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(700)A Stream Come True -- Connecting tidal tails, shells, streams, and planes with galaxy kinematics and formation history
  • Lucas M. Valenzuela,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus
arXiv e-prints (08/2022) e-Print:2208.08443
abstract + abstract -

Context. The rapidly improving quality and resolution of both low surface brightness observations and cosmological simulations of galaxies enables an increasingly thorough investigation of the imprints of the formation history in the outer, unrelaxed regions of galaxies, and a direct comparison to another tracer of galaxy formation, the internal kinematics. Aims. Using the state-of-the-art hydrodynamical cosmological simulation Magneticum Pathfinder, we identify tidal tails, shells, streams, and satellite planes, and connect their existence to the amount of rotational support and the formation histories of the host galaxies. Methods. Tidal features are visually classified from a three-dimensional rendering of the simulated galaxies by several scientists independently. Only features that were identified by at least half of the participating individuals are considered as existing features. The results are compared to observations of the MATLAS survey. Results. Shells are preferentially found around kinematically slowly rotating galaxies in both simulations and observations, while streams can be found around all kind of galaxies with a slightly higher probability to be present around less rotationally supported galaxies. Tails and satellite planes, however, appear independently of the internal kinematics of the central galaxy, indicating that they are formed through processes that have not (yet) affected the internal kinematics. Conclusions. As shells are formed through radial merger events while streams are remnants of circular merger infall, this suggests that the orbital angular momentum of the merger event could play a more crucial role in transforming the host galaxy than previously anticipated. The existence of a shell around a given slow rotator can further be used to distinguish the radial merger formation scenario from other formation pathways of slow rotators.


(699)Rubin Observatory LSST Transients and Variable Stars Roadmap
  • Kelly M. Hambleton,
  • Federica B. Bianco,
  • Rachel Street,
  • Keaton Bell,
  • David Buckley
  • +77
  • Melissa Graham,
  • Nina Hernitschek,
  • Michael B. Lund,
  • Elena Mason,
  • Joshua Pepper,
  • Andrej Prša,
  • Markus Rabus,
  • Claudia M. Raiteri,
  • Róbert Szabó,
  • Paula Szkody,
  • Igor Andreoni,
  • Simone Antoniucci,
  • Barbara Balmaverde,
  • Eric Bellm,
  • Rosaria Bonito,
  • Giuseppe Bono,
  • Maria Teresa Botticella,
  • Enzo Brocato,
  • Katja Bučar Bricman,
  • Enrico Cappellaro,
  • Maria Isabel Carnerero,
  • Ryan Chornock,
  • Riley Clarke,
  • Phil Cowperthwaite,
  • Antonino Cucchiara,
  • Filippo D'Ammando,
  • Kristen C. Dage,
  • Massimo Dall'Ora,
  • James R.A. Davenport,
  • Domitilla de Martino,
  • Giulia de Somma,
  • Marcella Di Criscienzo,
  • Rosanne Di Stefano,
  • Maria Drout,
  • Michele Fabrizio,
  • Giuliana Fiorentino,
  • Poshak Gandhi,
  • Alessia Garofalo,
  • Teresa Giannini,
  • Andreja Gomboc,
  • Laura Greggio,
  • Patrick Hartigan,
  • Markus Hundertmark,
  • Elizabeth Johnson,
  • Michael Johnson,
  • Tomislav Jurkic,
  • Somayeh Khakpash,
  • Silvio Leccia,
  • Xiaolong Li,
  • Davide Magurno,
  • Konstantin Malanchev,
  • Marcella Marconi,
  • Raffaella Margutti,
  • Silvia Marinoni,
  • Nicolas Mauron,
  • Roberto Molinaro,
  • Anais Möller,
  • Marc Moniez,
  • Tatiana Muraveva,
  • Ilaria Musella,
  • Chow-Choong Ngeow,
  • Andrea Pastorello,
  • Vincenzo Petrecca,
  • Silvia Piranomonte,
  • Fabio Ragosta,
  • Andrea Reguitti,
  • Chiara Righi,
  • Vincenzo Ripepi,
  • Liliana Rivera Sandoval,
  • Keivan G. Stassun,
  • Michael Stroh,
  • Giacomo Terreran,
  • Virginia Trimble,
  • Yiannis Tsapras,
  • Sjoert van Velzen,
  • Laura Venuti,
  • Jorick S. Vink
  • (less)
(08/2022) e-Print:2208.04499
abstract + abstract -

The Vera C. Rubin Legacy Survey of Space and Time holds the potential to revolutionize time domain astrophysics, reaching completely unexplored areas of the Universe and mapping variability time scales from minutes to a decade. To prepare to maximize the potential of the Rubin LSST data for the exploration of the transient and variable Universe, one of the four pillars of Rubin LSST science, the Transient and Variable Stars Science Collaboration, one of the eight Rubin LSST Science Collaborations, has identified research areas of interest and requirements, and paths to enable them. While our roadmap is ever-evolving, this document represents a snapshot of our plans and preparatory work in the final years and months leading up to the survey's first light.


(698)Recent advances in charm mixing and CP violation at LHCb
  • Tommaso Pajero
Modern Physics Letters A (08/2022) doi:10.1142/S0217732322300129
abstract + abstract -

After playing a pivotal role in the birth of the Standard Model in the 70s, the study of charm physics has undergone a revival during the last decade, triggered by a wealth of precision measurements from the charm and B factories, and from the CDF and especially the LHCb experiments. In this paper, we sum up how the unique phenomenology of charmed hadrons can be used to test the Standard Model and we review the latest measurements performed in this field by the LHCb experiment. These include the historic first observations of CP violation and of a nonzero mass difference between the charmed neutral-meson mass eigenstates, the most precise determination of their decay-width difference to date, and a search for time-dependent CP violation reaching the unprecedented precision of 10−4. These results challenge our comprehension of nonperturbative strong interactions, and their interpretation calls for further studies on both the theoretical and experimental sides. The upcoming upgrades of the LHCb experiment will play a leading role in this quest.


(697)Cosmological simulations predict that AGN preferentially live in gas-rich, star-forming galaxies despite effective feedback
  • S. R. Ward,
  • C. M. Harrison,
  • T. Costa,
  • V. Mainieri
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (08/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1219
abstract + abstract -

Negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is the leading mechanism for the quenching of massive galaxies in the vast majority of modern galaxy evolution models. However, direct observational evidence that AGN feedback causes quenching on a population scale is lacking. Studies have shown that luminous AGN are preferentially located in gas-rich and star-forming galaxies, an observation that has sometimes been suggested to be in tension with a negative AGN feedback picture. We investigate three of the current cosmological simulations (IllustrisTNG, EAGLE, and SIMBA) along with post-processed models for molecular hydrogen gas masses and perform similar tests to those used by observers. We find that the simulations predict: (i) no strong negative trends between Lbol and $f_{\mathrm{ H}_2}$ or specific star formation rate (sSFR); (ii) both high-luminosity ($L_{\rm {bol}} \ge 10^{44}\rm {\, erg\, s^{-1}}$) and high Eddington ratio (λEdd $\ge 1{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$) AGN are preferentially located in galaxies with high molecular gas fractions and sSFR; and (iii) that the gas-depleted and quenched fractions of AGN host galaxies are lower than a control sample of non-active galaxies. These three findings are in qualitative agreement with observational samples at z = 0 and z = 2 and show that such results are not in tension with the presence of strong AGN feedback, which all simulations we employ require to produce realistic massive galaxies. However, we also find quantifiable differences between predictions from the simulations, which could allow us to observationally test the different subgrid feedback models.


(696)Superresolution trends in the ALMA Taurus survey: structured inner discs and compact discs
  • Jeff Jennings,
  • Marco Tazzari,
  • Cathie J. Clarke,
  • Richard A. Booth,
  • Giovanni P. Rosotti
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (08/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1770
abstract + abstract -

The 1.33-mm survey of protoplanetary discs in the Taurus molecular cloud found annular gaps and rings to be common in extended sources (≳ 55AU), when their 1D visibility distributions were fit parametrically. We first demonstrate the advantages and limitations of non-parametric visibility fits for data at the survey's 0.12-arcsec resolution. Then we use the non-parametric model in Frankenstein (frank) to identify new substructure in three compact and seven extended sources. Among the new features, we identify three trends: a higher occurrence rate of substructure in the survey's compact discs than previously seen, underresolved (potentially azimuthally asymmetric) substructure in the innermost disc of extended sources, and a 'shoulder' on the trailing edge of a ring in discs with strong depletion at small radii. Noting the shoulder morphology is present in multiple discs observed at higher resolution, we postulate it is tracing a common physical mechanism. We further demonstrate how a superresolution frank brightness profile is useful in motivating an accurate parametric model, using the highly structured source DL Tau in which frank finds two new rings. Finally, we show that sparse (u, v) plane sampling may be masking the presence of substructure in several additional compact survey sources.


(695)Extending empirical constraints on the SZ-mass scaling relation to higher redshifts via HST weak lensing measurements of nine clusters from the SPT-SZ survey at $z\gtrsim1$
  • Hannah Zohren,
  • Tim Schrabback,
  • Sebastian Bocquet,
  • Martin Sommer,
  • Fatimah Raihan
  • +15
  • Beatriz Hernández-Martín,
  • Ole Marggraf,
  • Behzad Ansarinejad,
  • Matthew B. Bayliss,
  • Lindsey E. Bleem,
  • Thomas Erben,
  • Henk Hoekstra,
  • Benjamin Floyd,
  • Michael D. Gladders,
  • Florian Kleinebreil,
  • Michael A. McDonald,
  • Mischa Schirmer,
  • Diana Scognamiglio,
  • Keren Sharon,
  • Angus H. Wright
  • (less)
(08/2022) e-Print:2208.10232
abstract + abstract -

We present a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) weak gravitational lensing study of nine distant and massive galaxy clusters with redshifts $1.0 \lesssim z \lesssim 1.7$ ($z_\mathrm{median} = 1.4$) and Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SZ) detection significance $\xi > 6.0$ from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey. We measured weak lensing galaxy shapes in HST/ACS F606W and F814W images and used additional observations from HST/WFC3 in F110W and VLT/FORS2 in $U_\mathrm{HIGH}$ to preferentially select background galaxies at $z\gtrsim 1.8$, achieving a high purity. We combined recent redshift estimates from the CANDELS/3D-HST and HUDF fields to infer an improved estimate of the source redshift distribution. We measured weak lensing masses by fitting the tangential reduced shear profiles with spherical Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) models. We obtained the largest lensing mass in our sample for the cluster SPT-CLJ2040$-$4451, thereby confirming earlier results that suggest a high lensing mass of this cluster compared to X-ray and SZ mass measurements. Combining our weak lensing mass constraints with results obtained by previous studies for lower redshift clusters, we extended the calibration of the scaling relation between the unbiased SZ detection significance $\zeta$ and the cluster mass for the SPT-SZ survey out to higher redshifts. We found that the mass scale inferred from our highest redshift bin ($1.2 < z < 1.7$) is consistent with an extrapolation of constraints derived from lower redshifts, albeit with large statistical uncertainties. Thus, our results show a similar tendency as found in previous studies, where the cluster mass scale derived from the weak lensing data is lower than the mass scale expected in a Planck $\nu\Lambda$CDM (i.e. $\nu$$\Lambda$ Cold Dark Matter) cosmology given the SPT-SZ cluster number counts.


(694)The DESI Survey Validation: Results from Visual Inspection of the Quasar Survey Spectra
  • David M. Alexander,
  • Tamara M. Davis,
  • E. Chaussidon,
  • V.A. Fawcett,
  • Alma X. Gonzalez-Morales
  • +67
  • Ting-Wen Lan,
  • Christophe Yeche,
  • S. Ahlen,
  • J.N. Aguilar,
  • E. Armengaud,
  • S. Bailey,
  • D. Brooks,
  • Z. Cai,
  • R. Canning,
  • A. Carr,
  • S. Chabanier,
  • Marie-Claude Cousinou,
  • K. Dawson,
  • A. de la Macorra,
  • A. Dey,
  • Biprateep Dey,
  • G. Dhungana,
  • A.C. Edge,
  • S. Eftekharzadeh,
  • K. Fanning,
  • James Farr,
  • A. Font-Ribera,
  • J. Garcia-Bellido,
  • Lehman Garrison,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • Satya Gontcho A. Gontcho,
  • C. Gordon,
  • Stefany Guadalupe Medellin Gonzalez,
  • J. Guy,
  • Hiram K. Herrera-Alcantar,
  • L. Jiang,
  • S. Juneau,
  • Naim Karacayli,
  • R. Kehoe,
  • T. Kisner,
  • A. Kovacs,
  • M. Landriau,
  • Michael E. Levi,
  • C. Magneville,
  • P. Martini,
  • Aaron M. Meisner,
  • M. Mezcua,
  • R. Miquel,
  • P. Montero Camacho,
  • J. Moustakas,
  • Andrea Munoz-Gutierrez,
  • Adam D. Myers,
  • S. Nadathur,
  • L. Napolitano,
  • J.D. Nie,
  • N. Palanque-Delabrouille,
  • Z. Pan,
  • W.J. Percival,
  • I. Perez-Rafols,
  • C. Poppett,
  • F. Prada,
  • Cesar Ramirez-Perez,
  • C. Ravoux,
  • D.J. Rosario,
  • M. Schubnell,
  • Gregory Tarle,
  • M. Walther,
  • B. Weiner,
  • S. Youles,
  • Zhimin Zhou,
  • H. Zou,
  • Siwei Zou
  • (less)
(08/2022) e-Print:2208.08517
abstract + abstract -

A key component of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey validation (SV) is a detailed visual inspection (VI) of the optical spectroscopic data to quantify key survey metrics. In this paper we present results from VI of the quasar survey using deep coadded SV spectra. We show that the majority (~70%) of the main-survey targets are spectroscopically confirmed as quasars, with ~16% galaxies, ~6% stars, and ~8% low-quality spectra lacking reliable features. A non-negligible fraction of the quasars are misidentified by the standard DESI spectroscopic pipeline but we show that the majority can be recovered using post-pipeline "afterburner" quasar-identification approaches. We combine these "afterburners" with our standard pipeline to create a modified pipeline to improve the overall quasar completeness. At the depth of the main DESI survey both pipelines achieve a good-redshift purity (reliable redshifts measured within 3000 km/s) of ~99%; however, the modified pipeline recovers ~94% of the visually inspected quasars, as compared to just ~86% from the standard pipeline. We demonstrate that both pipelines achieve an overall redshift precision and accuracy of ~100 km/s and ~70 km/s, respectively. We constructed composite spectra to investigate why some quasars are missed by the standard spectroscopic pipeline and find that they are more host-galaxy dominated and/or dust reddened than the standard-pipeline quasars. We also show example spectra to demonstrate the overall diversity of the DESI quasar sample and provide strong-lensing candidates where two targets contribute to a single DESI spectrum.


(693)Virgo: Scalable Unsupervised Classification of Cosmological Shock Waves
  • Max Lamparth,
  • Ludwig Böss,
  • Ulrich Steinwandel,
  • Klaus Dolag
(08/2022) e-Print:2208.06859
abstract + abstract -

Cosmological shock waves are essential to understanding the formation of cosmological structures. To study them, scientists run computationally expensive high-resolution 3D hydrodynamic simulations. Interpreting the simulation results is challenging because the resulting data sets are enormous, and the shock wave surfaces are hard to separate and classify due to their complex morphologies and multiple shock fronts intersecting. We introduce a novel pipeline, Virgo, combining physical motivation, scalability, and probabilistic robustness to tackle this unsolved unsupervised classification problem. To this end, we employ kernel principal component analysis with low-rank matrix approximations to denoise data sets of shocked particles and create labeled subsets. We perform supervised classification to recover full data resolution with stochastic variational deep kernel learning. We evaluate on three state-of-the-art data sets with varying complexity and achieve good results. The proposed pipeline runs automatically, has only a few hyperparameters, and performs well on all tested data sets. Our results are promising for large-scale applications, and we highlight now enabled future scientific work.


(692)Analytical evaluation of cosmological correlation functions
  • Till Heckelbacher,
  • Ivo Sachs,
  • Evgeny Skvortsov,
  • Pierre Vanhove
Journal of High Energy Physics (08/2022) doi:10.1007/JHEP08(2022)139
abstract + abstract -

Using the Schwinger-Keldysh-formalism, reformulated in [1] as an effective field theory in Euclidean anti-de Sitter, we evaluate the one-loop cosmological four-point function of a conformally coupled interacting scalar field in de Sitter. Recasting the Witten cosmological correlator as flat space Feynman integrals, we evaluate the one-loop cosmological four-point functions in de Sitter space in terms of single-valued multiple polylogarithms. From it we derive anomalous dimensions and OPE coefficients of the dual conformal field theory at space-like, future infinity. In particular, we find an interesting degeneracy in the anomalous dimensions relating operators of neighboring spins.


(691)The HD 260655 system: Two rocky worlds transiting a bright M dwarf at 10 pc
  • R. Luque,
  • B. J. Fulton,
  • M. Kunimoto,
  • P. J. Amado,
  • P. Gorrini
  • +62
  • S. Dreizler,
  • C. Hellier,
  • G. W. Henry,
  • K. Molaverdikhani,
  • G. Morello,
  • L. Peña-Moñino,
  • M. Pérez-Torres,
  • F. J. Pozuelos,
  • Y. Shan,
  • G. Anglada-Escudé,
  • V. J. S. Béjar,
  • G. Bergond,
  • A. W. Boyle,
  • J. A. Caballero,
  • D. Charbonneau,
  • D. R. Ciardi,
  • S. Dufoer,
  • N. Espinoza,
  • M. Everett,
  • D. Fischer,
  • A. P. Hatzes,
  • Th. Henning,
  • K. Hesse,
  • A. W. Howard,
  • S. B. Howell,
  • H. Isaacson,
  • S. V. Jeffers,
  • J. M. Jenkins,
  • S. R. Kane,
  • J. Kemmer,
  • S. Khalafinejad,
  • R. C. Kidwell,
  • D. Kossakowski,
  • D. W. Latham,
  • J. Lillo-Box,
  • J. J. Lissauer,
  • D. Montes,
  • J. Orell-Miquel,
  • E. Pallé,
  • D. Pollacco,
  • A. Quirrenbach,
  • S. Reffert,
  • A. Reiners,
  • I. Ribas,
  • G. R. Ricker,
  • L. A. Rogers,
  • J. Sanz-Forcada,
  • M. Schlecker,
  • A. Schweitzer,
  • S. Seager,
  • A. Shporer,
  • K. G. Stassun,
  • S. Stock,
  • L. Tal-Or,
  • E. B. Ting,
  • T. Trifonov,
  • S. Vanaverbeke,
  • R. Vanderspek,
  • J. Villaseñor,
  • J. N. Winn,
  • J. G. Winters,
  • M. R. Zapatero Osorio
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (08/2022) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202243834
abstract + abstract -

We report the discovery of a multiplanetary system transiting the M0 V dwarf HD 260655 (GJ 239, TOI-4599). The system consists of at least two transiting planets, namely HD 260655 b, with a period of 2.77 d, a radius of Rb = 1.240 ± 0.023 R, a mass of Mb = 2.14 ± 0.34 M, and a bulk density of ρb = 6.2 ± 1.0 g cm−3, and HD 260655 c, with a period of 5.71 d, a radius of {R_c} = 1.533 - 0.046 + 0.051{R_ \oplus }, a mass of Mc = 3.09 ± 0.48 M, and a bulk density of {ρ _c} = 4.7 - 0.8 + 0.9{{g}} g cm−3. The planets have been detected in transit by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission and confirmed independently with archival and new precise radial velocities obtained with the HIRES and CARMENES instruments since 1998 and 2016, respectively. At a distance of 10 pc, HD 260655 has become the fourth closest known multitransiting planet system after HD 219134, LTT 1445 A, and AU Mic. Due to the apparent brightness of the host star (J = 6.7 mag), both planets are among the most suitable rocky worlds known today for atmospheric studies with the James Webb Space Telescope, both in transmission and emission.


(690)Asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star properties in relativistic ab initio theory in the full Dirac space
  • Sibo Wang,
  • Hui Tong,
  • Qiang Zhao,
  • Chencan Wang,
  • Peter Ring
  • +1
Physical Review C (08/2022) doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.106.L021305
abstract + abstract -

The long-standing controversy about the isospin dependence of the effective Dirac mass in ab initio calculations of asymmetric nuclear matter is clarified by solving the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock equations in the full Dirac space. The symmetry energy and its slope parameter at the saturation density are Esym0) =33.1 MeV and L =65.2 MeV, in agreement with empirical and experimental values. Further applications predict the neutron star radius R1.4 M ⊙≈12 km and the maximum mass of a neutron star Mmax≤2.4 M .


(689)Bridging scales in a multiscale pattern-forming system
  • Laeschkir Würthner,
  • Fridtjof Brauns,
  • Grzegorz Pawlik,
  • Jacob Halatek,
  • Jacob Kerssemakers
  • +2
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (08/2022) doi:10.1073/pnas.2206888119
abstract + abstract -

Biological processes operate in a spatially and temporally ordered manner to reliably fulfill their function. This is achieved by pattern formation, which generally involves many different spatial and temporal scales. The resulting multiscale patterns exhibit complex dynamics for which it is difficult to find a simplified description at large scales while preserving information about the patterns at small scales. Here, we introduce an approach for mass-conserving reaction-diffusion systems that is based on a linear theory and therefore conceptually simple to apply. We investigate multiscale patterns of the Min protein system and show that our approach enables us to explain and predict the intricate dynamics from the large-scale mass redistribution of the total protein densities.


(688)Heavy quarkonium dynamics at next-to-leading order in the binding energy over temperature
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Miguel Ángel Escobedo,
  • Ajaharul Islam,
  • Michael Strickland,
  • Anurag Tiwari
  • +2
  • Antonio Vairo,
  • Peter Vander Griend
  • (less)
Journal of High Energy Physics (08/2022) doi:10.1007/JHEP08(2022)303
abstract + abstract -

Using the potential non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics (pNRQCD) effective field theory, we derive a Lindblad equation for the evolution of the heavy-quarkonium reduced density matrix that is accurate to next-to-leading order (NLO) in the ratio of the binding energy of the state to the temperature of the medium. The resulting NLO Lindblad equation can be used to more reliably describe heavy-quarkonium evolution in the quark-gluon plasma at low temperatures compared to the leading-order truncation. For phenomenological application, we numerically solve the resulting NLO Lindblad equation using the quantum trajectories algorithm. To achieve this, we map the solution of the three-dimensional Lindblad equation to the solution of an ensemble of one-dimensional Schrödinger evolutions with Monte-Carlo sampled quantum jumps. Averaging over the Monte-Carlo sampled quantum jumps, we obtain the solution to the NLO Lindblad equation without truncation in the angular momentum quantum number of the states considered. We also consider the evolution of the system using only the complex effective Hamiltonian without stochastic jumps and find that this provides a reliable approximation for the ground state survival probability at LO and NLO. Finally, we make comparisons with our prior leading-order pNRQCD results and experimental data available from the ATLAS, ALICE, and CMS collaborations.


(687)Spectroscopic analysis of VVV CL001 cluster with MUSE
  • J. Olivares Carvajal,
  • M. Zoccali,
  • A. Rojas-Arriagada,
  • R. Contreras Ramos,
  • F. Gran
  • +2
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac934
abstract + abstract -

Like most spiral galaxies, the Milky Way contains a population of blue, metal-poor globular clusters and another of red, metal-rich ones. Most of the latter belong to the bulge, and therefore they are poorly studied compared to the blue (halo) ones because they suffer higher extinction and larger contamination from field stars. These intrinsic difficulties, together with a lack of low-mass bulge globular clusters, are reasons to believe that their census is not complete yet. Indeed, a few new clusters have been confirmed in the last few years. One of them is VVV CL001, the subject of the present study. We present a new spectroscopic analysis of the recently confirmed globular cluster VVV CL001, made by means of MUSE@VLT integral field data. Individual spectra were extracted for stars in the VVV CL001 field. Radial velocities were derived by cross-correlation with synthetic templates. Coupled with proper motions from the VVV (VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea) survey, these data allow us to select 55 potential cluster members, for which we derive metallicities using the public code THE CANNON. The mean radial velocity of the cluster is Vhelio = -324.9 ± 0.8 km s-1, as estimated from 55 cluster members. This high velocity, together with a low metallicity [Fe/H] = -2.04 ± 0.02 dex, suggests that VVV CL001 could be a very old cluster. The estimated distance is d = 8.23 ± 0.46 kpc, placing the cluster in the Galactic bulge. Furthermore, both its current position and the orbital parameters suggest that VVV CL001 is most probably a bulge globular cluster.


(686)Simulating radio synchrotron emission in star-forming galaxies: small-scale magnetic dynamo and the origin of the far-infrared-radio correlation
  • Christoph Pfrommer,
  • Maria Werhahn,
  • Rüdiger Pakmor,
  • Philipp Girichidis,
  • Christine M. Simpson
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1808
abstract + abstract -

In star-forming galaxies, the far-infrared (FIR) and radio-continuum luminosities obey a tight empirical relation over a large range of star-formation rates (SFR). To understand the physics, we examine magneto-hydrodynamic galaxy simulations, which follow the genesis of cosmic ray (CR) protons at supernovae and their advective and anisotropic diffusive transport. We show that gravitational collapse of the proto-galaxy generates a corrugated accretion shock, which injects turbulence and drives a small-scale magnetic dynamo. As the shock propagates outwards and the associated turbulence decays, the large velocity shear between the supersonically rotating cool disc with respect to the (partially) pressure-supported hot circumgalactic medium excites Kelvin-Helmholtz surface and body modes. Those interact non-linearly, inject additional turbulence and continuously drive multiple small-scale dynamos, which exponentially amplify weak seed magnetic fields. After saturation at small scales, they grow in scale to reach equipartition with thermal and CR energies in Milky Way-mass galaxies. In small galaxies, the magnetic energy saturates at the turbulent energy while it fails to reach equipartition with thermal and CR energies. We solve for steady-state spectra of CR protons, secondary electrons/positrons from hadronic CR-proton interactions with the interstellar medium, and primary shock-accelerated electrons at supernovae. The radio-synchrotron emission is dominated by primary electrons, irradiates the magnetised disc and bulge of our simulated Milky Way-mass galaxy and weakly traces bubble-shaped magnetically-loaded outflows. Our star-forming and star-bursting galaxies with saturated magnetic fields match the global FIR-radio correlation (FRC) across four orders of magnitude. Its intrinsic scatter arises due to (i) different magnetic saturation levels that result from different seed magnetic fields, (ii) different radio synchrotron luminosities for different specific SFRs at fixed SFR and (iii) a varying radio intensity with galactic inclination. In agreement with observations, several 100-pc-sized regions within star-forming galaxies also obey the FRC, while the centres of starbursts substantially exceed the FRC.


(685)Extensive study of nuclear uncertainties and their impact on the r-process nucleosynthesis in neutron star mergers
  • I. Kullmann,
  • S. Goriely,
  • O. Just,
  • A. Bauswein,
  • H. -T. Janka
arXiv e-prints (07/2022) e-Print:2207.07421
abstract + abstract -

Theoretically predicted yields of elements created by the rapid neutron capture (r-) process carry potentially large uncertainties associated with incomplete knowledge of nuclear properties as well as approximative hydrodynamical modelling of the matter ejection processes. We present an in-depth study of the nuclear uncertainties by systematically varying theoretical nuclear input models that describe the experimentally unknown neutron-rich nuclei. This includes two frameworks for calculating the radiative neutron capture rates and six, four and four models for the nuclear masses, $\beta$-decay rates and fission properties, respectively. Our r-process nuclear network calculations are based on detailed hydrodynamical simulations of dynamically ejected material from NS-NS or NS-BH binary mergers plus the secular ejecta from BH-torus systems. The impact of nuclear uncertainties on the r-process abundance distribution and early radioactive heating rate is found to be modest (within a factor $\sim 20$ for individual $A>90$ nuclei and a factor 2 for the heating rate), however the impact on the late-time heating rate is more significant and depends strongly on the contribution from fission. We witness significantly larger sensitivity to the nuclear physics input if only a single trajectory is used compared to considering ensembles of $\sim$200-300 trajectories, and the quantitative effects of the nuclear uncertainties strongly depend on the adopted conditions for the individual trajectory. We use the predicted Th/U ratio to estimate the cosmochronometric age of six metal-poor stars to set a lower limit of the age of the Galaxy and find the impact of the nuclear uncertainties to be up to 2 Gyr.


(684)Dark Energy Survey Year 3 Results: Constraints on extensions to $\Lambda$CDM with weak lensing and galaxy clustering
  • T.M.C. Abbott,
  • M. Aguena,
  • A. Alarcon,
  • O. Alves,
  • A. Amon
  • +156
  • J. Annis,
  • S. Avila,
  • D. Bacon,
  • E. Baxter,
  • K. Bechtol,
  • M.R. Becker,
  • G.M. Bernstein,
  • S. Birrer,
  • J. Blazek,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • A. Brandao-Souza,
  • S.L. Bridle,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • H. Camacho,
  • A. Campos,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • F.J. Castander,
  • R. Cawthon,
  • C. Chang,
  • A. Chen,
  • R. Chen,
  • A. Choi,
  • C. Conselice,
  • J. Cordero,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • M. Crocce,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • M.E.S. Pereira,
  • C. Davis,
  • T.M. Davis,
  • J. DeRose,
  • S. Desai,
  • E. Di Valentino,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • S. Dodelson,
  • P. Doel,
  • C. Doux,
  • A. Drlica-Wagner,
  • K. Eckert,
  • T.F. Eifler,
  • F. Elsner,
  • J. Elvin-Poole,
  • S. Everett,
  • X. Fang,
  • A. Farahi,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • A. Ferté,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • D. Friedel,
  • O. Friedrich,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • M. Gatti,
  • L. Giani,
  • T. Giannantonio,
  • G. Giannini,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • N. Hamaus,
  • I. Harrison,
  • W.G. Hartley,
  • K. Herner,
  • S.R. Hinton,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • H. Huang,
  • E.M. Huff,
  • D. Huterer,
  • B. Jain,
  • D.J. James,
  • M. Jarvis,
  • N. Jeffrey,
  • T. Jeltema,
  • A. Kovacs,
  • E. Krause,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • O. Lahav,
  • S. Lee,
  • P.-F. Leget,
  • P. Lemos,
  • C.D. Leonard,
  • A.R. Liddle,
  • M. Lima,
  • H. Lin,
  • N. MacCrann,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • J. McCullough,
  • J. Mena-Fernández,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • V. Miranda,
  • J.J. Mohr,
  • J. Muir,
  • J. Myles,
  • S. Nadathur,
  • A. Navarro-Alsina,
  • R.C. Nichol,
  • R.L.C. Ogando,
  • Y. Omori,
  • A. Palmese,
  • S. Pandey,
  • Y. Park,
  • M. Paterno,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • W.J. Percival,
  • A. Pieres,
  • A.A. Plazas Malagón,
  • A. Porredon,
  • J. Prat,
  • M. Raveri,
  • M. Rodriguez-Monroy,
  • P. Rogozenski,
  • R.P. Rollins,
  • A.K. Romer,
  • A. Roodman,
  • R. Rosenfeld,
  • A.J. Ross,
  • E.S. Rykoff,
  • S. Samuroff,
  • C. Sánchez,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • J. Sanchez,
  • D. Sanchez Cid,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • D. Scolnic,
  • L.F. Secco,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • E. Sheldon,
  • T. Shin,
  • M. Smith,
  • M. Soares-Santos,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M. Tabbutt,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • C. To,
  • A. Troja,
  • M.A. Troxel,
  • I. Tutusaus,
  • T.N. Varga,
  • M. Vincenzi,
  • A.R. Walker,
  • N. Weaverdyck,
  • R.H. Wechsler,
  • J. Weller,
  • B. Yanny,
  • B. Yin,
  • Y. Zhang,
  • J. Zuntz
  • (less)
(07/2022) e-Print:2207.05766
abstract + abstract -

We constrain extensions to the $\Lambda$CDM model using measurements from the Dark Energy Survey's first three years of observations and external data. The DES data are the two-point correlation functions of weak gravitational lensing, galaxy clustering, and their cross-correlation. We use simulated data and blind analyses of real data to validate the robustness of our results. In many cases, constraining power is limited by the absence of nonlinear predictions that are reliable at our required precision. The models are: dark energy with a time-dependent equation of state, non-zero spatial curvature, sterile neutrinos, modifications of gravitational physics, and a binned $\sigma_8(z)$ model which serves as a probe of structure growth. For the time-varying dark energy equation of state evaluated at the pivot redshift we find $(w_{\rm p}, w_a)= (-0.99^{+0.28}_{-0.17},-0.9\pm 1.2)$ at 68% confidence with $z_{\rm p}=0.24$ from the DES measurements alone, and $(w_{\rm p}, w_a)= (-1.03^{+0.04}_{-0.03},-0.4^{+0.4}_{-0.3})$ with $z_{\rm p}=0.21$ for the combination of all data considered. Curvature constraints of $\Omega_k=0.0009\pm 0.0017$ and effective relativistic species $N_{\rm eff}=3.10^{+0.15}_{-0.16}$ are dominated by external data. For massive sterile neutrinos, we improve the upper bound on the mass $m_{\rm eff}$ by a factor of three compared to previous analyses, giving 95% limits of $(\Delta N_{\rm eff},m_{\rm eff})\leq (0.28, 0.20\, {\rm eV})$. We also constrain changes to the lensing and Poisson equations controlled by functions $\Sigma(k,z) = \Sigma_0 \Omega_{\Lambda}(z)/\Omega_{\Lambda,0}$ and $\mu(k,z)=\mu_0 \Omega_{\Lambda}(z)/\Omega_{\Lambda,0}$ respectively to $\Sigma_0=0.6^{+0.4}_{-0.5}$ from DES alone and $(\Sigma_0,\mu_0)=(0.04\pm 0.05,0.08^{+0.21}_{-0.19})$ for the combination of all data. Overall, we find no significant evidence for physics beyond $\Lambda$CDM.


(683)Updated neutrino mass constraints from galaxy clustering and CMB lensing-galaxy cross-correlation measurements
  • Isabelle Tanseri,
  • Steffen Hagstotz,
  • Sunny Vagnozzi,
  • Elena Giusarma,
  • Katherine Freese
(07/2022) e-Print:2207.01913
abstract + abstract -

We revisit cosmological constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses $\Sigma m_\nu$ from a combination of full-shape BOSS galaxy clustering [$P(k)$] data and measurements of the cross-correlation between Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) lensing convergence and BOSS galaxy overdensity maps [$C^{\kappa \text{g}}_{\ell}$], using a simple but theoretically motivated model for the scale-dependent galaxy bias in auto- and cross-correlation measurements. We improve upon earlier related work in several respects, particularly through a more accurate treatment of the correlation and covariance between $P(k)$ and $C^{\kappa \text{g}}_{\ell}$ measurements. When combining these measurements with Planck CMB data, we find a 95% confidence level upper limit of $\Sigma m_\nu<0.14\,{\rm eV}$, while slightly weaker limits are obtained when including small-scale ACTPol CMB data, in agreement with our expectations. We confirm earlier findings that (once combined with CMB data) the full-shape information content is comparable to the geometrical information content in the reconstructed BAO peaks given the precision of current galaxy clustering data, discuss the physical significance of our inferred bias and shot noise parameters, and perform a number of robustness tests on our underlying model. While the inclusion of $C^{\kappa \text{g}}_{\ell}$ measurements does not currently appear to lead to substantial improvements in the resulting $\Sigma m_{\nu}$ constraints, we expect the converse to be true for near-future galaxy clustering measurements, whose shape information content will eventually supersede the geometrical one.


(682)THE THREE HUNDRED project: The GIZMO-SIMBA run
  • Weiguang Cui,
  • Romeel Dave,
  • Alexander Knebe,
  • Elena Rasia,
  • Meghan Gray
  • +20
  • Frazer Pearce,
  • Chris Power,
  • Gustavo Yepes,
  • Dhayaa Anbajagane,
  • Daniel Ceverino,
  • Ana Contreras-Santos,
  • Daniel de Andres,
  • Marco De Petris,
  • Stefano Ettori,
  • Roan Haggar,
  • Qingyang Li,
  • Yang Wang,
  • Xiaohu Yang,
  • Stefano Borgani,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Ying Zu,
  • Ulrike Kuchner,
  • Rodrigo Cañas,
  • Antonio Ferragamo,
  • Giulia Gianfagna
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1402
abstract + abstract -

We introduce GIZMO-SIMBA, a new suite of galaxy cluster simulations within THE THREE HUNDRED project. THE THREE HUNDRED consists of zoom re-simulations of 324 clusters with $M_{200}\gtrsim 10^{14.8}\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ drawn from the MultiDark-Planck N-body simulation, run using several hydrodynamic and semi-analytical codes. The GIZMO-SIMBA suite adds a state-of-the-art galaxy formation model based on the highly successful SIMBA simulation, mildly re-calibrated to match $z$ = 0 cluster stellar properties. Comparing to THE THREE HUNDRED zooms run with GADGET-X, we find intrinsic differences in the evolution of the stellar and gas mass fractions, BCG ages, and galaxy colour-magnitude diagrams, with GIZMO-SIMBA generally providing a good match to available data at $z$ ≍ 0. GIZMO-SIMBA's unique black hole growth and feedback model yields agreement with the observed BH scaling relations at the intermediate-mass range and predicts a slightly different slope at high masses where few observations currently lie. GIZMO-SIMBA provides a new and novel platform to elucidate the co-evolution of galaxies, gas, and black holes within the densest cosmic environments.


(681)Transport model comparison studies of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions
  • Hermann Wolter,
  • Maria Colonna,
  • Dan Cozma,
  • Pawel Danielewicz,
  • Che Ming Ko
  • +48
  • Rohit Kumar,
  • Akira Ono,
  • ManYee Betty Tsang,
  • Jun Xu,
  • Ying-Xun Zhang,
  • Elena Bratkovskaya,
  • Zhao-Qing Feng,
  • Theodoros Gaitanos,
  • Arnaud Le Fèvre,
  • Natsumi Ikeno,
  • Youngman Kim,
  • Swagata Mallik,
  • Paolo Napolitani,
  • Dmytro Oliinychenko,
  • Tatsuhiko Ogawa,
  • Massimo Papa,
  • Jun Su,
  • Rui Wang,
  • Yong-Jia Wang,
  • Janus Weil,
  • Feng-Shou Zhang,
  • Guo-Qiang Zhang,
  • Zhen Zhang,
  • Joerg Aichelin,
  • Wolfgang Cassing,
  • Lie-Wen Chen,
  • Hui-Gan Cheng,
  • Hannah Elfner,
  • K. Gallmeister,
  • Christoph Hartnack,
  • Shintaro Hashimoto,
  • Sangyong Jeon,
  • Kyungil Kim,
  • Myungkuk Kim,
  • Bao-An Li,
  • Chang-Hwan Lee,
  • Qing-Feng Li,
  • Zhu-Xia Li,
  • Ulrich Mosel,
  • Yasushi Nara,
  • Koji Niita,
  • Akira Ohnishi,
  • Tatsuhiko Sato,
  • Taesoo Song,
  • Agnieszka Sorensen,
  • Ning Wang,
  • Wen-Jie Xie,
  • (TMEP collaboration)
  • (less)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics (07/2022) doi:10.1016/j.ppnp.2022.103962
abstract + abstract -

Transport models are the main method to obtain physics information on the nuclear equation of state and in-medium properties of particles from low to relativistic-energy heavy-ion collisions. The Transport Model Evaluation Project (TMEP) has been pursued to test the robustness of transport model predictions in reaching consistent conclusions from the same type of physical model. To this end, calculations under controlled conditions of physical input and set-up were performed with various participating codes. These included both calculations of nuclear matter in a box with periodic boundary conditions, which test separately selected ingredients of a transport code, and more realistic calculations of heavy-ion collisions. Over the years, six studies have been performed within this project. In this intermediate review, we summarize and discuss the present status of the project. We also provide condensed descriptions of the 26 participating codes, which contributed to some part of the project. These include the major codes in use today. After a compact description of the underlying transport approaches, we review the main results of the studies completed so far. They show, that in box calculations the differences between the codes can be well understood and a convergence of the results can be reached. These studies also highlight the systematic differences between the two families of transport codes, known under the names of Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) and Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) type codes. However, when the codes were compared in full heavy-ion collisions using different physical models, as recently for pion production, they still yielded substantially different results. This calls for further comparisons of heavy-ion collisions with controlled models and of box comparisons of important ingredients, like momentum-dependent fields, which are currently underway. Our evaluation studies often indicate improved strategies in performing transport simulations and thus can provide guidance to code developers. Results of transport simulations of heavy-ion collisions from a given code will have more significance if the code can be validated against benchmark calculations such as the ones summarized in this review.


RU-A
(680)On the superiority of the | V<SUB>cb</SUB>|-γ plots over the unitarity triangle plots in the 2020s
  • Andrzej J. Buras
European Physical Journal C (07/2022) doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-10566-9
abstract + abstract -

The unitarity triangle (UT) plots played already for three decades an important role in the tests of the Standard Model (SM) and the determination of the CKM parameters. As of 2022, among the four CKM parameters, | Vus| and β are already measured with respectable precision, while this is not the case of | Vcb| and γ . In the case of | Vcb| the main obstacle are the significant tensions between its inclusive and exclusive determinations from tree-level decays and it could still take some years before a unique value of this parameter will be known. The present uncertainty in γ of 4 from tree-level decays will be reduced to 1 by the LHCb and Belle II collaborations in the coming years. Unfortunately in the common UT plots | Vcb| is not seen and the experimental improvements in the determination of γ from tree-level decays at the level of a few degrees are difficult to appreciate. In view of these deficiencies of the UT plots with respect to | Vcb| and γ and the central role these two CKM parameters will play in this decade, the recently proposed plots of | Vcb| versus γ extracted from various processes appear to be superior to the UT plots in the flavour phenomenology of the 2020s. We illustrate this idea with Δ F =2 observables Δ Ms , Δ Md , εK and with rare decays Bs→μ+μ- , Bd→μ+μ- , K+→π+ν ν ¯ and KL→π0ν ν ¯ . In particular the power of εK, B (K+→π+ν ν ¯ ) and B (KL→π0ν ν ¯ ) in the determination of | Vcb| , due to their strong dependence on | Vcb| , is transparently exhibited in this manner. Combined with future reduced errors on γ and | Vcb| from tree-level decays such plots can better exhibit possible inconsistencies between various determinations of these two parameters, caused by new physics, than it is possible with the UT plots. This can already be illustrated on the example of the recently found 2.7 σ anomaly in Bs→μ+μ-.


(679)Mapping `out-of-the-box' the properties of the baryons in massive halos
  • M. Angelinelli,
  • S. Ettori,
  • K. Dolag,
  • F. Vazza,
  • A. Ragagnin
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2022) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244068
abstract + abstract -

We study the distributions of the baryons in massive halos (Mvir > 1013 h−1 M) in the Magneticum suite of smoothed particle hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, out to the unprecedented radial extent of 10R500, c. We confirm that, under the action of non-gravitational physical phenomena, the baryon mass fraction is lower in the inner regions (< R500, c) of increasingly less massive halos, and rises moving outwards, with values that span from 51% (87%) of the cosmological value in the regions around R500, c to 95% (100%) at 10R500, c in the systems with the lowest (highest; Mvir ∼ 5 × 1014 h−1 M) masses. The galaxy groups almost match the gas (and baryon) fraction measured in the most massive halos only at very large radii (r > 6R500, c), where the baryon depletion factor Ybar = fbar/(Ωbm) approaches the value of unity, expected for `closed-box' systems. We find that both the radial and mass dependence of the baryon, gas, and hot depletion factors are predictable and follow a simple functional form. The star mass fraction is higher in less massive systems, decreases systematically with increasing radii, and reaches a constant value of Ystar ≈ 0.09, where the gas metallicity is also constant, regardless of the host halo mass, as a result of the early (z > 2) enrichment process.


(678)Lifetimes of singly charmed hadrons
  • James Gratrex,
  • Blaženka Melić,
  • Ivan Nišandžić
Journal of High Energy Physics (07/2022) doi:10.1007/JHEP07(2022)058
abstract + abstract -

We provide an extensive study of the lifetimes of singly charmed baryons and mesons, within the heavy quark expansion with all known corrections included. A special attention is devoted to the choice of the charm mass and wavefunctions of heavy baryons. We give our predictions for lifetimes, lifetime ratios, and semileptonic branching ratios of singly charmed baryons. Our results accommodate the experimentally-favoured hierarchy of singly charmed baryon lifetimes τ (Ξc0)<τ (Λc+)<τ (Ωc0)<τ (Ξc+), in contrast to earlier theoretical findings. Predictions for charmed meson lifetimes and semileptonic decay rates are in agreement with a recent comprehensive study and experimental results within uncertainties.


(677)Latest observations on the low energy excess in CRESST-III
  • G. Angloher,
  • S. Banik,
  • G. Benato,
  • A. Bento,
  • A. Bertolini
  • +55
  • R. Breier,
  • C. Bucci,
  • L. Canonica,
  • A. D'Addabbo,
  • S. Di Lorenzo,
  • L. Einfalt,
  • A. Erb,
  • F. v. Feilitzsch,
  • N. Ferreiro Iachellini,
  • S. Fichtinger,
  • D. Fuchs,
  • A. Fuss,
  • A. Garai,
  • V. M. Ghete,
  • S. Gerster,
  • P. Gorla,
  • P. V. Guillaumon,
  • S. Gupta,
  • D. Hauff,
  • M. Ješkovský,
  • J. Jochum,
  • M. Kaznacheeva,
  • A. Kinast,
  • H. Kluck,
  • H. Kraus,
  • A. Langenkämper,
  • M. Mancuso,
  • L. Marini,
  • L. Meyer,
  • V. Mokina,
  • A. Nilima,
  • M. Olmi,
  • T. Ortmann,
  • C. Pagliarone,
  • L. Pattavina,
  • F. Petricca,
  • W. Potzel,
  • P. Povinec,
  • F. Pröbst,
  • F. Pucci,
  • F. Reindl,
  • J. Rothe,
  • K. Schäffner,
  • J. Schieck,
  • D. Schmiedmayer,
  • S. Schönert,
  • C. Schwertner,
  • M. Stahlberg,
  • L. Stodolsky,
  • C. Strandhagen,
  • R. Strauss,
  • I. Usherov,
  • F. Wagner,
  • M. Willers,
  • V. Zema
  • (less)
arXiv e-prints (07/2022) e-Print:2207.09375
abstract + abstract -

The CRESST experiment observes an unexplained excess of events at low energies. In the current CRESST-III data-taking campaign we are operating detector modules with different designs to narrow down the possible explanations. In this work, we show first observations of the ongoing measurement, focusing on the comparison of time, energy and temperature dependence of the excess in several detectors. These exclude dark matter, radioactive backgrounds and intrinsic sources related to the crystal bulk as a major contribution.


(676)Mineral snowflakes on exoplanets and brown dwarfs. Coagulation and fragmentation of cloud particles with HYLANDS
  • D. Samra,
  • Ch. Helling,
  • T. Birnstiel
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2022) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202142651
abstract + abstract -

Context. Brown dwarfs and exoplanets provide unique atmospheric regimes that hold information about their formation routes and evolutionary states. Cloud particles form through nucleation, condensation, evaporation, and collisions, which affect the distribution of cloud particles in size and throughout these atmospheres. Cloud modelling plays a decisive role in understanding these regimes.
Aims: Modelling mineral cloud particle formation in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and exoplanets is a key element in preparing for missions and instruments like CRIRES+, JWST, and ARIEL, as well as possible polarimetry missions like POLSTAR. The aim is to support the increasingly detailed observations that demand greater understanding of the microphysical cloud processes.
Methods: We extend our kinetic cloud formation model that treats nucleation, condensation, evaporation, and settling of mixed material cloud particles to consistently model cloud particle-particle collisions. The new hybrid code Hybrid moments (Ls) and Size (HYLANDS) is then applied to a grid of DRIFT-PHOENIX (Tgas, pgas) profiles. Effective medium theory and Mie theory are used to investigate the optical properties.
Results: Turbulence proves to be the main driving process of particle-particle collisions, with collisions becoming the dominant process in the lower atmosphere (p > 10−4 bar) at the cloud base. Particle-particle collisions produce one of three outcomes for brown dwarf and gas-giant atmospheres: fragmenting atmospheres (log10(g[cms−2])=3.0) coagulating atmospheres (log10(g)=5.0), Teff ≤1800K) or condensational growth dominated atmospheres (log10(g) = 5.0, Teff > 1800 K). Cloud particle opacity slope at optical wavelengths (Hubble) is increased with fragmentation, as are the silicate features at JWST NIRSpec, JWST MIRI, and ARIEL AIRS wavelengths.
Conclusions: The hybrid moment-bin method HYLANDS demonstrates the feasibility of combining a moment and a bin method for cloud modelling, whilst assuring element conservation. It provides a powerful and fast tool for capturing general trends of particle collisions, consistently with other microphysical growth processes. Collisions are an important process in exoplanet and brown dwarf atmospheres, but cannot be assumed to be hit-and-stick only. The spectral effects of cloud particle collisions in both optical and mid-infrared wavelengths complicate inferences of cloud particle size and material composition from observational data.


RU-A
(675)The exclusive vision of rare K and B decays and of the quark mixing in the standard model
  • Andrzej J. Buras,
  • Elena Venturini
European Physical Journal C (07/2022) doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-10583-8
abstract + abstract -

The most common predictions for rare K and B decay branching ratios in the Standard Model in the literature are based on the CKM elements | Vcb| and | Vub| resulting from global fits, that are in the ballpark of their inclusive and exclusive determinations, respectively. In the present paper we follow another route, which to our knowledge has not been explored for Δ Ms ,d and rare K and B decays by anybody to date. We assume, in contrast to the prevailing inclusive expectations for | Vcb| , that the future true values of | Vcb| and | Vub| will be both from exclusive determinations; in practice we use the most recent averages from FLAG. With the precisely known | Vus| the resulting rare decay branching ratios, εK, Δ Md , Δ Ms and Sψ KS depend then only on the angles β and γ in the unitarity triangle that moreover are correlated through the CKM unitarity. An unusual pattern of SM predictions results from this study with some existing tensions being dwarfed and new tensions being born. In particular using HPQCD Bs,d 0-B¯s ,d 0 hadronic matrix elements a 3.1 σ tension in Δ Ms independently of γ is found. For 60≤γ ≤75 the tension in Δ Md between 4.0 σ and 1.1 σ is found and in the case of εK between 5.2 σ and 2.1 σ . Moreover, the room for new physics in K+→π+ν ν ¯ , KL→π0ν ν ¯ and B →K (K)ν ν ¯ decays is significantly increased. We compare the results in this EXCLUSIVE scenario with the HYBRID one in which | Vcb| in the former scenario is replaced by the most recent inclusive | Vcb| and present the dependence of all observables considered by us in both scenarios as functions of γ . As a byproduct we compare the determination of | Vcb| from Δ Ms , Δ Md , εK and Sψ KS using Bs,d 0-B¯s ,d 0 hadronic matrix elements from LQCD with 2 +1 +1 flavours, 2 +1 flavours and their average. Only for the 2 +1 +1 case values for β and γ exist for which the same value of | Vcb| is found: | Vcb|=42.6 (4 ) × 10-3 , γ =64.6 (16) ∘ and β =22.2 (7) ∘ . This in turn implies a 2.7 σ anomaly in Bs→μ+μ-.


(674)Intermediate- and high-velocity clouds in the Milky Way - I. Covering factors and vertical heights
  • Nicolas Lehner,
  • J. Christopher Howk,
  • Antonino Marasco,
  • Filippo Fraternali
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac987
abstract + abstract -

Intermediate- and high-velocity clouds (IVCs, HVCs) are a potential source of fuel for star formation in the Milky Way (MW), but their origins and fates depend sensitively on their distances. We search for IVCs and HVCs in HST high-resolution ultraviolet spectra of 55 halo stars at vertical heights $|z|\gtrsim \,1$ kpc. We show that IVCs (40 ≤ |$v$LSR| < 90 ${\rm km\, s}^{-1}$) have a high detection rate - the covering factor, fc - that is about constant (fc = 0.90 ± 0.04) from $z$ = 1.5 to 14 kpc, implying IVCs are essentially confined to |$z$| ≲ 1.5 kpc. For the HVCs (90 ≤ |$v$LSR| ≲ 170 ${\rm km\, s}^{-1}$), we find fc increases from fc ≃ 0.14 ± 0.10 at |$z$| ≲ 2-3 kpc to fc = 0.60 ± 0.15 at 6 ≲ |$z$| ≲ 14 kpc, the latter being similar to that found towards QSOs. In contrast, the covering factor of very high-velocity clouds (VHVCs; |$v$LSR| ≳ 170 ${\rm km\, s}^{-1}$) is $f_c \lt 0.04$ in the stellar sample compared to 20 per cent towards QSOs, implying these clouds must be at d ≳ 10-15 kpc (|$z$| ≳ 10 kpc). Gas clouds with |$v$LSR| > 40 ${\rm km\, s}^{-1}$ at |b| ≳ 15° have therefore |$v$LSR| decreasing with decreasing |$z$|. Our findings are consistent with a Galactic rain and/or fountain origin for these clouds. In the latter scenario, VHVCs may mostly serve as fuel for the MW halo. In view of their high covering factors and since all the IVCs and some HVCs are found in the thick disc, they appear good candidates as gas reservoirs to help sustain star formation in the MW.


(673)Same-hemisphere three-gluon-emission contribution to the zero-jettiness soft function at N3LO QCD
  • Daniel Baranowski,
  • Maximilian Delto,
  • Kirill Melnikov,
  • Chen-Yu Wang
Physical Review D (07/2022) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.106.014004
abstract + abstract -

We complete the calculation of the three-gluon-emission contribution to the same-hemisphere part of the zero-jettiness soft function at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD.


(672)HOLISMOKES -- X. Comparison between neural network and semi-automated traditional modeling of strong lenses
  • S. Schuldt,
  • S. H. Suyu,
  • R. Canameras,
  • Y. Shu,
  • S. Taubenberger
  • +2
arXiv e-prints (07/2022) e-Print:2207.10124
abstract + abstract -

Modeling of strongly gravitationally lensed galaxies is often required in order to use them as astrophysical or cosmological probes. With current and upcoming wide-field imaging surveys, the number of detected lenses is increasing significantly such that automated and fast modeling procedures for ground-based data are urgently needed. This is especially pertinent to short-lived lensed transients in order to plan follow-up observations. Therefore, we present in a companion paper (submitted) a neural network predicting the parameter values with corresponding uncertainties of a Singular Isothermal Ellipsoid (SIE) mass profile with external shear. In this work, we present a newly-developed pipeline glee_auto.py to model consistently any galaxy-scale lensing system. In contrast to previous automated modeling pipelines that require high-resolution images, glee_auto.py is optimized for ground-based images such as those from the Hyper-Suprime-Cam (HSC) or the upcoming Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time. We further present glee_tools.py, a flexible automation code for individual modeling that has no direct decisions and assumptions implemented. Both pipelines, in addition to our modeling network, minimize the user input time drastically and thus are important for future modeling efforts. We apply the network to 31 real galaxy-scale lenses of HSC and compare the results to the traditional models. In the direct comparison, we find a very good match for the Einstein radius especially for systems with $\theta_E \gtrsim 2$". The lens mass center and ellipticity show reasonable agreement. The main discrepancies are on the external shear as expected from our tests on mock systems. In general, our study demonstrates that neural networks are a viable and ultra fast approach for measuring the lens-galaxy masses from ground-based data in the upcoming era with $\sim10^5$ lenses expected.


(671)Large-scale Hydrodynamical Shocks as the Smoking-gun Evidence for a Bar in M31
  • Zi-Xuan Feng,
  • Zhi Li,
  • Juntai Shen,
  • Ortwin Gerhard,
  • R. P. Saglia
  • +1
The Astrophysical Journal (07/2022) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac7964
abstract + abstract -

The formation and evolutionary history of M31 are closely related to its dynamical structures, which remain unclear due to its high inclination. Gas kinematics could provide crucial evidence for the existence of a rotating bar in M31. Using the position-velocity diagram of [O III] and H I, we are able to identify clear sharp velocity jump (shock) features with a typical amplitude over 100 km s-1 in the central region of M31 (4.6 kpc × 2.3 kpc, or $20^{\prime} \times 10^{\prime} $ ). We also simulate gas morphology and kinematics in barred M31 potentials and find that the bar-induced shocks can produce velocity jumps similar to those in [O III]. The identified shock features in both [O III] and H I are broadly consistent, and they are found mainly on the leading sides of the bar/bulge, following a hallmark pattern expected from the bar-driven gas inflow. Shock features on the far side of the disk are clearer than those on the near side, possibly due to limited data coverage on the near side, as well as to obscuration by the warped gas and dust layers. Further hydrodynamical simulations with more sophisticated physics are desired to fully understand the observed gas features and to better constrain the parameters of the bar in M31.


(670)The velocity structure of the intracluster medium during a major merger: Simulated microcalorimeter observations
  • Veronica Biffi,
  • John A. ZuHone,
  • Tony Mroczkowski,
  • Esra Bulbul,
  • William Forman
Astronomy and Astrophysics (07/2022) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202142764
abstract + abstract -

Major mergers between galaxy clusters can produce large turbulent and bulk flow velocities in the intracluster medium (ICM) and thus imprint useful diagnostic features in X-ray spectral emission lines from heavy ions. As successfully achieved by Hitomi in observations of the Perseus cluster, measurements of gas velocities in clusters from high-resolution X-ray spectra will be achievable with upcoming X-ray calorimeters such as those on board XRISM, Athena, or a Lynx like mission. An interesting application to clusters involves detecting multiple velocity components or velocity gradients from diagnostic observations of specific interesting locations across the cluster. To explore this possibility in the case of a major head-on cluster merger, we performed velocity analyzes of a cluster-cluster merger from a hydrodynamical simulation by means of X-ray synthetic spectra with a spectral resolution on the order of a few eV. We observed the system along two extreme line-of-sight directions: (1) perpendicular to the plane of the merger and (2) along the merger axis. In these geometrical configurations, we found that clear non-Gaussian shapes of the iron He-like Kα line at 6.7 keV are expected. While the velocity dispersion predicted from the simulations can be retrieved for the brightest 100 ks pointings with XRISM Resolve, some discrepancy with respect to the expected value is noted and can be attributed to the complex non-Gaussian line shapes. Measurements in low surface brightness regions, especially when multiple velocity components are present along the line of sight, require high signal-to-noise ratio and the larger collecting area of the Athena X-IFU calorimeter is therefore required. With the latter, we also investigated the ICM temperature and velocity gradient across the merger bow shock edge, from 20″-wide annuli extracted from a single 1 Ms X-IFU observation. For both temperature and velocity dispersion, we found best-fit values that are consistent with predictions from the simulations within 1-σ. The uncertainties on the inferred velocity dispersion are, however, too large to place any stringent constraints on the shallow gradient downstream of the shock. Additionally, we present simulated images of the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effects from this merging system, using the above viewing configurations and compare the results at angular resolutions appropriate for future observatories such as CMB-S4 and the Atacama Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (AtLAST).


(669)Chromo-electric screening length in 2+1 flavor QCD
  • P. Petreczky,
  • J. H. W. Sebastian Steinbeisser
The 38th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory (07/2022)
abstract + abstract -

We study Polyakov loop as well as correlators of real and imaginary parts of the Polyakov loop in 2+1 flavor QCD at finite temperature. We use hypercubic (HYP) smearing to improve the signal in the lattice calculations and to obtain reliable results for the correlators at large distances. From the large distance behavior of the correlators we estimate the chromo-electric screening length to be (0.38-44)/T. Furthermore, we show that the short distance distortions due to HYP smearing do not affect the physics of interest


(668)The static energy in 2+1+1-flavor QCD
  • S. Steinbeisser,
  • N. Brambilla,
  • R. L. Delgado,
  • A. Kronfeld,
  • V. Leino
  • +3
  • P. Petreczky,
  • A. Vairo,
  • J. H. Weber
  • (less)
The 38th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory (07/2022)
abstract + abstract -

We report on the status of the analysis of the static energy in $2+1+1$-flavor QCD. The static energy is obtained by measuring Wilson line correlators in Coulomb gauge using the HISQ action, yielding the scales $r_{0}/a$, $r_{1}/a$, $r_{2}/a$, their ratios, and the string tension $\sigma r_{i}^{2}$. We put emphasis on the possible effects due to the dynamical charm-quark by comparing the lattice results to continuum results of the static energy with and without a massive flavor at two-loop accuracy. We employ gauge-field ensembles from the HotQCD and MILC Collaborations.


(667)Chromoelectric and chromomagnetic correlators at high temperature from gradient flow
  • J. Mayer-Steudte,
  • N. Brambilla,
  • V. Leino,
  • P. Petreczky
The 38th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory (07/2022)
abstract + abstract -

The heavy quark diffusion coefficient is encoded in the spectral functions of the chromoelectric and the chromomagnetic correlators that are calculable on the lattice. We study the chromoelectric and the chromomagnetic correlator in the deconfined phase of SU(3) gauge theory using Symanzik flow at two temperatures $1.5T_c$ and $10000 T_c$, with $T_c$ being the phase transition temperature. To control the lattice discretization errors and perform the continuum limit we use several temporal lattice extents $N_t=16,20,24$ and 28. We observe that the flow time dependence of the chromomagnetic correlator is quite different from chromoelectric correlator most likely due to the anomalous dimension of the former as has been pointed out recently in the literature.


(666)Endpoint factorization and next-to-leading power resummation of gluon thrust
  • Martin Beneke,
  • Mathias Garny,
  • Sebastian Jaskiewicz,
  • Julian Strohm,
  • Robert Szafron
  • +2
abstract + abstract -

Endpoint divergences in the convolution integrals appearing in

next-to-leading-power factorization theorems prevent a straightforward application of standard methods to resum large

logarithmic power-suppressed corrections in collider physics.

We study the power-suppressed configuration of the thrust

distribution in the two-jet region, where a gluon-initiated jet recoils against

a quark-antiquark pair. With the aid

of operatorial endpoint factorization conditions, we derive

a factorization formula where the individual terms are free from

endpoint divergences and can be written in

terms of renormalized hard, (anti) collinear, and soft functions in four

dimensions. This framework enables us to perform the

first resummation of the

endpoint-divergent SCET$_{\rm I}$ observables at the leading

logarithmic accuracy using

exclusively renormalization-group methods.


(665)Frontiers of Quantum Gravity: shared challenges, converging directions
  • Jan de Boer,
  • Bianca Dittrich,
  • Astrid Eichhorn,
  • Steven B. Giddings,
  • Steffen Gielen
  • +8
  • Stefano Liberati,
  • Etera R. Livine,
  • Daniele Oriti,
  • Kyriakos Papadodimas,
  • Antonio D. Pereira,
  • Mairi Sakellariadou,
  • Sumati Surya,
  • Herman Verlinde
  • (less)
(07/2022) e-Print:2207.10618
abstract + abstract -

Understanding the quantum nature of spacetime and gravity remains one of the most ambitious goals of theoretical physics. It promises to provide key new insights into fundamental particle theory, astrophysics, cosmology and the foundations of physics. Despite this common goal, the community of quantum gravity researchers is sometimes seen as divided into sub-communities working on different, mutually exclusive approaches. In practice however, recent years have shown the emergence of common techniques, results and physical ideas arising from different sub-communities, suggesting exciting new prospects for collaboration and interaction between traditionally distinct approaches. In this White Paper we discuss some of the common themes which have seen a growing interest from various directions, and argue that focusing on them will help the quantum gravity community as a whole towards shared objectives.


(664)Search for Astrophysical Neutrinos from 1FLE Blazars with IceCube
  • R. Abbasi,
  • M. Ackermann,
  • J. Adams,
  • J.A. Aguilar,
  • M. Ahlers
  • +378
  • M. Ahrens,
  • J.M. Alameddine,
  • Jr.A.A. Alves,
  • N.M. Amin,
  • K. Andeen,
  • T. Anderson,
  • G. Anton,
  • C. Argüelles,
  • Y. Ashida,
  • S. Athanasiadou,
  • S. Axani,
  • X. Bai,
  • V.A. Balagopal,
  • M. Baricevic,
  • S.W. Barwick,
  • V. Basu,
  • R. Bay,
  • J.J. Beatty,
  • K.-H. Becker,
  • J. Becker Tjus,
  • J. Beise,
  • C. Bellenghi,
  • S. Benda,
  • S. BenZvi,
  • D. Berley,
  • E. Bernardini,
  • D.Z. Besson,
  • G. Binder,
  • D. Bindig,
  • E. Blaufuss,
  • S. Blot,
  • F. Bontempo,
  • J.Y. Book,
  • J. Borowka,
  • S. Böser,
  • O. Botner,
  • J. Böttcher,
  • E. Bourbeau,
  • F. Bradascio,
  • J. Braun,
  • B. Brinson,
  • S. Bron,
  • J. Brostean-Kaiser,
  • R.T. Burley,
  • R.S. Busse,
  • M.A. Campana,
  • E.G. Carnie-Bronca,
  • C. Chen,
  • Z. Chen,
  • D. Chirkin,
  • K. Choi,
  • B.A. Clark,
  • L. Classen,
  • A. Coleman,
  • G.H. Collin,
  • A. Connolly,
  • J.M. Conrad,
  • P. Coppin,
  • P. Correa,
  • D.F. Cowen,
  • R. Cross,
  • C. Dappen,
  • P. Dave,
  • C. De Clercq,
  • J.J. DeLaunay,
  • D. Delgado López,
  • H. Dembinski,
  • K. Deoskar,
  • A. Desai,
  • P. Desiati,
  • K.D. de Vries,
  • G. de Wasseige,
  • T. DeYoung,
  • A. Diaz,
  • J.C. Díaz-Vélez,
  • M. Dittmer,
  • H. Dujmovic,
  • M.A. DuVernois,
  • T. Ehrhardt,
  • P. Eller,
  • R. Engel,
  • H. Erpenbeck,
  • J. Evans,
  • P.A. Evenson,
  • K.L. Fan,
  • A.R. Fazely,
  • A. Fedynitch,
  • N. Feigl,
  • S. Fiedlschuster,
  • A.T. Fienberg,
  • C. Finley,
  • L. Fischer,
  • D. Fox,
  • A. Franckowiak,
  • E. Friedman,
  • A. Fritz,
  • P. Fürst,
  • T.K. Gaisser,
  • J. Gallagher,
  • E. Ganster,
  • A. Garcia,
  • S. Garrappa,
  • L. Gerhardt,
  • A. Ghadimi,
  • C. Glaser,
  • T. Glauch,
  • T. Glüsenkamp,
  • N. Goehlke,
  • J.G. Gonzalez,
  • S. Goswami,
  • D. Grant,
  • T. Grégoire,
  • S. Griswold,
  • C. Günther,
  • P. Gutjahr,
  • C. Haack,
  • A. Hallgren,
  • R. Halliday,
  • L. Halve,
  • F. Halzen,
  • H. Hamdaoui,
  • M. Ha Minh,
  • K. Hanson,
  • J. Hardin,
  • A.A. Harnisch,
  • P. Hatch,
  • A. Haungs,
  • K. Helbing,
  • J. Hellrung,
  • F. Henningsen,
  • E.C. Hettinger,
  • L. Heuermann,
  • S. Hickford,
  • J. Hignight,
  • C. Hill,
  • G.C. Hill,
  • K.D. Hoffman,
  • K. Hoshina,
  • W. Hou,
  • M. Huber,
  • T. Huber,
  • K. Hultqvist,
  • M. Hünnefeld,
  • R. Hussain,
  • K. Hymon,
  • S. In,
  • N. Iovine,
  • A. Ishihara,
  • M. Jansson,
  • G.S. Japaridze,
  • M. Jeong,
  • M. Jin,
  • B.J. P. Jones,
  • D. Kang,
  • W. Kang,
  • X. Kang,
  • A. Kappes,
  • D. Kappesser,
  • L. Kardum,
  • T. Karg,
  • M. Karl,
  • A. Karle,
  • U. Katz,
  • M. Kauer,
  • J.L. Kelley,
  • A. Kheirandish,
  • K. Kin,
  • J. Kiryluk,
  • S.R. Klein,
  • A. Kochocki,
  • R. Koirala,
  • H. Kolanoski,
  • T. Kontrimas,
  • L. Köpke,
  • C. Kopper,
  • S. Kopper,
  • D.J. Koskinen,
  • P. Koundal,
  • M. Kovacevich,
  • M. Kowalski,
  • T. Kozynets,
  • E. Krupczak,
  • E. Kun,
  • N. Kurahashi,
  • N. Lad,
  • C. Lagunas Gualda,
  • M.J. Larson,
  • F. Lauber,
  • J.P. Lazar,
  • J.W. Lee,
  • K. Leonard,
  • A. Leszczyńska,
  • M. Lincetto,
  • Q.R. Liu,
  • M. Liubarska,
  • E. Lohfink,
  • C.J. Lozano Mariscal,
  • L. Lu,
  • F. Lucarelli,
  • A. Ludwig,
  • W. Luszczak,
  • Y. Lyu,
  • W.Y. Ma,
  • J. Madsen,
  • K.B. M. Mahn,
  • Y. Makino,
  • S. Mancina,
  • W. Marie Sainte,
  • I.C. Mariş,
  • I. Martinez-Soler,
  • R. Maruyama,
  • S. McCarthy,
  • T. McElroy,
  • F. McNally,
  • J.V. Mead,
  • K. Meagher,
  • S. Mechbal,
  • A. Medina,
  • M. Meier,
  • S. Meighen-Berger,
  • Y. Merckx,
  • J. Micallef,
  • D. Mockler,
  • T. Montaruli,
  • R.W. Moore,
  • R. Morse,
  • M. Moulai,
  • T. Mukherjee,
  • R. Naab,
  • R. Nagai,
  • U. Naumann,
  • J. Necker,
  • L.V. Nguyễn,
  • H. Niederhausen,
  • M.U. Nisa,
  • S.C. Nowicki,
  • A. Obertacke Pollmann,
  • M. Oehler,
  • B. Oeyen,
  • A. Olivas,
  • J. Osborn,
  • E. O'Sullivan,
  • H. Pandya,
  • D.V. Pankova,
  • N. Park,
  • G.K. Parker,
  • E.N. Paudel,
  • L. Paul,
  • C. Pérez de los Heros,
  • L. Peters,
  • J. Peterson,
  • S. Philippen,
  • S. Pieper,
  • A. Pizzuto,
  • M. Plum,
  • Y. Popovych,
  • A. Porcelli,
  • M. Prado Rodriguez,
  • B. Pries,
  • G.T. Przybylski,
  • C. Raab,
  • J. Rack-Helleis,
  • A. Raissi,
  • M. Rameez,
  • K. Rawlins,
  • I.C. Rea,
  • Z. Rechav,
  • A. Rehman,
  • P. Reichherzer,
  • G. Renzi,
  • E. Resconi,
  • S. Reusch,
  • W. Rhode,
  • M. Richman,
  • B. Riedel,
  • E.J. Roberts,
  • S. Robertson,
  • S. Rodan,
  • G. Roellinghoff,
  • M. Rongen,
  • C. Rott,
  • T. Ruhe,
  • D. Ryckbosch,
  • D. Rysewyk Cantu,
  • I. Safa,
  • J. Saffer,
  • D. Salazar-Gallegos,
  • P. Sampathkumar,
  • S.E. Sanchez Herrera,
  • A. Sandrock,
  • M. Santander,
  • S. Sarkar,
  • S. Sarkar,
  • K. Satalecka,
  • M. Schaufel,
  • H. Schieler,
  • S. Schindler,
  • T. Schmidt,
  • A. Schneider,
  • J. Schneider,
  • F.G. Schröder,
  • L. Schumacher,
  • G. Schwefer,
  • S. Sclafani,
  • D. Seckel,
  • S. Seunarine,
  • A. Sharma,
  • S. Shefali,
  • N. Shimizu,
  • M. Silva,
  • B. Skrzypek,
  • B. Smithers,
  • R. Snihur,
  • J. Soedingrekso,
  • A. Sogaard,
  • D. Soldin,
  • C. Spannfellner,
  • G.M. Spiczak,
  • C. Spiering,
  • M. Stamatikos,
  • T. Stanev,
  • R. Stein,
  • J. Stettner,
  • T. Stezelberger,
  • T. Stürwald,
  • T. Stuttard,
  • G.W. Sullivan,
  • I. Taboada,
  • S. Ter-Antonyan,
  • W.G. Thompson,
  • J. Thwaites,
  • S. Tilav,
  • K. Tollefson,
  • C. Tönnis,
  • S. Toscano,
  • D. Tosi,
  • A. Trettin,
  • M. Tselengidou,
  • C.F. Tung,
  • A. Turcati,
  • R. Turcotte,
  • J.P. Twagirayezu,
  • B. Ty,
  • M.A. Unland Elorrieta,
  • M. Unland Elorrieta,
  • K. Upshaw,
  • N. Valtonen-Mattila,
  • J. Vandenbroucke,
  • N. van Eijndhoven,
  • D. Vannerom,
  • J. van Santen,
  • J. Veitch-Michaelis,
  • S. Verpoest,
  • C. Walck,
  • W. Wang,
  • T.B. Watson,
  • C. Weaver,
  • P. Weigel,
  • A. Weindl,
  • J. Weldert,
  • C. Wendt,
  • J. Werthebach,
  • M. Weyrauch,
  • N. Whitehorn,
  • C.H. Wiebusch,
  • N. Willey,
  • D.R. Williams,
  • M. Wolf,
  • G. Wrede,
  • J. Wulff,
  • X.W. Xu,
  • J.P. Yanez,
  • E. Yildizci,
  • S. Yoshida,
  • S. Yu,
  • T. Yuan,
  • Z. Zhang,
  • P. Zhelnin
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The majority of astrophysical neutrinos have undetermined origins. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has observed astrophysical neutrinos but has not yet identified their sources. Blazars are promising source candidates, but previous searches for neutrino emission from populations of blazars detected in ≳GeV gamma rays have not observed any significant neutrino excess. Recent findings in multimessenger astronomy indicate that high-energy photons, coproduced with high-energy neutrinos, are likely to be absorbed and reemitted at lower energies. Thus, lower-energy photons may be better indicators of TeV–PeV neutrino production. This paper presents the first time-integrated stacking search for astrophysical neutrino emission from MeV-detected blazars in the first Fermi Large Area Telescope low energy (1FLE) catalog using ten years of IceCube muon–neutrino data. The results of this analysis are found to be consistent with a background-only hypothesis. Assuming an E$^{−2}$ neutrino spectrum and proportionality between the blazars MeV gamma-ray fluxes and TeV–PeV neutrino flux, the upper limit on the 1FLE blazar energy-scaled neutrino flux is determined to be 1.64 × 10$^{−12}$ TeV cm$^{−2}$ s$^{−1}$ at 90% confidence level. This upper limit is approximately 1% of IceCube’s diffuse muon–neutrino flux measurement.


(663)The Uchuu-SDSS galaxy lightcones: a clustering, RSD and BAO study
  • C.A. Dong-Páez,
  • A. Smith,
  • A.O. Szewciw,
  • J. Ereza,
  • M.H. Abdullah
  • +9
  • C. Hernández-Aguayo,
  • S. Trusov,
  • F. Prada,
  • A. Klypin,
  • T. Ishiyama,
  • A. Berlind,
  • P. Zarrouk,
  • J. López Cacheiro,
  • J. Ruedas
  • (less)
(07/2022) e-Print:2208.00540
abstract + abstract -

We present the data release of the Uchuu-SDSS galaxies: a set of 32 high-fidelity galaxy lightcones constructed from the large Uchuu 2.1 trillion particle $N$-body simulation using Planck cosmology. We adopt subhalo abundance matching to populate the Uchuu-box halo catalogues with SDSS galaxy luminosities. These cubic box galaxy catalogues generated at several redshifts are combined to create the set of lightcones with redshift-evolving galaxy properties. The Uchuu-SDSS galaxy lightcones are built to reproduce the footprint and statistical properties of the SDSS main galaxy survey, along with stellar masses and star formation rates. This facilitates direct comparison of the observed SDSS and simulated Uchuu-SDSS data. Our lightcones reproduce a large number of observational results, such as the distribution of galaxy properties, the galaxy clustering, the stellar mass functions, and the halo occupation distributions. Using the simulated and real data we select samples of bright red galaxies at $z_\mathrm{eff}=0.15$ to explore Redshift Space Distortions and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) utilizing a full-shape analytical model of the two-point correlation function. We create a set of 5100 galaxy lightcones using GLAM N-body simulations to compute covariance errors. We report a $\sim 30\%$ precision increase on $f\sigma_8$, due to our better estimate of the covariance matrix. From our BAO-inferred $\alpha_{\parallel}$ and $\alpha_{\perp}$ parameters, we obtain the first SDSS measurements of the Hubble and angular diameter distances $D_\mathrm{H}(z=0.15) / r_d = 27.9^{+3.1}_{-2.7}$, $D_\mathrm{M}(z=0.15) / r_d = 5.1^{+0.4}_{-0.4}$. Overall, we conclude that the Planck LCDM cosmology nicely explains the observed large-scale structure statistics of SDSS. All data sets are made publicly available.


(662)Impact of H$_{\rm 2}$-driven star formation and stellar feedback from low-enrichment environments on the formation of spiral galaxies
  • Milena Valentini,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Stefano Borgani,
  • Giuseppe Murante,
  • Umberto Maio
  • +6
  • Luca Tornatore,
  • Gian Luigi Granato,
  • Cinthia Ragone-Figueroa,
  • Andreas Burkert,
  • Antonio Ragagnin,
  • Elena Rasia
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

The reservoir of molecular gas (H$_{\rm 2}$) represents the fuel for the star formation (SF) of a galaxy. Connecting the star formation rate (SFR) to the available H$_{\rm 2}$ is key to accurately model SF in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation. We investigate how modifying the underlying modelling of H$_{\rm 2}$ and the description of stellar feedback in low-metallicity environments (LMF, i.e. low-metallicity stellar feedback) in cosmological, zoomed-in simulations of a Milky Way-size halo influences the formation history of the forming, spiral galaxy and its final properties. We exploit two different models to compute the molecular fraction of cold gas (f$_{\rm H_{\rm 2}}$): $i)$ the theoretical model by Krumholz et al. (2009b) and $ii)$ the phenomenological prescription by Blitz & Rosolowsky (2006). We find that the model adopted to estimate f$_{\rm H_{\rm 2}}$ plays a key role in determining final properties and in shaping the morphology of the galaxy. The clumpier interstellar medium (ISM) and the more complex H$_{\rm 2}$ distribution that the Krumholz et al. (2009b) model predicts result in better agreement with observations of nearby disc galaxies. This shows how crucial it is to link the SFR to the physical properties of the star-forming, molecular ISM. The additional source of energy that LMF supplies in a metal-poor ISM is key in controlling SF at high redshift and in regulating the reservoir of SF across cosmic time. Not only is LMF able to regulate cooling properties of the ISM, but it also reduces the stellar mass of the galaxy bulge. These findings can foster the improvement of the numerical modelling of SF in cosmological simulations.


(661)A measurement of the mean central optical depth of galaxy clusters via the pairwise kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with SPT-3G and DES
  • E. Schiappucci,
  • F. Bianchini,
  • M. Aguena,
  • M. Archipley,
  • L. Balkenhol
  • +137
  • L.E. Bleem,
  • P. Chaubal,
  • T.M. Crawford,
  • S. Grandis,
  • Y. Omori,
  • C.L. Reichardt,
  • E. Rozo,
  • E.S. Rykoff,
  • C. To,
  • T.M.C. Abbott,
  • P.A.R. Ade,
  • O. Alves,
  • A.J. Anderson,
  • F. Andrade-Oliveira,
  • J. Annis,
  • J.S. Avva,
  • D. Bacon,
  • K. Benabed,
  • A.N. Bender,
  • B.A. Benson,
  • G.M. Bernstein,
  • E. Bertin,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • F.R. Bouchet,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • J.E. Carlstrom,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • T.W. Cecil,
  • C.L. Chang,
  • P.M. Chichura,
  • T.-L. Chou,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • A. Cukierman,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • C. Daley,
  • T. de Haan,
  • S. Desai,
  • K.R. Dibert,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • M.A. Dobbs,
  • P. Doel,
  • C. Doux,
  • D. Dutcher,
  • S. Everett,
  • W. Everett,
  • C. Feng,
  • K.R. Ferguson,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • A. Ferté,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • A. Foster,
  • J. Frieman,
  • S. Galli,
  • A.E. Gambrel,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • R.W. Gardner,
  • M. Gatti,
  • T. Giannantonio,
  • N. Goeckner-Wald,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R. Gualtieri,
  • S. Guns,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • N.W. Halverson,
  • S.R. Hinton,
  • E. Hivon,
  • G.P. Holder,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • W.L. Holzapfel,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • J.C. Hood,
  • N. Huang,
  • D.J. James,
  • L. Knox,
  • M. Korman,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • C.-L. Kuo,
  • O. Lahav,
  • A.T. Lee,
  • C. Lidman,
  • M. Lima,
  • A.E. Lowitz,
  • C. Lu,
  • M. March,
  • J. Mena-Fernández,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • M. Millea,
  • R. Miquel,
  • J.J. Mohr,
  • J. Montgomery,
  • J. Muir,
  • T. Natoli,
  • G.I. Noble,
  • V. Novosad,
  • R.L.C. Ogando,
  • S. Padin,
  • Z. Pan,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • M.E.S. Pereira,
  • A. Pieres,
  • A.A. Plazas Malagón,
  • K. Prabhu,
  • J. Prat,
  • W. Quan,
  • A. Rahlin,
  • M. Raveri,
  • M. Rodriguez-Monroy,
  • A.K. Romer,
  • M. Rouble,
  • J.E. Ruhl,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • M. Schubnell,
  • G. Smecher,
  • M. Smith,
  • M. Soares-Santos,
  • J.A. Sobrin,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • A. Suzuki,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • K.L. Thompson,
  • B. Thorne,
  • C. Tucker,
  • C. Umilta,
  • J.D. Vieira,
  • M. Vincenzi,
  • G. Wang,
  • N. Weaverdyck,
  • J. Weller,
  • N. Whitehorn,
  • W.L.K. Wu,
  • V. Yefremenko,
  • M.R. Young
  • (less)
(07/2022) e-Print:2207.11937
abstract + abstract -

We infer the mean optical depth of a sample of optically-selected galaxy clusters from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) via the pairwise kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect. The pairwise kSZ signal between pairs of clusters drawn from the DES Year-3 cluster catalog is detected at $4.1 \sigma$ in cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps from two years of observations with the SPT-3G camera on the South Pole Telescope. After cuts, there are 24,580 clusters in the $\sim 1,400$ deg$^2$ of the southern sky observed by both experiments. We infer the mean optical depth of the cluster sample with two techniques. The optical depth inferred from the pairwise kSZ signal is $\bar{\tau}_e = (2.97 \pm 0.73) \times 10^{-3}$, while that inferred from the thermal SZ signal is $\bar{\tau}_e = (2.51 \pm 0.55) \times 10^{-3}$. The two measures agree at $0.6 \sigma$. We perform a suite of systematic checks to test the robustness of the analysis.


(660)Core-collapse Supernovae in the Dark Energy Survey: Luminosity Functions and Host Galaxy Demographics
  • M. Grayling,
  • C.P. Gutiérrez,
  • M. Sullivan,
  • P. Wiseman,
  • M. Vincenzi
  • +71
  • L. Galbany,
  • A. Möller,
  • D. Brout,
  • T.M. Davis,
  • C. Frohmaier,
  • O. Graur,
  • L. Kelsey,
  • C. Lidman,
  • B. Popovic,
  • M. Smith,
  • M. Toy,
  • B.E. Tucker,
  • Z. Zontou,
  • T.M.C. Abbott,
  • M. Aguena,
  • S. Allam,
  • F. Andrade-Oliveira,
  • J. Annis,
  • J. Asorey,
  • D. Bacon,
  • E. Bertin,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • D. Brooks,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • D. Carollo,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • M.E.S. Pereira,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • P. Doel,
  • S. Everett,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • D. Friedel,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • M. Gatti,
  • D. Gruen,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • S.R. Hinton,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D.J. James,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • G.F. Lewis,
  • U. Malik,
  • M. March,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • R. Morgan,
  • R.L.C. Ogando,
  • A. Palmese,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A. Pieres,
  • A.A. Plazas Malagón,
  • M. Rodriguez-Monroy,
  • A.K. Romer,
  • A. Roodman,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • G. Tarle,
  • C. To,
  • D.L. Tucker,
  • T.N. Varga
  • (less)
(07/2022) e-Print:2207.08520
abstract + abstract -

We present the luminosity functions and host galaxy properties of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) core-collapse supernova (CCSN) sample, consisting of 69 Type II and 50 Type Ibc spectroscopically and photometrically-confirmed supernovae over a redshift range $0.045<z<0.25$. We fit the observed DES $griz$ CCSN light-curves and K-correct to produce rest-frame $R$-band light curves. We compare the sample with lower-redshift CCSN samples from Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) and Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS). Comparing luminosity functions, the DES and ZTF samples of SNe II are brighter than that of LOSS with significances of 3.0$\sigma$ and 2.5$\sigma$ respectively. While this difference could be caused by redshift evolution in the luminosity function, simpler explanations such as differing levels of host extinction remain a possibility. We find that the host galaxies of SNe II in DES are on average bluer than in ZTF, despite having consistent stellar mass distributions. We consider a number of possibilities to explain this -- including galaxy evolution with redshift, selection biases in either the DES or ZTF samples, and systematic differences due to the different photometric bands available -- but find that none can easily reconcile the differences in host colour between the two samples and thus its cause remains uncertain.


(659)A galaxy-driven model of type Ia supernova luminosity variations
  • P. Wiseman,
  • M. Vincenzi,
  • M. Sullivan,
  • L. Kelsey,
  • B. Popovic
  • +57
  • B. Rose,
  • D. Brout,
  • T.M. Davis,
  • C. Frohmaier,
  • L. Galbany,
  • C. Lidman,
  • A. Möller,
  • D. Scolnic,
  • M. Smith,
  • M. Aguena,
  • S. Allam,
  • F. Andrade-Oliveira,
  • J. Annis,
  • E. Bertin,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • F.J. Castander,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • M.E.S. Pereira,
  • S. Desai,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • P. Doel,
  • S. Everett,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • D. Friedel,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • M. Gatti,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • D. Gruen,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • S.R. Hinton,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D.J. James,
  • M. March,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • R. Morgan,
  • A. Palmese,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A. Pieres,
  • A.A. Plazas Malagón,
  • A.K. Romer,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • M. Soares-Santos,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • G. Tarle,
  • C. To,
  • T.N. Varga
  • (less)
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. (07/2022) e-Print:2207.05583 doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1984
abstract + abstract -

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are used as standardizable candles to measure cosmological distances, but differences remain in their corrected luminosities which display a magnitude step as a function of host galaxy properties such as stellar mass and rest-frame U−R colour. Identifying the cause of these steps is key to cosmological analyses and provides insight into SN physics. Here we investigate the effects of SN progenitor ages on their light-curve properties using a galaxy-based forward model that we compare to the Dark Energy Survey 5-yr SN Ia sample. We trace SN Ia progenitors through time and draw their light-curve width parameters from a bimodal distribution according to their age. We find that an intrinsic luminosity difference between SNe of different ages cannot explain the observed trend between step size and SN colour. The data split by stellar mass are better reproduced by following recent work implementing a step in total-to-selective dust extinction ratio () between low- and high-mass hosts, although an additional intrinsic luminosity step is still required to explain the data split by host galaxy U−R. Modelling the R_V step as a function of galaxy age provides a better match overall. Additional age versus luminosity steps marginally improve the match to the data, although most of the step is absorbed by the width versus luminosity coefficient α. Furthermore, we find no evidence that α varies with SN age.


(658)Updated bounds on axion-like particles from X-ray observations
  • Simon Schallmoser,
  • Sven Krippendorf,
  • Francesca Chadha-Day,
  • Jochen Weller
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (07/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1224
abstract + abstract -

In this work, we revisit five different point sources within or behind galaxy clusters to constrain the coupling constant between axion-like particles (ALPs) and photons. We use three distinct machine learning (ML) techniques and compare our results with a standard χ2 analysis. For the first time, we apply approximate Bayesian computation to search for ALPs and find consistently good performance across ML classifiers. Further, we apply more realistic 3D magnetic field simulations of galaxy clusters and compare our results with previously used 1D simulations. We find constraints on the ALP-photon coupling at the level of state-of-the-art bounds with $g_{a\gamma \gamma } \lesssim 0.6 \times 10^{-12} \, \rm{GeV}^{-1}$, hence improving on previous constraints obtained from the same observations.


(657)Cosmological implications of the full shape of anisotropic clustering measurements in BOSS and eBOSS
  • Agne Semenaite,
  • Ariel G. Sánchez,
  • Andrea Pezzotta,
  • Jiamin Hou,
  • Roman Scoccimarro
  • +8
  • Alexander Eggemeier,
  • Martin Crocce,
  • Chia-Hsun Chuang,
  • Alexander Smith,
  • Cheng Zhao,
  • Joel R. Brownstein,
  • Graziano Rossi,
  • Donald P. Schneider
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac829
abstract + abstract -

We present the analysis of the full shape of anisotropic clustering measurement from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) quasar sample together with the combined galaxy sample from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), re-analysed using an updated recipe for the non-linear matter power spectrum and the non-local bias parameters. We obtain constraints for flat Lambda cold dark matter cosmologies, focusing on the cosmological parameters that are independent of the Hubble parameter h. Our recovered value for the Root Mean Square (RMS) linear perturbation theory variance as measured on the scale of $12\, {\rm Mpc}$ is σ12 = 0.805 ± 0.049, while using the traditional reference scale of $8\, h^{-1}\, {\rm Mpc}$ gives σ8 = 0.815 ± 0.044. We quantify the agreement between our measurements and the latest cosmic microwave background data from Planck using the suspiciousness metric, and find them to be consistent within 0.64 ± 0.03σ. Combining our clustering constraints with the 3 × 2pt data sample from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 release slightly degrades this agreement to the level of 1.54 ± 0.08σ, while still showing an overall consistency with Planck. We furthermore study the effect of imposing a Planck - like prior on the parameters that define the shape of the linear matter power spectrum, and find significantly tighter constraints on the parameters that control the evolution of density fluctuations. In particular, the combination of low-redshift data sets prefers a value of the physical dark energy density ωDE = 0.335 ± 0.011, which is 1.7σ higher than the one preferred by Planck.


CN-7
(656)Low-Energy Supernovae Severely Constrain Radiative Particle Decays
  • Andrea Caputo,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka,
  • Georg Raffelt,
  • Edoardo Vitagliano
Physical Review Letters (06/2022) e-Print:2201.09890 doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.221103
abstract + abstract -

The hot and dense core formed in the collapse of a massive star is a powerful source of hypothetical feebly interacting particles such as sterile neutrinos, dark photons, axionlike particles (ALPs), and others. Radiative decays such as a →2 γ deposit this energy in the surrounding material if the mean free path is less than the radius of the progenitor star. For the first time, we use a supernova (SN) population with particularly low explosion energies as the most sensitive calorimeters to constrain this possibility. These SNe are observationally identified as low-luminosity events with low ejecta velocities and low masses of ejected 56Ni. Their low energies limit the energy deposition from particle decays to less than about 0.1 B, where 1 B (bethe)=1051 erg . For 1-500 MeV-mass ALPs, this generic argument excludes ALP-photon couplings Ga γ γ in the 10-10−10-8 GeV-1 range.


(655)Presolar grain dynamics: Creating nucleosynthetic variations through a combination of drag and viscous evolution
  • Mark A. Hutchison,
  • Jean-David Bodénan,
  • Lucio Mayer,
  • Maria Schönbächler
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac765
abstract + abstract -

Meteoritic studies of Solar system objects show evidence of nucleosynthetic heterogeneities that are inherited from small presolar grains ($\lt 10\,\, \mu {\mathrm{m}}$) formed in stellar environments external to our own. The initial distribution and subsequent evolution of these grains are currently unconstrained. Using 3D, gas-dust simulations, we find that isotopic variations on the order of those observed in the Solar system can be generated and maintained by drag and viscosity. Small grains are dragged radially outwards without size/density sorting by viscous expansion and backreaction, enriching the outer disc with presolar grains. Meanwhile large aggregates composed primarily of silicates drift radially inwards due to drag, further enriching the relative portion of presolar grains in the outer disc and diluting the inner disc. The late accumulation of enriched aggregates outside Jupiter could explain some of the isotopic variations observed in Solar system bodies, such as the enrichment of supernovae derived material in carbonaceous chondrites. We also see evidence for isotopic variations in the inner disc that may hold implications for enstatite and ordinary chondrites that formed closer to the Sun. Initial heterogeneities in the presolar grain distribution that are not continuously reinforced are dispersed by diffusion, radial surface flows, and/or planetary interactions over the entire lifetime of the disc. For younger, more massive discs we expect turbulent diffusion to be even more homogenizing, suggesting that dust evolution played a more central role in forming the isotopic anomalies in the Solar system than originally thought.


(654)Rare radiative decays of charm baryons
  • Nico Adolph,
  • Gudrun Hiller
Physical Review D (06/2022) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.105.116001
abstract + abstract -

We study weak radiative |Δ c |=|Δ u |=1 decays of the charmed antitriplet (Λc, Ξc+, Ξc0) and sextet (Σc++, Σc+, Σc0, Ξc'+, Ξc'0, Ωc) baryons in the standard model (SM) and beyond. We work out S U (2 )- and S U (3 )F-symmetry relations. We propose to study self-analyzing decay chains such as Ξc+→Σ+(→p π0)γ and Ξc0→Λ (→p π-)γ , which enable new physics sensitive polarization studies. SM contributions can be controlled by a corresponding analysis of the Cabibbo-favored decays Λc+→Σ+(→p π0)γ and Ξc0→Ξ0(→Λ π0)γ . Further tests of the SM are available with initially polarized baryons including Λc→p γ together with Λc→Σ+γ decays, or Ωc→Ξ0γ together with Ωc→(Λ ,Σ0)γ . In addition, C P -violating new physics contributions to dipole operators can enhance C P asymmetries up to a few percent.


(653)Effects of boosting on extragalactic components: methods and statistical studies
  • William Coulton,
  • Sydney Feldman,
  • Karime Maamari,
  • Elena Pierpaoli,
  • Siavash Yasini
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1017
abstract + abstract -

In this work, we examine the impact of our motion with respect to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) rest frame on statistics of CMB maps by examining the one-, two-, three-, and four- point statistics of simulated maps of the CMB and Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effects. We validate boosting codes by comparing their outcomes for temperature and polarization power spectra up to ℓ ≃ 6000. We derive and validate a new analytical formula for the computation of the boosted power spectrum of a signal with a generic frequency dependence. As an example we show how this increases the boosting correction to the power spectrum of CMB intensity measurements by ${\sim}30{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ at 150 GHz. We examine the effect of boosting on thermal and kinetic SZ power spectra from semianalytical and hydrodynamical simulations; the boosting correction is generally small for both simulations, except when considering frequencies near the tSZ null. For the non-Gaussian statistics, in general we find that boosting has no impact with two exceptions. We find that, whilst the statistics of the CMB convergence field are unaffected, quadratic estimators that are used to measure this field can become biased at the $O(1){{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ level by boosting effects. We present a simple modification to the standard estimators that removes this bias. Second, bispectrum estimators can receive a systematic bias from the Doppler induced quadrupole when there is anisotropy in the sky - in practice this anisotropy comes from masking and inhomogeneous noise. This effect is unobservable and already removed by existing analysis methods.


(652)HOLISMOKES. VIII. High-redshift, strong-lens search in the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program
  • Yiping Shu,
  • Raoul Cañameras,
  • Stefan Schuldt,
  • Sherry H. Suyu,
  • Stefan Taubenberger
  • +2
  • Kaiki Taro Inoue,
  • Anton T. Jaelani
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2022) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202243203
abstract + abstract -

We carry out a search for strong-lens systems containing high-redshift lens galaxies with the goal of extending strong-lensing-assisted galaxy evolutionary studies to earlier cosmic time. Two strong-lens classifiers are constructed from a deep residual network and trained with datasets of different lens-redshift and brightness distributions. We classify a sample of 5 356 628 pre-selected objects from the Wide-layer fields in the second public data release of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) by applying the two classifiers to their HSC gri-filter cutouts. Cutting off at thresholds that correspond to a false positive rate of 10−3 on our test set, the two classifiers identify 5468 and 6119 strong-lens candidates. Visually inspecting the cutouts of those candidates results in 735 grade-A or B strong-lens candidates in total, of which 277 candidates are discovered for the first time. This is the single largest set of galaxy-scale strong-lens candidates discovered with HSC data to date, and nearly half of it (331/735) contains lens galaxies with photometric redshifts above 0.6. Our discoveries will serve as a valuable target list for ongoing and scheduled spectroscopic surveys such as the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph project, and the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer.

Full Tables B.1 and B.2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/662/A4


(651)SHARP - VIII. J0924+0219 lens mass distribution and time-delay prediction through adaptive-optics imaging
  • Geoff C. -F. Chen,
  • Christopher D. Fassnacht,
  • Sherry H. Suyu,
  • Léon V. E. Koopmans,
  • David J. Lagattuta
  • +4
  • John P. McKean,
  • Matt W. Auger,
  • Simona Vegetti,
  • Tommaso Treu
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1081
abstract + abstract -

Strongly lensed quasars can provide measurements of the Hubble constant (H0) independent of any other methods. One of the key ingredients is exquisite high-resolution imaging data, such as Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging and adaptive-optics (AO) imaging from ground-based telescopes, which provide strong constraints on the mass distribution of the lensing galaxy. In this work, we expand on the previous analysis of three time-delay lenses with AO imaging (RX J1131-1231, HE 0435-1223, and PG 1115+080), and perform a joint analysis of J0924+0219 by using AO imaging from the Keck telescope, obtained as part of the Strong lensing at High Angular Resolution Program (SHARP) AO effort, with HST imaging to constrain the mass distribution of the lensing galaxy. Under the assumption of a flat Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model with fixed Ωm = 0.3, we show that by marginalizing over two different kinds of mass models (power-law and composite models) and their transformed mass profiles via a mass-sheet transformation, we obtain $\Delta t_{\rm BA}=6.89\substack{+0.8\-0.7}\, h^{-1}\hat{\sigma }_{v}^{2}$ d, $\Delta t_{\rm CA}=10.7\substack{+1.6\-1.2}\, h^{-1}\hat{\sigma }_{v}^{2}$ d, and $\Delta t_{\rm DA}=7.70\substack{+1.0\-0.9}\, h^{-1}\hat{\sigma }_{v}^{2}$ d, where $h=H_{0}/100\,\rm km\, s^{-1}\, Mpc^{-1}$ is the dimensionless Hubble constant and $\hat{\sigma }_{v}=\sigma ^{\rm ob}_{v}/(280\,\rm km\, s^{-1})$ is the scaled dimensionless velocity dispersion. Future measurements of time delays with 10 per cent uncertainty and velocity dispersion with 5 per cent uncertainty would yield a H0 constraint of ~15 per cent precision.


(650)Low-luminosity type IIP supernovae: SN 2005cs and SN 2020cxd as very low-energy iron core-collapse explosions
  • Alexandra Kozyreva,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka,
  • Daniel Kresse,
  • Stefan Taubenberger,
  • Petr Baklanov
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1518
abstract + abstract -

SN 2020cxd is a representative of the family of low-energy, underluminous Type IIP supernovae (SNe), whose observations and analysis were recently reported by Yang et al. (2021). Here we re-evaluate the observational data for the diagnostic SN properties by employing the hydrodynamic explosion model of a 9 M red supergiant progenitor with an iron core and a pre-collapse mass of 8.75 M. The explosion of the star was obtained by the neutrino-driven mechanism in a fully self-consistent simulation in three dimensions (3D). Multi-band light curves and photospheric velocities for the plateau phase are computed with the one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code STELLA, applied to the spherically averaged 3D explosion model as well as sphericized radial profiles in different directions of the 3D model. We find that the overall evolution of the bolometric light curve, duration of the plateau phase, and basic properties of the multi-band emission can be well reproduced by our SN model with its explosion energy of only 0.7 × 1050 erg and an ejecta mass of 7.4 M. These values are considerably lower than the previously reported numbers, but they are compatible with those needed to explain the fundamental observational properties of the prototype low-luminosity SN 2005cs. Because of the good compatibility of our photospheric velocities with line velocities determined for SN 2005cs, we conclude that the line velocities of SN 2020cxd are probably overestimated by up to a factor of about 3. The evolution of the line velocities of SN 2005cs compared to photospheric velocities in different explosion directions might point to intrinsic asymmetries in the SN ejecta.


(649){\Lambda}CDM with baryons vs. MOND: the time evolution of the universal acceleration scale in the Magneticum simulations
  • Alexander C. Mayer,
  • Adelheid F. Teklu,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus
arXiv e-prints (06/2022) e-Print:2206.04333
abstract + abstract -

MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) is an alternative to the standard Cold Dark Matter (CDM) paradigm which proposes an alteration of Newton's laws of motion at low accelerations, characterized by a universal acceleration scale a_0. It attempts to explain observations of galactic rotation curves and predicts a specific scaling relation of the baryonic and total acceleration in galaxies, referred to as the Rotational Acceleration Relation (RAR), which can be equivalently formulated as a Mass Discrepancy Acceleration Relation (MDAR). The appearance of these relations in observational data such as SPARC has lead to investigations into the existence of similar relations in cosmological simulations using the standard {\Lambda}CDM model. Here, we report the existence of an RAR and MDAR similar to that predicted by MOND in {\Lambda}CDM using a large sample of galaxies extracted from a cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation (Magneticum). Furthermore, by using galaxies in Magneticum at different redshifts, a prediction for the evolution of the inferred acceleration parameter a_0 with cosmic time is derived by fitting a MOND force law to these galaxies. In Magneticum, the best fit for a_0 is found to increase by a factor of approximately 3 from redshift z = 0 to z = 2. This offers a powerful test from cosmological simulations to distinguish between MOND and {\Lambda}CDM observationally.


(648)The PEPSI exoplanet transit survey (PETS) I: investigating the presence of a silicate atmosphere on the super-earth 55 Cnc e
  • Engin Keles,
  • Matthias Mallonn,
  • Daniel Kitzmann,
  • Katja Poppenhaeger,
  • H. Jens Hoeijmakers
  • +24
  • Ilya Ilyin,
  • Xanthippi Alexoudi,
  • Thorsten A. Carroll,
  • Julian Alvarado-Gomez,
  • Laura Ketzer,
  • Aldo S. Bonomo,
  • Francesco Borsa,
  • B. Scott Gaudi,
  • Thomas Henning,
  • Luca Malavolta,
  • Karan Molaverdikhani,
  • Valerio Nascimbeni,
  • Jennifer Patience,
  • Lorenzo Pino,
  • Gaetano Scandariato,
  • Everett Schlawin,
  • Evgenya Shkolnik,
  • Daniela Sicilia,
  • Alessandro Sozzetti,
  • Mary G. Foster,
  • Christian Veillet,
  • Ji Wang,
  • Fei Yan,
  • Klaus G. Strassmeier
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac810
abstract + abstract -

The study of exoplanets and especially their atmospheres can reveal key insights on their evolution by identifying specific atmospheric species. For such atmospheric investigations, high-resolution transmission spectroscopy has shown great success, especially for Jupiter-type planets. Towards the atmospheric characterization of smaller planets, the super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cnc e is one of the most promising terrestrial exoplanets studied to date. Here, we present a high-resolution spectroscopic transit observation of this planet, acquired with the PEPSI instrument at the Large Binocular Telescope. Assuming the presence of Earth-like crust species on the surface of 55 Cnc e, from which a possible silicate-vapor atmosphere could have originated, we search in its transmission spectrum for absorption of various atomic and ionized species such as Fe , Fe +, Ca , Ca +, Mg, and K , among others. Not finding absorption for any of the investigated species, we are able to set absorption limits with a median value of 1.9 × RP. In conclusion, we do not find evidence of a widely extended silicate envelope on this super-Earth reaching several planetary radii.


(647)LYRA - II. Cosmological dwarf galaxy formation with inhomogeneous Population III enrichment
  • Thales A. Gutcke,
  • Rüdiger Pakmor,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Volker Springel
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac867
abstract + abstract -

We present the simulation of a $2\times 10^{9}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$ halo mass cosmological dwarf galaxy run to z = 0 at 4 solar mass gas resolution with resolved supernova feedback. We compare three simple subgrid implementations for the inhomogeneous chemical enrichment from Population III stars and compare them to constraints from Local Group dwarf galaxies. The employed model, LYRA, is a novel high-resolution galaxy formation model built for the moving mesh code AREPO, which is marked by a resolved multiphase interstellar medium, single stars, and individual supernova events. The resulting reionization relic is characterized by a short (<1.5 Gyr) star formation history that is repeatedly brought to a standstill by violent bursts of feedback. Star formation is reignited for a short duration due to a merger at z ≍ 4 and then again at z ≍ 0.2-0 after sustained gas accretion. Our model z = 0 galaxy matches the stellar mass, size, stellar kinematics, and metallicity relations of Local Group dwarf galaxies well. The dark matter profile does not exhibit a core in any version of the model. We show that the host halo masses of Population III stars affect the assembly history of dwarf galaxies. This manifests itself through the initial gaseous collapse in the progenitor haloes, affecting the central density of the stellar component and through the accretion of luminous substructure.


(646)Production and polarization of S -wave quarkonia in potential nonrelativistic QCD
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Hee Sok Chung,
  • Antonio Vairo,
  • Xiang-Peng Wang
Physical Review D (06/2022) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.105.L111503
abstract + abstract -

Based on the potential nonrelativistic QCD formalism, we compute the nonrelativistic QCD long-distance matrix elements (LDMEs) for inclusive production of S -wave heavy quarkonia. This greatly reduces the number of nonperturbative unknowns and brings in a substantial enhancement in the predictive power of the nonrelativistic QCD factorization formalism. We obtain improved determinations of the LDMEs and find cross sections and polarizations of J /ψ , ψ (2 S ), and excited ϒ states that agree well with LHC data. Our results may have important implications in pinning down the heavy quarkonium production mechanism.


(645)Lattice simulations of Abelian gauge fields coupled to axions during inflation
  • Angelo Caravano,
  • Eiichiro Komatsu,
  • Kaloian D. Lozanov,
  • Jochen Weller
Physical Review D (06/2022) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.105.123530
abstract + abstract -

We use a lattice simulation to study a model of axion inflation where the inflaton is coupled to a U(1) gauge field through Chern-Simons interaction. These kinds of models have already been studied with a lattice simulation in the context of reheating. In this work, we focus on the deep inflationary phase and discuss the new aspects that need to be considered in order to simulate gauge fields in this regime. Our main result is reproducing with precision the growth of the gauge field on the lattice induced by the rolling of the axion on its potential, thus recovering the results of linear perturbation theory for this model. In order to do so, we study in detail how the spatial discretization, through the choice of the spatial derivatives on the lattice, influences the dynamics of the gauge field. We find that the evolution of the gauge field is highly sensitive to the choice of the spatial discretization scheme. Nevertheless, we are able to identify a discretization scheme for which the growth of the gauge field on the lattice reproduces the one of continuous space with good precision.


(644)EOS: a software for flavor physics phenomenology
  • D. van Dyk,
  • F. Beaujean,
  • T. Blake,
  • C. Bobeth,
  • M. Bordone
  • +16
  • K. Dugic,
  • E. Eberhard,
  • N. Gubernari,
  • E. Graverini,
  • M. Jung,
  • A. Kokulu,
  • S. Kürten,
  • D. Leljak,
  • P. Lüghausen,
  • S. Meiser,
  • M. Rahimi,
  • M. Reboud,
  • R. Silva Coutinho,
  • J. Virto,
  • K. K. Vos,
  • EOS Authors
  • (less)
European Physical Journal C (06/2022) doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-10177-4
abstract + abstract -

EOS is an open-source software for a variety of computational tasks in flavor physics. Its use cases include theory predictions within and beyond the Standard Model of particle physics, Bayesian inference of theory parameters from experimental and theoretical likelihoods, and simulation of pseudo events for a number of signal processes. EOS ensures high-performance computations through a C++ back-end and ease of usability through a Python front-end. To achieve this flexibility, EOS enables the user to select from a variety of implementations of the relevant decay processes and hadronic matrix elements at run time. In this article, we describe the general structure of the software framework and provide basic examples. Further details and in-depth interactive examples are provided as part of the EOS online documentation.


(643)Toward RNA Life on Early Earth: From Atmospheric HCN to Biomolecule Production in Warm Little Ponds
  • Ben K. D. Pearce,
  • Karan Molaverdikhani,
  • Ralph E. Pudritz,
  • Thomas Henning,
  • Kaitlin E. Cerrillo
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2022) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac47a1
abstract + abstract -

The origin of life on Earth involves the early appearance of an information-containing molecule such as RNA. The basic building blocks of RNA could have been delivered by carbon-rich meteorites or produced in situ by processes beginning with the synthesis of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the early Earth's atmosphere. Here, we construct a robust physical and nonequilibrium chemical model of the early Earth's atmosphere. The atmosphere is supplied with hydrogen from impact degassing of meteorites, water evaporated from the oceans, carbon dioxide from volcanoes, and methane from undersea hydrothermal vents, and in it lightning and external UV-driven chemistry produce HCN. This allows us to calculate the rain-out of HCN into warm little ponds (WLPs). We then use a comprehensive numerical model of sources and sinks to compute the resulting abundances of nucleobases, ribose, and nucleotide precursors such as 2-aminooxazole resulting from aqueous and UV-driven chemistry within them. We find that 4.4 billion years ago the limit of adenine concentrations in ponds for habitable surfaces is 0.05 μM in the absence of seepage. Meteorite delivery of adenine to WLPs can provide boosts in concentration by 2-3 orders of magnitude, but these boosts deplete within months by UV photodissociation, seepage, and hydrolysis. The early evolution of the atmosphere is dominated by the decrease in hydrogen due to falling impact rates and atmospheric escape, and the rise of oxygenated species such as OH from H2O photolysis. The source of HCN is predominantly from UV radiation rather than lightning. Our work points to an early origin of RNA on Earth within ~200 Myr of the Moon-forming impact.


(642)Super-resolution trends in the ALMA Taurus survey: Structured inner discs and compact discs
  • Jeff Jennings,
  • Marco Tazzari,
  • Cathie J. Clarke,
  • Richard A. Booth,
  • Giovanni P. Rosotti
arXiv e-prints (06/2022) e-Print:2206.11308
abstract + abstract -

The 1.33 mm survey of protoplanetary discs in the Taurus molecular cloud found annular gaps and rings to be common in extended sources (>~55 au), when their 1D visibility distributions were fit parametrically. We first demonstrate the advantages and limitations of nonparametric visibility fits for data at the survey's 0.12" resolution. Then we use the nonparametric model in Frankenstein ('frank') to identify new substructure in three compact and seven extended sources. Among the new features we identify three trends: a higher occurrence rate of substructure in the survey's compact discs than previously seen, underresolved (potentially azimuthally asymmetric) substructure in the innermost disc of extended sources, and a 'shoulder' on the trailing edge of a ring in discs with strong depletion at small radii. Noting the shoulder morphology is present in multiple discs observed at higher resolution, we postulate it is tracing a common physical mechanism. We further demonstrate how a super-resolution frank brightness profile is useful in motivating an accurate parametric model, using the highly structured source DL Tau in which frank finds two new rings. Finally we show that sparse (u, v) plane sampling may be masking the presence of substructure in several additional compact survey sources.


(641)Is cosmic birefringence due to dark energy or dark matter? A tomographic approach
  • Hiromasa Nakatsuka,
  • Toshiya Namikawa,
  • Eiichiro Komatsu
Physical Review D (06/2022) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.105.123509
abstract + abstract -

A pseudoscalar "axionlike" field, ϕ , may explain the 3 σ hint of cosmic birefringence observed in the E B power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background polarization data. Is ϕ dark energy or dark matter? A tomographic approach can answer this question. The effective mass of dark energy field responsible for the accelerated expansion of the Universe today must be smaller than mϕ≃10-33 eV . If mϕ≳10-32 eV , ϕ starts evolving before the epoch of reionization and we should observe different amounts of birefringence from the E B power spectrum at low (l ≲10 ) and high multipoles. Such an observation, which requires a full-sky satellite mission, would rule out ϕ being dark energy. If mϕ≳10-28 eV , ϕ starts oscillating during the epoch of recombination, leaving a distinct signature in the E B power spectrum at high multipoles, which can be measured precisely by ground-based cosmic microwave background observations. Our tomographic approach relies on the shape of the E B power spectrum and is less sensitive to miscalibration of polarization angles.


(640)A Spectroscopic Study of Blue Supergiant Stars in Local Group Spiral Galaxies: Andromeda and Triangulum
  • Cheng Liu,
  • Rolf-Peter Kudritzki,
  • Gang Zhao,
  • Miguel A. Urbaneja,
  • Yang Huang
  • +2
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2022) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac69cc
abstract + abstract -

Low-resolution LAMOST and Keck spectra of blue supergiant stars distributed over the disks of the Local Group spiral galaxies M31 and M33 are analyzed to determine stellar effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, and reddening. Logarithmic metallicities at the center of the galaxies (in solar units) of 0.30 ± 0.09 and 0.11 ± 0.04 and metallicity gradients of -0.37 ± 0.13 dex/R 25 and -0.36 ± 0.16 dex/R 25 are measured for M31 and M33, respectively. For M33 the 2D distribution of metallicity indicates a deviation from azimuthal symmetry with an off-center peak. The flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relationship (FGLR) of blue supergiant stars is used to determine a distance modulus of 24.51 ± 0.13 mag for M31 and 24.93 ± 0.07 mag for M33. For M31 the FGLR distance agrees well with other methods. For M33 the FGLR-based distance is larger than the distances from Cepheids studies, but it is in good agreement with work on eclipsing binaries, planetary nebulae, long-period variables, and the tip of the red giant branch.


(639)$B$-meson decay into a proton and dark antibaryon from QCD light-cone sum rules
  • Alexander Khodjamirian,
  • Marcel Wald
arXiv e-prints (06/2022) e-Print:2206.11601
abstract + abstract -

The recently developed $B$-Mesogenesis scenario predicts decays of $B$ mesons into a baryon and hypothetical dark antibaryon $\Psi$. We suggest a method to calculate the amplitude of the simplest exclusive decay mode $B^+\to p \Psi$. Considering two models of $B$-Mesogenesis, we obtain the $B\to p$ hadronic matrix elements by applying QCD light-cone sum rules with the proton light-cone distribution amplitudes. We estimate the $B^+\to p \Psi$ decay width as a function of the mass and effective coupling of the dark antibaryon.


(638)QFT with stubs
  • Christoph Chiaffrino,
  • Ivo Sachs
Journal of High Energy Physics (06/2022) doi:10.1007/JHEP06(2022)120
abstract + abstract -

The BV-Laplacian ∆ in quantum field theory is singular, by construction, but can be regularized by deforming the classical BV-action. Taking inspiration from string theory we describe a non-local deformation of the latter by adding stubs to the interaction vertices while keeping classical BV-invariance manifest. This is achieved using a version of homotopy transfer resulting in a non-polynomial action for which the quantum master equation is now well defined and will be satisfied by adding additional vertices at loop level. The latter can be defined with the help of standard regularization schemes and is independent of the definition of ∆. In particular, the determination of anomalies reduces to the standard text-book calculation. Finally, we describe how the deformed (quantum) action can be obtained as a canonical transformation. As an example, we illustrate this procedure for quantum electrodynamics.


(637)Evolution mapping: a new approach to describe matter clustering in the non-linear regime
  • Ariel G. Sánchez,
  • Andrés N. Ruiz,
  • Jenny Gonzalez Jara,
  • Nelson D. Padilla
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (06/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1656
abstract + abstract -

We present a new approach to describe statistics of the non-linear matter density field that exploits a degeneracy in the impact of different cosmological parameters on the linear dimensionless matter power spectrum, $\Delta ^2_{\rm L}(k)$. We classify all cosmological parameters into two groups, shape parameters, which determine the shape of $\Delta ^2_{\rm L}(k)$, and evolution parameters, which only affect its amplitude at any given redshift. With this definition, the time evolution of $\Delta ^2_{\rm L}(k)$ in models with identical shape parameters but different evolution parameters can be mapped from one to the other by relabelling the redshifts that correspond to the same clustering amplitude, which we characterize by the linear mass fluctuation in spheres of radius 12 Mpc, σ12(z). We use N-body simulations to show that the same evolution mapping relation gives a good description of the non-linear power spectrum, the halo mass function, or the full density field. The deviations from the exact degeneracy are the result of the different structure formation histories experienced by each model to reach the same clustering amplitude and can be accurately described in terms of differences in the suppression factor g(a) = D(a)/a. These relations can be used to drastically reduce the number of parameters required to describe the cosmology dependence of the power spectrum. We show how this can help to speed up the inference of parameter constraints from cosmological observations. We also present a new design of an emulator of the non-linear power spectrum whose predictions can be adapted to an arbitrary choice of evolution parameters and redshift.


(636)Stellar labels for hot stars from low-resolution spectra. I. The HotPayne method and results for 330 000 stars from LAMOST DR6
  • Maosheng Xiang,
  • Hans-Walter Rix,
  • Yuan-Sen Ting,
  • Rolf-Peter Kudritzki,
  • Charlie Conroy
  • +7
  • Eleonora Zari,
  • Jian-Rong Shi,
  • Norbert Przybilla,
  • Maria Ramirez-Tannus,
  • Andrew Tkachenko,
  • Sarah Gebruers,
  • Xiao-Wei Liu
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (06/2022) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202141570
abstract + abstract -

We set out to determine stellar labels from low-resolution survey spectra of hot stars, specifically OBA stars with Teff ≳ 7500 K. This fills a gap in the scientific analysis of large spectroscopic stellar surveys such as LAMOST, which offers spectra for millions of stars at R ~ 1800 and covers 3800 Å ≤ λ ≤ 9000 Å. We first explore the theoretical information content of such spectra to determine stellar labels via the Cramér-Rao bound. We show that in the limit of perfect model spectra and observed spectra with signal-to-noise ratio ~50-100, precise estimates are possible for a wide range of stellar labels: not only the effective temperature, Teff, surface gravity, log g, and projected rotation velocity, vsin i, but also the micro-turbulence velocity,vmic, helium abundance, NHe/Ntot, and the elemental abundances [C/H], [N/H], [O/H], [Si/H], [S/H], and [Fe/H]. Our analysis illustrates that the temperature regime of Teff ~ 9500 K is challenging as the dominant Balmer and Paschen line strengths vary little with Teff. We implement the simultaneous fitting of these 11 stellar labels to LAMOST hot-star spectra using the Payne approach, drawing on Kurucz's ATLAS12/SYNTHE local thermodynamic equilibrium spectra as the underlying models. We then obtain stellar parameter estimates for a sample of about 330 000 hot stars with LAMOST spectra, an increase by about two orders of magnitude in sample size. Among them, about 260 000 have good Gaia parallaxes (ω/σω > 5), and their luminosities imply that ≳95% of them are luminous stars, mostly on the main sequence; the rest are evolved lower luminosity stars, such as hot subdwarfs and white dwarfs. We show that the fidelity of the results, particularly for the abundance estimates, is limited by the systematics of the underlying models as they do not account for nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium effects. Finally, we show the detailed distribution of vsin i of stars with 8000-15 000 K, illustrating that it extends to a sharp cutoff at the critical rotation velocity, vcrit, across a wide range of temperatures.

The catalog is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/662/A66


(635)Two-loop mixed QCD-EW corrections to q q ¯ → Hg, qg → Hq, and q ¯g → H q ¯
  • Marco Bonetti,
  • Erik Panzer,
  • Lorenzo Tancredi
Journal of High Energy Physics (06/2022) doi:10.1007/JHEP06(2022)115
abstract + abstract -

We compute the two-loop mixed QCD-Electroweak corrections to q q ¯→ Hg and its crossed channels qg → Hq, q ¯g →H q ¯, limiting ourselves to the contribution of light virtual quarks. We compute the independent helicity amplitudes as well as the form factors for this process, expressing them in terms of hyperlogarithms with algebraic arguments. The Feynman integrals are computed by direct integration over Feynman parameters and the results are expressed in terms of a basis of rational prefactors.


(634)Using Host Galaxy Spectroscopy to Explore Systematics in the Standardisation of Type Ia Supernovae
  • M. Dixon,
  • C. Lidman,
  • J. Mould,
  • L. Kelsey,
  • D. Brout
  • +73
  • A. Möller,
  • P. Wiseman,
  • M. Sullivan,
  • L. Galbany,
  • T.M. Davis,
  • M. Vincenzi,
  • D. Scolnic,
  • G.F. Lewis,
  • M. Smith,
  • R. Kessler,
  • A. Duffy,
  • E. Taylor,
  • C. Flynn,
  • T.M.C. Abbott,
  • M. Aguena,
  • S. Allam,
  • F. Andrade-Oliveira,
  • J. Annis,
  • J. Asorey,
  • E. Bertin,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • D. Carollo,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • M.E.S. Pereira,
  • P. Doel,
  • S. Everett,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • D. Friedel,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • M. Gatti,
  • D.W. Gerdes,
  • K. Glazebrook,
  • D. Gruen,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • S.R. Hinton,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D. Huterer,
  • D.J. James,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • U. Malik,
  • M. March,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • R. Morgan,
  • B. Nichol,
  • R.L.C. Ogando,
  • A. Palmese,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A. Pieres,
  • A.A. Plazas Malagón,
  • M. Rodriguez-Monroy,
  • A.K. Romer,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • M. Soares-Santos,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • G. Tarle,
  • C. To,
  • B.E. Tucker,
  • D.L. Tucker,
  • T.N. Varga
  • (less)
(06/2022) e-Print:2206.12085
abstract + abstract -

We use stacked spectra of the host galaxies of photometrically identified type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to search for correlations between Hubble diagram residuals and the spectral properties of the host galaxies. Utilising full spectrum fitting techniques on stacked spectra binned by Hubble residual, we find no evidence for trends between Hubble residuals and properties of the host galaxies that rely on spectral absorption features ($< 1.3{\sigma}$), such as stellar population age, metallicity, and mass-to-light ratio. However, we find significant trends between the Hubble residuals and the strengths of [OII] ($4.4{\sigma}$) and the Balmer emission lines ($3{\sigma}$). These trends are weaker than the well known trend between Hubble residuals and host galaxy stellar mass ($7.2{\sigma}$) that is derived from broad band photometry. After light curve corrections, we see fainter SNe Ia residing in galaxies with larger line strengths. We also find a trend ($3{\sigma}$) between Hubble residual and the Balmer decrement (a measure of reddening by dust) using $H{\beta}$ and $H{\gamma}$. The trend is only present in the redder SNe Ia, suggesting that bluer SNe Ia are relatively unaffected by dust in the interstellar medium of the host and that dust contributes to current Hubble diagram scatter impacting the measurement of cosmological parameters.


(633)Runaway relaxion from finite density
  • Reuven Balkin,
  • Javi Serra,
  • Konstantin Springmann,
  • Stefan Stelzl,
  • Andreas Weiler
Journal of High Energy Physics (06/2022) doi:10.1007/JHEP06(2022)023
abstract + abstract -

Finite density effects can destabilize the metastable vacua in relaxion models. Focusing on stars as nucleation seeds, we derive the conditions that lead to the formation and runaway of a relaxion bubble of a lower energy minimum than in vacuum. The resulting late-time phase transition in the universe allows us to set new constraints on the parameter space of relaxion models. We also find that similar instabilities can be triggered by the large electromagnetic fields around rotating neutron stars.


(632)Constraining the Baryonic Feedback with Cosmic Shear Using the DES Year-3 Small-Scale Measurements
  • A. Chen,
  • G. Aricò,
  • D. Huterer,
  • R. Angulo,
  • N. Weaverdyck
  • +137
  • O. Friedrich,
  • L.F. Secco,
  • C. Hernández-Monteagudo,
  • A. Alarcon,
  • O. Alves,
  • A. Amon,
  • F. Andrade-Oliveira,
  • E. Baxter,
  • K. Bechtol,
  • M.R. Becker,
  • G.M. Bernstein,
  • J. Blazek,
  • A. Brandao-Souza,
  • S.L. Bridle,
  • H. Camacho,
  • A. Campos,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • R. Cawthon,
  • C. Chang,
  • R. Chen,
  • P. Chintalapati,
  • A. Choi,
  • J. Cordero,
  • M. Crocce,
  • M.E.S. Pereira,
  • C. Davis,
  • J. DeRose,
  • E. Di Valentino,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • S. Dodelson,
  • C. Doux,
  • A. Drlica-Wagner,
  • K. Eckert,
  • T.F. Eifler,
  • F. Elsner,
  • J. Elvin-Poole,
  • S. Everett,
  • X. Fang,
  • A. Ferté,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • M. Gatti,
  • E. Gaztanaga,
  • G. Giannini,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • I. Harrison,
  • W.G. Hartley,
  • K. Herner,
  • K. Hoffmann,
  • H. Huang,
  • E.M. Huff,
  • B. Jain,
  • M. Jarvis,
  • N. Jeffrey,
  • T. Kacprzak,
  • E. Krause,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • P.-F. Leget,
  • P. Lemos,
  • A.R. Liddle,
  • N. MacCrann,
  • J. McCullough,
  • J. Muir,
  • J. Myles,
  • A. Navarro-Alsina,
  • Y. Omori,
  • S. Pandey,
  • Y. Park,
  • A. Porredon,
  • J. Prat,
  • M. Raveri,
  • A. Refregier,
  • R.P. Rollins,
  • A. Roodman,
  • R. Rosenfeld,
  • A.J. Ross,
  • E.S. Rykoff,
  • S. Samuroff,
  • C. Sánchez,
  • J. Sanchez,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • E. Sheldon,
  • T. Shin,
  • A. Troja,
  • M.A. Troxel,
  • I. Tutusaus,
  • T.N. Varga,
  • R.H. Wechsler,
  • B. Yanny,
  • B. Yin,
  • Y. Zhang,
  • J. Zuntz,
  • M. Aguena,
  • J. Annis,
  • D. Bacon,
  • E. Bertin,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • J. Carretero,
  • C. Conselice,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • S. Desai,
  • P. Doel,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • B. Flaugher,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • D.W. Gerdes,
  • T. Giannantonio,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • S.R. Hinton,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D.J. James,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • O. Lahav,
  • M. March,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • P. Melchior,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • J.J. Mohr,
  • R. Morgan,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A. Pieres,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • M. Smith,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M.E.C. Swanson,
  • G. Tarle,
  • D. Thomas,
  • C. To
  • (less)
(06/2022) e-Print:2206.08591
abstract + abstract -

We use the small scales of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year-3 cosmic shear measurements, which are excluded from the DES Year-3 cosmological analysis, to constrain the baryonic feedback. To model the baryonic feedback, we adopt a baryonic correction model and use the numerical package \texttt{Baccoemu} to accelerate the evaluation of the baryonic nonlinear matter power spectrum. We design our analysis pipeline to focus on the constraints of the baryonic suppression effects, utilizing the implication given by a principal component analysis on the Fisher forecasts. Our constraint on the baryonic effects can then be used to better model and ameliorate the effects of baryons in producing cosmological constraints from the next generation large-scale structure surveys. We detect the baryonic suppression on the cosmic shear measurements with a $\sim 2 \sigma$ significance. The characteristic halo mass for which half of the gas is ejected by baryonic feedback is constrained to be $M_c > 10^{13.2} h^{-1} M_{\odot}$ (95% C.L.). The best-fit baryonic suppression is $\sim 5\%$ at $k=1.0 {\rm Mpc}\ h^{-1}$ and $\sim 15\%$ at $k=5.0 {\rm Mpc} \ h^{-1}$. Our findings are robust with respect to the assumptions about the cosmological parameters, specifics of the baryonic model, and intrinsic alignments.


(631)Rare decays of b and c hadrons
  • Wolfgang Altmannshofer,
  • Flavio Archilli
arXiv e-prints (06/2022) e-Print:2206.11331
abstract + abstract -

In this white paper for the Snowmass process, we review the status and prospects of the field of rare decays of b and c hadrons. The role that rare decays play in the search for physics beyond the Standard Model is emphasised. We stress the complementarity of a large set of relevant processes and outline the most promising directions. The experimental opportunities at Belle II, BES III, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, and at future machines are discussed. We also summarize the challenges that need to be addressed on the theory side to achieve theory uncertainties for rare decays that match the expected experimental sensitivities.


(630)The Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program results: Type Ia Supernova brightness correlates with host galaxy dust
  • C. Meldorf,
  • A. Palmese,
  • D. Brout,
  • R. Chen,
  • D. Scolnic
  • +66
  • L. Kelsey,
  • L. Galbany,
  • W.G. Hartley,
  • T.M. Davis,
  • A. Drlica-Wagner,
  • M. Vincenzi,
  • J. Annis,
  • M. Dixon,
  • O. Graur,
  • C. Lidman,
  • A. Möller,
  • P. Nugent,
  • B. Rose,
  • M. Smith,
  • S. Allam,
  • D.L. Tucker,
  • J. Asorey,
  • J. Calcino,
  • D. Carollo,
  • K. Glazebrook,
  • G.F. Lewis,
  • G. Taylor,
  • B.E. Tucker,
  • A.G. Kim,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • M. Aguena,
  • F. Andrade-Oliveira,
  • D. Bacon,
  • E. Bertin,
  • S. Bocquet,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • J. Carretero,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • F.J. Castander,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • S. Desai,
  • P. Doel,
  • S. Everett,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • D. Friedel,
  • J. Frieman,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • M. Gatti,
  • D. Gruen,
  • J. Gschwend,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • S.R. Hinton,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • D.J. James,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • M. March,
  • J.L. Marshall,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • R. Morgan,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • M.E.S. Pereira,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • G. Tarle,
  • T.N. Varga
  • (less)
(06/2022) e-Print:2206.06928
abstract + abstract -

Cosmological analyses with type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) often assume a single empirical relation between color and luminosity ($\beta$) and do not account for varying host-galaxy dust properties. However, from studies of dust in large samples of galaxies, it is known that dust attenuation can vary significantly. Here we take advantage of state-of-the-art modeling of galaxy properties to characterize dust parameters (dust attenuation $A_V$, and a parameter describing the dust law slope $R_V$) for the Dark Energy Survey (DES) SN Ia host galaxies using the publicly available \texttt{BAGPIPES} code. Utilizing optical and infrared data of the hosts alone, we find three key aspects of host dust that impact SN Ia cosmology: 1) there exists a large range ($\sim1-6$) of host $R_V$ 2) high stellar mass hosts have $R_V$ on average $\sim0.7$ lower than that of low-mass hosts 3) there is a significant ($>3\sigma$) correlation between the Hubble diagram residuals of red SNe Ia that when corrected for reduces scatter by $\sim13\%$ and the significance of the ``mass step'' to $\sim1\sigma$. These represent independent confirmations of recent predictions based on dust that attempted to explain the puzzling ``mass step'' and intrinsic scatter ($\sigma_{\rm int}$) in SN Ia analyses. We also find that red-sequence galaxies have both lower and more peaked dust law slope distributions on average in comparison to non red-sequence galaxies. We find that the SN Ia $\beta$ and $\sigma_{\rm int}$ both differ by $>3\sigma$ when determined separately for red-sequence galaxy and all other galaxy hosts. The agreement between fitted host-$R_V$ and SN Ia $\beta$&$\sigma_{\rm int}$ suggests that host dust properties play a major role in SN Ia color-luminosity standardization and supports the claim that SN Ia intrinsic scatter is driven by $R_V$ variation.


(629)The Mechanism of Efficient Electron Acceleration at Parallel Nonrelativistic Shocks
  • Mohamad Shalaby,
  • Rouven Lemmerz,
  • Timon Thomas,
  • Christoph Pfrommer
The Astrophysical Journal (06/2022) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac6ce7
abstract + abstract -

Thermal electrons cannot directly participate in the process of diffusive acceleration at electron-ion shocks because their Larmor radii are smaller than the shock transition width: this is the well-known electron injection problem of diffusive shock acceleration. Instead, an efficient pre-acceleration process must exist that scatters electrons off of electromagnetic fluctuations on scales much shorter than the ion gyroradius. The recently found intermediate-scale instability provides a natural way to produce such fluctuations in parallel shocks. The instability drives comoving (with the upstream plasma) ion-cyclotron waves at the shock front and only operates when the drift speed is smaller than half of the electron Alfvén speed. Here we perform particle-in-cell simulations with the SHARP code to study the impact of this instability on electron acceleration at parallel nonrelativistic, electron-ion shocks. To this end, we compare a shock simulation in which the intermediate-scale instability is expected to grow to simulations where it is suppressed. In particular, the simulation with an Alfvénic Mach number large enough to quench the intermediate instability shows a great reduction (by two orders of magnitude) of the electron acceleration efficiency. Moreover, the simulation with a reduced ion-to-electron mass ratio (where the intermediate instability is also suppressed) not only artificially precludes electron acceleration but also results in erroneous electron and ion heating in the downstream and shock transition regions. This finding opens up a promising route for a plasma physical understanding of diffusive shock acceleration of electrons, which necessarily requires realistic mass ratios in simulations of collisionless electron-ion shocks.


(628)Are the host galaxies of Long Gamma-Ray Bursts more compact than star-forming galaxies of the field?
  • B. Schneider,
  • E. Le Floc'h,
  • M. Arabsalmani,
  • S.D. Vergani,
  • J.T. Palmerio
(06/2022) e-Print:2206.14873
abstract + abstract -

(Abridged) Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) offer a promising tool to trace the cosmic history of star formation, especially at high redshift where conventional methods are known to suffer from intrinsic biases. Previous studies of GRB host galaxies at low redshift showed that high surface densities of stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) can potentially enhance the GRB production. We assess how the size, the stellar mass and SFR surface densities of distant galaxies affect their probability to host a long GRB, using a sample of GRB hosts at $z > 1$ and a control sample of star-forming sources from the field. We gather a sample of 45 GRB host galaxies at $1 < z < 3.1$ observed with the Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 camera in the near-infrared. Using the GALFIT parametric approach, we model the GRB host light profile and derive the half-light radius for 35 GRB hosts, which we use to estimate the SFR and stellar mass surface densities of each object. We compare the distribution of these physical quantities to the SFR-weighted properties of a complete sample of star-forming galaxies from the 3D-HST deep survey at comparable redshift and stellar mass. We show that, similarly to $z < 1$, GRB hosts are smaller in size and they have higher stellar mass and SFR surface densities than field galaxies at $1 < z < 2$. Interestingly, this result is robust even when considering separately the hosts of GRBs with optically-bright afterglows and the hosts of dark GRBs. At $z > 2$ though, GRB hosts appear to have sizes and stellar mass surface densities more consistent with those characterizing the field galaxies. In addition to a possible trend toward low metallicity environment, other environmental properties such as stellar density appears to play a role in the formation of long GRBs, at least up to $z \sim 2$. This might suggest that GRBs require special environments to be produced.


(627)Observations of PAHs in the atmospheres of discs and exoplanets
  • Barbara Ercolano,
  • Christian Rab,
  • Karan Molaverdikhani,
  • Billy Edwards,
  • Thomas Preibisch
  • +3
  • Leonardo Testi,
  • Inga Kamp,
  • Wing-Fai Thi
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (05/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac505
abstract + abstract -

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) play a key role in the chemical and hydrodynamical evolution of the atmospheres of exoplanets and planet-forming discs. If they can survive the planet formation process, PAHs are likely to be involved in pre-biotic chemical reactions eventually leading to more complex molecules such as amino acids and nucleotides, which form the basis for life as we know it. However, the abundance and specific role of PAHs in these environments is largely unknown due to limitations in sensitivity and range of wavelength of current and previous space-borne facilities. Upcoming infrared space spectroscopy missions, such as Twinkle and Ariel, present a unique opportunity to detect PAHs in the atmospheres of exoplanets and planet-forming discs. In this work, we present synthetic observations based on conservative numerical modelling of typical planet-forming discs and a transiting hot Saturnian planet around solar-type star. Our models show that Twinkle and Ariel might both be able to detect the 3.3 $\mu$m PAH feature within reasonable observing time in discs and transiting planets, assuming that PAHs are present with an abundance of at least one-tenth of the interstellar medium value.


(626)Black hole mergers in compact star clusters and massive black hole formation beyond the mass gap
  • Francesco Paolo Rizzuto,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Rainer Spurzem,
  • Manuel Arca-Sedda,
  • Mirek Giersz
  • +2
  • Jeremiah Paul Ostriker,
  • Sambaran Banerjee
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (05/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac231
abstract + abstract -

We present direct N-body simulations, carried out with NBODY6+ + GPU, of young and compact low-metallicity (Z = 0.0002) star clusters with 1.1 × 105 stars, a velocity dispersion of ~15 $\mathrm{km\, s^{-1}}$, a half-mass radius Rh = 0.6 pc, and a binary fraction of $10{{\ \rm per\,cent}}$ including updated evolution models for stellar winds and (pulsation) pair-instability supernovae (PSNe). Within the first tens of megayears, each cluster hosts several black hole (BH) merger events which nearly cover the complete mass range of primary and secondary BH masses for current LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA gravitational wave detections. The importance of gravitational recoil is estimated statistically during post-processing analysis. We present possible formation paths of massive BHs above the assumed lower PSN mass-gap limit ($45\, {\rm M}_\odot$) into the intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) regime ($\gt 100\, {\rm M}_\odot$) which include collisions of stars, BHs, and the direct collapse of stellar merger remnants with low core masses. The stellar evolution updates result in the early formation of heavier stellar BHs compared to the previous model. The resulting higher collision rates with massive stars support the rapid formation of massive BHs. For models assuming a high accretion efficiency for star-BH mergers, we present a first-generation formation scenario for GW190521-like events: a merger of two BHs which reached the PSN mass-gap merging with massive stars. This event is independent of gravitational recoil and therefore conceivable in dense stellar systems with low escape velocities. One simulated cluster even forms an IMBH binary (153, 173 M) which is expected to merge within a Hubble time.


(625)Probing vainsthein-screening gravity with galaxy clusters using internal kinematics and strong and weak lensing
  • Lorenzo Pizzuti,
  • Ippocratis D. Saltas,
  • Keiichi Umetsu,
  • Barbara Sartoris
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (05/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac746
abstract + abstract -

We use high-precision combined strong/weak lensing and kinematics measurements of the total mass profiles of the observed galaxy clusters MACS J1206.2-0847 and Abell S1063, to constrain the relativistic sector of the general DHOST dark energy theories, which exhibit a partial breaking of the so called Vainsthein screening mechanism, on the linear level of scalar fluctuations around a cosmological background. In particular, by using the MG-MAMMPOSST framework developed in Pizzuti et al., for the kinematics analysis of member galaxies in clusters, along with lensing mass profile reconstructions, we provide new constraints on the coupling Y2 that governs the theory's relativistic contribution to the lensing potential. The new bound from the combination of kinematics and lensing measurements of MACS 1206, $Y_2=-0.12^{+0.66}_{-0.67}$ at 2σ, provides about a two-fold improvement on previous constraints. In the case of Abell S1063, a >2σ tension with the GR expectation arises. We discuss this in some detail, and we investigate the possible sources of systematics that can explain the tension. We further discuss why the combination of kinematics of member galaxies with lensing is capable of providing much tighter bounds compared to kinematics or lensing alone, and we explain how the number density profile of tracers, as well as the choice of the velocity anisotropy profile, affects the final results.


(624)Pulsational pair-instability supernovae: gravitational collapse, black hole formation, and beyond
  • N. Rahman,
  • H. -T. Janka,
  • G. Stockinger,
  • S. E. Woosley
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (05/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac758
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the final collapse of rotating and non-rotating pulsational pair-instability supernova progenitors with zero-age-main-sequence masses of 60, 80, and 115 M and iron cores between 2.37 and 2.72 M by 2D hydrodynamics simulations. Using the general relativistic NADA-FLD code with energy-dependent three-flavour neutrino transport by flux-limited diffusion allows us to follow the evolution beyond the moment when the transiently forming neutron star (NS) collapses to a black hole (BH), which happens within 350-580 ms after bounce in all cases. Because of high neutrino luminosities and mean energies, neutrino heating leads to shock revival within ≲ 250 ms post bounce in all cases except the rapidly rotating 60 M model. In the latter case, centrifugal effects support a 10 per cent higher NS mass but reduce the radiated neutrino luminosities and mean energies by ~20 per cent and ~10 per cent, respectively, and the neutrino-heating rate by roughly a factor of two compared to the non-rotating counterpart. After BH formation, the neutrino luminosities drop steeply but continue on a 1-2 orders of magnitude lower level for several 100 ms because of aspherical accretion of neutrino and shock-heated matter, before the ultimately spherical collapse of the outer progenitor shells suppresses the neutrino emission to negligible values. In all shock-reviving models BH accretion swallows the entire neutrino-heated matter and the explosion energies decrease from maxima around 1.5 × 1051 erg to zero within a few seconds latest. Nevertheless, the shock or a sonic pulse moves outward and may trigger mass-loss, which we estimate by long-time simulations with the PROMETHEUS code. We also provide gravitational-wave signals.


(623)Symplectic quantization of multifield generalized Proca electrodynamics
  • Verónica Errasti Díez,
  • Marina Krstic Marinkovic
Physical Review D (05/2022) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.105.105022
abstract + abstract -

We explicitly carry out the symplectic quantization of a family of multifield generalized Proca (GP) electrodynamics theories. In the process, we provide an independent derivation of the so-called secondary constraint enforcing relations—consistency conditions that significantly restrict the allowed interactions in multifield settings already at the classical level. Additionally, we unveil the existence of quantum consistency conditions, which apply in both single- and multifield GP scenarios. Our newly found conditions imply that not all classically well-defined (multi-)GP theories are amenable to quantization. The extension of our results to the most general multi-GP class is conceptually straightforward, albeit algebraically cumbersome.


(622)Hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the muon g -2 in holographic QCD
  • Josef Leutgeb,
  • Anton Rebhan,
  • Michael Stadlbauer
Physical Review D (05/2022) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.105.094032
abstract + abstract -

We evaluate the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with two light flavors in minimal hard-wall and soft-wall holographic QCD models, as well as in simple generalizations thereof, and compare it to the rather precise results available from dispersive and lattice approaches. While holographic QCD cannot be expected to shed light on the existing small discrepancies between the latter, this comparison in turn provides useful information on the holographic models, which have been used to evaluate hadronic light-by-light contributions where errors in data-driven and lattice approaches are more sizable. In particular, in the hard-wall model that has recently been used to implement the Melnikov-Vainshtein short-distance constraint on hadronic light-by-light contributions, a matching of the hadronic vacuum polarization to the data-driven approach points to the same correction of parameters that has been proposed recently in order to account for next-to-leading-order effects.


(621)Can we actually constrain $f_{\rm NL}$ using the scale-dependent bias effect? An illustration of the impact of galaxy bias uncertainties using the BOSS DR12 galaxy power spectrum
  • Alexandre Barreira
arXiv e-prints (05/2022)
abstract + abstract -

The scale-dependent bias effect on the galaxy power spectrum is a very promising probe of the local primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) parameter $f_{\rm NL}$, but the amplitude of the effect is proportional to $f_{\rm NL}b_{\phi}$, where $b_{\phi}$ is the linear PNG galaxy bias parameter. Our knowledge of $b_{\phi}$ is currently very limited, yet nearly all existing $f_{\rm NL}$ constraints and forecasts assume precise knowledge for it. Here, we use the BOSS DR12 galaxy power spectrum to illustrate how our uncertain knowledge of $b_{\phi}$ currently prevents us from constraining $f_{\rm NL}$ with a given statistical precision $\sigma_{f_{\rm NL}}$. Assuming different fixed choices for the relation between $b_{\phi}$ and the linear density bias $b_1$, we find that $\sigma_{f_{\rm NL}}$ can vary by as much as an order of magnitude. Our strongest bound is $f_{\rm NL} = 16 \pm 16\ (1\sigma)$, while the loosest is $f_{\rm NL} = 230 \pm 226\ (1\sigma)$ for the same BOSS data. The impact of $b_{\phi}$ can be especially pronounced because it can be close to zero. We also show how marginalizing over $b_{\phi}$ with wide priors is not conservative, and leads in fact to biased constraints through parameter space projection effects. Independently of galaxy bias assumptions, the scale-dependent bias effect can only be used to detect $f_{\rm NL} \neq 0$ by constraining the product $f_{\rm NL}b_{\phi}$, but the error bar $\sigma_{f_{\rm NL}}$ remains undetermined and the results cannot be compared with the CMB; we find $f_{\rm NL}b_{\phi} \neq 0$ with $1.6\sigma$ significance. We also comment on why these issues are important for analyses with the galaxy bispectrum. Our results strongly motivate simulation-based research programs aimed at robust theoretical priors for the $b_{\phi}$ parameter, without which we may never be able to competitively constrain $f_{\rm NL}$ using galaxy data.


(620)Gaussian Processes and Bayesian Optimization for High Precision Experiments
  • Max Lamparth,
  • Mattis Bestehorn,
  • Bastian Märkisch
arXiv e-prints (05/2022) e-Print:2205.07625
abstract + abstract -

High-precision measurements require optimal setups and analysis tools to achieve continuous improvements. Systematic corrections need to be modeled with high accuracy and known uncertainty to reconstruct underlying physical phenomena. To this end, we present Gaussian processes for modeling experiments and usage with Bayesian optimization, on the example of an electron energy detector, achieving optimal performance. We demonstrate the method's strengths and outline stochastic variational Gaussian processes for physics applications with large data sets, enabling new solutions for current problems.


(619)Online triggers for supernova and pre-supernova neutrino detection with cryogenic detectors
  • Philipp Eller,
  • Nahuel Iachellini Ferreiro,
  • Luca Pattavina,
  • Lolian Shtembari
(05/2022) e-Print:2205.03350
abstract + abstract -

Supernovae (SNe) are among the most energetic events in the universe still far from being fully understood. An early and prompt detection of neutrinos is a one-time opportunity for the realization of the first multi-messenger observation of these events. In this work, we present the prospects of detecting neutrinos produced before (pre-SN) and during a SN while running an advanced cryogenic detector. The recent advancements of the cryogenic detector technique and the discovery of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering offer a wealth of opportunities in neutrino detection. The combination of the excellent energy resolution of this experimental technique, with the high cross section of this detection channel and its equal sensitivity to all neutrino flavors enables the realization of highly sensitive cm-scale neutrino telescopes, as the newly proposed RES-NOVA experiment. We present a detailed study on the detection promptness of pre-SN and SN neutrino signals, with direct comparisons among different classes of test statistics. While the well-established Poisson test offers in general best performance under optimal conditions, the non-parametric Recursive Product of Spacing statistical test (RPS) is more robust and ideal for triggering astrophysical neutrino signals with no specific prior knowledge. Based on our statistical tests the RES-NOVA experiment is able to identify SN neutrino signals at a 15 kpc distance with 95% of success rate, and pre-SN signal as far as 480 pc with a pre-warn time of the order of 10 s. These results demonstrate the potential of RPS for the identification of neutrino signals and the physics reach of the RES-NOVA experiment.


(618)New physics from the polarized light of the cosmic microwave background
  • Eiichiro Komatsu
Nature Reviews Physics (05/2022) doi:10.1038/s42254-022-00452-4
abstract + abstract -

The current cosmological model requires new physics beyond the standard model of elementary particles and fields, such as dark matter and dark energy. Their nature is unknown and so is that of the initial fluctuations in the early Universe that led to the creation of the cosmic structure we see today. Polarized light of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) may hold the answer to these fundamental questions. Here, I discuss two phenomena that could be uncovered in CMB observations. First, if the physics behind dark matter and dark energy violates parity symmetry, their coupling to photons should have rotated the plane of linear polarization as the CMB photons have been travelling for more than 13 billion years. This effect is known as `cosmic birefringence'. A tantalizing hint of such a signal has been found with a statistical significance of 3σ. Second, the period of accelerated expansion in the very early Universe, called `cosmic inflation', might have produced a stochastic background of primordial gravitational waves (as yet unobserved). These might have been generated by vacuum fluctuations in spacetime or by matter fields and could be measurable in the CMB polarization. The goal of observing these two phenomena will influence how data from future CMB experiments are collected, calibrated and analysed.


(617)Summary of Working Group 4: Mixing and mixing-related $CP$ violation in the $B$ system: $\Delta m$, $\Delta \Gamma$, $\phi_s$, $\phi_{1}/\beta$, $\phi_{2}/\alpha$, $\phi_{3}/\gamma$
  • Veronika Chobanova,
  • Matthew Wingate,
  • Yosuke Yusa,
  • Jeremy Dalseno,
  • Kristof De Bruyn
  • +10
  • Ulrik Egede,
  • Fabio Ferrari,
  • Thibaud Humair,
  • Anna Lupato,
  • Eleftheria Malami,
  • Wenbin Qian,
  • Ramón Ángel Ruiz Fernández,
  • Vladyslav Shtabovenko,
  • Justus Tobias Tsang,
  • Luiz Vale Silva
  • (less)
(05/2022) e-Print:2205.15662
abstract + abstract -

This summary reviews contributions to the CKM 2021 workshop in Working Group 4. In particular, theoretical and experimental progress in determining $B$ meson mixing properties are discussed.


(616)Quantum and Gradient Corrections to False Vacuum Decay on a de Sitter Background
  • Juan S. Cruz,
  • Stephan Brandt,
  • Maximilian Urban
(05/2022) e-Print:2205.10136
abstract + abstract -

We study the effects of a fixed de Sitter geometry background in scenarios of false vacuum decay. It is currently understood that bubble nucleation processes associated with first order phase transitions are particularly important in cosmology. The geometry of spacetime complicates the interpretation of the decay rate of a metastable vacuum. However, the effects of curvature can still be studied in the particular case where backreaction is neglected. We compute the imaginary part of the action in de Sitter space, including the one-loop and the gradient corrections. We use two independent methodologies and quantify the size of the corrections without any assumptions on the thickness of the wall of the scalar background configuration.


(615)The limits of the strong $CP$ problem
  • Wen-Yuan Ai,
  • Juan S. Cruz,
  • Björn Garbrecht,
  • Carlos Tamarit
abstract + abstract -

While $CP$ violation has never been observed in the strong interactions, the QCD Lagrangian admits a $CP$-odd topological interaction proportional to the so called $\theta$ angle, which weighs the contributions to the partition function from different topological sectors. The observational bounds are usually interpreted as demanding a severe tuning of $\theta$ against the phases of the quark masses, which constitutes the strong $CP$ problem. Here we report on recent challenges to this view based on a careful treatment of boundary conditions in the path integral and of the limit of infinite spacetime volume, which leads to $\theta$ dropping out of fermion correlation functions and becoming unobservable, implying that $CP$ is preserved in QCD.


(614)Cosmological Bound on the QCD Axion Mass, Redux
  • Francesco D'Eramo,
  • Eleonora Di Valentino,
  • William Giarè,
  • Fazlollah Hajkarim,
  • Alessandro Melchiorri
  • +3
  • Olga Mena,
  • Fabrizio Renzi,
  • Seokhoon Yun
  • (less)
arXiv e-prints (05/2022) e-Print:2205.07849
abstract + abstract -

We revisit the joint constraints in the mixed hot dark matter scenario in which both thermally produced QCD axions and relic neutrinos are present. Upon recomputing the cosmological axion abundance via recent advances in the literature, we improve the state-of-the-art analyses and provide updated bounds on axion and neutrino masses. By avoiding approximate methods, such as the instantaneous decoupling approximation, and limitations due to the limited validity of the perturbative approach in QCD that forced to artificially divide the constraints from the axion-pion and the axion-gluon production channels, we find robust and self-consistent limits. We investigate the two most popular axion frameworks: KSVZ and DFSZ. From Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) light element abundances data we find for the KSVZ axion $\Delta N_{\rm eff}<0.31$ and an axion mass bound $m_a < 0.53 $ eV (i.e., a bound on the axion decay constant $f_a > 1.07 \times 10^7$ GeV) both at $95\%$ CL. These BBN bounds are improved to $\Delta N_{\rm eff}<0.14$ and $m_a< 0.16$ eV ($f_a > 3.56 \times 10^7$ GeV) if a prior on the baryon energy density from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data is assumed. When instead considering cosmological observations from the CMB temperature, polarization and lensing from the Planck satellite combined with large scale structure data we find $\Delta N_{\rm eff}<0.23$, $m_a< 0.28$ eV ($f_a > 2.02 \times 10^7$ GeV) and $\sum m_\nu < 0.16$ eV at $95\%$ CL. This corresponds approximately to a factor of $5$ improvement in the axion mass bound with respect to the existing limits. Very similar results are obtained for the DFSZ axion. We also forecast upcoming observations from future CMB and galaxy surveys, showing that they could reach percent level errors for $m_a\sim 1$ eV.


(613)Non-linearities in the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest and in its cross-correlation with dark matter halos
  • Jahmour J. Givans,
  • Andreu Font-Ribera,
  • Anže Slosar,
  • Louise Seeyave,
  • Christian Pedersen
  • +4
  • Keir K. Rogers,
  • Mathias Garny,
  • Diego Blas,
  • Vid Iršič
  • (less)
arXiv e-prints (05/2022) e-Print:2205.00962
abstract + abstract -

Three-dimensional correlations of the Lyman-$\alpha$ (Ly$\alpha$) forest and cross correlations between the Ly$\alpha$ forest and quasars have been measured on large scales, allowing a precise measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature at redshifts $z>2$. These 3D correlations are often modelled using linear perturbation theory, but full-shape analyses to extract cosmological information beyond BAO will require more realistic models capable of describing non-linearities present at smaller scales. We present a measurement of the Ly$\alpha$ forest flux power spectrum from large hydrodynamic simulations -- the Sherwood simulations -- and compare it to different models describing the small-scale deviations from linear theory. We confirm that the model presented in Arinyo-i-Prats et al. (2015) fits the measured 3D power up to $k=10\, h\rm{Mpc^{-1}}$ with an accuracy better than 5%, and show that the same model can also describe the 1D correlations with similar precision. We also present, for the first time, an equivalent study for the cross-power spectrum of halos with the Ly$\alpha$ forest, and we discuss different challenges we face when modelling the cross-power spectrum beyond linear scales. We make all our measured power spectra public in \url{https://github.com/andreufont/sherwood_p3d}. This study is a step towards joint analyses of 1D and 3D flux correlations, and towards using the quasar-Ly$\alpha$ cross-correlation beyond BAO analyses.


(612)Two-loop non-planar hexa-box integrals with one massive leg
  • Adam Kardos,
  • Costas G. Papadopoulos,
  • Alexander V. Smirnov,
  • Nikolaos Syrrakos,
  • Christopher Wever
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2022) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2022)033
abstract + abstract -

Based on the Simplified Differential Equations approach, we present results for the two-loop non-planar hexa-box families of master integrals. We introduce a new approach to obtain the boundary terms and establish a one-dimensional integral representation of the master integrals in terms of Generalised Polylogarithms, when the alphabet contains non-factorisable square roots. The results are relevant to the study of NNLO QCD corrections for W, Z and Higgs-boson production in association with two hadronic jets.


RU-A
(611)On the Standard Model Predictions for Rare K and B Decay Branching Ratios: 2022
  • Andrzej J. Buras
arXiv e-prints (05/2022) e-Print:2205.01118
abstract + abstract -

In this decade one expects a very significant progress in measuring the branching ratios for several rare $K$ and $B$ decays, in particular for the decays $K^+\to\pi^+\nu\bar\nu$, $K_L\to\pi^0\nu\bar\nu$, $B_s\to\mu^+\mu^+$ and $B_d\to\mu^+\mu^+$. On the theory side a very significant progress on calculating these branching ratios has been achieved in the last thirty years culminating recently in rather precise SM predictions for them. It is then unfortunate that some papers still cite the results for $K^+\to\pi^+\nu\bar\nu$ and $K_L\to\pi^0\nu\bar\nu$ presented by us in 2015. They are clearly out of date. Similar comments apply to predictions for $B_{s,d}\to\mu^+\mu^-$. In this note I want to stress again that, in view of the tensions between various determinations of $V_{cb}$ in tree-level decays, presently, the only trustable SM predictions for the branching ratios in question can be obtained by eliminating their dependence on the CKM parameters with the help of $|\varepsilon_K|$, $\Delta M_s$, $\Delta M_d$ and $S_{\psi K_S}$, evaluated in the SM. In this context I am astonished by statements made by some computer code practitioners that setting in this strategy these four $\Delta F=2$ observables to their experimental values is an assumption. The goal of this strategy is not to make an overall SM fit but to predict the SM branching ratios. In the SM there are no new physics (NP) contributions to $\Delta F=2$ transitions and no assumption on the absence of NP is needed. Moreover, presently NP is not required to describe simultaneously the very precise data on $|\varepsilon_K|$, $\Delta M_s$, $\Delta M_d$ and $S_{\psi K_S}$. This strategy for obtaining true SM predictions for rare decay branching ratios is moreover not polluted by hadronic uncertainies and observed anomalies in semi-leptonic decays used often in global analyses.


(610)Gravothermal evolution of dark matter halos with differential elastic scattering
  • Daneng Yang,
  • Hai-Bo Yu
arXiv e-prints (05/2022) e-Print:2205.03392
abstract + abstract -

We study gravothermal evolution of dark matter halos in the presence of differential self-scattering that has strong velocity and angular dependencies. We design controlled N-body simulations to model Rutherford and Moller scatterings in the halo, and follow its evolution in both core-expansion and -collapse phases. The simulations show the commonly-used transfer cross section underestimates the effects of dark matter self-interactions, but the viscosity cross section provides a good approximation for modeling angular-dependent dark matter scattering. We investigate thermodynamic properties of the halo, and find that the three moments of the Boltzmann equation under the fluid approximation are satisfied. We further propose a constant effective cross section, which integrates over the halo's characteristic velocity dispersion with weighting kernels motivated by kinetic theory of heat conduction. The effective cross section provides an approximation to differential self-scattering for most of the halo evolution. However, it can significantly underestimate the growth rate of the central density at late stages of the collapse phase. This indicates that constant and velocity-dependent dark matter self-interactions are fundamentally different, as for the latter the cross section evolves with the halo dynamically, boosting the collapse. This feature may help test different self-interacting dark matter models.


(609)B → D<SUB>1</SUB>(2420) and B → D<SUB>1</SUB><SUP>'</SUP>(2430) form factors from QCD light-cone sum rules
  • Nico Gubernari,
  • Alexander Khodjamirian,
  • Rusa Mandal,
  • Thomas Mannel
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2022) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2022)029
abstract + abstract -

We perform the first calculation of form factors in the semileptonic decays B → D1(2420)ℓν and B → D1'(2430)ℓν using QCD light-cone sum rules (LCSRs) with B-meson distribution amplitudes. In this calculation the c-quark mass is finite. Analytical expressions for two-particle contributions up to twist four are obtained. To disentangle the D1 and D1' contributions in the LCSRs, we suggest a novel approach that introduces a combination of two interpolating currents for these charmed mesons. To fix all the parameters in the LCSRs, we use the two-point QCD sum rules for the decay constants of D1 and D1' mesons augmented by a single experimental input, that is the B → D1(2420)ℓν decay width. We provide numerical results for all B → D1 and B → D1' form factors. As a byproduct, we also obtain the D1- and D1'-meson decay constants and predict the lepton-flavour universality ratios R(D1) and R(D1').


(608)A toy model for background independent string field theory
  • Maxim Grigoriev,
  • Adiel Meyer,
  • Ivo Sachs
Journal of High Energy Physics (05/2022) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2022)020
abstract + abstract -

We study gauge theories of background fields associated to BRST quantized spinning particle models and identify background-independent algebraic structures which allow to systematically reduce the spectrum of fields and subject some of them to dynamical equations of motion. More specifically, we construct a manifestly background-independent extension of the model based on N = 2 spinning particle. The resulting system describes an on-shell spin-1 field coupled to off-shell background fields including metric and dilaton. Tensoring with a given Lie algebra results in a non-abelian extension of the model.


(607)Control of protein-based pattern formation via guiding cues
  • Tom Burkart,
  • Manon C. Wigbers,
  • Laeschkir Würthner,
  • Erwin Frey
Nature Reviews Physics (05/2022) doi:10.1038/s42254-022-00461-3
abstract + abstract -

Proteins control many vital functions in living cells, such as cell growth and cell division. Reliable coordination of these functions requires the spatial and temporal organization of proteins inside cells, which encodes information about the cell's geometry and the cell-cycle stage. The study of such protein patterns has long focused around formation in uniform environments. However, in recent years, it has become evident that spatial heterogeneities are essential for protein patterning, and various guiding cues in the cell or at the cell boundary can be exploited to reliably control protein pattern formation. We review how protein patterns are guided by cell size and shape, by other protein patterns that act as templates, and by the mechanical properties of the cell. The basic mechanisms of guided pattern formation are elucidated with reference to observations in various biological model organisms. We posit that understanding the controlled formation of protein patterns in cells will be an essential part of understanding information processing in living systems.


(606)The eROSITA view of the Abell 3391/95 field: The Northern Clump. The largest infalling structure in the longest known gas filament observed with eROSITA, XMM-Newton, and Chandra
  • Angie Veronica,
  • Yuanyuan Su,
  • Veronica Biffi,
  • Thomas H. Reiprich,
  • Florian Pacaud
  • +16
  • Paul E. J. Nulsen,
  • Ralph P. Kraft,
  • Jeremy S. Sanders,
  • Akos Bogdan,
  • Melih Kara,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Jürgen Kerp,
  • Bärbel S. Koribalski,
  • Thomas Erben,
  • Esra Bulbul,
  • Efrain Gatuzz,
  • Vittorio Ghirardini,
  • Andrew M. Hopkins,
  • Ang Liu,
  • Konstantinos Migkas,
  • Tessa Vernstrom
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2022) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202141415
abstract + abstract -

Context. Galaxy clusters grow through mergers and the accretion of substructures along large-scale filaments. Many of the missing baryons in the local Universe may reside in such filaments as the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM).
Aims: SRG/eROSITA performance verification observations revealed that the binary cluster Abell 3391/3395 and the Northern Clump (the MCXC J0621.7-5242 galaxy cluster) are aligning along a cosmic filament in soft X-rays, similarly to what has been seen in simulations before. We aim to understand the dynamical state of the Northern Clump as it enters the atmosphere (3 × R200) of Abell 3391.
Methods: We analyzed joint eROSITA, XMM-Newton, and Chandra observations to probe the morphological, thermal, and chemical properties of the Northern Clump from its center out to a radius of 988 kpc (R200). We utilized the ASKAP/EMU radio data, the DECam optical image, and the Planck y-map to study the influence of the wide-angle tail (WAT) radio source on the Northern Clump's central intracluster medium. Using eROSITA data, we also analyzed the gas properties of the Northern Filament, the region between the virial radii of the Northern Clump and the A3391 cluster. From the Magneticum simulation, we identified an analog of the A3391/95 system along with an infalling group resembling the Northern Clump.
Results: The Northern Clump is a weak cool-core cluster centered on a WAT radio galaxy. The gas temperature over 0.2-0.5R500 is kBT500 = 1.99 ± 0.04 keV. We employed the mass-temperature (M - T) scaling relation and obtained a mass estimate of M500 = (7.68 ± 0.43) × 1013 M and R500 = (63 6 ± 12) kpc. Its X-ray atmosphere has a boxy shape and deviates from spherical symmetry. We identify a southern surface brightness edge, likely caused by subsonic motion relative to the filament gas in the southern direction. At ~R500, the southern atmosphere (infalling head) appears to be 42% hotter than its northern atmosphere. We detect a downstream tail pointing toward the north with a projected length of ~318 kpc, plausibly the result of ram pressure stripping. Through a two-temperature fit, we identify a cooler component in the Northern Filament with kBT = 0.68- 0.64+ 0.38 keV <!--inline-formula id="FI1"><alternatives><![CDATA[{k{B}}T = 0.68- 0.64+ 0.38{{keV}}]]>kBT=0.68−0.64+0.38keV<inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" id="img_eq1" mime-subtype="png" mimetype="image" xlink:href="aa41415-21-eq1.png"/></alternatives> and ne = 1.99-1.24+0.88 × 10-5cm-3, <!--inline-formula id="FI2"><alternatives><![CDATA[{n_e}1.99- 1.24+ 0.88 × {10- 5}{{c}}{{{m}}- 3}]]>ne1.99−1.24+0.88×10−5cm−3<inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" id="img_eq2" mime-subtype="png" mimetype="image" xlink:href="aa41415-21-eq2.png"/></alternatives> which are consistent within the expected ranges of WHIM properties. The analog group in the Magneticum simulation is experiencing changes in its gas properties and a shift between the position of the halo center and that of the bound gas, while approaching the main cluster pair.
Conclusions: The Northern Clump is a dynamically active system and far from being relaxed. Its atmosphere is affected by an interaction with the WAT and by gas sloshing or its infall toward Abell 3391 along the filament, consistent with the analog group-size halo in the Magneticum simulation.


(605)Towards an accurate model of small-scale redshift-space distortions in modified gravity
  • Cheng-Zong Ruan,
  • Carolina Cuesta-Lazaro,
  • Alexander Eggemeier,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Carlton M. Baugh
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (05/2022) doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1345
abstract + abstract -

The coming generation of galaxy surveys will provide measurements of galaxy clustering with unprecedented accuracy and data size, which will allow us to test cosmological models at much higher precision than achievable previously. This means that we must have more accurate theoretical predictions to compare with future observational data. As a first step towards more accurate modelling of the redshift space distortions (RSD) of small-scale galaxy clustering in modified gravity (MG) cosmologies, we investigate the validity of the so-called Skew-T (ST) probability distribution function (PDF) of halo pairwise peculiar velocities in these models. We show that, combined with the streaming model of RSD, the ST PDF substantially improves the small-scale predictions by incorporating skewness and kurtosis, for both ΛCDM and two leading MG models: f(R) gravity and the DGP braneworld model. The ST model reproduces the velocity PDF and redshift-space halo clustering measured from MG N-body simulations very well down to ~5 h-1Mpc. In particular, we investigate the enhancements of halo pairwise velocity moments with respect to ΛCDM for a larger range of MG variants than previous works, and present simple explanations to the behaviours observed. By performing a simple Fisher analysis, we find a significnat increase in constraining power to detect modifications of General Relativity by introducing small-scale information in the RSD analyses.


(604)First eROSITA study of nearby M dwarfs and the rotation-activity relation in combination with TESS
  • E. Magaudda,
  • B. Stelzer,
  • St. Raetz,
  • A. Klutsch,
  • M. Salvato
  • +1
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2022) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202141617
abstract + abstract -

We present the first results with the ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array (eROSITA) on board the Russian Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission, and we combine the new X-ray data with observations with the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). We used the SUPERBLINK proper motion catalog of nearby M dwarfs as input sample to search for eROSITA and TESS data. We extracted Gaia DR2 data for the full M dwarf catalog, which comprises ~9000 stars, and we calculated the stellar parameters from empirical relations with optical/IR colors. Then we cross-matched this catalog with the eROSITA Final Equatorial Depth Survey (eFEDS) and the first eROSITA all-sky survey (eRASS1). After a meticulous source identification in which we associated the closest Gaia source with the eROSITA X-ray detections, our sample of M dwarfs is defined by 687 stars with SpT = K5..M7 (673 from eRASS1 and 14 from eFEDS). While for eRASSl we used the data from the source catalog provided by the eROSITA_DE consortium, for the much smaller eFEDS sample, we performed the data extraction, and we analyzed the X-ray spectra and light curves. This unprecedented data base for X-ray emitting M dwarfs allowed us to place a quantitative constraint on the mass dependence of the X-ray luminosity, and to determine the change in the activity level with respect to pre-main-sequence stars. TESS observations are available for 489 of 687 X-ray detected M dwarfs. By applying standard period search methods, we were able to determine the rotation period for 180 X-ray detected M dwarfs. This is about one-forth of the X-ray sample. With the joint eROSITA and TESS sample, and combining it with our compilation of historical X-ray and rotation data for M dwarfs, we examined the mass dependence of the saturated regime of the rotation-activity relation. A first comparison of eROSITA hardness ratios and spectra shows that 65% of the X-ray detected M dwarfs have coronal temperatures of ~0.5 keV. We performed a statistical investigation of the long-term X-ray variability of M dwarfs by comparing the eROSITA measurements to those obtained ~30 yr earlier during the ROSAT all-sky survey (RASS). Evidence for X-ray flares is found in various parts of our analysis: directly from an inspection of the eFEDS light curves, in the relation between RASS and eRASSl X-ray luminosities, and in a subset of stars that displays hotter X-ray emission than the bulk of the sample according to the hardness ratios. Finally, we point out the need to obtain X-ray spectroscopy for more M dwarfs to study the coronal temperature-luminosity relation, which is not well constrained by our eFEDS results.

Full Tables 2, 3 and 5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/661/A29


(603)A large population study of protoplanetary disks. Explaining the millimeter size-luminosity relation with or without substructure
  • Apostolos Zormpas,
  • Tilman Birnstiel,
  • Giovanni P. Rosotti,
  • Sean M. Andrews
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2022) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202142046
abstract + abstract -

Recent subarcsecond resolution surveys of the dust continuum emission from nearby protoplanetary disks show a strong correlation between the sizes and luminosities of the disks. We aim to explain the origin of the (sub-)millimeter size-luminosity relation (SLR) between the 68% effective radius (reff) of disks with their continuum luminosity (Lmm), with models of gas and dust evolution in a simple viscous accretion disk and radiative transfer calculations. We use a large grid of models (105 simulations) with and without planetary gaps, and vary the initial conditions of the key parameters. We calculate the disk continuum emission and the effective radius for all models as a function of time. By selecting those simulations that continuously follow the SLR, we can derive constraints on the input parameters of the models. We confirm previous results that models of smooth disks in the radial drift regime are compatible with the observed SLR (Lmm ∝ reff2), but only smooth disks cannot be the reality. We show that the SLR is more widely populated if planets are present. However, they tend to follow a different relation than smooth disks, potentially implying that a mixture of smooth and substructured disks are present in the observed sample. We derive a SLR (Lmm ∝ reff5/4) for disks with strong substructure. To be compatible with the SLR, models need to have an initially high disk mass (≥2.5 × 10−2 M*) and low turbulence-parameter a values (≤10−3). Furthermore, we find that the grain composition and porosity drastically affects the evolution of disks in the size-luminosity diagram where relatively compact grains that include amorphous carbon are favored. Moreover, a uniformly optically thick disk with high albedo (0.9) that follows the SLR cannot be formed from an evolutionary procedure.


(602)Disk Evolution Study through Imaging of Nearby Young Stars (DESTINYS): A Panchromatic View of DO Tau's Complex Kilo-astronomical-unit Environment
  • Jane Huang,
  • Christian Ginski,
  • Myriam Benisty,
  • Bin Ren,
  • Alexander J. Bohn
  • +18
  • Élodie Choquet,
  • Karin I. Öberg,
  • Álvaro Ribas,
  • Jaehan Bae,
  • Edwin A. Bergin,
  • Til Birnstiel,
  • Yann Boehler,
  • Stefano Facchini,
  • Daniel Harsono,
  • Michiel Hogerheijde,
  • Feng Long,
  • Carlo F. Manara,
  • François Ménard,
  • Paola Pinilla,
  • Christophe Pinte,
  • Christian Rab,
  • Jonathan P. Williams,
  • Alice Zurlo
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal (05/2022) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac63ba
abstract + abstract -

While protoplanetary disks are often treated as isolated systems in planet formation models, observations increasingly suggest that vigorous interactions between Class II disks and their environments are not rare. DO Tau is a T Tauri star that has previously been hypothesized to have undergone a close encounter with the HV Tau system. As part of the DESTINYS ESO Large Programme, we present new Very Large Telescope (VLT)/SPHERE polarimetric observations of DO Tau and combine them with archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) scattered-light images and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of CO isotopologues and CS to map a network of complex structures. The SPHERE and ALMA observations show that the circumstellar disk is connected to arms extending out to several hundred astronomical units. HST and ALMA also reveal stream-like structures northeast of DO Tau, some of which are at least several thousand astronomical units long. These streams appear not to be gravitationally bound to DO Tau, and comparisons with previous Herschel far-IR observations suggest that the streams are part of a bridge-like structure connecting DO Tau and HV Tau. We also detect a fainter redshifted counterpart to a previously known blueshifted CO outflow. While some of DO Tau's complex structures could be attributed to a recent disk-disk encounter, they might be explained alternatively by interactions with remnant material from the star formation process. These panchromatic observations of DO Tau highlight the need to contextualize the evolution of Class II disks by examining processes occurring over a wide range of size scales.


(601)Detection of CO emission lines in the dayside atmospheres of WASP-33b and WASP-189b with GIANO
  • F. Yan,
  • E. Pallé,
  • A. Reiners,
  • N. Casasayas-Barris,
  • D. Cont
  • +6
  • M. Stangret,
  • L. Nortmann,
  • P. Mollière,
  • Th. Henning,
  • G. Chen,
  • K. Molaverdikhani
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics (05/2022) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202243503
abstract + abstract -

Ultra-hot Jupiters (UHJs) are expected to possess temperature inversion layers in their dayside atmospheres. Recent thermal emission observations have discovered several atomic and molecular species along with temperature inversions in UHJs. We observed the thermal emission spectra of two UHJs (WASP-33b and WASP-189b) with the GIANO-B high-resolution near-infrared spectrograph. Using the cross-correlation technique, we detected carbon monoxide (CO) in the dayside atmospheres of both planets. The detected CO lines are in emission, which agrees with previous discoveries of iron emission lines and temperature inversions in the two planets. This is the first detection of CO lines in emission with high-resolution spectroscopy. Further retrieval work combining the CO lines with other spectral features will enable a comprehensive understanding of the atmospheric properties such as temperature structures and C/O ratios. The detected CO and iron emission lines of WASP-189b have redshifted radial velocities of several km s−1, which likely originate from a dayside to nightside wind in its atmosphere. Such a redshifted velocity has not been detected for the emission lines of WASP-33b, suggesting that the atmospheric circulation patterns of the two UHJs may be different.