure growth parameter of S_8\equiv σ8 \sqrt{Ωm/0.3}=0.73+0.03-0.02 that is competitive and consistent with two-point cosmic shear results, a matter density of Ωm = 0.27 ± 0.02, and a constant galaxy bias of b = 1.37 ± 0.10.


(930)Asymptotic symmetries and memories of gauge theories in FLRW spacetimes
  • Martín Enríquez Rojo,
  • Tobias Schröder
Journal of High Energy Physics (01/2023) doi:10.1007/JHEP01(2023)011
abstract + abstract -

In this paper, we investigate the asymptotic structure of gauge theories in decelerating and spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universes. Firstly, we thoroughly explore the asymptotic symmetries of electrodynamics in this background, which reveals a major inconsistency already present in the flat case. Taking advantage of this treatment, we derive the associated memory effects, discussing their regime of validity and differences with respect to their flat counterparts. Next, we extend our analysis to non-Abelian Yang-Mills, coupling it dynamically and simultaneously to a Dirac spinor and a complex scalar field. Within this novel setting, we examine the possibility of constructing Poisson superbrackets based on the covariant phase space formalism.


CN-4
RU-C
(929)Joint analysis of Dark Energy Survey Year 3 data and CMB lensing from SPT and Planck. III. Combined cosmological constraints
  • T. M. C. Abbott,
  • M. Aguena,
  • A. Alarcon,
  • O. Alves,
  • A. Amon
  • +168
  • F. Andrade-Oliveira,
  • J. Annis,
  • B. Ansarinejad,
  • S. Avila,
  • D. Bacon,
  • E. J. Baxter,
  • K. Bechtol,
  • M. R. Becker,
  • B. A. Benson,
  • G. M. Bernstein,
  • E. Bertin,
  • J. Blazek,
  • L. E. Bleem,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • D. Brooks,
  • E. Buckley-Geer,
  • D. L. Burke,
  • H. Camacho,
  • A. Campos,
  • J. E. Carlstrom,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • R. Cawthon,
  • C. Chang,
  • C. L. Chang,
  • R. Chen,
  • A. Choi,
  • R. Chown,
  • C. Conselice,
  • J. Cordero,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • T. Crawford,
  • A. T. Crites,
  • M. Crocce,
  • L. N. da Costa,
  • C. Davis,
  • T. M. Davis,
  • T. de Haan,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • J. DeRose,
  • S. Desai,
  • H. T. Diehl,
  • M. A. Dobbs,
  • S. Dodelson,
  • P. Doel,
  • C. Doux,
  • A. Drlica-Wagner,
  • K. Eckert,
  • T. F. Eifler,
  • F. Elsner,
  • J. Elvin-Poole,
  • S. Everett,
  • W. Everett,
  • X. Fang,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • A. Ferté,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • O. Friedrich,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • M. Gatti,
  • E. M. George,
  • T. Giannantonio,
  • G. Giannini,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R. A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • N. W. Halverson,
  • I. Harrison,
  • K. Herner,
  • S. R. Hinton,
  • G. P. Holder,
  • D. L. Hollowood,
  • W. L. Holzapfel,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • J. D. Hrubes,
  • H. Huang,
  • E. M. Huff,
  • D. Huterer,
  • B. Jain,
  • D. J. James,
  • M. Jarvis,
  • T. Jeltema,
  • S. Kent,
  • L. Knox,
  • A. Kovacs,
  • E. Krause,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • O. Lahav,
  • A. T. Lee,
  • P. -F. Leget,
  • P. Lemos,
  • A. R. Liddle,
  • C. Lidman,
  • D. Luong-Van,
  • J. J. McMahon,
  • N. MacCrann,
  • M. March,
  • J. L. Marshall,
  • P. Martini,
  • J. McCullough,
  • P. Melchior,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • S. S. Meyer,
  • R. Miquel,
  • L. Mocanu,
  • J. J. Mohr,
  • R. Morgan,
  • J. Muir,
  • J. Myles,
  • T. Natoli,
  • A. Navarro-Alsina,
  • R. C. Nichol,
  • Y. Omori,
  • S. Padin,
  • S. Pandey,
  • Y. Park,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • M. E. S. Pereira,
  • A. Pieres,
  • A. A. Plazas Malagón,
  • A. Porredon,
  • J. Prat,
  • C. Pryke,
  • M. Raveri,
  • C. L. Reichardt,
  • R. P. Rollins,
  • A. K. Romer,
  • A. Roodman,
  • R. Rosenfeld,
  • A. J. Ross,
  • J. E. Ruhl,
  • E. S. Rykoff,
  • C. Sánchez,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • J. Sanchez,
  • K. K. Schaffer,
  • L. F. Secco,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • E. Sheldon,
  • T. Shin,
  • E. Shirokoff,
  • M. Smith,
  • Z. Staniszewski,
  • A. A. Stark,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M. E. C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • C. To,
  • M. A. Troxel,
  • I. Tutusaus,
  • T. N. Varga,
  • J. D. Vieira,
  • N. Weaverdyck,
  • R. H. Wechsler,
  • J. Weller,
  • R. Williamson,
  • W. L. K. Wu,
  • B. Yanny,
  • B. Yin,
  • Y. Zhang,
  • J. Zuntz,
  • DES,
  • SPT Collaborations
  • (less)
Physical Review D (01/2023) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.107.023531
abstract + abstract -

We present cosmological constraints from the analysis of two-point correlation functions between galaxy positions and galaxy lensing measured in Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 3 data and measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. When jointly analyzing the DES-only two-point functions and the DES cross-correlations with SPT +P l a n c k CMB lensing, we find Ωm=0.344 ±0.030 and S8≡σ8m/0.3 )0.5=0.773 ±0.016 , assuming Λ CDM . When additionally combining with measurements of the CMB lensing autospectrum, we find Ωm=0.306-0.021+0.018 and S8=0.792 ±0.012 . The high signal-to-noise of the CMB lensing cross-correlations enables several powerful consistency tests of these results, including comparisons with constraints derived from cross-correlations only, and comparisons designed to test the robustness of the galaxy lensing and clustering measurements from DES. Applying these tests to our measurements, we find no evidence of significant biases in the baseline cosmological constraints from the DES-only analyses or from the joint analyses with CMB lensing cross-correlations. However, the CMB lensing cross-correlations suggest possible problems with the correlation function measurements using alternative lens galaxy samples, in particular the REDMAGIC galaxies and high-redshift MAGLIM galaxies, consistent with the findings of previous studies. We use the CMB lensing cross-correlations to identify directions for further investigating these problems.


CN-7
RU-A
(928)Parametrizations of thermal bomb explosions for core-collapse supernovae and <SUP>56</SUP>Ni production
  • Liliya Imasheva,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka,
  • Achim Weiss
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (01/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac3239
abstract + abstract -

Thermal bombs are a widely used method to artificially trigger explosions of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) to determine their nucleosynthesis or ejecta and remnant properties. Recently, their use in spherically symmetric (1D) hydrodynamic simulations led to the result that 56,57Ni and 44Ti are massively underproduced compared to observational estimates for Supernova 1987A, if the explosions are slow, i.e. if the explosion mechanism of CCSNe releases the explosion energy on long time-scales. It was concluded that rapid explosions are required to match observed abundances, i.e. the explosion mechanism must provide the CCSN energy nearly instantaneously on time-scales of some ten to order 100 ms. This result, if valid, would disfavour the neutrino-heating mechanism, which releases the CCSN energy on time-scales of seconds. Here, we demonstrate by 1D hydrodynamic simulations and nucleosynthetic post-processing that these conclusions are a consequence of disregarding the initial collapse of the stellar core in the thermal-bomb modelling before the bomb releases the explosion energy. We demonstrate that the anticorrelation of 56Ni yield and energy-injection time-scale vanishes when the initial collapse is included and that it can even be reversed, i.e. more 56Ni is made by slower explosions, when the collapse proceeds to small radii similar to those where neutrino heating takes place in CCSNe. We also show that the 56Ni production in thermal-bomb explosions is sensitive to the chosen mass cut and that a fixed mass layer or fixed volume for the energy deposition cause only secondary differences. Moreover, we propose a most appropriate setup for thermal bombs.


(927)X-ray emission from a rapidly accreting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy at z = 6.56
  • J. Wolf,
  • K. Nandra,
  • M. Salvato,
  • J. Buchner,
  • M. Onoue
  • +12
  • T. Liu,
  • R. Arcodia,
  • A. Merloni,
  • S. Ciroi,
  • F. Di Mille,
  • V. Burwitz,
  • M. Brusa,
  • R. Ishimoto,
  • N. Kashikawa,
  • Y. Matsuoka,
  • T. Urrutia,
  • S. G. H. Waddell
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (01/2023) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244688
abstract + abstract -

Context. The space density of X-ray-luminous, blindly selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) traces the population of rapidly accreting super-massive black holes through cosmic time. It is encoded in the X-ray luminosity function, whose bright end remains poorly constrained in the first billion years after the Big Bang as X-ray surveys have thus far lacked the required cosmological volume. With the eROSITA Final Equatorial-Depth Survey (eFEDS), the largest contiguous and homogeneous X-ray survey to date, X-ray AGN population studies can now be extended to new regions of the luminosity-redshift space (L2 − 10 keV > 1045 erg s−1 and z > 6).
Aims: The current study aims at identifying luminous quasars at z > 5.7 among X-ray-selected sources in the eFEDS field in order to place a lower limit on black hole accretion well into the epoch of re-ionisation. A secondary goal is the characterisation of the physical properties of these extreme coronal emitters at high redshifts.
Methods: Cross-matching eFEDS catalogue sources to optical counterparts from the DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys, we confirm the low significance detection with eROSITA of a previously known, optically faint z = 6.56 quasar from the Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs) survey. We obtained a pointed follow-up observation of the source with the Chandra X-ray telescope in order to confirm the low-significance eROSITA detection. Using new near-infrared spectroscopy, we derived the physical properties of the super-massive black hole. Finally, we used this detection to infer a lower limit on the black hole accretion density rate at z > 6.
Results: The Chandra observation confirms the eFEDS source as the most distant blind X-ray detection to date. The derived X-ray luminosity is high with respect to the rest-frame optical emission of the quasar. With a narrow MgII line, low derived black hole mass, and high Eddington ratio, as well as its steep photon index, the source shows properties that are similar to local narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, which are thought to be powered by young super-massive black holes. In combination with a previous high-redshift quasar detection in the field, we show that quasars with L2 − 10 keV > 1045 erg s−1 dominate accretion onto super-massive black holes at z ∼ 6.


RU-D
(926)An 600 pc View of the Strongly Lensed, Massive Main-sequence Galaxy J0901: A Baryon-dominated, Thick Turbulent Rotating Disk with a Clumpy Cold Gas Ring at z = 2.259
  • Daizhong Liu,
  • N. M. Förster Schreiber,
  • R. Genzel,
  • D. Lutz,
  • S. H. Price
  • +17
  • L. L. Lee,
  • Andrew J. Baker,
  • A. Burkert,
  • R. T. Coogan,
  • R. I. Davies,
  • R. L. Davies,
  • R. Herrera-Camus,
  • Tadayuki Kodama,
  • Minju M. Lee,
  • A. Nestor,
  • C. Pulsoni,
  • A. Renzini,
  • Chelsea E. Sharon,
  • T. T. Shimizu,
  • L. J. Tacconi,
  • Ken-ichi Tadaki,
  • H. Übler
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (01/2023) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aca46b
abstract + abstract -

We present a high-resolution kinematic study of the massive main-sequence star-forming galaxy (SFG) SDSS J090122.37+181432.3 (J0901) at z = 2.259, using ~0.″36 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array CO(3-2) and ~0.″1-0.″5 SINFONI/VLT Hα observations. J0901 is a rare, strongly lensed but otherwise normal massive ( $\mathrm{log}({M}_{\star }/{M}_{\odot })\sim 11$ ) main-sequence SFG, offering a unique opportunity to study a typical massive SFG under the microscope of lensing. Through forward dynamical modeling incorporating lensing deflection, we fit the CO and Hα kinematics in the image plane out to about one disk effective radius (R e ~ 4 kpc) at an ~600 pc delensed physical resolution along the kinematic major axis. Our results show high intrinsic dispersions of the cold molecular and warm ionized gas (σ 0,mol. ~ 40 km s-1 and σ 0,ion. ~ 66 km s-1) that remain constant out to R e; a moderately low dark matter fraction (f DM ~ 0.3-0.4) within R e; and a centrally peaked Toomre Q parameter-agreeing well with the previously established σ 0 versus z, f DM versus Σbaryon, and Q's radial trends using large-sample non-lensed main-sequence SFGs. Our data further reveal a high stellar mass concentration within ~1-2 kpc with little molecular gas, and a clumpy molecular gas ring-like structure at R ~ 2-4 kpc, in line with the inside-out quenching scenario. Our further analysis indicates that J0901 had assembled half of its stellar mass only ~400 Myr before its observed cosmic time, and the cold gas ring and dense central stellar component are consistent with signposts of a recent wet compaction event of a highly turbulent disk found in recent simulations.


(925)Is the star-formation rate in z 6 quasars overestimated?
  • Fabio Di Mascia,
  • Stefano Carniani,
  • Simona Gallerani,
  • Fabio Vito,
  • Andrea Pallottini
  • +2
  • Andrea Ferrara,
  • Milena Valentini
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (01/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac3306
abstract + abstract -

The large total infrared (TIR) luminosities (LTIR; ≳1012 L) observed in z ~ 6 quasars are generally converted into high star-formation rates (SFRs; $\gtrsim\!{10}^2~{\rm M}_{\odot }\, {\rm yr}^{-1}$) of their host galaxies. However, these estimates rely on the assumption that dust heating is dominated by stellar radiation, neglecting the contribution from the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). We test the validity of this assumption by combining cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with radiative transfer calculations. We find that, when AGN radiation is included in the simulations, the mass (luminosity)-weighted dust temperature in the host galaxies increases from T ≈ 50 K (T ≈ 70 K) to T ≈ 80 K (T ≈ 200 K), suggesting that AGN effectively heats the bulk of dust in the host galaxy. We compute the AGN-host galaxy SFR from the synthetic spectral energy distribution by using standard SFR - LTIR relations, and compare the results with the 'true' values in the simulations. We find that the SFR is overestimated by a factor of ≈3 (≳10) for AGN bolometric luminosities of Lbol ≈ 1012 L (≳1013 L), implying that the SFRs of z ~ 6 quasars can be overestimated by over an order of magnitude.


RU-C
(924)Covariance Matrix of Fast Radio Bursts Dispersion
  • Robert Reischke,
  • Steffen Hagstotz
abstract + abstract -

The dispersion of fast radio bursts (FRBs) is a measure of the large-scale electron distribution. It enables measurements of cosmological parameters, especially of the expansion rate and the cosmic baryon fraction. The number of events is expected to increase dramatically over the coming years, and of particular interest are bursts with identified host galaxy and therefore redshift information. In this paper, we explore the covariance matrix of the dispersion measure (DM) of FRBs induced by the large-scale structure, as bursts from a similar direction on the sky are correlated by long wavelength modes of the electron distribution. We derive analytical expressions for the covariance matrix and examine the impact on parameter estimation from the FRB dispersion measure - redshift relation. The covariance also contains additional information that is missed by analysing the events individually. For future samples containing over $\sim300$ FRBs with host identification over the full sky, the covariance needs to be taken into account for unbiased inference, and the effect increases dramatically for smaller patches of the sky.


(923)ALMACAL IX: Multiband ALMA survey for dusty star-forming galaxies and the resolved fractions of the cosmic infrared background
  • Jianhang Chen,
  • R. J. Ivison,
  • Martin A. Zwaan,
  • Ian Smail,
  • Anne Klitsch
  • +6
  • Céline Péroux,
  • Gergö Popping,
  • Andrew D. Biggs,
  • Roland Szakacs,
  • Aleksandra Hamanowicz,
  • Claudia Lagos
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (01/2023) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2989
abstract + abstract -

Wide, deep, blind continuum surveys at submillimetre/millimetre (submm/mm) wavelengths are required to provide a full inventory of the dusty, distant Universe. However, conducting such surveys to the necessary depth, with sub-arcsec angular resolution, is prohibitively time-consuming, even for the most advanced submm/mm telescopes. Here, we report the most recent results from the ALMACAL project, which exploits the 'free' calibration data from the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) to map the lines of sight towards and beyond the ALMA calibrators. ALMACAL has now covered 1001 calibrators, with a total sky coverage around 0.3 deg2, distributed across the sky accessible from the Atacama desert, and has accumulated more than 1000 h of integration. The depth reached by combining multiple visits to each field makes ALMACAL capable of searching for faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), with detections at multiple frequencies to constrain the emission mechanism. Based on the most up-to-date ALMACAL data base, we report the detection of 186 DSFGs with flux densities down to S870 µm ~ 0.2 mJy, comparable with existing ALMA large surveys but less susceptible to cosmic variance. We report the number counts at five wavelengths between 870 μm and 3 mm, in ALMA bands 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, providing a benchmark for models of galaxy formation and evolution. By integrating the observed number counts and the best-fitting functions, we also present the resolved fraction of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and the CIB spectral shape. Combining existing surveys, ALMA has currently resolved about half of the CIB in the submm/mm regime.


(922)Effective Field Theories for Dark Matter Pairs in the Early Universe
  • S. Biondini,
  • N. Brambilla,
  • G. Qerimi,
  • A. Vairo
Letters in High Energy Physics (2023) doi:10.31526/LHEP.2023.375
abstract + abstract -

In this conference paper, we consider effective field theories of non-relativistic dark matter particles interacting with a light force mediator in the early expanding universe. We present a general framework, where to account in a systematic way for the relevant processes that may affect the dynamics during thermal freeze-out. In the temperature regime where near-threshold effects, most notably the formation of bound states and Sommerfeld enhancement, have a large impact on the dark matter relic density, we scrutinize possible contributions from higher excited states and radiative corrections in the annihilations and decays of dark-matter pairs.


RU-B
(921)Unveiling the engine of the Sun: Measurements of the pp-chain solar neutrinos with Borexino
  • D. Guffanti,
  • A.C. Re,
  • O. Smirnov,
  • M. Agostini,
  • K. Altenmüller
  • +91
  • S. Appel,
  • V. Atroshchenko,
  • Z. Bagdasarian,
  • D. Basilico,
  • G. Bellini,
  • J. Benziger,
  • R. Biondi,
  • D. Bravo,
  • B. Caccianiga,
  • F. Calaprice,
  • A. Caminata,
  • P. Cavalcante,
  • A. Chepurnov,
  • D. D’Angelo,
  • S. Davini,
  • A. Derbin,
  • A.Di Giacinto,
  • V.Di Marcello,
  • X.F. Ding,
  • A.Di Ludovico,
  • L.Di Noto,
  • I. Drachnev,
  • A. Formozov,
  • D. Franco,
  • C. Galbiati,
  • C. Ghiano,
  • M. Giammarchi,
  • A. Goretti,
  • A.S. Göttel,
  • M. Gromov,
  • Aldo Ianni,
  • Andrea Ianni,
  • A. Jany,
  • D. Jeschke,
  • V. Kobychev,
  • G. Korga,
  • S. Kumaran,
  • M. Laubenstein,
  • E. Litvinovich,
  • P. Lombardi,
  • I. Lomskaya,
  • L. Ludhova,
  • G. Lukyanchenko,
  • L. Lukyanchenko,
  • I. Machulin,
  • J. Martyn,
  • E. Meroni,
  • M. Meyer,
  • L. Miramonti,
  • M. Misiaszek,
  • V. Muratova,
  • B. Neumair,
  • M. Nieslony,
  • R. Nugmanov,
  • L. Oberauer,
  • V. Orekhov,
  • F. Ortica,
  • M. Pallavicini,
  • L. Papp,
  • L. Pelicci,
  • Ö. Penek,
  • L. Pietrofaccia,
  • N. Pilipenko,
  • A. Pocar,
  • G. Raikov,
  • M.T. Ranalli,
  • G. Ranucci,
  • A. Razeto,
  • M. Redchuk,
  • A. Romani,
  • N. Rossi,
  • S. Schönert,
  • D. Semenov,
  • G. Settanta,
  • M. Skorokhvatov,
  • A. Singhal,
  • A. Sotnikov,
  • Y. Suvorov,
  • R. Tartaglia,
  • G. Testera,
  • J. Thurn,
  • E. Unzhakov,
  • F. Villante,
  • A. Vishneva,
  • R.B. Vogelaar,
  • F. von Feilitzsch,
  • M. Wojcik,
  • M. Wurm,
  • S. Zavatarelli,
  • K. Zuber,
  • G. Zuzel
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The details of the strategy adopted by the Borexino collaboration for successfully isolating the spectral components of the pp-chain neutrinos signal from residual backgrounds in the total energy spectrum will be presented.