Seite 8 von 11
(369)The in situ formation of molecular and warm ionized gas triggered by hot galactic outflows
  • Philipp Girichidis,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Stefanie Walch,
  • Thomas Berlok
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 505, p22 (07/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab1203
abstract + abstract -

Molecular outflows contributing to the matter cycle of star-forming galaxies are now observed in small and large systems at low and high redshift. Their physical origin is still unclear. In most theoretical studies, only warm ionized/neutral and hot gas outflowing from the interstellar medium is generated by star formation. We investigate an in situ H2 formation scenario in the outflow using high-resolution simulations, including non-equilibrium chemistry and self-gravity, of turbulent, warm, and atomic clouds with densities 0.1, 0.5, and $1\, \mathrm{cm}^{-3}$ exposed to a magnetized hot wind. For cloud densities $\gtrsim 0.5\, \mathrm{cm}^{-3}$, a magnetized wind triggers H2 formation before cloud dispersal. Up to 3 per cent of the initial cloud mass can become molecular on $\sim \! 10\, \mathrm{Myr}$ time-scales. The effect is stronger for winds with perpendicular B-fields and intermediate density clouds ($n_\mathrm{c}\sim 0.5\, \mathrm{cm}^{-3}$). Here, H2 formation can be boosted by up to one order of magnitude compared to isolated cooling clouds independent of self-gravity. Self-gravity preserves the densest clouds well past their $\sim \! 15\, \mathrm{Myr}$ cloud crushing time-scales. This model could provide a plausible in situ origin for the observed molecular gas. All simulations form warm ionized gas, which represents an important observable phase. The amount of warm ionized gas is almost independent of the cloud density but solely depends on the magnetic field configuration in the wind. For low-density clouds ($0.1\, \mathrm{cm}^{-3}$), up to 60 per cent of the initially atomic cloud mass can become warm and ionized.

(368)The charm of 331
  • Andrzej J. Buras,
  • Pietro Colangelo,
  • Fulvia De Fazio,
  • Francesco Loparco
arXiv e-prints (07/2021) e-Print:2107.10866
abstract + abstract -

We perform a detailed analysis of flavour changing neutral current processes in the charm sector in the context of 331 models. As pointed out recently, in the case of $Z^\prime$ contributions in these models there are no new free parameters beyond those already present in the $B_{d,s}$ and $K$ meson systems analyzed in the past. As a result, definite ranges for new Physics (NP) effects in various charm observables could be obtained. While generally NP effects turn out to be small, in a number of observables they are much larger than the tiny effects predicted within the Standard Model. In particular we find that the branching ratio of the mode $D^0 \to \mu^+ \mu^-$, despite remaining tiny, can be enhanced by 6 orders of magnitude with respect to the SM. We work out correlations between this mode and rare $B_{d,s}$ and $K$ decays. We also discuss neutral charm meson oscillations and CP violation in the charm system. In particular, we point out that 331 models provide new weak phases that are a necessary condition to have non-vanishing CP asymmetries. In the case of $\Delta A_{CP}$, the difference between the CP asymmetries in $D^0 \to K^+ K^-$ and $D^0 \to \pi^+ \pi^-$, we find that agreement with experiment can be obtained provided that two conditions are verified: the phases in the ranges predicted in 331 models and large hadronic matrix elements.

(367)OH in the diffuse interstellar medium: physical modelling and prospects with upcoming SKA precursor/pathfinder surveys
  • S. A. Balashev,
  • N. Gupta,
  • D. N. Kosenko
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 504, p15 (07/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab1122
abstract + abstract -

Hydroxyl ($\rm OH$) is known to form efficiently in cold gas (T ~ 100 K) along with the molecule $\rm H_2$ and can be used as an efficient tracer of the diffuse molecular gas in the interstellar medium (ISM). Using a simple formalism describing the $\rm H\, I/H_2$ transition and a reduced network of major chemical reactions, we present a semi-analytical prescription to estimate the abundances of O-bearing molecules in the diffuse ISM. We show that predictions based on our prescription are in good agreement with the estimates obtained using the MEUDON PDR code which utilizes the full reaction network. We investigate the dependence of the relative abundances of $\rm OH/H\, I$ and $\rm OH/H_2$ on the variations of physical conditions i.e. the metallicity, number density (n), cosmic ray ionization rate (ζ), and strength of UV field (χ) in the medium. We find that the $\rm OH/H\, I$ abundances observed in the Galactic ISM can be reproduced by models with n ~ 50 cm-3, χ ~ 1 (Mathis field), and ζ ~ 3 × 10-17 s-1, with a variation of about 1 dex allowed around these values. Using the constrained $\rm H_2$ column density distribution function at z ~ 3, we estimate the $\rm OH$ column density distribution function and discuss future prospects with the upcoming large radio absorption line surveys.

(366)Self-consistent 3D Supernova Models From -7 Minutes to +7 s: A 1-bethe Explosion of a 19 M<SUB>⊙</SUB> Progenitor
  • Robert Bollig,
  • Naveen Yadav,
  • Daniel Kresse,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka,
  • Bernhard Müller
  • +1
The Astrophysical Journal, 915, p23 (07/2021) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abf82e
abstract + abstract -

To date, modern three-dimensional (3D) supernova (SN) simulations have not demonstrated that explosion energies of 1051 erg (=1 bethe=1 B) or more are possible for neutrino-driven SNe of non/slow-rotating M < 20 M progenitors. We present the first such model, considering a nonrotating, solar-metallicity 18.88 M progenitor, whose final 7 minutes of convective oxygen-shell burning were simulated in 3D and showed a violent oxygen-neon shell merger prior to collapse. A large set of 3D SN models was computed with the PROMETHEUS-VERTEX code, whose improved convergence of the two-moment equations with Boltzmann closure allows now to fully exploit the implicit neutrino-transport treatment. Nuclear burning is treated with a 23-species network. We vary the angular grid resolution and consider different nuclear equations of state and muon formation in the proto-neutron star (PNS), which requires six-species transport with coupling of all neutrino flavors across all energy-momentum groups. Elaborate neutrino transport was applied until ~2 s after bounce. In one case, the simulation was continued to >7 s with an approximate treatment of neutrino effects that allows for seamless continuation without transients. A spherically symmetric neutrino-driven wind does not develop. Instead, accretion downflows to the PNS and outflows of neutrino-heated matter establish a monotonic rise of the explosion energy until ~7 s post-bounce, when the outgoing shock reaches ~50,000 km and enters the He layer. The converged value of the explosion energy at infinity (with overburden subtracted) is ~1 B and the ejected 56Ni mass ≲0.087 M, both within a few 10% of the SN 1987A values. The final NS mass and kick are ~1.65 M and >450 km s-1, respectively.

(365)Deep learning Blazar classification based on multifrequency spectral energy distribution data
  • Bernardo M. O. Fraga,
  • Ulisses Barres de Almeida,
  • Clécio R. Bom,
  • Carlos H. Brandt,
  • Paolo Giommi
  • +2
  • Patrick Schubert,
  • Márcio P. de Albuquerque
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 505, p12 (07/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab1349
abstract + abstract -

Blazars are among the most studied sources in high-energy astrophysics as they form the largest fraction of extragalactic gamma-ray sources and are considered prime candidates for being the counterparts of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. Their reliable identification amid the many faint radio sources is a crucial step for multimessenger counterpart associations. As the astronomical community prepares for the coming of a number of new facilities able to survey the non-thermal sky at unprecedented depths, from radio to gamma-rays, machine-learning techniques for fast and reliable source identification are ever more relevant. The purpose of this work was to develop a deep learning architecture to identify Blazar within a population of active galactic nucleus (AGN) based solely on non-contemporaneous spectral energy distribution information, collected from publicly available multifrequency catalogues. This study uses an unprecedented amount of data, with spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for ≍14 000 sources collected with the Open Universe VOU-Blazars tool. It uses a convolutional long short-term memory neural network purposefully built for the problem of SED classification, which we describe in detail and validate. The network was able to distinguish Blazars from other types of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to a satisfying degree (achieving a receiver operating characteristic area under curve of 0.98), even when trained on a reduced subset of the whole sample. This initial study does not attempt to classify Blazars among their different sub-classes, or quantify the likelihood of any multifrequency or multimessenger association, but is presented as a step towards these more practically oriented applications.

(364)On the Interaction of a Bonnor-Ebert Sphere with a Stellar Wind
  • Oliver Zier,
  • Andreas Burkert,
  • Christian Alig
The Astrophysical Journal, 915, p8 (07/2021) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abfdc8
abstract + abstract -

The structure of protostellar cores can often be approximated by isothermal Bonnor-Ebert spheres (BES), which are stabilized by an external pressure. For the typical pressure of 104kB K cm-3 to 105kB K cm-3 found in molecular clouds, cores with masses below 1.5 M are stable against gravitational collapse. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of triggering gravitational collapse with a nearby stellar wind, which represents an interesting scenario for triggering low-mass star formation. We analytically derive a new stability criterion for a BES compressed by a stellar wind, which depends on its initial nondimensional radius ${\xi }_{\max }$ . If the stability limit is violated the wind triggers a core collapse. Otherwise, the core is destroyed by the wind. We estimate its validity range to $2.5\lt {\xi }_{\max }\lt 4.2$ and confirm this in simulations with the SPH-Code GADGET-3. The efficiency of triggering a gravitational collapse strongly decreases for ${\xi }_{\max }\lt 2.5$ since in this case destruction and acceleration of the whole sphere begin to dominate. We were unable to trigger a collapse for ${\xi }_{\max }\lt 2$ , which leads to the conclusion that a stellar wind can move the smallest unstable stellar mass to 0.5 M and that destabilizing even smaller cores would require external pressure larger than 105kB K cm-3. For ${\xi }_{\max }\gt 4.2$ the expected wind strength according to our criterion is small enough that the compression is slower than the sound speed of the BES and sound waves can be triggered. In this case our criterion somewhat underestimates the onset of collapse and detailed numerical analyses are required.

(363)A novel approach to optimize the regularization and evaluation of dynamical models using a model selection framework
  • Mathias Lipka,
  • Jens Thomas
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 504, p27 (07/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab1092
abstract + abstract -

Orbit superposition models are a non-parametric dynamical modelling technique to determine the mass of a galaxy's central supermassive black hole (SMBH), its stars, or its dark matter halo. One of the main problems is how to decide which model out of a large pool of trial models based on different assumed mass distributions represents the true structure of an observed galaxy best. We show that the traditional approach to judge models solely by their goodness-of-fit can lead to substantial biases in estimated galaxy properties caused by varying model flexibilities. We demonstrate how the flexibility of the models can be estimated using bootstrap iterations and present a model selection framework that removes these biases by taking the variable flexibility into account in the model evaluation. We extend the model selection approach to optimize the degree of regularization directly from the data. Altogether, this leads to a significant improvement of the constraining power of the modelling technique. We show with simulations that one can reconstruct the mass, anisotropy, and viewing angle of an axisymmetric galaxy with a few per cent accuracy from realistic observational data with fully resolved line-of-sight velocity distributions (LOSVDs). In a first application, we reproduce a photometric estimate of the inclination of the disc galaxy NGC 3368 to within 5° accuracy from kinematic data that cover only a few sphere-of-influence radii around the galaxy's SMBH. This demonstrates the constraining power that can be achieved with orbit models based on fully resolved LOSVDs and a model selection framework.

(362)The MAGPI survey: Science goals, design, observing strategy, early results and theoretical framework
  • C. Foster,
  • J. T. Mendel,
  • C. D. P. Lagos,
  • E. Wisnioski,
  • T. Yuan
  • +38
  • F. D'Eugenio,
  • T. M. Barone,
  • K. E. Harborne,
  • S. P. Vaughan,
  • F. Schulze,
  • R. -S. Remus,
  • A. Gupta,
  • F. Collacchioni,
  • D. J. Khim,
  • P. Taylor,
  • R. Bassett,
  • S. M. Croom,
  • R. M. McDermid,
  • A. Poci,
  • A. J. Battisti,
  • J. Bland-Hawthorn,
  • S. Bellstedt,
  • M. Colless,
  • L. J. M. Davies,
  • C. Derkenne,
  • S. Driver,
  • A. Ferré-Mateu,
  • D. B. Fisher,
  • E. Gjergo,
  • E. J. Johnston,
  • A. Khalid,
  • C. Kobayashi,
  • S. Oh,
  • Y. Peng,
  • A. S. G. Robotham,
  • P. Sharda,
  • S. M. Sweet,
  • E. N. Taylor,
  • K. -V. H. Tran,
  • J. W. Trayford,
  • J. van de Sande,
  • S. K. Yi,
  • L. Zanisi
  • (less)
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, 38 (07/2021) doi:10.1017/pasa.2021.25
abstract + abstract -

We present an overview of the Middle Ages Galaxy Properties with Integral Field Spectroscopy (MAGPI) survey, a Large Program on the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. MAGPI is designed to study the physical drivers of galaxy transformation at a lookback time of 3-4 Gyr, during which the dynamical, morphological, and chemical properties of galaxies are predicted to evolve significantly. The survey uses new medium-deep adaptive optics aided Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of fields selected from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, providing a wealth of publicly available ancillary multi-wavelength data. With these data, MAGPI will map the kinematic and chemical properties of stars and ionised gas for a sample of 60 massive ( ${>}7 × 10^{10} {M}_\odot$ ) central galaxies at $0.25 < z <0.35$ in a representative range of environments (isolated, groups and clusters). The spatial resolution delivered by MUSE with Ground Layer Adaptive Optics ( $0.6-0.8$ arcsec FWHM) will facilitate a direct comparison with Integral Field Spectroscopy surveys of the nearby Universe, such as SAMI and MaNGA, and at higher redshifts using adaptive optics, for example, SINS. In addition to the primary (central) galaxy sample, MAGPI will deliver resolved and unresolved spectra for as many as 150 satellite galaxies at $0.25 < z <0.35$ , as well as hundreds of emission-line sources at $z < 6$ . This paper outlines the science goals, survey design, and observing strategy of MAGPI. We also present a first look at the MAGPI data, and the theoretical framework to which MAGPI data will be compared using the current generation of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations including EAGLE, Magneticum, HORIZON-AGN, and Illustris-TNG. Our results show that cosmological hydrodynamical simulations make discrepant predictions in the spatially resolved properties of galaxies at $z≈ 0.3$ . MAGPI observations will place new constraints and allow for tangible improvements in galaxy formation theory.

(361)CCAT-prime Collaboration: Science Goals and Forecasts with Prime-Cam on the Fred Young Submillimeter Telescope
  • CCAT-Prime collaboration,
  • M. Aravena,
  • J. E. Austermann,
  • K. Basu,
  • N. Battaglia
  • +69
  • B. Beringue,
  • F. Bertoldi,
  • F. Bigiel,
  • J. R. Bond,
  • P. C. Breysse,
  • C. Broughton,
  • R. Bustos,
  • S. C. Chapman,
  • M. Charmetant,
  • S. K. Choi,
  • D. T. Chung,
  • S. E. Clark,
  • N. F. Cothard,
  • A. T. Crites,
  • A. Dev,
  • K. Douglas,
  • C. J. Duell,
  • H. Ebina,
  • J. Erler,
  • M. Fich,
  • L. M. Fissel,
  • S. Foreman,
  • J. Gao,
  • Pablo García,
  • R. Giovanelli,
  • M. P. Haynes,
  • B. Hensley,
  • T. Herter,
  • R. Higgins,
  • Z. Huber,
  • J. Hubmayr,
  • D. Johnstone,
  • C. Karoumpis,
  • Laura C. Keating,
  • E. Komatsu,
  • Y. Li,
  • Benjamin Magnelli,
  • B. C. Matthews,
  • P. D. Meerburg,
  • J. Meyers,
  • V. Muralidhara,
  • N. W. Murray,
  • M. D. Niemack,
  • T. Nikola,
  • Y. Okada,
  • D. A. Riechers,
  • E. Rosolowsky,
  • A. Roy,
  • S. I. Sadavoy,
  • R. Schaaf,
  • P. Schilke,
  • D. Scott,
  • R. Simon,
  • Adrian K. Sinclair,
  • G. R. Sivakoff,
  • G. J. Stacey,
  • Amelia M. Stutz,
  • J. Stutzki,
  • M. Tahani,
  • K. Thanjavur,
  • R. A. Timmermann,
  • J. N. Ullom,
  • A. van Engelen,
  • E. M. Vavagiakis,
  • M. R. Vissers,
  • J. D. Wheeler,
  • S. D. M. White,
  • Y. Zhu,
  • B. Zou
  • (less)
arXiv e-prints (07/2021) e-Print:2107.10364
abstract + abstract -

We present a detailed overview of the science goals and predictions for the Prime-Cam receiver being constructed by the CCAT-prime collaboration for dedicated use on the Fred Young Submillimeter Telescope (FYST). The FYST is a wide-field, 6-m aperture submillimeter telescope being built (first light in late 2023) by an international consortium of institutions led by Cornell University and sited at more than 5600 meters on Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile. The Prime-Cam receiver is one of two instruments planned for FYST and will provide unprecedented spectroscopic and broadband measurement capabilities to address important astrophysical questions ranging from Big Bang cosmology through reionization and the formation of the first galaxies to star formation within our own Milky Way galaxy. Prime-Cam on the FYST will have a mapping speed that is over ten times greater than existing and near-term facilities for high-redshift science and broadband polarimetric imaging at frequencies above 300 GHz. We describe details of the science program enabled by this system and our preliminary survey strategies.

(360)QTRAJ 1.0: A Lindblad equation solver for heavy-quarkonium dynamics
  • Hisham Ba Omar,
  • Miguel Ángel Escobedo,
  • Ajaharul Islam,
  • Michael Strickland,
  • Sabin Thapa
  • +2
  • Peter Vander Griend,
  • Johannes Heinrich Weber
  • (less)
arXiv e-prints (07/2021) e-Print:2107.06147
abstract + abstract -

We introduce an open-source package called QTraj that solves the Lindblad equation for heavy-quarkonium dynamics using the quantum trajectories algorithm. The package allows users to simulate the suppression of heavy-quarkonium states using externally-supplied input from 3+1D hydrodynamics simulations. The code uses a split-step pseudo-spectral method for updating the wave-function between jumps, which is implemented using the open-source multi-threaded FFTW3 package. This allows one to have manifestly unitary evolution when using real-valued potentials. In this paper, we provide detailed documentation of QTraj 1.0, installation instructions, and present various tests and benchmarks of the code.

(359)The Araucaria Project. Distances to Nine Galaxies Based on a Statistical Analysis of their Carbon Stars (JAGB Method)
  • Bartłomiej Zgirski,
  • Grzegorz Pietrzyński,
  • Wolfgang Gieren,
  • Marek Górski,
  • Piotr Wielgórski
  • +11
  • Paulina Karczmarek,
  • Fabio Bresolin,
  • Pierre Kervella,
  • Rolf-Peter Kudritzki,
  • Jesper Storm,
  • Dariusz Graczyk,
  • Gergely Hajdu,
  • Weronika Narloch,
  • Bogumił Pilecki,
  • Ksenia Suchomska,
  • Mónica Taormina
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal, 916, p11 (07/2021) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac04b2
abstract + abstract -

Our work presents an independent calibration of the J-region Asymptotic Giant Branch (JAGB) method using Infrared Survey Facility photometric data and a custom luminosity function profile to determine JAGB mean magnitudes for nine galaxies. We determine a mean absolute magnitude of carbon stars of MLMC = -6.212 ± 0.010 (stat.) ±0.030 (syst.) mag. We then use near-infrared photometry of a number of nearby galaxies, originally obtained by our group to determine their distances from Cepheids using the Leavitt law, in order to independently determine their distances with the JAGB method. We compare the JAGB distances obtained in this work with the Cepheid distances resulting from the same photometry and find very good agreement between the results from the two methods. The mean difference is 0.01 mag with an rms scatter of 0.06 mag after taking into account seven out of the eight analyzed galaxies that had their distances determined using Cepheids. The very accurate distance to the Small Magellanic Cloud based on detached eclipsing binaries is also in very good agreement with the distance obtained from carbon stars.

(358)N-body simulations of dark matter with frequent self-interactions
  • Moritz S. Fischer,
  • Marcus Brüggen,
  • Kai Schmidt-Hoberg,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Felix Kahlhoefer
  • +2
  • Antonio Ragagnin,
  • Andrew Robertson
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 505, p18 (07/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab1198
abstract + abstract -

Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have the potential to solve the small-scale problems that arise in the cold dark matter paradigm. Simulations are a powerful tool for studying SIDM in the context of astrophysics, but it is numerically challenging to study differential cross-sections that favour small-angle scattering (as in light-mediator models). Here, we present a novel approach to model frequent scattering based on an effective drag force, which we have implemented into the N-body code GADGET-3. In a range of test problems, we demonstrate that our implementation accurately models frequent scattering. Our implementation can be used to study differences between SIDM models that predict rare and frequent scattering. We simulate core formation in isolated dark matter haloes, as well as major mergers of galaxy clusters and find that SIDM models with rare and frequent interactions make different predictions. In particular, frequent interactions are able to produce larger offsets between the distribution of galaxies and dark matter in equal-mass mergers.

(357)LEGEND-1000 Preconceptual Design Report
  • LEGEND Collaboration,
  • N. Abgrall,
  • I. Abt,
  • M. Agostini,
  • A. Alexander
  • +260
  • C. Andreoiu,
  • G. R. Araujo,
  • F. T.,
  • III Avignone,
  • W. Bae,
  • A. Bakalyarov,
  • M. Balata,
  • M. Bantel,
  • I. Barabanov,
  • A. S. Barabash,
  • P. S. Barbeau,
  • C. J. Barton,
  • P. J. Barton,
  • L. Baudis,
  • C. Bauer,
  • E. Bernieri,
  • L. Bezrukov,
  • K. H. Bhimani,
  • V. Biancacci,
  • E. Blalock,
  • A. Bolozdynya,
  • S. Borden,
  • B. Bos,
  • E. Bossio,
  • A. Boston,
  • V. Bothe,
  • R. Bouabid,
  • S. Boyd,
  • R. Brugnera,
  • N. Burlac,
  • M. Busch,
  • A. Caldwell,
  • T. S. Caldwell,
  • R. Carney,
  • C. Cattadori,
  • Y. -D. Chan,
  • A. Chernogorov,
  • C. D. Christofferson,
  • P. -H. Chu,
  • M. Clark,
  • T. Cohen,
  • D. Combs,
  • T. Comellato,
  • R. J. Cooper,
  • I. A. Costa,
  • V. D'Andrea,
  • J. A. Detwiler,
  • A. Di Giacinto,
  • N. Di Marco,
  • J. Dobson,
  • A. Drobizhev,
  • M. R. Durand,
  • F. Edzards,
  • Yu. Efremenko,
  • S. R. Elliott,
  • A. Engelhardt,
  • L. Fajt,
  • N. Faud,
  • M. T. Febbraro,
  • F. Ferella,
  • D. E. Fields,
  • F. Fischer,
  • M. Fomina,
  • H. Fox,
  • J. Franchi,
  • R. Gala,
  • A. Galindo-Uribarri,
  • A. Gangapshev,
  • A. Garfagnini,
  • A. Geraci,
  • C. Gilbert,
  • M. Gold,
  • C. Gooch,
  • K. P. Gradwohl,
  • M. P. Green,
  • G. F. Grinyer,
  • A. Grobov,
  • J. Gruszko,
  • I. Guinn,
  • V. E. Guiseppe,
  • V. Gurentsov,
  • Y. Gurov,
  • K. Gusev,
  • B. Hacket,
  • F. Hagemann,
  • J. Hakenmüeller,
  • M. Haranczyk,
  • L. Hauertmann,
  • C. R. Haufe,
  • C. Hayward,
  • B. Heffron,
  • F. Henkes,
  • R. Henning,
  • D. Hervas Aguilar,
  • J. Hinton,
  • R. Hodak,
  • H. Hoffmann,
  • W. Hofmann,
  • A. Hostiuc,
  • J. Huang,
  • M. Hult,
  • M. Ibrahim Mirza,
  • J. Jochum,
  • R. Jones,
  • D. Judson,
  • M. Junker,
  • J. Kaizer,
  • V. Kazalov,
  • Y. Kermaïdic,
  • H. Khushbakht,
  • M. Kidd,
  • T. Kihm,
  • K. Kilgus,
  • I. Kim,
  • A. Klimenko,
  • K. T. Knöpfle,
  • O. Kochetov,
  • S. I. Konovalov,
  • I. Kontul,
  • K. Kool,
  • L. L. Kormos,
  • V. N. Kornoukhov,
  • M. Korosec,
  • P. Krause,
  • V. V. Kuzminov,
  • J. M. López-Castaño,
  • K. Lang,
  • M. Laubenstein,
  • E. León,
  • B. Lehnert,
  • A. Leonhardt,
  • A. Li,
  • M. Lindner,
  • I. Lippi,
  • X. Liu,
  • J. Liu,
  • D. Loomba,
  • A. Lubashevskiy,
  • B. Lubsandorzhiev,
  • N. Lusardi,
  • Y. Müller,
  • M. Macko,
  • C. Macolino,
  • B. Majorovits,
  • F. Mamedov,
  • W. Maneschg,
  • L. Manzanillas,
  • G. Marshall,
  • R. D. Martin,
  • E. L. Martin,
  • R. Massarczyk,
  • D. Mei,
  • S. J. Meijer,
  • S. Mertens,
  • M. Misiaszek,
  • E. Mondragon,
  • M. Morella,
  • B. Morgan,
  • T. Mroz,
  • D. Muenstermann,
  • C. J. Nave,
  • I. Nemchenok,
  • M. Neuberger,
  • T. K. Oli,
  • G. Orebi Gann,
  • G. Othman,
  • V. Palušova,
  • R. Panth,
  • L. Papp,
  • L. S. Paudel,
  • K. Pelczar,
  • J. Perez Perez,
  • L. Pertoldi,
  • W. Pettus,
  • P. Piseri,
  • A. W. P. Poon,
  • P. Povinec,
  • A. Pullia,
  • D. C. Radford,
  • Y. A. Ramachers,
  • C. Ransom,
  • L. Rauscher,
  • M. Redchuk,
  • A. L. Reine,
  • S. Riboldi,
  • K. Rielage,
  • S. Rozov,
  • E. Rukhadze,
  • N. Rumyantseva,
  • J. Runge,
  • N. W. Ruof,
  • R. Saakyan,
  • S. Sailer,
  • G. Salamanna,
  • F. Salamida,
  • D. J. Salvat,
  • V. Sandukovsky,
  • S. Schönert,
  • A. Schültz,
  • M. Schütt,
  • D. C. Schaper,
  • J. Schreiner,
  • O. Schulz,
  • M. Schuster,
  • M. Schwarz,
  • B. Schwingenheuer,
  • O. Selivanenko,
  • M. Shaflee,
  • E. Shevchik,
  • M. Shirchenko,
  • Y. Shitov,
  • H. Simgen,
  • F. Simkovic,
  • M. Skorokhvatov,
  • M. Slavickova,
  • K. Smolek,
  • A. Smolnikov,
  • J. A. Solomon,
  • G. Song,
  • K. Starosta,
  • I. Stekl,
  • M. Stommel,
  • D. Stukov,
  • R. R. Sumathi,
  • D. A. Sweigart,
  • K. Szczepaniec,
  • L. Taffarello,
  • D. Tagnani,
  • R. Tayloe,
  • D. Tedeschi,
  • M. Turqueti,
  • R. L. Varner,
  • S. Vasilyev,
  • A. Veresnikova,
  • K. Vetter,
  • C. Vignoli,
  • C. Vogl,
  • K. von Sturm,
  • D. Waters,
  • J. C. Waters,
  • W. Wei,
  • C. Wiesinger,
  • J. F. Wilkerson,
  • M. Willers,
  • C. Wiseman,
  • M. Wojcik,
  • V. H. -S. Wu,
  • W. Xu,
  • E. Yakushev,
  • T. Ye,
  • C. -H. Yu,
  • V. Yumatov,
  • N. Zaretski,
  • J. Zeman,
  • I. Zhitnikov,
  • D. Zinatulina,
  • A. -K. Zschocke,
  • A. J. Zsigmond,
  • K. Zuber,
  • G. Zuzel
  • (less)
arXiv e-prints (07/2021) e-Print:2107.11462
abstract + abstract -

We propose the construction of LEGEND-1000, the ton-scale Large Enriched Germanium Experiment for Neutrinoless $\beta \beta$ Decay. This international experiment is designed to answer one of the highest priority questions in fundamental physics. It consists of 1000 kg of Ge detectors enriched to more than 90% in the $^{76}$Ge isotope operated in a liquid argon active shield at a deep underground laboratory. By combining the lowest background levels with the best energy resolution in the field, LEGEND-1000 will perform a quasi-background-free search and can make an unambiguous discovery of neutrinoless double-beta decay with just a handful of counts at the decay $Q$ value. The experiment is designed to probe this decay with a 99.7%-CL discovery sensitivity in the $^{76}$Ge half-life of $1.3\times10^{28}$ years, corresponding to an effective Majorana mass upper limit in the range of 9-21 meV, to cover the inverted-ordering neutrino mass scale with 10 yr of live time.

(356)Conservative constraints on the effective theory of dark matter-nucleon interactions from IceCube: the impact of operator interference
  • Anja Brenner,
  • Alejandro Ibarra,
  • Andreas Rappelt
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 2021, p23 (07/2021) doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2021/07/012
abstract + abstract -

We present a method to derive conservative upper limits on the coupling constants of the effective theory of dark matter-nucleon interactions, taking into account the interference among operators. The method can be applied in any basis, and can be easily particularized to any UV complete model. To illustrate our method, we use the IceCube constraints on an exotic neutrino flux from dark matter annihilations in the Sun to derive conservative upper limits on the dark matter-nucleon coupling constants of the effective theory, as well as to derive conservative upper limits on the dark matter-proton and dark matter-neutron scattering cross-sections.

(355)Exploration of doped quantum magnets with ultracold atoms
  • Annabelle Bohrdt,
  • Lukas Homeier,
  • Christian Reinmoser,
  • Eugene Demler,
  • Fabian Grusdt
abstract + abstract -

In the last decade, quantum simulators, and in particular cold atoms in optical lattices, have emerged as a valuable tool to study strongly correlated quantum matter. These experiments are now reaching regimes that are numerically difficult or impossible to access. In particular they have started to fulfill a promise which has contributed significantly to defining and shaping the field of cold atom quantum simulations, namely the exploration of doped and frustrated quantum magnets and the search for the origins of high-temperature superconductivity in the fermionic Hubbard model. Despite many future challenges lying ahead, such as the need to further lower the experimentally accessible temperatures, remarkable studies have already been conducted. Among them, spin-charge separation in one-dimensional systems has been demonstrated, extended-range antiferromagnetism in two-dimensional systems has been observed, connections to modern day large-scale numerical simulations were made, and unprecedented comparisons with microscopic trial wavefunctions have been carried out at finite doping. In many regards, the field has acquired new realms, putting old ideas to a new test and producing new insights and inspiration for the next generation of physicists. In the first part of this paper, we review the results achieved in cold atom realizations of the Fermi–Hubbard model in recent years. We put special emphasis on the new probes available in quantum gas microscopes, such as higher-order correlation functions, full counting statistics, the ability to study far-from-equilibrium dynamics, machine learning and pattern recognition of instantaneous snapshots of the many-body wavefunction, and access to non-local correlators. Our review is written from a theoretical perspective, but aims to provide basic understanding of the experimental procedures. We cover one-dimensional systems, where the phenomenon of spin-charge separation is ubiquitous, and two-dimensional systems where we distinguish between situations with and without doping. Throughout, we focus on the strong coupling regime where the Hubbard interactions <math display="inline" id="d1e3228" altimg="si1.svg"><mi>U</mi></math> dominate and connections to <math display="inline" id="d1e3233" altimg="si421.svg"><mrow><mi>t</mi><mo linebreak="goodbreak" linebreakstyle="after">−</mo><mi>J</mi></mrow></math> models can be justified. In the second part of this paper, with the stage set and the current state of the field in mind, we propose a new direction for cold atoms to explore: namely mixed-dimensional bilayer systems, where the charge motion is restricted to individual layers which remain coupled through spin-exchange. These systems can be directly realized experimentally and we argue that they have a rich phase diagram, potentially including a strongly correlated BEC-to-BCS cross-over and regimes with different superconducting order parameters, as well as complex parton phases and possibly even analogs of tetraquark states. In particular, we propose a novel, strong pairing mechanism in these systems, which puts the formation of hole pairs at experimentally accessible, elevated temperatures within reach. Ultimately we propose to explore how the physics of the mixed-dimensional bilayer system can be connected to the rich phenomenology of the single-layer Hubbard model. •Comprehensive review of cold atom experiments on the Fermi–Hubbard model.•Focus on physics highlights, from a theoretical perspective.•New results for hole-pairing in bilayer and ladder systems.•Including a discussion of contemporary analysis tools: from machine-learning to ARPES.

(354)A redefinition of the halo boundary leads to a simple yet accurate halo model of large-scale structure
  • Rafael García,
  • Eduardo Rozo,
  • Matthew R. Becker,
  • Surhud More
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 505, p11 (07/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab1317
abstract + abstract -

We present a model for the halo-mass correlation function that explicitly incorporates halo exclusion and allows for a redefinition of the halo boundary in a flexible way. We assume that haloes trace mass in a way that can be described using a single scale-independent bias parameter. However, our model exhibits scale-dependent biasing due to the impact of halo-exclusion, the use of a 'soft' (i.e. not infinitely sharp) halo boundary, and differences in the one halo term contributions to ξhm and ξmm. These features naturally lead us to a redefinition of the halo boundary that lies at the 'by eye' transition radius from the one-halo to the two-halo term in the halo-mass correlation function. When adopting our proposed definition, our model succeeds in describing the halo-mass correlation function with $\approx 2{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ residuals over the radial range 0.1 h-1 Mpc < r < 80 h-1 Mpc, and for halo masses in the range 1013 h-1 M < M < 1015 h-1 M. Our proposed halo boundary is related to the splashback radius by a roughly constant multiplicative factor. Taking the 87 percentile as reference we find rt/Rsp ≍ 1.3. Surprisingly, our proposed definition results in halo abundances that are well described by the Press-Schechter mass function with δsc = 1.449 ± 0.004. The clustering bias parameter is offset from the standard background-split prediction by $\approx 10{{\ \rm per\ cent}}\!-\!15{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$. This level of agreement is comparable to that achieved with more standard halo definitions.

(353)Gravitational Bremsstrahlung in the post-Minkowskian effective field theory
  • Stavros Mougiakakos,
  • Massimiliano Maria Riva,
  • Filippo Vernizzi
Physical Review D, 104 (07/2021) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.104.024041
abstract + abstract -

We study the gravitational radiation emitted during the scattering of two spinless bodies in the post-Minkowskian effective field theory approach. We derive the conserved stress-energy tensor linearly coupled to gravity and the classical probability amplitude of graviton emission at leading and next-to-leading order in the Newton's constant G . The amplitude can be expressed in compact form as one-dimensional integrals over a Feynman parameter involving Bessel functions. We use it to recover the leading-order radiated angular momentum expression. Upon expanding it in the relative velocity between the two bodies v , we compute the total four-momentum radiated into gravitational waves at leading-order in G and up to an order v, 8 finding agreement with what was recently computed using scattering amplitude methods. Our results also allow us to investigate the zero frequency limit of the emitted energy spectrum.

(352)PENELLOPE: The ESO data legacy program to complement the Hubble UV Legacy Library of Young Stars (ULLYSES). I. Survey presentation and accretion properties of Orion OB1 and σ-Orionis
  • C. F. Manara,
  • A. Frasca,
  • L. Venuti,
  • M. Siwak,
  • G. J. Herczeg
  • +67
  • N. Calvet,
  • J. Hernandez,
  • Ł. Tychoniec,
  • M. Gangi,
  • J. M. Alcalá,
  • H. M. J. Boffin,
  • B. Nisini,
  • M. Robberto,
  • C. Briceno,
  • J. Campbell-White,
  • A. Sicilia-Aguilar,
  • P. McGinnis,
  • D. Fedele,
  • Á. Kóspál,
  • P. Ábrahám,
  • J. Alonso-Santiago,
  • S. Antoniucci,
  • N. Arulanantham,
  • F. Bacciotti,
  • A. Banzatti,
  • G. Beccari,
  • M. Benisty,
  • K. Biazzo,
  • J. Bouvier,
  • S. Cabrit,
  • A. Caratti o Garatti,
  • D. Coffey,
  • E. Covino,
  • C. Dougados,
  • J. Eislöffel,
  • B. Ercolano,
  • C. C. Espaillat,
  • J. Erkal,
  • S. Facchini,
  • M. Fang,
  • E. Fiorellino,
  • W. J. Fischer,
  • K. France,
  • J. F. Gameiro,
  • R. Garcia Lopez,
  • T. Giannini,
  • C. Ginski,
  • K. Grankin,
  • H. M. Günther,
  • L. Hartmann,
  • L. A. Hillenbrand,
  • G. A. J. Hussain,
  • M. M. James,
  • M. Koutoulaki,
  • G. Lodato,
  • K. Maucó,
  • I. Mendigutía,
  • R. Mentel,
  • A. Miotello,
  • R. D. Oudmaijer,
  • E. Rigliaco,
  • G. P. Rosotti,
  • E. Sanchis,
  • P. C. Schneider,
  • L. Spina,
  • B. Stelzer,
  • L. Testi,
  • T. Thanathibodee,
  • J. S. Vink,
  • F. M. Walter,
  • J. P. Williams,
  • G. Zsidi
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 650, p46 (06/2021) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202140639
abstract + abstract -

The evolution of young stars and disks is driven by the interplay of several processes, notably the accretion and ejection of material. These processes, critical to correctly describe the conditions of planet formation, are best probed spectroscopically. Between 2020 and 2022, about 500orbits of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are being devoted in to the ULLYSES public survey of about 70 low-mass (M ≤ 2 M) young (age < 10 Myr) stars at UV wavelengths. Here, we present the PENELLOPE Large Program carried out with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) with the aim of acquiring, contemporaneously to the HST, optical ESPRESSO/UVES high-resolution spectra for the purpose of investigating the kinematics of the emitting gas, along with UV-to-NIR X-shooter medium-resolution flux-calibrated spectra to provide the fundamental parameters that HST data alone cannot provide, such as extinction and stellar properties. The data obtained by PENELLOPE have no proprietary time and the fully reduced spectra are being made available to the whole community. Here, we describe the data and the first scientific analysis of the accretion properties for the sample of 13 targets located in the Orion OB1 association and in the σ-Orionis cluster, observed in November-December 2020. We find that the accretion rates are in line with those observed previously in similarly young star-forming regions, with a variability on a timescale of days (≲3). The comparison of the fits to the continuum excess emission obtained with a slab model on the X-shooter spectra and the HST/STIS spectra shows a shortcoming in the X-shooter estimates of ≲10%, which is well within the assumed uncertainty. Its origin can be either due to an erroneous UV extinction curve or to the simplicity of the modeling and, thus, this question will form the basis of the investigation undertaken over the course of the PENELLOPE program. The combined ULLYSES and PENELLOPE data will be key in attaining a better understanding of the accretion and ejection mechanisms in young stars.

Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programme 106.20Z8.

(351)Assembly bias in quadratic bias parameters of dark matter halos from forward modeling
  • Titouan Lazeyras,
  • Alexandre Barreira,
  • Fabian Schmidt
abstract + abstract -

We use the forward modeling approach to galaxy clustering combined with the likelihood from the effective-field theory of large-scale structure to measure assembly bias, i.e. the dependence of halo bias on properties beyond the total mass, in the linear (b1) and second order bias parameters (b2 and bK2) of dark matter halos in N-body simulations. This is the first time that assembly bias in the tidal bias parameter bK2 is measured. We focus on three standard halo properties: the concentration c, spin λ, and sphericity s, for which we find an assembly bias signal in bK2 that is opposite to that in b1. Specifically, at fixed mass, halos that get more (less) positively biased in b1, get less (more) negatively biased in bK2. We also investigate the impact of assembly bias on the b2(b1) and bK2(b1) relations, and find that while the b2(b1) relation stays roughly unchanged, assembly bias strongly impacts the bK2(b1) relation. This impact likely extends also to the corresponding relation for galaxies, which motivates future studies to design better priors on bK2(b1) for use in cosmological constraints from galaxy clustering data.

(350)A general framework to test gravity using galaxy clusters IV: cluster and halo properties in DGP gravity
  • Myles A. Mitchell,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Christian Arnold,
  • Baojiu Li
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc., 508, p4140 (06/2021) e-Print:2106.13815 doi:10.1093/mnras/stab2817
abstract + abstract -

We study and model the properties of galaxy clusters in the normal-branch Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati (nDGP) model of gravity, which is representative of a wide class of theories that exhibit the Vainshtein screening mechanism. Using the first cosmological simulations that incorporate both full baryonic physics and nDGP, we find that, despite being efficiently screened within clusters, the fifth force can raise the temperature of the intracluster gas, affecting the scaling relations between the cluster mass and three observable mass proxies: the gas temperature, the Compton Y-parameter of the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect, and the X-ray analogue of the Y-parameter. Therefore, unless properly accounted for, this could lead to biased measurements of the cluster mass in tests that use cluster observations, such as cluster number counts, to probe gravity. Using a suite of dark-matter-only simulations, which span a wide range of box sizes and resolutions, and which feature very different strengths of the fifth force, we also calibrate general fitting formulae that can reproduce the nDGP halo concentration at percent accuracy for 0 ≤ z ≤ 1, and halo mass function with |${\lesssim}3{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$| accuracy at 0 ≤ z ≤ 1 (increasing to |${\lesssim}5{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$| for 1 ≤ z ≤ 2), over a halo mass range spanning four orders of magnitude. Our model for the concentration can be used for converting between halo mass overdensities and predicting statistics such as the non-linear matter power spectrum. The results of this work will form part of a framework for unbiased constraints of gravity using the data from ongoing and upcoming cluster surveys.

(349)Supernova 1987A: 3D Mixing and Light Curves for Explosion Models Based on Binary-merger Progenitors
  • V. P. Utrobin,
  • A. Wongwathanarat,
  • H. -Th. Janka,
  • E. Müller,
  • T. Ertl
  • +2
The Astrophysical Journal, 914, p26 (06/2021) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abf4c5
abstract + abstract -

Six binary-merger progenitors of supernova 1987A (SN 1987A) with properties close to those of the blue supergiant Sanduleak -69°202 are exploded by neutrino heating and evolved until long after shock breakout in 3D and continued for light-curve calculations in spherical symmetry. Our results confirm previous findings for single-star progenitors: (1) 3D neutrino-driven explosions with SN 1987A-like energies synthesize 56Ni masses consistent with the radioactive light-curve tail; (2) hydrodynamic models mix hydrogen inward to minimum velocities below 40 km s-1 compatible with spectral observations of SN 1987A; and (3) for given explosion energy the efficiency of outward radioactive 56Ni mixing depends mainly on high growth factors of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities at the (C+O)/He and He/H composition interfaces and a weak interaction of fast plumes with the reverse shock occurring below the He/H interface. All binary-merger models possess presupernova radii matching the photometric radius of Sanduleak -69°202 and a structure of the outer layers allowing them to reproduce the observed initial luminosity peak in the first ~7 days. Models that mix about 0.5 M of hydrogen into the He-shell and exhibit strong outward mixing of 56Ni with maximum velocities exceeding the 3000 km s-1 observed for the bulk of ejected 56Ni have light-curve shapes in good agreement with the dome of the SN 1987A light curve. A comparative analysis of the best representatives of our 3D neutrino-driven explosion models of SN 1987A based on single-star and binary-merger progenitors reveals that only one binary model fulfills all observational constraints, except one.

(348)Testing Photoevaporation and MHD Disk Wind Models through Future High-angular Resolution Radio Observations: The Case of TW Hydrae
  • Luca Ricci,
  • Sarah K. Harter,
  • Barbara Ercolano,
  • Michael Weber
The Astrophysical Journal, 913, p8 (06/2021) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abf5d8
abstract + abstract -

We present theoretical predictions for the free-free emission at centimeter wavelengths obtained from photoevaporation and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind disk models adjusted to the case of the TW Hydrae young stellar object. For this system, disk photoevaporation with heating due to the high-energy photons from the star has been proposed as a possible mechanism to open the gap observed in the dust emission with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. We show that the photoevaporation disk model predicts a radial profile for the free-free emission that is made of two main spatial components, one originated from the bound disk atmosphere at 0.5-1 au from the star, and another more extended component from the photoevaporative wind at larger disk radii. We also show that the stellar X-ray luminosity has a significant impact on both these components. The predicted radio emission from the MHD wind model has a smoother radial distribution which extends to closer distances to the star than the photoevaporation case. We also show that a future radio telescope such as the Next Generation Very Large Array would have enough sensitivity and angular resolution to spatially resolve the main structures predicted by these models.

(347)Modified Gravity and the Flux-weighted Gravity-Luminosity Relationship of Blue Supergiant Stars
  • Eva Sextl,
  • Rolf-Peter Kudritzki,
  • Jochen Weller,
  • Miguel A. Urbaneja,
  • Achim Weiss
The Astrophysical Journal, 914, p11 (06/2021) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abfafa
abstract + abstract -

We calculate models of stellar evolution for very massive stars and include the effects of modified gravity to investigate the influence on the physical properties of blue supergiant stars and their use as extragalactic distance indicators. With shielding and fifth force parameters in a similar range as those in previous studies of Cepheid and tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) stars, we find clear effects on stellar luminosity and flux-weighted gravity. The relationship between flux-weighted gravity, gF ≡ g/ ${T}_{\mathrm{eff}}^{4}$ , and bolometric magnitude Mbol, which has been used successfully for accurate distance determinations, is systematically affected. While the stellar evolution of flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relationships (FGLRs) show a systematic offset from the observed relation, we can use the differential shifts between models with Newtonian and modified gravity to estimate the influence on FGLR distance determinations. Modified gravity leads to an increase in distance of 0.05-0.15 magnitudes in distance modulus. These changes are comparable to the ones found for Cepheid stars. We compare observed FGLR and TRGB distances of nine galaxies to constrain the free parameters of modified gravity. Not accounting for systematic differences between TRGB and FGLR distances shielding parameters of 5 × 10-7 and 10-6 and fifth force parameters of 1/3 and 1 can be ruled out with about 90% confidence. Allowing for potential systematic offsets between TRGB and FGLR distances no determination is possible for a shielding parameter of 10-6. For 5 × 10-7 a fifth force parameter of 1 can be ruled out to 92% but 1/3 is unlikely only to 60%.

(346)Precise Measurements of the Decay of Free Neutrons
  • Dirk Dubbers,
  • Bastian Märkisch
arXiv e-prints (06/2021) e-Print:2106.02345
abstract + abstract -

The impact of new and highly precise neutron \b{eta} decay data is reviewed. We focus on recent results from neutron lifetime, \b{eta} asymmetry, and electron-neutrino correlation experiments. From these results, weak interaction parameters are extracted with unprecedented precision, possible also due to progress in effective field theory and lattice QCD. Limits on New Physics beyond the Standard Model derived from neutron decay data are sharper than those derived from high-energy experiments, except for processes involving right-handed neutrinos.

(345)Thermal Wave Instability as an Origin of Gap and Ring Structures in Protoplanetary Disks
  • Takahiro Ueda,
  • Mario Flock,
  • Tilman Birnstiel
The Astrophysical Journal, 914, p8 (06/2021) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ac0631
abstract + abstract -

Recent millimeter and infrared observations have shown that gap- and ring-like structures are common in both dust thermal emission and scattered light of protoplanetary disks. We investigate the impact of the so-called thermal wave instability (TWI) on the millimeter and infrared scattered light images of disks. We perform 11D simulations of the TWI and confirm that the TWI operates when the disk is optically thick enough for stellar light, i.e., small-grain-to-gas mass ratio of 0.0001. The midplane temperature varies as the waves propagate, and hence gap and ring structures can be seen in both millimeter and infrared emission. The millimeter substructures can be observed even if the disk is fully optically thick since it is induced by the temperature variation, while density-induced substructures would disappear in the optically thick regime. The fractional separation between TWI-induced ring and gap is r/r 0.20.4 at 1050 au, which is comparable to those found by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. Due to the temperature variation, snow lines of volatile species move radially and multiple snow lines are observed even for a single species. The wave propagation velocity is as fast as 0.6 au yr1, which can be potentially detected with a multiepoch observation with a time separation of a few years.

(344)The eROSITA Final Equatorial-Depth Survey (eFEDS) - Optical confirmation, redshifts, and properties of the cluster and group catalog
  • M. Klein,
  • M. Oguri,
  • J.J. Mohr,
  • S. Grandis,
  • V. Ghirardini
  • +17
  • T. Liu,
  • A. Liu,
  • E. Bulbul,
  • J. Wolf,
  • J. Comparat,
  • M.E. Ramos-Ceja,
  • J. Buchner,
  • I. Chiu,
  • N. Clerc,
  • A. Merloni,
  • H. Miyatake,
  • S. Miyazaki,
  • N. Okabe,
  • N. Ota,
  • F. Pacaud,
  • M. Salvato,
  • S.P. Driver
  • (less)
Astron.Astrophys., 661, pA4 (06/2021) e-Print:2106.14519 doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202141123
abstract + abstract -

Context. In 2019, the eROSITA telescope on board the Russian-German satellite Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) began to perform a deep all-sky X-ray survey with the aim of identifying ~100 000 clusters and groups over the course of four years. As part of its performance verification phase, a ~140 deg2 survey, called eROSITA Final Equatorial-Depth Survey (eFEDS), was performed. With a depth typical of the all-sky survey after four years, it allows tests of tools and methods as well as improved predictions for the all-sky survey.Aims. As part of this effort, a catalog of 542 X-ray selected galaxy group and cluster candidates was compiled. In this paper we present the optical follow-up, with the aim of providing redshifts and cluster confirmation for the full sample. Furthermore, we aim to provide additional information on the dynamical state, richness, and optical center of the clusters. Finally, we aim to evaluate the impact of optical cluster confirmation on the purity and completeness of the X-ray selected sample.Methods. We used optical imaging data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program and from the Legacy Survey to identify optical counterparts to the X-ray detected cluster candidates. We make use of the multi-component matched filter cluster confirmation tool (MCMF), as well as of the optical cluster finder CAMIRA to derive cluster redshifts and richnesses. MCMF provided the probabilities with which an optical structure would be a chance superposition with the X-ray candidate. These probabilities were used to identify the best optical counterpart as well as to confirm an X-ray candidate as a cluster. The impact of this confirmation process on catalog purity and completeness was estimated using optical to X-ray scaling relations as well as simulations. The resulting catalog was furthermore matched with public group and cluster catalogs. Optical estimators of the cluster dynamical state were constructed based on density maps of the red-sequence galaxies at the cluster redshift.Results. By providing redshift estimates for all 542 candidates, we construct an optically confirmed sample of 477 clusters and groups with a residual contamination of 6%. Of these, 470 (98.5%) are confirmed using MCMF, and 7 systems are added through cross-matching with spectroscopic group catalogs. Using observable-to-observable scaling and the applied confirmation threshold, we predict that 8 ± 2 real systems have been excluded with the MCMF cut required to build this low-contamination sample. This number agrees well with the 7 systems found through cross-matching that were not confirmed with MCMF. The predicted redshift and mass distribution of this catalog agree well with simulations. Thus, we expect that these 477 systems include >99% of all true clusters in the candidate list. Using an MCMF-independent method, we confirm that the catalog contamination of the confirmed subsample is 6 ± 3%. Application of the same method to the full candidate list yields 17 ± 3%, consistent with estimates coming from the fraction of confirmed systems of ~17% and with expectations from simulations of ~20%. We also present a sample of merging cluster candidates based on the derived estimators of the cluster dynamical state.Key words: catalogs / galaxies: clusters: general / galaxies: distances and redshifts / galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium / X-rays: galaxies: clusters★ The catalog is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

(343)On the Use of Field RR Lyrae as Galactic Probes. III. The α-element Abundances
  • J. Crestani,
  • V. F. Braga,
  • M. Fabrizio,
  • G. Bono,
  • C. Sneden
  • +31
  • G. Preston,
  • I. Ferraro,
  • G. Iannicola,
  • M. Nonino,
  • G. Fiorentino,
  • F. Thévenin,
  • B. Lemasle,
  • Z. Prudil,
  • A. Alves-Brito,
  • G. Altavilla,
  • B. Chaboyer,
  • M. Dall'Ora,
  • V. D'Orazi,
  • C. Gilligan,
  • E. K. Grebel,
  • A. J. Koch-Hansen,
  • H. Lala,
  • M. Marengo,
  • S. Marinoni,
  • P. M. Marrese,
  • C. Martínez-Vázquez,
  • N. Matsunaga,
  • M. Monelli,
  • J. P. Mullen,
  • J. Neeley,
  • R. da Silva,
  • P. B. Stetson,
  • M. Salaris,
  • J. Storm,
  • E. Valenti,
  • M. Zoccali
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal, 914, p15 (06/2021) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abfa23
abstract + abstract -

We provide the largest and most homogeneous sample of α-element (Mg, Ca, Ti) and iron abundances for field RR Lyrae (RRLs; 162 variables) by using high-resolution spectra. The current measurements were complemented with similar abundances available in the literature for 46 field RRLs brought to our metallicity scale. We ended up with a sample of old (t ≥ 10 Gyr), low-mass stellar tracers (208 RRLs: 169 fundamental, 38 first overtone, and 1 mixed mode) covering 3 dex in iron abundance (-3.00 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ 0.24). We found that field RRLs are ~0.3 dex more α poor than typical halo tracers in the metal-rich regime ([Fe/H] ≥ -1.2), while in the metal-poor regime ([Fe/H] ≤ -2.2) they seem to be on average ~0.1 dex more α enhanced. This is the first time that the depletion in α elements for solar iron abundances is detected on the basis of a large, homogeneous, and coeval sample of old stellar tracers. Interestingly, we also detected a close similarity in the [α/Fe] trend between α-poor, metal-rich RRLs and red giants (RGs) in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy as well as between α-enhanced, metal-poor RRLs and RGs in ultrafaint dwarf galaxies. These results are supported by similar elemental abundances for 46 field horizontal branch stars. These stars share with RRLs the same evolutionary phase and the same progenitors. This evidence further supports the key role that old stellar tracers play in constraining the early chemical enrichment of the halo and, in particular, in investigating the impact that dwarf galaxies have had in the mass assembly of the Galaxy. * Based on observations obtained with the du Pont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, operated by Carnegie Institution for Science. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Based partly on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescopes in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC. Some of the observations reported in this paper were obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere.

(342)The eROSITA Final Equatorial-Depth Survey (eFEDS) - Identification and characterization of the counterparts to point-like sources
  • M. Salvato,
  • J. Wolf,
  • T. Dwelly,
  • A. Georgakakis,
  • M. Brusa
  • +38
  • A. Merloni,
  • T. Liu,
  • Y. Toba,
  • K. Nandra,
  • G. Lamer,
  • J. Buchner,
  • C. Schneider,
  • S. Freund,
  • A. Rau,
  • A. Schwope,
  • A. Nishizawa,
  • M. Klein,
  • R. Arcodia,
  • J. Comparat,
  • B. Musiimenta,
  • T. Nagao,
  • H. Brunner,
  • A. Malyali,
  • A. Finoguenov,
  • S. Anderson,
  • Y. Shen,
  • H. Ibarra-Mendel,
  • J. Trump,
  • W.N. Brandt,
  • C.M. Urry,
  • C. Rivera,
  • M. Krumpe,
  • T. Urrutia,
  • T. Miyaji,
  • K. Ichikawa,
  • D.P. Schneider,
  • A. Fresco,
  • T. Boller,
  • J. Haase,
  • J. Brownstein,
  • R.R. Lane,
  • D. Bizyaev,
  • C. Nitschelm
  • (less)
Astron.Astrophys., 661, pA3 (06/2021) e-Print:2106.14520 doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202141631
abstract + abstract -

Context. In November 2019, eROSITA on board of the Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) observatory started to map the entire sky in X-rays. After the four-year survey program, it will reach a flux limit that is about 25 times deeper than ROSAT. During the SRG performance verification phase, eROSITA observed a contiguous 140 deg2 area of the sky down to the final depth of the eROSITA all-sky survey (eROSITA Final Equatorial-Depth Survey; eFEDS), with the goal of obtaining a census of the X-ray emitting populations (stars, compact objects, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and active galactic nuclei) that will be discovered over the entire sky.Aims. This paper presents the identification of the counterparts to the point sources detected in eFEDS in the main and hard samples and their multi-wavelength properties, including redshift.Methods. To identifyy the counterparts, we combined the results from two independent methods (NWAY and ASTROMATCH), trained on the multi-wavelength properties of a sample of 23k XMM-Newton sources detected in the DESI Legacy Imaging Survey DR8. Then spectroscopic redshifts and photometry from ancillary surveys were collated to compute photometric redshifts.Results. Of the eFEDS sources, 24 774 of 27 369 have reliable counterparts (90.5%) in the main sample and 231 of 246 sourcess (93.9%) have counterparts in the hard sample, including 2514 (3) sources for which a second counterpart is equally likely. By means of reliable spectra, Gaia parallaxes, and/or multi-wavelength properties, we have classified the reliable counterparts in both samples into Galactic (2695) and extragalactic sources (22 079). For about 340 of the extragalactic sources, we cannot rule out the possibility that they are unresolved clusters or belong to clusters. Inspection of the distributions of the X-ray sources in various optical/IR colour-magnitude spaces reveal a rich variety of diverse classes of objects. The photometric redshifts are most reliable within the KiDS/VIKING area, where deep near-infrared data are also available.Conclusions. This paper accompanies the eROSITA early data release of all the observations performed during the performance and verification phase. Together with the catalogues of primary and secondary counterparts to the main and hard samples of the eFEDS survey, this paper releases their multi-wavelength properties and redshifts.Key words: methods: data analysis / X-rays: general / catalogs / surveys / galaxies: active / galaxies: distances and redshifts★ The data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

(341)Global analysis of leptophilic Z' bosons
  • Andrzej J. Buras,
  • Andreas Crivellin,
  • Fiona Kirk,
  • Claudio Andrea Manzari,
  • Marc Montull
Journal of High Energy Physics, 2021 (06/2021) doi:10.1007/JHEP06(2021)068
abstract + abstract -

New neutral heavy gauge bosons (Z') are predicted within many extensions of the Standard Model. While in case they couple to quarks the LHC bounds are very stringent, leptophilic Z' bosons (even with sizable couplings) can be much lighter and therefore lead to interesting quantum effects in precision observables (like (g − 2)μ) and generate flavour violating decays of charged leptons. In particular, ℓ →ℓ 'v v ¯ decays, anomalous magnetic moments of charged leptons, ℓ → ℓ'γ and ℓ → 3ℓ' decays place stringent limits on leptophilic Z' bosons. Furthermore, in case of mixing Z' with the SM Z, Z pole observables are affected. In light of these many observables we perform a global fit to leptophilic Z' models with the main goal of finding the bounds for the Z' couplings to leptons. To this end we consider a number of scenarios for these couplings. While in generic scenarios correlations are weak, this changes once additional constraints on the couplings are imposed. In particular, if one considers an Lμ− Lτ symmetry broken only by left-handed rotations, or considers the case of τ − μ couplings only. In the latter setup, on can explain the (g − 2)μ anomaly and the hint for lepton flavour universality violation in τ →μv v ¯/τ →ev v ¯ without violating bounds from electroweak precision observables.

(340)$P$-wave quarkonium wavefunctions at the origin in the $\overline{\rm MS}$ scheme
  • Hee Sok Chung
arXiv e-prints (06/2021) e-Print:2106.15514
abstract + abstract -

We compute $P$-wave quarkonium wavefunctions at the origin in the $\overline{\rm MS}$ scheme based on nonrelativistic effective field theories. We include nonperturbative effects from the long-distance behaviors of the potential, while the short-distance behaviors are determined from perturbative QCD. We obtain $\overline{\rm MS}$-renormalized $P$-wave quarkonium wavefunctions at the origin that have the correct scale dependences that are expected from factorization formalisms, so that the dependences on the scheme and scale cancel in physical quantities. This greatly reduces the theoretical uncertainties associated with scheme and scale dependences in predictions of decay and production rates. Based on the calculation of the $P$-wave wavefunctions at the origin in this work, we make first-principles predictions of electromagnetic decay rates and exclusive electromagnetic production rates of $P$-wave charmonia and bottomonia, and compare them with measurements.

(339)A toy model for background independent string field theory
  • Maxim Grigoriev,
  • Adiel Meyer,
  • Ivo Sachs
arXiv e-prints (06/2021) e-Print:2106.07966
abstract + abstract -

We study gauge theories of background fields associated to BRST quantized spinning particle models and identify background-independent algebraic structures which allow to systematically reduce the spectrum of fields and subject some of them to dynamical equations of motion. More specifically, we construct a manifestly background-independent extension of the model based on $N=2$ spinning particle. The extended system describes the on-shell spin-1 field coupled to off-shell background fields including metric and dilaton. Tensoring with a given Lie algebra results in a non-abelian extension of the model.

(338)Testing one-loop galaxy bias: Joint analysis of power spectrum and bispectrum
  • Alexander Eggemeier,
  • Román Scoccimarro,
  • Robert E. Smith,
  • Martin Crocce,
  • Andrea Pezzotta
  • +1
Physical Review D, 103 (06/2021) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.103.123550
abstract + abstract -

We present a joint likelihood analysis of the real-space power spectrum and bispectrum measured from a variety of halo and galaxy mock catalogs. A novel aspect of this work is the inclusion of nonlinear triangle configurations for the bispectrum, made possible by a complete next-to-leading order ("one-loop") description of galaxy bias, as is already common practice for the power spectrum. Based on the goodness of fit and the unbiasedness of the parameter posteriors, we accomplish a stringent validation of this model compared to the leading order ("tree-level") bispectrum. Using measurement uncertainties that correspond to an effective survey volume of 6 (Gpc /h )3 , we determine that the one-loop corrections roughly double the applicable range of scales, from ∼0.17 h /Mpc (tree level) to ∼0.3 h /Mpc . This converts into a 1.5-2x improvement on constraints of the linear bias parameter at fixed cosmology, and a 1.5-2.4x shrinkage of uncertainties on the amplitude of fluctuations As, which clearly demonstrates the benefit of extracting information from nonlinear scales despite having to marginalize over a larger number of bias parameters. Besides, our precise measurements of galaxy bias parameters up to fourth order allow for thorough comparisons to coevolution relations, showing excellent agreement for all contributions generated by the nonlocal action of gravity. Using these relations in the likelihood analysis does not compromise the model validity and is crucial for obtaining the quoted improvements on As. We also analyzed the impact of higher-derivative and scale-dependent stochastic terms, finding that for a subset of our tracers the former can boost the performance of the tree-level model with constraints on As that are only slightly degraded compared to the one-loop model.

(337)A fully differential SMEFT analysis of the golden channel using the method of moments
  • Shankha Banerjee,
  • Rick S. Gupta,
  • Oscar Ochoa-Valeriano,
  • Michael Spannowsky,
  • Elena Venturini
Journal of High Energy Physics, 2021 (06/2021) doi:10.1007/JHEP06(2021)031
abstract + abstract -

The Method of Moments is a powerful framework to disentangle the relative contributions of amplitudes of a specific process to its various phase space regions. We apply this method to carry out a fully differential analysis of the Higgs decay channel h → 4ℓ and constrain gauge-Higgs coupling modifications parametrised by dimension-six effective operators. We find that this analysis approach provides very good constraints and minimises degeneracies in the parameter space of the effective theory. By combining the decay h → 4ℓ with Higgs-associated production processes, Wh and Zh, we obtain the strongest reported bounds on anomalous gauge-Higgs couplings.

(336)Inclusive Production of Heavy Quarkonia in pNRQCD
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Hee Sok Chung,
  • Antonio Vairo
arXiv e-prints (06/2021) e-Print:2106.09417
abstract + abstract -

We develop a formalism for computing inclusive production cross sections of heavy quarkonia based on the nonrelativistic QCD and the potential nonrelativistic QCD effective field theories. Our formalism applies to strongly coupled quarkonia, which include excited charmonium and bottomonium states. Analogously to heavy quarkonium decay processes, we express nonrelativistic QCD long-distance matrix elements in terms of quarkonium wavefunctions at the origin and universal gluonic correlators. Our expressions for the long-distance matrix elements are valid up to corrections of order $1/N_c^2$. These expressions enhance the predictive power of the nonrelativistic effective field theory approach to inclusive production processes by reducing the number of nonperturbative unknowns, and make possible first-principle determinations of long-distance matrix elements once the gluonic correlators are known. Based on this formalism, we compute the production cross sections of $P$-wave charmonia and bottomonia at the LHC, and find good agreement with measurements.

(335)Runaway Relaxion from Finite Density
  • Reuven Balkin,
  • Javi Serra,
  • Konstantin Springmann,
  • Stefan Stelzl,
  • Andreas Weiler
arXiv e-prints (06/2021) e-Print:2106.11320
abstract + abstract -

Finite density effects can destabilize the metastable vacua in relaxion models. Focusing on stars as nucleation seeds, we derive the conditions that lead to the formation and runaway of a relaxion bubble of a lower energy minimum than in vacuum. The resulting late-time phase transition in the universe allows us to set new constraints on the parameter space of relaxion models. We also find that similar instabilities can be triggered by the large electromagnetic fields around rotating neutron stars.

(334)SILCC VI - Multiphase ISM structure, stellar clustering, and outflows with supernovae, stellar winds, ionizing radiation, and cosmic rays
  • Tim-Eric Rathjen,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Philipp Girichidis,
  • Stefanie Walch,
  • Richard Wünsch
  • +4
  • Frantis̆ek Dinnbier,
  • Daniel Seifried,
  • Ralf S. Klessen,
  • Simon C. O. Glover
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 504, p23 (06/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab900
abstract + abstract -

We present simulations of the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) at solar neighbourhood conditions including thermal and non-thermal ISM processes, star cluster formation, and feedback from massive stars: stellar winds, hydrogen ionizing radiation computed with the novel TREERAY radiative transfer method, supernovae (SN), and the injection of cosmic rays (CR). N-body dynamics is computed with a 4th-order Hermite integrator. We systematically investigate the impact of stellar feedback on the self-gravitating ISM with magnetic fields, CR advection and diffusion, and non-equilibrium chemical evolution. SN-only feedback results in strongly clustered star formation with very high star cluster masses, a bi-modal distribution of the ambient SN densities, and low volume-filling factors (VFF) of warm gas, typically inconsistent with local conditions. Early radiative feedback prevents an initial starburst, reduces star cluster masses and outflow rates. Furthermore, star formation rate surface densities of $\Sigma _{\dot{M}_\star } = 1.4-5.9 \times 10^{-3}$$\mathrm{M}_\odot \, \mathrm{yr}^{-1}\, \mathrm{kpc}^{-2}$, VFFwarm = 60-80 per cent as well as thermal, kinetic, magnetic, and cosmic ray energy densities of the model including all feedback mechanisms agree well with observational constraints. On the short, 100 Myr, time-scales investigated here, CRs only have a moderate impact on star formation and the multiphase gas structure and result in cooler outflows, if present. Our models indicate that at low gas surface densities SN-only feedback only captures some characteristics of the star-forming ISM and outflows/inflows relevant for regulating star formation. Instead, star formation is regulated on star cluster scales by radiation and winds from massive stars in clusters, whose peak masses agree with solar neighbourhood estimates.

(333)P-wave quarkonium wavefunctions at the origin in the $ \overline{\mathrm{MS}} $ scheme
  • Hee Sok Chung
abstract + abstract -

We compute P-wave quarkonium wavefunctions at the origin in the $ \overline{\mathrm{MS}} $ scheme based on nonrelativistic effective field theories. We include nonperturbative effects from the long-distance behaviors of the potential, while the short-distance behaviors are determined from perturbative QCD. We obtain $ \overline{\mathrm{MS}} $-renormalized P-wave quarkonium wavefunctions at the origin that have the correct scale dependences that are expected from factorization formalisms, so that the dependences on the scheme and scale cancel in physical quantities. This greatly reduces the theoretical uncertainties associated with scheme and scale dependences in predictions of decay and production rates. Based on the calculation of the P-wave wavefunctions at the origin in this work, we make first-principles predictions of electromagnetic decay rates and exclusive electromagnetic production rates of P-wave charmonia and bottomonia, and compare them with measurements.

(332)Inclusive production of heavy quarkonia in pNRQCD
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Hee Sok Chung,
  • Antonio Vairo
abstract + abstract -

We develop a formalism for computing inclusive production cross sections of heavy quarkonia based on the nonrelativistic QCD and the potential nonrelativistic QCD effective field theories. Our formalism applies to strongly coupled quarkonia, which include excited charmonium and bottomonium states. Analogously to heavy quarkonium decay processes, we express nonrelativistic QCD long-distance matrix elements in terms of quarkonium wavefunctions at the origin and universal gluonic correlators. Our expressions for the long-distance matrix elements are valid up to corrections of order $ 1/{N}_c^2 $. These expressions enhance the predictive power of the nonrelativistic effective field theory approach to inclusive production processes by reducing the number of nonperturbative unknowns, and make possible first-principle determinations of long-distance matrix elements once the gluonic correlators are known. Based on this formalism, we compute the production cross sections of P-wave charmonia and bottomonia at the LHC, and find good agreement with measurements.

(331)Relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock Theory in Infinite Nuclear Matter
  • Peter Ring,
  • Sibo Wang,
  • Qiang Zhao,
  • Jie Meng
European Physical Journal Web of Conferences, 252 (05/2021) doi:10.1051/epjconf/202125202001
abstract + abstract -

On the way of a microscopic derivation of covariant density functionals, the first complete solution of the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (RBHF) equations is presented for symmetric nuclear matter. In most of the earlier investigations, the G-matrix is calculated only in the space of positive energy solutions. On the other side, for the solution of the relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) equations, also the elements of this matrix connecting positive and negative energy solutions are required. So far, in the literature, these matrix elements are derived in various approximations. We discuss solutions of the Thompson equation for the full Dirac space and compare the resulting equation of state with those of earlier attempts in this direction.

(330)Gravitational-wave signals from 3D supernova simulations with different neutrino-transport methods
  • H. Andresen,
  • R. Glas,
  • H. -Th Janka
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 503, p16 (05/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab675
abstract + abstract -

We compare gravitational-wave (GW) signals from eight 3D simulations of core-collapse supernovae, using two different progenitors with zero-age main-sequence masses of 9 and 20 solar masses (M). The collapse of each progenitor was simulated four times, at two different grid resolutions and with two different neutrino transport methods, using the AENUS-ALCAR code. The main goal of this study is to assess the validity of recent concerns that the so-called 'Ray-by-Ray+' (RbR+) approximation is problematic in core-collapse simulations and can adversely affect theoretical GW predictions. Therefore, signals from simulations using RbR+ are compared to signals from corresponding simulations using a fully multidimensional (FMD) transport scheme. The 9 M progenitor successfully explodes, whereas the 20 M model does not. Both the standing accretion shock instability and hot-bubble convection develop in the post-shock layer of the non-exploding models. In the exploding models, neutrino-driven convection in the post-shock flow is established around 100 ms after core bounce and lasts until the onset of shock revival. We can, therefore, judge the impact of the numerical resolution and neutrino transport under all conditions typically seen in non-rotating core-collapse simulations. We find excellent qualitative agreement in all GW features. We find minor quantitative differences between simulations, but find no systematic differences between simulations using different transport schemes. Resolution-dependent differences in the hydrodynamic behaviour of low-resolution and high-resolution models have a greater impact on the GW signals than consequences of the different transport methods. Furthermore, increasing the resolution decreases the discrepancies between models with different neutrino transport.

(329)Density Induced Vacuum Instability
  • Reuven Balkin,
  • Javi Serra,
  • Konstantin Springmann,
  • Stefan Stelzl,
  • Andreas Weiler
arXiv e-prints (05/2021) e-Print:2105.13354
abstract + abstract -

We consider matter density effects in theories with a false ground state. Large and dense systems, such as stars, can destabilize a metastable minimum and allow for the formation of bubbles of the true minimum. We derive the conditions under which these bubbles form, as well as the conditions under which they either remain confined to the dense region or escape to infinity. The latter case leads to a phase transition in the universe at star formation. We explore the phenomenological consequences of such seeded phase transitions.

(328)The Araucaria Project. Distances to Nine Galaxies Based on a Statistical Analysis of their Carbon Stars (JAGB Method)
  • Bartłomiej Zgirski,
  • Grzegorz Pietrzyński,
  • Wolfgang Gieren,
  • Marek Górski,
  • Piotr Wielgórski
  • +11
  • Paulina Karczmarek,
  • Fabio Bresolin,
  • Pierre Kervella,
  • Rolf-Peter Kudritzki,
  • Jesper Storm,
  • Dariusz Graczyk,
  • Gergely Hajdu,
  • Weronika Narloch,
  • Bogumił Pilecki,
  • Ksenia Suchomska,
  • Mónica Taormina
  • (less)
arXiv e-prints (05/2021) e-Print:2105.02120
abstract + abstract -

Our work presents an independent calibration of the J-region Asymptotic Giant Branch (JAGB) method using Infrared Survey Facility (IRSF) photometric data and a custom luminosity function profile to determine JAGB mean magnitudes for nine galaxies. We determine a mean absolute magnitude of carbon stars of $M_{LMC}=-6.212 \pm 0.010$ (stat.) $\pm 0.030$ (syst.) mag. We then use near-infrared photometry of a number of nearby galaxies, originally obtained by our group to determine their distances from Cepheids using the Leavitt law, in order to independently determine their distances with the JAGB method. We compare the JAGB distances obtained in this work with the Cepheid distances resulting from the same photometry and find very good agreement between the results from the two methods. The mean difference is 0.01 mag with an rms scatter of 0.06 mag after taking into account seven out of the eight analyzed galaxies that had their distances determined using Cepheids. The very accurate distance to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on detached eclipsing binaries (Graczyk et al. 2020) is also in very good agreement with the distance obtained from carbon stars.

(327)Building a digital twin of a luminous red galaxy spectroscopic survey: galaxy properties and clustering covariance
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Francisco Prada,
  • Carlton M. Baugh,
  • Anatoly Klypin
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 503, p22 (05/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab434
abstract + abstract -

Upcoming surveys will use a variety of galaxy selections to map the large-scale structure of the Universe. It is important to make accurate predictions for the properties and clustering of such galaxies, including the errors on these statistics. Here, we describe a novel technique which uses the semi-analytical model of galaxy formation GALFORM, embedded in the high-resolution N-body Planck-Millennium simulation, to populate a thousand halo catalogues generated using the Parallel-PM N-body GLAM code. Our hybrid scheme allows us to make clustering predictions on scales that cannot be modelled in the original N-body simulation. We focus on luminous red galaxies (LRGs) selected in the redshift range z = 0.6 - 1 from the GALFORM output using similar colour-magnitude cuts in the r, z, and W1 bands to those that will be applied in the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey, and call this illustrative sample 'DESI-like' LRGs. We find that the LRG-halo connection is non-trivial, leading to the prediction of a non-standard halo occupation distribution; in particular, the occupation of central galaxies does not reach unity for the most massive haloes, and drops with increasing mass. The GLAM catalogues reproduce the abundance and clustering of the LRGs predicted by GALFORM. We use the GLAM mocks to compute the covariance matrices for the two-point correlation function and power spectrum of the LRGs and their background dark matter density field, revealing important differences. We also make predictions for the linear-growth rate and the baryon acoustic oscillations distances at z = 0.6, 0.74, and 0.93. All 'DESI-like' LRG catalogues are made publicly available.

(326)On deformations and extensions of $\text{Diff}(S^2)$
  • Martin Enriquez-Rojo,
  • Tomáš Procházka,
  • Ivo Sachs
arXiv e-prints (05/2021) e-Print:2105.13375
abstract + abstract -

We investigate the algebra of vector fields on the sphere. First, we find that linear deformations of this algebra are obstructed under reasonable conditions. In particular, we show that $hs[\lambda]$, the one-parameter deformation of the algebra of area-preserving vector fields, does not extend to the entire algebra. Next, we study some non-central extensions through the embedding of $\mathfrak{v}\mathfrak{e}\mathfrak{c}\mathfrak{t}(S^2)$ into $\mathfrak{v}\mathfrak{e}\mathfrak{c}\mathfrak{t}(\mathbb{C}^*)$. For the latter, we discuss a three parameter family of non-central extensions which contains the symmetry algebra of asymptotically flat and asymptotically Friedmann spacetimes at future null infinity, admitting a simple free field realization.

(325)Synthetic observables for electron-capture supernovae and low-mass core collapse supernovae
  • Alexandra Kozyreva,
  • Petr Baklanov,
  • Samuel Jones,
  • Georg Stockinger,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 503, p18 (05/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab350
abstract + abstract -

Stars in the mass range from 8 M to 10 M are expected to produce one of two types of supernovae (SNe), either electron-capture supernovae (ECSNe) or core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), depending on their previous evolution. Either of the associated progenitors retain extended and massive hydrogen-rich envelopes and the observables of these SNe are, therefore, expected to be similar. In this study, we explore the differences in these two types of SNe. Specifically, we investigate three different progenitor models: a solar-metallicity ECSN progenitor with an initial mass of 8.8 M, a zero-metallicity progenitor with 9.6 M, and a solar-metallicity progenitor with 9 M, carrying out radiative transfer simulations for these progenitors. We present the resulting light curves for these models. The models exhibit very low photospheric velocity variations of about 2000 km s-1; therefore, this may serve as a convenient indicator of low-mass SNe. The ECSN has very unique light curves in broad-bands, especially the U band, and does not resemble any currently observed SN. This ECSN progenitor being part of a binary will lose its envelope for which reason the light curve becomes short and undetectable. The SN from the 9.6 M progenitor exhibits also quite an unusual light curve, explained by the absence of metals in the initial composition. The artificially iron-polluted 9.6 M model demonstrates light curves closer to normal SNe IIP. The SN from the 9 M progenitor remains the best candidate for so-called low-luminosity SNe IIP like SN 1999br and SN 2005cs.

(324)Extended fast action minimization method: application to SDSS-DR12 combined sample
  • E. Sarpa,
  • A. Veropalumbo,
  • C. Schimd,
  • E. Branchini,
  • S. Matarrese
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 503, p17 (05/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab378
abstract + abstract -

We present the first application of the extended Fast Action Minimization method (eFAM) to a real data set, the SDSS-DR12 Combined Sample, to reconstruct galaxies orbits back-in-time, their two-point correlation function (2PCF) in real-space, and enhance the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak. For this purpose, we introduce a new implementation of eFAM that accounts for selection effects, survey footprint, and galaxy bias. We use the reconstructed BAO peak to measure the angular diameter distance, $D_\mathrm{A}(z)r^\mathrm{fid}_\mathrm{s}/r_\mathrm{s}$ , and the Hubble parameter, $H(z)r_\mathrm{s}/r^\mathrm{fid}_\mathrm{s}$ , normalized to the sound horizon scale for a fiducial cosmology $r^\mathrm{fid}_\mathrm{s}$ , at the mean redshift of the sample z = 0.38, obtaining $D_\mathrm{A}(z=0.38)r^\mathrm{fid}_\mathrm{s}/r_\mathrm{s}=1090\pm 29$ (Mpc)-1, and $H(z=0.38)r_\mathrm{s}/r^\mathrm{fid}_\mathrm{s}=83\pm 3$ (km s-1 Mpc-1), in agreement with previous measurements on the same data set. The validation tests, performed using 400 publicly available SDSS-DR12 mock catalogues, reveal that eFAM performs well in reconstructing the 2PCF down to separations of ∼25h-1Mpc, i.e. well into the non-linear regime. Besides, eFAM successfully removes the anisotropies due to redshift-space distortion (RSD) at all redshifts including that of the survey, allowing us to decrease the number of free parameters in the model and fit the full-shape of the back-in-time reconstructed 2PCF well beyond the BAO peak. Recovering the real-space 2PCF, eFAM improves the precision on the estimates of the fitting parameters. When compared with the no-reconstruction case, eFAM reduces the uncertainty of the Alcock-Paczynski distortion parameters α and α of about 40 per cent and that on the non-linear damping scale Σ of about 70 per cent. These results show that eFAM can be successfully applied to existing redshift galaxy catalogues and should be considered as a reconstruction tool for next-generation surveys alternative to popular methods based on the Zel'dovich approximation.

(323)Dust evolution in zoom-in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation
  • Gian Luigi Granato,
  • Cinthia Ragone-Figueroa,
  • Antonela Taverna,
  • Laura Silva,
  • Milena Valentini
  • +4
  • Stefano Borgani,
  • Pierluigi Monaco,
  • Giuseppe Murante,
  • Luca Tornatore
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 503, p22 (05/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab362
abstract + abstract -

We present cosmological zoom-in hydrodynamical simulations for the formation of disc galaxies, implementing dust evolution and dust promoted cooling of hot gas. We couple an improved version of our previous treatment of dust evolution, which adopts the two-size approximation to estimate the grain-size distribution, with the MUPPI star formation and feedback subresolution model. Our dust evolution model follows carbon and silicate dust separately. To distinguish differences induced by the chaotic behaviour of simulations from those genuinely due to different simulation set-up, we run each model six times, after introducing tiny perturbations in the initial conditions. With this method, we discuss the role of various dust-related physical processes and the effect of a few possible approximations adopted in the literature. Metal depletion and dust cooling affect the evolution of the system, causing substantial variations in its stellar, gas, and dust content. We discuss possible effects on the Spectral Energy Distribution of the significant variations of the size distribution and chemical composition of grains, as predicted by our simulations during the evolution of the galaxy. We compare dust surface density, dust-to-gas ratio, and small-to-large grain mass ratio as a function of galaxy radius and gas metallicity predicted by our fiducial run with recent observational estimates for three disc galaxies of different masses. The general agreement is good, in particular taking into account that we have not adjusted our model for this purpose.

(322)Bayesian Reasoning with Trained Neural Networks
  • Jakob Knollmüller,
  • Torsten A. Enßlin
Entropy, 23 (05/2021) doi:10.3390/e23060693
abstract + abstract -

We showed how to use trained neural networks to perform Bayesian reasoning in order to solve tasks outside their initial scope. Deep generative models provide prior knowledge, and classification/regression networks impose constraints. The tasks at hand were formulated as Bayesian inference problems, which we approximately solved through variational or sampling techniques. The approach built on top of already trained networks, and the addressable questions grew super-exponentially with the number of available networks. In its simplest form, the approach yielded conditional generative models. However, multiple simultaneous constraints constitute elaborate questions. We compared the approach to specifically trained generators, showed how to solve riddles, and demonstrated its compatibility with state-of-the-art architectures.

(321)Galaxy formation in the brane world I: overview and first results
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Christian Arnold,
  • Baojiu Li,
  • Carlton M. Baugh
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 503, p19 (05/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab694
abstract + abstract -

We carry out 'full-physics' hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation in the normal-branch Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (nDGP) braneworld model using a new modified version of the AREPO code and the IllustrisTNG galaxy formation model. We simulate two nDGP models (N5 and N1) that represent, respectively, weak and moderate departures from general relativity (GR), in boxes of sizes $62$ and $25\, h^{-1}{\rm Mpc}$ using 2 × 5123 dark matter particles and initial gas cells. This allows us to explore, for the first time, the impact of baryonic physics on galactic scales in braneworld models of modified gravity and to make predictions on the stellar content of dark matter haloes and galaxy evolution through cosmic time in these models. We find significant differences between the GR and nDGP models in the power spectra and correlation functions of gas, stars and dark matter of up to ~25 per cent on large scales. Similar to their impact in the standard cosmological model (Λ cold dark matter), baryonic effects can have a significant influence over the clustering of the overall matter distribution, with a sign that depends on scale. Studying the degeneracy between modified gravity and galactic feedback in these models, we find that these two physical effects on matter clustering can be cleanly disentangled, allowing for a method to accurately predict the matter power spectrum with baryonic effects included, without having to run hydrodynamical simulations. Depending on the braneworld model, we find differences compared with GR of up to ~15 per cent in galaxy properties such as the stellar-to-halo-mass ratio, galaxy stellar mass function, gas fraction, and star formation rate density. The amplitude of the fifth force is reduced by the presence of baryons in the very inner part of haloes, but this reduction quickly becomes negligible above ~0.1 times the halo radius.

(320)Resolving the Complex Evolution of a Supermassive Black Hole Triplet in a Cosmological Simulation
  • Matias Mannerkoski,
  • Peter H. Johansson,
  • Antti Rantala,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Shihong Liao
The Astrophysical Journal, 912, p6 (05/2021) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/abf9a5
abstract + abstract -

We present here a self-consistent cosmological zoom-in simulation of a triple supermassive black hole (SMBH) system forming in a complex multiple galaxy merger. The simulation is run with an updated version of our code KETJU, which is able to follow the motion of SMBHs down to separations of tens of Schwarzschild radii while simultaneously modeling the large-scale astrophysical processes in the surrounding galaxies, such as gas cooling, star formation, and stellar and AGN feedback. Our simulation produces initially an SMBH binary system for which the hardening process is interrupted by the late arrival of a third SMBH. The KETJU code is able to accurately model the complex behavior occurring in such a triple SMBH system, including the ejection of one SMBH to a kiloparsec-scale orbit in the galaxy due to strong three-body interactions as well as Lidov-Kozai oscillations suppressed by relativistic precession when the SMBHs are in a hierarchical configuration. One pair of SMBHs merges ∼3 Gyr after the initial galaxy merger, while the remaining binary is at a parsec-scale separation when the simulation ends at redshift z = 0. We also show that KETJU can capture the effects of the SMBH binaries and triplets on the surrounding stellar population, which can affect the binary merger timescales as the stellar density in the system evolves. Our results demonstrate the importance of dynamically resolving the complex behavior of multiple SMBHs in galactic mergers, as such systems cannot be readily modeled using simple orbit-averaged semianalytic models.

(319)Classification and Uncertainty Quantification of Corrupted Data using Semi-Supervised Autoencoders
  • Philipp Joppich,
  • Sebastian Dorn,
  • Oliver De Candido,
  • Wolfgang Utschick,
  • Jakob Knollmüller
arXiv e-prints (05/2021) e-Print:2105.13393
abstract + abstract -

Parametric and non-parametric classifiers often have to deal with real-world data, where corruptions like noise, occlusions, and blur are unavoidable - posing significant challenges. We present a probabilistic approach to classify strongly corrupted data and quantify uncertainty, despite the model only having been trained with uncorrupted data. A semi-supervised autoencoder trained on uncorrupted data is the underlying architecture. We use the decoding part as a generative model for realistic data and extend it by convolutions, masking, and additive Gaussian noise to describe imperfections. This constitutes a statistical inference task in terms of the optimal latent space activations of the underlying uncorrupted datum. We solve this problem approximately with Metric Gaussian Variational Inference (MGVI). The supervision of the autoencoder's latent space allows us to classify corrupted data directly under uncertainty with the statistically inferred latent space activations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the model uncertainty strongly depends on whether the classification is correct or wrong, setting a basis for a statistical "lie detector" of the classification. Independent of that, we show that the generative model can optimally restore the uncorrupted datum by decoding the inferred latent space activations.

(318)A bright inner disk and structures in the transition disk around the very low-mass star CIDA 1
  • P. Pinilla,
  • N. T. Kurtovic,
  • M. Benisty,
  • C. F. Manara,
  • A. Natta
  • +5
  • E. Sanchis,
  • M. Tazzari,
  • S. M. Stammler,
  • L. Ricci,
  • L. Testi
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 649, p13 (05/2021) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202140371
abstract + abstract -

The frequency of Earth-sized planets in habitable zones appears to be higher around M-dwarfs, making these systems exciting laboratories to investigate planet formation. Observations of protoplanetary disks around very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs remain challenging and little is known about their properties. The disk around CIDA 1 (~0.1-0.2 M) is one of the very few known disks that host a large cavity (20 au radius in size) around a very low-mass star. We present new ALMA observations at Band 7 (0.9 mm) and Band 4 (2.1 mm) of CIDA 1 with a resolution of ~0.05″ × 0.034″. These new ALMA observations reveal a very bright and unresolved inner disk, a shallow spectral index of the dust emission (~2), and a complex morphology of a ring located at 20 au. We also present X-shooter (VLT) observations that confirm the high accretion rate of CIDA 1 of Ṁacc = 1.4 × 10−8 M yr−1. This high value of Ṁacc, the observed inner disk, and the large cavity of 20 au exclude models of photo-evaporation to explain the observed cavity. When comparing these observations with models that combine planet-disk interaction, dust evolution, and radiative transfer, we exclude planets more massive than 0.5 MJup as the potential origin of the large cavity because with these it is difficult to maintain a long-lived and bright inner disk. Even in this planet mass regime, an additional physical process may be needed to stop the particles from migrating inwards and to maintain a bright inner disk on timescales of millions of years. Such mechanisms include a trap formed by a very close-in extra planet or the inner edge of a dead zone. The low spectral index of the disk around CIDA 1 is difficult to explain and challenges our current dust evolution models, in particular processes like fragmentation, growth, and diffusion of particles inside pressure bumps.

(317)Bottomonium suppression in an open quantum system using the quantum trajectories method
  • Nora Brambilla,
  • Miguel Ángel Escobedo,
  • Michael Strickland,
  • Antonio Vairo,
  • Peter Vander Griend
  • +1
Journal of High Energy Physics, 2021 (05/2021) doi:10.1007/JHEP05(2021)136
abstract + abstract -

We solve the Lindblad equation describing the Brownian motion of a Coulombic heavy quark-antiquark pair in a strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma using the highly efficient Monte Carlo wave-function method. The Lindblad equation has been derived in the framework of pNRQCD and fully accounts for the quantum and non-Abelian nature of the system. The hydrodynamics of the plasma is realistically implemented through a 3+1D dissipative hydrodynamics code. We compute the bottomonium nuclear modification factor and compare with the most recent LHC data. The computation does not rely on any free parameter, as it depends on two transport coefficients that have been evaluated independently in lattice QCD. Our final results, which include late-time feed down of excited states, agree well with the available data from LHC 5.02 TeV PbPb collisions.

(316)The Cosmic Ultraviolet Baryon Survey (CUBS). II. Discovery of an H<SUB>2</SUB>-bearing DLA in the Vicinity of an Early-type Galaxy at z = 0.576
  • Erin Boettcher,
  • Hsiao-Wen Chen,
  • Fakhri S. Zahedy,
  • Thomas J. Cooper,
  • Sean D. Johnson
  • +16
  • Gwen C. Rudie,
  • Mandy C. Chen,
  • Patrick Petitjean,
  • Sebastiano Cantalupo,
  • Kathy L. Cooksey,
  • Claude-André Faucher-Giguère,
  • Jenny E. Greene,
  • Sebastian Lopez,
  • John S. Mulchaey,
  • Steven V. Penton,
  • Mary E. Putman,
  • Marc Rafelski,
  • Michael Rauch,
  • Joop Schaye,
  • Robert A. Simcoe,
  • Gregory L. Walth
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal, 913, p16 (05/2021) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abf0a0
abstract + abstract -

We report the serendipitous detection of an H2-bearing damped Lyα absorber at z = 0.576 in the spectrum of the QSO J0111-0316 in the Cosmic Ultraviolet Baryon Survey. Spectroscopic observations from Hubble Space Telescope-COS in the far-ultraviolet reveal a damped absorber with log[N(H I)/cm-2] = 20.1 ± 0.2 and log[N(H2)/cm-2] $={18.97}_{-0.06}^{+0.05}$ . The diffuse molecular gas is found in two velocity components separated by Δ ν ≍ 60 km s-1, with >99.9% of the total H2 column density concentrated in one component. At a metallicity of ≍50% of solar, there is evidence for Fe enhancement and dust depletion, with a dust-to-gas ratio κO ≍ 0.4. A galaxy redshift survey conducted with IMACS and LDSS-3C on Magellan reveals an overdensity of nine galaxies at projected distance d ≤ 600 proper kpc (pkpc) and line-of-sight velocity offset Δ νg ≤ 300 km s-1 from the absorber. The closest is a massive, early-type galaxy at d = 41 pkpc that contains ≍70% of the total stellar mass identified at d ≤ 310 pkpc of the H2 absorber. The close proximity of the H2-bearing gas to the quiescent galaxy and the Fe-enhanced chemical abundance pattern of the absorber suggest a physical connection, in contrast to a picture in which DLAs are primarily associated with gas-rich dwarfs. This case study illustrates that deep galaxy redshift surveys are needed to gain insight into the diverse environments that host dense and potentially star-forming gas. * Based on data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope operated by the Space Telescope Science Institute and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

(315)Galaxy bias from forward models: linear and second-order bias of IllustrisTNG galaxies
  • Alexandre Barreira,
  • Titouan Lazeyras,
  • Fabian Schmidt
abstract + abstract -

We use field-level forward models of galaxy clustering and the EFT likelihood formalism to study, for the first time for self-consistently simulated galaxies, the relations between the linear b_1 and second-order bias parameters b 2 and b K 2 . The forward models utilize all of the information available in the galaxy distribution up to a given order in perturbation theory, which allows us to infer these bias parameters with high signal-to-noise, even from relatively small volumes (L box = 205 Mpc/h). We consider galaxies from the simulations, and our main result is that the b 2(b 1) and b K 2 (b 1) relations obtained from gravity-only simulations for total mass selected objects are broadly preserved for simulated galaxies selected by stellar mass, star formation rate, color and black hole accretion rate. We also find good agreement between the bias relations of the simulated galaxies and a number of recent estimates for observed galaxy samples. The consistency under different galaxy selection criteria suggests that theoretical priors on these bias relations may be used to improve cosmological constraints based on observed galaxy samples. We do identify some small differences between the bias relations in the hydrodynamical and gravity-only simulations, which we show can be linked to the environmental dependence of the relation between galaxy properties and mass. We also show that the EFT likelihood recovers the value of σ8 to percent-level from various galaxy samples (including splits by color and star formation rate) and after marginalizing over 8 bias parameters. This demonstration using simulated galaxies adds to previous works based on halos as tracers, and strengthens further the potential of forward models to infer cosmology from galaxy data.

(314)Simulating radio synchrotron emission in star-forming galaxies: small-scale magnetic dynamo and the origin of the far infrared-radio correlation
  • Christoph Pfrommer,
  • Maria Werhahn,
  • Rüdiger Pakmor,
  • Philipp Girichidis,
  • Christine M. Simpson
arXiv e-prints (05/2021) e-Print:2105.12132
abstract + abstract -

In star-forming galaxies, the far-infrared (FIR) and radio-continuum luminosities obey a tight empirical relation over a large range of star-formation rates (SFR). We examine magneto-hydrodynamic galaxy simulations with cosmic rays (CRs), accounting for their advective and anisotropic diffusive transport. We show that gravitational collapse of the proto-galaxy generates a corrugated accretion shock, which injects turbulence and drives a small-scale magnetic dynamo. As the shock propagates outwards and the associated turbulence decays, the large velocity shear between the supersonically rotating cool disc with respect to the (partially) pressure-supported hot circumgalactic medium excites Kelvin-Helmholtz surface and body modes. Those inject turbulence and drive multiple small-scale dynamos, which exponentially amplify magnetic fields. They grow in scale to reach equipartition with thermal and CR energies in Milky Way-mass galaxies. In small galaxies, the magnetic energy saturates at the turbulent energy while it fails to reach equipartition with thermal and CR energies. We solve for steady-state spectra of CR protons, secondary electrons/positrons from hadronic CR-proton interactions with the interstellar medium, and primary shock-accelerated electrons at supernovae. The radio-synchrotron emission is dominated by primary electrons, irradiates the magnetised disc, bulge, and bubble-shaped magnetically-loaded outflows of our simulated Milky Way-mass galaxy. Our star-forming and star-bursting galaxies with saturated magnetic fields match the global FIR-radio correlation (FRC) across four orders of magnitude. Its intrinsic scatter arises due to (i) different magnetic saturation levels that result from different seed magnetic fields, (ii) different radio synchrotron luminosities for different specific SFRs at fixed SFR and (iii) a varying radio intensity with galactic inclination. (abridged)

(313)Approach to scaling in axion string networks
  • Mark Hindmarsh,
  • Joanes Lizarraga,
  • Asier Lopez-Eiguren,
  • Jon Urrestilla
Physical Review D, 103 (05/2021) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.103.103534
abstract + abstract -

We study the approach to scaling in axion string networks in the radiation era, through measuring the root-mean-square velocity v as well as the scaled mean string separation x . We find good evidence for a fixed point in the phase-space analysis in the variables (x ,v ), providing a strong indication that standard scaling is taking place. We show that the approach to scaling can be well described by a two parameter velocity-one-scale (VOS) model, and show that the values of the parameters are insensitive to the initial state of the network. The string length has also been commonly expressed in terms of a dimensionless string length density ζ , proportional to the number of Hubble lengths of string per Hubble volume. In simulations with initial conditions far from the fixed point ζ is still evolving after half a light-crossing time, which has been interpreted in the literature as a long-term logarithmic growth. We show that all our simulations, even those starting far from the fixed point, are accounted for by a VOS model with an asymptote of ζ*=1.20 ±0.09 (calculated from the string length in the cosmic rest frame) and v*=0.609 ±0.014 .

(312)Hierarchical fragmentation in high redshift galaxies revealed by hydrodynamical simulations
  • Baptiste Faure,
  • Frédéric Bournaud,
  • Jérémy Fensch,
  • Emanuele Daddi,
  • Manuel Behrendt
  • +2
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 502, p17 (04/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab272
abstract + abstract -

High-redshift star-forming galaxies have very different morphologies compared to nearby ones. Indeed, they are often dominated by bright star-forming structures of masses up to 108-9 M dubbed 'giant clumps'. However, recent observations questioned this result by showing only low-mass structures or no structure at all. We use Adaptative Mesh Refinement hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies with parsec-scale resolution to study the formation of structures inside clumpy high-redshift galaxies. We show that in very gas-rich galaxies star formation occurs in small gas clusters with masses below 107-8 M that are themselves located inside giant complexes with masses up to 108 and sometimes 109 M. Those massive structures are similar in mass and size to the giant clumps observed in imaging surveys, in particular with the Hubble Space Telescope. Using mock observations of simulated galaxies, we show that at very high resolution with instruments like the Atacama Large Millimeter Array or through gravitational lensing, only low-mass structures are likely to be detected, and their gathering into giant complexes might be missed. This leads to the non-detection of the giant clumps and therefore introduces a bias in the detection of these structures. We show that the simulated giant clumps can be gravitationally bound even when undetected in mocks representative for ALMA observations and HST observations of lensed galaxies. We then compare the top-down fragmentation of an initially warm disc and the bottom-up fragmentation of an initially cold disc to show that the process of formation of the clumps does not impact their physical properties.

(311)Axion miniclusters made easy
  • David Ellis,
  • David J. E. Marsh,
  • Christoph Behrens
Physical Review D, 103 (04/2021) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.103.083525
abstract + abstract -

We use a modified version of the peak patch excursion set formalism to compute the mass and size distribution of QCD axion miniclusters from a fully non-Gaussian initial density field obtained from numerical simulations of axion string decay. We find strong agreement with N -body simulations at significantly lower computational cost. We employ a spherical collapse model, and provide fitting functions for the modified barrier in the radiation era. The halo mass function at z =629 has a power-law distribution M-0.6 for masses within the range 10-15≲M ≲10-10 M , with all masses scaling as (ma/50 μ eV )-0.5 . We construct merger trees to estimate the collapse redshift and concentration mass relation, C (M ), which is well described using analytical results from the initial power spectrum and linear growth. Using the calibrated analytic results to extrapolate to z =0 , our method predicts a mean concentration C ∼O (few )×104. The low computational cost of our method makes future investigation of the statistics of rare, dense miniclusters easy to achieve.

(310)frost: a momentum-conserving CUDA implementation of a hierarchical fourth-order forward symplectic integrator
  • Antti Rantala,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Volker Springel
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 502, p17 (04/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab057
abstract + abstract -

We present a novel hierarchical formulation of the fourth-order forward symplectic integrator and its numerical implementation in the GPU-accelerated direct-summation N-body code frost. The new integrator is especially suitable for simulations with a large dynamical range due to its hierarchical nature. The strictly positive integrator sub-steps in a fourth-order symplectic integrator are made possible by computing an additional gradient term in addition to the Newtonian accelerations. All force calculations and kick operations are synchronous so the integration algorithm is manifestly momentum-conserving. We also employ a time-step symmetrization procedure to approximately restore the time-reversibility with adaptive individual time-steps. We demonstrate in a series of binary, few-body and million-body simulations that frost conserves energy to a level of |ΔE/E| ∼ 10-10 while errors in linear and angular momentum are practically negligible. For typical star cluster simulations, we find that frost scales well up to $N_\mathrm{GPU}^\mathrm{max}\sim 4\times N/10^5$ GPUs, making direct-summation N-body simulations beyond N = 106 particles possible on systems with several hundred and more GPUs. Due to the nature of hierarchical integration, the inclusion of a Kepler solver or a regularized integrator with post-Newtonian corrections for close encounters and binaries in the code is straightforward.

(309)Breaking the degeneracy between gas inflow and outflows with stellar metallicity: insights on M 101
  • Xiaoyu Kang,
  • Ruixiang Chang,
  • Rolf-Peter Kudritzki,
  • Xiaobo Gong,
  • Fenghui Zhang
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 502, p7 (04/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab147
abstract + abstract -

An analytical chemical evolution model is constructed to investigate the radial distribution of gas-phase and stellar metallicity for star-forming galaxies. By means of the model, the gas-phase and stellar metallicity can be obtained from the stellar-to-gas mass ratio. Both the gas inflow and outflow processes play an important role in building the final gas-phase metallicity, and there exists degeneracy effect between the gas inflow and outflow rates for star-forming galaxies. On the other hand, stellar metallicity is more sensitive to the gas outflow rate than to the gas inflow rate, and this helps to break the parameter degeneracy for star-forming galaxies. We apply this analysis method to the nearby disc galaxy M 101 and adopting the classical χ2 methodology to explore the influence of model parameters on the resulted metallicity. It can be found that the combination of gas-phase and stellar metallicity is indeed more effective for constraining the gas inflow and outflow rates. Our results also show that the model with relatively strong gas outflows but weak gas inflow describes the evolution of M 101 reasonably well.

(308)Detection of new O-type stars in the obscured stellar cluster Tr 16-SE in the Carina Nebula with KMOS
  • T. Preibisch,
  • S. Flaischlen,
  • C. Göppl,
  • B. Ercolano,
  • V. Roccatagliata
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 648, p17 (04/2021) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202039620
abstract + abstract -

Context. The Carina Nebula harbors a large population of high-mass stars, including at least 75 O-type and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, but the current census is not complete since further high-mass stars may be hidden in or behind the dense dark clouds that pervade the association.
Aims: With the aim of identifying optically obscured O- and early B-type stars in the Carina Nebula, we performed the first infrared spectroscopic study of stars in the optically obscured stellar cluster Tr 16-SE, located behind a dark dust lane south of η Car.
Methods: We used the integral-field spectrograph KMOS at the ESO VLT to obtain H- and K-band spectra with a resolution of R ≈ 4000 (Δλ ≈ 5 Å) for 45 out of the 47 possible OB candidate stars in Tr 16-SE, and we derived spectral types for these stars.
Results: We find 15 stars in Tr 16-SE with spectral types between O5 and B2 (i.e., high-mass stars with M ≥ 8 M), only two of which were known before. An additional nine stars are classified as (Ae)Be stars (i.e., intermediate-mass pre-main-sequence stars), and most of the remaining targets show clear signatures of being late-type stars and are thus most likely foreground stars or background giants unrelated to the Carina Nebula. Our estimates of the stellar luminosities suggest that nine of the 15 O- and early B-type stars are members of Tr 16-SE, whereas the other six seem to be background objects.
Conclusions: Our study increases the number of spectroscopically identified high-mass stars (M ≥ 8 M) in Tr 16-SE from two to nine and shows that Tr 16-SE is one of the larger clusters in the Carina Nebula. Our identification of three new stars with spectral types between O5 and O7 and four new stars with spectral types O9 to B1 significantly increases the number of spectroscopically identified O-type stars in the Carina Nebula.

Reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO program 097.C-0102.

(307)Impact of baryons in cosmic shear analyses with tomographic aperture mass statistics
  • Nicolas Martinet,
  • Tiago Castro,
  • Joachim Harnois-Déraps,
  • Eric Jullo,
  • Carlo Giocoli
  • +1
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 648, p12 (04/2021) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202040155
abstract + abstract -

NonGaussian cosmic shear statistics based on weak-lensing aperture mass (Map) maps can outperform the classical shear two-point correlation function (γ-2PCF) in terms of cosmological constraining power. However, reaching the full potential of these new estimators requires accurate modeling of the physics of baryons as the extra nonGaussian information mostly resides at small scales. We present one such modeling based on the Magneticum hydrodynamical simulation for the KiDS-450 and DES-Y1 surveys and a Euclid-like survey. We compute the bias due to baryons on the lensing PDF and the distribution of peaks and voids in Map maps and propagate it to the cosmological forecasts on the structure growth parameter S8, the matter density parameter Ωm, and the dark energy equation of state w0 using the SLICS and cosmo-SLICS sets of dark-matter-only simulations. We report a negative bias of a few percent on S8 and Ωm and also measure a positive bias of the same level on w0 when including a tomographic decomposition. These biases reach ∼5% when combining Map statistics with the γ-2PCF as these estimators show similar dependency on the AGN feedback. We verify that these biases constitute a less than 1σ shift on the probed cosmological parameters for current cosmic shear surveys. However, baryons need to be accounted for at the percentage level for future Stage IV surveys and we propose to include the uncertainty on the AGN feedback amplitude by marginalizing over this parameter using multiple simulations such as those presented in this paper. Finally, we explore the possibility of mitigating the impact of baryons by filtering the Map map but find that this process would require suppressing the small-scale information to a point where the constraints would no longer be competitive.

(306)Dalek: A Deep Learning Emulator for TARDIS
  • Wolfgang E. Kerzendorf,
  • Christian Vogl,
  • Johannes Buchner,
  • Gabriella Contardo,
  • Marc Williamson
  • +1
The Astrophysical Journal, 910, p5 (04/2021) doi:10.3847/2041-8213/abeb1b
abstract + abstract -

Supernova spectral time series contain a wealth of information about the progenitor and explosion process of these energetic events. The modeling of these data requires the exploration of very high dimensional posterior probabilities with expensive radiative transfer codes. Even modest parameterizations of supernovae contain more than 10 parameters and a detailed exploration demands at least several million function evaluations. Physically realistic models require at least tens of CPU minutes per evaluation putting a detailed reconstruction of the explosion out of reach of traditional methodology. The advent of widely available libraries for the training of neural networks combined with their ability to approximate almost arbitrary functions with high precision allows for a new approach to this problem. Instead of evaluating the radiative transfer model itself, one can build a neural network proxy trained on the simulations but evaluating orders of magnitude faster. Such a framework is called an emulator or surrogate model. In this work, we present an emulator for the TARDIS supernova radiative transfer code applied to Type Ia supernova spectra. We show that we can train an emulator for this problem given a modest training set of 100,000 spectra (easily calculable on modern supercomputers). The results show an accuracy on the percent level (that are dominated by the Monte Carlo nature of TARDIS and not the emulator) with a speedup of several orders of magnitude. This method has a much broader set of applications and is not limited to the presented problem.

(305)Probing the Symmetry Energy with the Spectral Pion Ratio
  • J. Estee,
  • W. G. Lynch,
  • C. Y. Tsang,
  • J. Barney,
  • G. Jhang
  • +59
  • M. B. Tsang,
  • R. Wang,
  • M. Kaneko,
  • J. W. Lee,
  • T. Isobe,
  • M. Kurata-Nishimura,
  • T. Murakami,
  • D. S. Ahn,
  • L. Atar,
  • T. Aumann,
  • H. Baba,
  • K. Boretzky,
  • J. Brzychczyk,
  • G. Cerizza,
  • N. Chiga,
  • N. Fukuda,
  • I. Gasparic,
  • B. Hong,
  • A. Horvat,
  • K. Ieki,
  • N. Inabe,
  • Y. J. Kim,
  • T. Kobayashi,
  • Y. Kondo,
  • P. Lasko,
  • H. S. Lee,
  • Y. Leifels,
  • J. Łukasik,
  • J. Manfredi,
  • A. B. McIntosh,
  • P. Morfouace,
  • T. Nakamura,
  • N. Nakatsuka,
  • S. Nishimura,
  • H. Otsu,
  • P. Pawłowski,
  • K. Pelczar,
  • D. Rossi,
  • H. Sakurai,
  • C. Santamaria,
  • H. Sato,
  • H. Scheit,
  • R. Shane,
  • Y. Shimizu,
  • H. Simon,
  • A. Snoch,
  • A. Sochocka,
  • T. Sumikama,
  • H. Suzuki,
  • D. Suzuki,
  • H. Takeda,
  • S. Tangwancharoen,
  • H. Toernqvist,
  • Y. Togano,
  • Z. G. Xiao,
  • S. J. Yennello,
  • Y. Zhang,
  • M. D. Cozma,
  • S π RIT Collaboration
  • (less)
Physical Review Letters, 126 (04/2021) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.162701
abstract + abstract -

Many neutron star properties, such as the proton fraction, reflect the symmetry energy contributions to the equation of state that dominate when neutron and proton densities differ strongly. To constrain these contributions at suprasaturation densities, we measure the spectra of charged pions produced by colliding rare isotope tin (Sn) beams with isotopically enriched Sn targets. Using ratios of the charged pion spectra measured at high transverse momenta, we deduce the slope of the symmetry energy to be 42 <L <117 MeV . This value is slightly lower but consistent with the L values deduced from a recent measurement of the neutron skin thickness of 208Pb.

(304)The formation history of the Milky Way disc with high-resolution cosmological simulations
  • Marco Giammaria,
  • Alessandro Spagna,
  • Mario G. Lattanzi,
  • Giuseppe Murante,
  • Paola Re Fiorentin
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 502, p15 (04/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab136
abstract + abstract -

We analyse from an observational perspective the formation history and kinematics of a Milky Way-like galaxy from a high-resolution zoom-in cosmological simulation that we compare to those of our Galaxy as seen by Gaia DR2 to better understand the origin and evolution of the Galactic thin and thick discs. The cosmological simulation was carried out with the GADGET-3 TreePM+SPH code using the MUlti-Phase Particle Integrator (MUPPI) model. We disentangle the complex overlapping of stellar generations that rises from the top-down and inside-out formation of the galactic disc. We investigate cosmological signatures in the phase-space of mono-age populations and highlight features stemming from past and recent dynamical perturbations. In the simulation, we identify a satellite with a stellar mass of $1.2 \times 10^9~\rm {M}_\odot$ , i.e. stellar mass ratio Δ ∼ 5.5 per cent at the time, accreted at z ∼ 1.6, which resembles the major merger Gaia-Sausage-Enceladus that produced the Galactic thick disc, i.e. Δ ∼ 6 per cent. We found at z ∼ 0.5-0.4 two merging satellites with a stellar mass of $8.8 \times 10^8~\rm {M}_\odot$ and $5.1 \times 10^8~\rm {M}_\odot$ that are associated to a strong starburst in the star formation history, which appears fairly similar to that recently found in the solar neighbourhood. Our findings highlight that detailed studies of coeval stellar populations kinematics, which are made available by current and future Gaia data releases and in synergy with simulations, are fundamental to unravel the formation and evolution of the Milky Way discs.

(303)Galaxy Look-back Evolution Models: A Comparison with Magneticum Cosmological Simulations and Observations
  • Rolf-Peter Kudritzki,
  • Adelheid F. Teklu,
  • Felix Schulze,
  • Rhea-Silvia Remus,
  • Klaus Dolag
  • +2
  • Andreas Burkert,
  • H. Jabran Zahid
  • (less)
The Astrophysical Journal, 910, p17 (04/2021) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abe40c
abstract + abstract -

We construct empirical models of star-forming galaxy evolution assuming that individual galaxies evolve along well-known scaling relations between stellar mass, gas mass, and star formation rate following a simple description of chemical evolution. We test these models by a comparison with observations and detailed Magneticum high-resolution hydrodynamic cosmological simulations. Galaxy star formation rates, stellar masses, gas masses, ages, interstellar medium, and stellar metallicities are compared. It is found that these simple look-back models capture many of the crucial aspects of galaxy evolution reasonably well. Their key assumption of a redshift-dependent power-law relationship between galaxy interstellar medium gas mass and stellar mass is in agreement with the outcome of the complex Magneticum simulations. Star formation rates decline toward lower redshift not because galaxies are running out of gas, but because the fraction of the cold interstellar medium gas, which is capable of producing stars, becomes significantly smaller. Gas accretion rates in both model approaches are of the same order of magnitude. Metallicity in the Magneticum simulations increases with the ratio of stellar mass to gas mass as predicted by the look-back models. The mass-metallicity relationships agree, and the star formation rate dependence of these relationships is also reproduced. We conclude that these simple models provide a powerful tool for constraining and interpreting more complex models based on cosmological simulations and for population synthesis studies analyzing the integrated spectra of stellar populations.

(302)Search for light exotic fermions in double-beta decays
  • Matteo Agostini,
  • Elisabetta Bossio,
  • Alejandro Ibarra,
  • Xabier Marcano
Physics Letters B, 815 (04/2021) doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2021.136127
abstract + abstract -

The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts the double-β decay of certain nuclei with the emission of two active neutrinos. In this letter, we argue that double-β decay experiments could be used to probe models with light exotic fermions through the search for spectral distortions in the electron spectrum with respect to the Standard Model expectations. We consider two concrete examples: models with light sterile neutrinos, singly produced in the double-β decay, and models with a light Z2-odd fermion, pair produced due to a Z2 symmetry. We estimate the discovery potential of a selection of double-β decay experiments and find that future searches will test for the first time a new part of the parameter space of interest at the MeV-mass scale.

(301)Broadband Multi-wavelength Properties of M87 during the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope Campaign
  • J.C. Algaba,
  • J. Anczarski,
  • K. Asada,
  • M. Baloković,
  • S. Chandra
  • +731
  • Y.-Z. Cui,
  • A.D. Falcone,
  • M. Giroletti,
  • C. Goddi,
  • K. Hada,
  • D. Haggard,
  • S. Jorstad,
  • A. Kaur,
  • T. Kawashima,
  • G. Keating,
  • J.-Y. Kim,
  • M. Kino,
  • S. Komossa,
  • E.V. Kravchenko,
  • T.P. Krichbaum,
  • S.-S. Lee,
  • R.-S. Lu,
  • M. Lucchini,
  • S. Markoff,
  • J. Neilsen,
  • M.A. Nowak,
  • J. Park,
  • G. Principe,
  • V. Ramakrishnan,
  • M.T. Reynolds,
  • M. Sasada,
  • S.S. Savchenko,
  • K.E. Williamson,
  • Tomoya Hirota,
  • Lang Cui,
  • Kotaro Niinuma,
  • Hyunwook Ro,
  • Nobuyuki Sakai,
  • Satoko Sawada-Satoh,
  • Kiyoaki Wajima,
  • Na Wang,
  • Xiang Liu,
  • Yoshinori Yonekura,
  • Kazunori Akiyama,
  • Antxon Alberdi,
  • Walter Alef,
  • Richard Anantua,
  • Rebecca Azulay,
  • Anne-Kathrin Baczko,
  • David Ball,
  • John Barrett,
  • Dan Bintley,
  • Bradford A. Benson,
  • Lindy Blackburn,
  • Raymond Blundell,
  • Wilfred Boland,
  • Katherine L. Bouman,
  • Geoffrey C. Bower,
  • Hope Boyce,
  • Michael Bremer,
  • Christiaan D. Brinkerink,
  • Roger Brissenden,
  • Silke Britzen,
  • Avery E. Broderick,
  • Dominique Broguiere,
  • Thomas Bronzwaer,
  • Do-Young Byun,
  • John E. Carlstrom,
  • Andrew Chael,
  • Chi-kwan Chan,
  • Shami Chatterjee,
  • Koushik Chatterjee,
  • Ming-Tang Chen,
  • Yongjun Chen,
  • Paul M. Chesler,
  • Ilje Cho,
  • Pierre Christian,
  • John E. Conway,
  • James M. Cordes,
  • Thomas M. Crawford,
  • Geoffrey B. Crew,
  • Alejandro Cruz-Osorio,
  • Jordy Davelaar,
  • Mariafelicia De Laurentis,
  • Roger Deane,
  • Jessica Dempsey,
  • Gregory Desvignes,
  • Jason Dexter,
  • Sheperd S. Doeleman,
  • Ralph P. Eatough,
  • Heino Falcke,
  • Joseph Farah,
  • Vincent L. Fish,
  • E. Fomalont,
  • H. Alyson Ford,
  • Raquel Fraga-Encinas,
  • Per Friberg,
  • Christian M. Fromm,
  • Antonio Fuentes,
  • Peter Galison,
  • Charles F. Gammie,
  • Roberto García,
  • Olivier Gentaz,
  • Boris Georgiev,
  • Roman Gold,
  • José L. Gómez,
  • Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz,
  • Minfeng Gu,
  • Mark Gurwell,
  • Michael H. Hecht,
  • Ronald Hesper,
  • Luis C. Ho,
  • Paul Ho,
  • Mareki Honma,
  • Chih-Wei L. Huang,
  • Lei Huang,
  • David H. Hughes,
  • Shiro Ikeda,
  • Makoto Inoue,
  • Sara Issaoun,
  • David J. James,
  • Buell T. Jannuzi,
  • Michael Janssen,
  • Britton Jeter,
  • Wu Jiang,
  • Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales,
  • Michael D. Johnson,
  • Taehyun Jung,
  • Mansour Karami,
  • Ramesh Karuppusamy,
  • Mark Kettenis,
  • Dong-Jin Kim,
  • Jongsoo Kim,
  • Junhan Kim,
  • Jun Yi Koay,
  • Yutaro Kofuji,
  • Patrick M. Koch,
  • Shoko Koyama,
  • Michael Kramer,
  • Carsten Kramer,
  • Cheng-Yu Kuo,
  • Tod R. Lauer,
  • Aviad Levis,
  • Yan-Rong Li,
  • Zhiyuan Li,
  • Michael Lindqvist,
  • Rocco Lico,
  • Greg Lindahl,
  • Jun Liu,
  • Kuo Liu,
  • Elisabetta Liuzzo,
  • Wen-Ping Lo,
  • Andrei P. Lobanov,
  • Laurent Loinard,
  • Colin Lonsdale,
  • Nicholas R. MacDonald,
  • Jirong Mao,
  • Nicola Marchili,
  • Daniel P. Marrone,
  • Alan P. Marscher,
  • Iván Martí-Vidal,
  • Satoki Matsushita,
  • Lynn D. Matthews,
  • Lia Medeiros,
  • Karl M. Menten,
  • Izumi Mizuno,
  • Yosuke Mizuno,
  • James M. Moran,
  • Kotaro Moriyama,
  • Monika Moscibrodzka,
  • Cornelia Müller,
  • Gibwa Musoke,
  • Alejandro Mus Mejías,
  • Hiroshi Nagai,
  • Neil M. Nagar,
  • Masanori Nakamura,
  • Ramesh Narayan,
  • Gopal Narayanan,
  • Iniyan Natarajan,
  • Antonios Nathanail,
  • Roberto Neri,
  • Chunchong Ni,
  • Aristeidis Noutsos,
  • Hiroki Okino,
  • Héctor Olivares,
  • Gisela N. Ortiz-León,
  • Tomoaki Oyama,
  • Feryal Özel,
  • Daniel C.M. Palumbo,
  • Nimesh Patel,
  • Ue-Li Pen,
  • Dominic W. Pesce,
  • Vincent Piétu,
  • Richard Plambeck,
  • Aleksandar PopStefanija,
  • Oliver Porth,
  • Felix M. Pötzl,
  • Ben Prather,
  • Jorge A. Preciado-López,
  • Dimitrios Psaltis,
  • Hung-Yi Pu,
  • Ramprasad Rao,
  • Mark G. Rawlings,
  • Alexander W. Raymond,
  • Luciano Rezzolla,
  • Angelo Ricarte,
  • Bart Ripperda,
  • Freek Roelofs,
  • Alan Rogers,
  • Eduardo Ros,
  • Mel Rose,
  • Arash Roshanineshat,
  • Helge Rottmann,
  • Alan L. Roy,
  • Chet Ruszczyk,
  • Kazi L.J. Rygl,
  • Salvador Sánchez,
  • David Sánchez-Arguelles,
  • Tuomas Savolainen,
  • F. Peter Schloerb,
  • Karl-Friedrich Schuster,
  • Lijing Shao,
  • Zhiqiang Shen,
  • Des Small,
  • Bong Won Sohn,
  • Jason SooHoo,
  • He Sun,
  • Fumie Tazaki,
  • Alexandra J. Tetarenko,
  • Paul Tiede,
  • Remo P.J. Tilanus,
  • Michael Titus,
  • Kenji Toma,
  • Pablo Torne,
  • Tyler Trent,
  • Efthalia Traianou,
  • Sascha Trippe,
  • Ilse van Bemmel,
  • Huib Jan van Langevelde,
  • Daniel R. van Rossum,
  • Jan Wagner,
  • Derek Ward-Thompson,
  • John Wardle,
  • Jonathan Weintroub,
  • Norbert Wex,
  • Robert Wharton,
  • Maciek Wielgus,
  • George N. Wong,
  • Qingwen Wu,
  • Doosoo Yoon,
  • André Young,
  • Ken Young,
  • Ziri Younsi,
  • Feng Yuan,
  • Ye-Fei Yuan,
  • J. Anton Zensus,
  • Guang-Yao Zhao,
  • Shan-Shan Zhao,
  • M. Giroletti,
  • F. D'Ammando,
  • M. Orienti,
  • H. Abdalla,
  • R. Adam,
  • F. Aharonian,
  • F. Ait Benkhali,
  • E.O. Angüner,
  • C. Arcaro,
  • C. Armand,
  • T. Armstrong,
  • H. Ashkar,
  • M. Backes,
  • V. Baghmanyan,
  • V. Barbosa Martins,
  • A. Barnacka,
  • M. Barnard,
  • Y. Becherini,
  • D. Berge,
  • K. Bernlöhr,
  • B. Bi,
  • M. Böttcher,
  • C. Boisson,
  • J. Bolmont,
  • M. de Bony de Lavergne,
  • M. Breuhaus,
  • F. Brun,
  • P. Brun,
  • M. Bryan,
  • M. Büchele,
  • T. Bulik,
  • T. Bylund,
  • S. Caroff,
  • A. Carosi,
  • S. Casanova,
  • T. Chand,
  • A. Chen,
  • G. Cotter,
  • M. Curyło,
  • J. Damascene Mbarubucyeye,
  • I.D. Davids,
  • J. Davies,
  • C. Deil,
  • J. Devin,
  • P. deWilt,
  • L. Dirson,
  • A. Djannati-Ataï,
  • A. Dmytriiev,
  • A. Donath,
  • V. Doroshenko,
  • C. Duffy,
  • J. Dyks,
  • K. Egberts,
  • F. Eichhorn,
  • S. Einecke,
  • G. Emery,
  • J.-P. Ernenwein,
  • K. Feijen,
  • S. Fegan,
  • A. Fiasson,
  • G. Fichet de Clairfontaine,
  • G. Fontaine,
  • S. Funk,
  • M. Füßling,
  • S. Gabici,
  • Y.A. Gallant,
  • G. Giavitto,
  • L. Giunti,
  • D. Glawion,
  • J.F. Glicenstein,
  • D. Gottschall,
  • M.-H. Grondin,
  • J. Hahn,
  • M. Haupt,
  • G. Hermann,
  • J.A. Hinton,
  • W. Hofmann,
  • C. Hoischen,
  • T.L. Holch,
  • M. Holler,
  • M. Hörbe,
  • D. Horns,
  • D. Huber,
  • M. Jamrozy,
  • D. Jankowsky,
  • F. Jankowsky,
  • A. Jardin-Blicq,
  • V. Joshi,
  • I. Jung-Richardt,
  • E. Kasai,
  • M.A. Kastendieck,
  • K. Katarzyński,
  • U. Katz,
  • D. Khangulyan,
  • B. Khélifi,
  • S. Klepser,
  • W. Kluźniak,
  • Nu. Komin,
  • R. Konno,
  • K. Kosack,
  • D. Kostunin,
  • M. Kreter,
  • G. Lamanna,
  • A. Lemière,
  • M. Lemoine-Goumard,
  • J.-P. Lenain,
  • C. Levy,
  • T. Lohse,
  • I. Lypova,
  • J. Mackey,
  • J. Majumdar,
  • D. Malyshev,
  • D. Malyshev,
  • V. Marandon,
  • P. Marchegiani,
  • A. Marcowith,
  • A. Mares,
  • G. Martí-Devesa,
  • R. Marx,
  • G. Maurin,
  • P.J. Meintjes,
  • M. Meyer,
  • R. Moderski,
  • M. Mohamed,
  • L. Mohrmann,
  • A. Montanari,
  • C. Moore,
  • P. Morris,
  • E. Moulin,
  • J. Muller,
  • T. Murach,
  • K. Nakashima,
  • A. Nayerhoda,
  • M. de Naurois,
  • H. Ndiyavala,
  • F. Niederwanger,
  • J. Niemiec,
  • L. Oakes,
  • P. O'Brien,
  • H. Odaka,
  • S. Ohm,
  • L. Olivera-Nieto,
  • E. de Ona Wilhelmi,
  • M. Ostrowski,
  • M. Panter,
  • S. Panny,
  • R.D. Parsons,
  • G. Peron,
  • B. Peyaud,
  • Q. Piel,
  • S. Pita,
  • V. Poireau,
  • A. Priyana Noel,
  • D.A. Prokhorov,
  • H. Prokoph,
  • G. Pühlhofer,
  • M. Punch,
  • A. Quirrenbach,
  • R. Rauth,
  • P. Reichherzer,
  • A. Reimer,
  • O. Reimer,
  • Q. Remy,
  • M. Renaud,
  • F. Rieger,
  • L. Rinchiuso,
  • C. Romoli,
  • G. Rowell,
  • B. Rudak,
  • E. Ruiz-Velasco,
  • V. Sahakian,
  • S. Sailer,
  • D.A. Sanchez,
  • A. Santangelo,
  • M. Sasaki,
  • M. Scalici,
  • H.M. Schutte,
  • U. Schwanke,
  • S. Schwemmer,
  • M. Seglar-Arroyo,
  • M. Senniappan,
  • A.S. Seyffert,
  • N. Shafi,
  • K. Shiningayamwe,
  • R. Simoni,
  • A. Sinha,
  • H. Sol,
  • A. Specovius,
  • S. Spencer,
  • M. Spir-Jacob,
  • L. Sun,
  • R. Steenkamp,
  • C. Stegmann,
  • S. Steinmassl,
  • C. Steppa,
  • T. Takahashi,
  • T. Tavernier,
  • A.M. Taylor,
  • R. Terrier,
  • D. Tiziani,
  • M. Tluczykont,
  • L. Tomankova,
  • C. Trichard,
  • M. Tsirou,
  • R. Tuffs,
  • Y. Uchiyama,
  • D.J. van der Walt,
  • C. van Eldik,
  • C. van Rensburg,
  • B. van Soelen,
  • G. Vasileiadis,
  • J. Veh,
  • C. Venter,
  • P. Vincent,
  • J. Vink,
  • H.J. Völk,
  • T. Vuillaume,
  • Z. Wadiasingh,
  • S.J. Wagner,
  • J. Watson,
  • F. Werner,
  • R. White,
  • A. Wierzcholska,
  • Yu Wun Wong,
  • A. Yusafzai,
  • M. Zacharias,
  • R. Zanin,
  • D. Zargaryan,
  • A.A. Zdziarski,
  • A. Zech,
  • S.J. Zhu,
  • J. Zorn,
  • S. Zouari,
  • N. Żywucka,
  • V.A. Acciari,
  • S. Ansoldi,
  • L.A. Antonelli,
  • A. Arbet Engels,
  • M. Artero,
  • K. Asano,
  • D. Baack,
  • A. Babić,
  • A. Baquero,
  • U. Barres de Almeida,
  • J.A. Barrio,
  • J. Becerra González,
  • W. Bednarek,
  • L. Bellizzi,
  • E. Bernardini,
  • M. Bernardos,
  • A. Berti,
  • J. Besenrieder,
  • W. Bhattacharyya,
  • C. Bigongiari,
  • A. Biland,
  • O. Blanch,
  • G. Bonnoli,
  • G. Busetto,
  • R. Carosi,
  • G. Ceribella,
  • M. Cerruti,
  • Y. Chai,
  • A. Chilingarian,
  • S. Cikota,
  • S.M. Colak,
  • E. Colombo,
  • J.L. Contreras,
  • J. Cortina,
  • S. Covino,
  • G. D'Amico,
  • V. D'Elia,
  • P. Da Vela,
  • F. Dazzi,
  • A. De Angelis,
  • B. De Lotto,
  • M. Delfino,
  • J. Delgado,
  • C. Delgado Mendez,
  • D. Depaoli,
  • F. Di Pierro,
  • L. Di Venere,
  • E. Do Souto Espiñeira,
  • D. Dominis Prester,
  • A. Donini,
  • D. Dorner,
  • M. Doro,
  • D. Elsaesser,
  • V. Fallah Ramazani,
  • A. Fattorini,
  • G. Ferrara,
  • M.V. Fonseca,
  • L. Font,
  • C. Fruck,
  • S. Fukami,
  • R.J. García López,
  • M. Garczarczyk,
  • S. Gasparyan,
  • M. Gaug,
  • N. Giglietto,
  • F. Giordano,
  • P. Gliwny,
  • N. Godinović,
  • J.G. Green,
  • D. Green,
  • D. Hadasch,
  • A. Hahn,
  • L. Heckmann,
  • J. Herrera,
  • J. Hoang,
  • D. Hrupec,
  • M. Hütten,
  • T. Inada,
  • S. Inoue,
  • K. Ishio,
  • Y. Iwamura,
  • I. Jiménez,
  • J. Jormanainen,
  • L. Jouvin,
  • Y. Kajiwara,
  • M. Karjalainen,
  • D. Kerszberg,
  • Y. Kobayashi,
  • H. Kubo,
  • J. Kushida,
  • A. Lamastra,
  • D. Lelas,
  • F. Leone,
  • E. Lindfors,
  • S. Lombardi,
  • F. Longo,
  • R. López-Coto,
  • M. López-Moya,
  • A. López-Oramas,
  • S. Loporchio,
  • B. Machado de Oliveira Fraga,
  • C. Maggio,
  • P. Majumdar,
  • M. Makariev,
  • M. Mallamaci,
  • G. Maneva,
  • M. Manganaro,
  • K. Mannheim,
  • L. Maraschi,
  • M. Mariotti,
  • M. Martínez,
  • D. Mazin,
  • S. Menchiari,
  • S. Mender,
  • S. Mićanović,
  • D. Miceli,
  • T. Miener,
  • M. Minev,
  • J.M. Miranda,
  • R. Mirzoyan,
  • E. Molina,
  • A. Moralejo,
  • D. Morcuende,
  • V. Moreno,
  • E. Moretti,
  • V. Neustroev,
  • C. Nigro,
  • K. Nilsson,
  • K. Nishijima,
  • K. Noda,
  • S. Nozaki,
  • Y. Ohtani,
  • T. Oka,
  • J. Otero-Santos,
  • S. Paiano,
  • M. Palatiello,
  • D. Paneque,
  • R. Paoletti,
  • J.M. Paredes,
  • L. Pavletić,
  • P. Peñil,
  • C. Perennes,
  • M. Persic,
  • P.G. Prada Moroni,
  • E. Prandini,
  • C. Priyadarshi,
  • I. Puljak,
  • W. Rhode,
  • M. Ribó,
  • J. Rico,
  • C. Righi,
  • A. Rugliancich,
  • L. Saha,
  • N. Sahakyan,
  • T. Saito,
  • S. Sakurai,
  • K. Satalecka,
  • F.G. Saturni,
  • B. Schleicher,
  • K. Schmidt,
  • T. Schweizer,
  • J. Sitarek,
  • I. Šnidarić,
  • D. Sobczynska,
  • A. Spolon,
  • A. Stamerra,
  • D. Strom,
  • M. Strzys,
  • Y. Suda,
  • T. Surić,
  • M. Takahashi,
  • F. Tavecchio,
  • P. Temnikov,
  • T. Terzić,
  • M. Teshima,
  • L. Tosti,
  • S. Truzzi,
  • A. Tutone,
  • S. Ubach,
  • J. van Scherpenberg,
  • G. Vanzo,
  • M. Vazquez Acosta,
  • S. Ventura,
  • V. Verguilov,
  • C.F. Vigorito,
  • V. Vitale,
  • I. Vovk,
  • M. Will,
  • C. Wunderlich,
  • D. Zarić,
  • C.B. Adams,
  • W. Benbow,
  • A. Brill,
  • M. Capasso,
  • J.L. Christiansen,
  • A.J. Chromey,
  • M.K. Daniel,
  • M. Errando,
  • K. A Farrell,
  • Q. Feng,
  • J.P. Finley,
  • L. Fortson,
  • A. Furniss,
  • A. Gent,
  • C. Giuri,
  • T. Hassan,
  • O. Hervet,
  • J. Holder,
  • G. Hughes,
  • T.B. Humensky,
  • W. Jin,
  • P. Kaaret,
  • M. Kertzman,
  • D. Kieda,
  • S. Kumar,
  • M.J. Lang,
  • M. Lundy,
  • G. Maier,
  • P. Moriarty,
  • R. Mukherjee,
  • D. Nieto,
  • M. Nievas-Rosillo,
  • S. O'Brien,
  • R.A. Ong,
  • A.N. Otte,
  • S. Patel,
  • K. Pfrang,
  • M. Pohl,
  • R.R. Prado,
  • E. Pueschel,
  • J. Quinn,
  • K. Ragan,
  • P.T. Reynolds,
  • D. Ribeiro,
  • G.T. Richards,
  • E. Roache,
  • C. Rulten,
  • J.L. Ryan,
  • M. Santander,
  • G.H. Sembroski,
  • R. Shang,
  • A. Weinstein,
  • D.A. Williams,
  • T. J Williamson
  • (less)
Astrophys.J.Lett., 911, pL11 (04/2021) e-Print:2104.06855 doi:10.3847/2041-8213/abef71
abstract + abstract -

In 2017, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration succeeded in capturing the first direct image of the center of the M87 galaxy. The asymmetric ring morphology and size are consistent with theoretical expectations for a weakly accreting supermassive black hole of mass ∼6.5 × 109 M ⊙. The EHTC also partnered with several international facilities in space and on the ground, to arrange an extensive, quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign. This Letter presents the results and analysis of this campaign, as well as the multi-wavelength data as a legacy data repository. We captured M87 in a historically low state, and the core flux dominates over HST-1 at high energies, making it possible to combine core flux constraints with the more spatially precise very long baseline interferometry data. We present the most complete simultaneous multi-wavelength spectrum of the active nucleus to date, and discuss the complexity and caveats of combining data from different spatial scales into one broadband spectrum. We apply two heuristic, isotropic leptonic single-zone models to provide insight into the basic source properties, but conclude that a structured jet is necessary to explain M87’s spectrum. We can exclude that the simultaneous γ-ray emission is produced via inverse Compton emission in the same region producing the EHT mm-band emission, and further conclude that the γ-rays can only be produced in the inner jets (inward of HST-1) if there are strongly particle-dominated regions. Direct synchrotron emission from accelerated protons and secondaries cannot yet be excluded.

(300)Parametrics of electromagnetic searches for axion dark matter
  • Robert Lasenby
Physical Review D, 103 (04/2021) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.103.075007
abstract + abstract -

Light axionlike particles occur in many theories of beyond-Standard-Model physics, and may make up some or all of the Universe's dark matter. One of the ways they can couple to the Standard Model is through the electromagnetic Fμ νF∼μ ν portal, and there is a broad experimental program, covering many decades in mass range, aiming to search for axion dark matter via this coupling. In this paper, we derive limits on the absorbed power, and coupling sensitivity, for a broad class of such searches. We find that standard techniques, such as resonant cavities and dielectric haloscopes, can achieve O (1 )-optimal axion-mass-averaged signal powers, for given volume and magnetic field. For low-mass (frequency ≪GHz ) axions, experiments using static background magnetic fields generally have suppressed sensitivity; we discuss the physics of this limitation, and propose experimental methods to avoid it, such as microwave up-conversion experiments. We also comment on the detection of other forms of dark matter, including dark photons, as well as the detection of relativistic hidden-sector particles.

(299)Rapid CO gas dispersal from NO Lup's class III circumstellar disc
  • J. B. Lovell,
  • G. M. Kennedy,
  • S. Marino,
  • M. C. Wyatt,
  • M. Ansdell
  • +7
  • M. Kama,
  • C. F. Manara,
  • L. Matrà,
  • G. Rosotti,
  • M. Tazzari,
  • L. Testi,
  • J. P. Williams
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 502 (03/2021) doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slaa189
abstract + abstract -

We observed the K7 class III star NO Lup in an ALMA survey of the 1-3 Myr Lupus association and detected circumstellar dust and CO gas. Here we show that the J = 3-2 CO emission is both spectrally and spatially resolved, with a broad velocity width ~19 km s-1 for its resolved size ~1 arcsec (~130 au). We model the gas emission as a Keplerian disc, finding consistency, but only with a central mass of ~11M, which is implausible given its spectral type and X-Shooter spectrum. A good fit to the data can also be found by modelling the CO emission as outflowing gas with a radial velocity ~22 km s-1. We interpret NO Lup's CO emission as the first imaged class III circumstellar disc with outflowing gas. We conclude that the CO is continually replenished, but cannot say if this is from the breakup of icy planetesimals or from the last remnants of the protoplanetary disc. We suggest further work to explore the origin of this CO, and its higher than expected velocity in comparison to photoevaporative models.

(298)Neutrino mass bounds from confronting an effective model with BOSS Lyman-α data
  • Mathias Garny,
  • Thomas Konstandin,
  • Laura Sagunski,
  • Matteo Viel
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 2021, p28 (03/2021) doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2021/03/049
abstract + abstract -

We present an effective model for the one-dimensional Lyman-α flux power spectrum far above the baryonic Jeans scale. The main new ingredient is constituted by a set of two parameters that encode the impact of small, highly non-linear scales on the one-dimensional power spectrum on large scales, where it is measured by BOSS. We show that, by marginalizing over the model parameters that capture the impact of the intergalactic medium, the flux power spectrum from both simulations and observations can be described with high precision. The model displays a degeneracy between the neutrino masses and the (unknown, in our formalism) normalization of the flux power spectrum. This degeneracy can be lifted by calibrating one of the model parameters with simulation data, and using input from Planck CMB data. We demonstrate that this approach can be used to extract bounds on the sum of neutrino masses with comparably low numerical effort, while allowing for a conservative treatment of uncertainties from the dynamics of the intergalactic medium. An explorative analysis yields an upper bound of 0.16eV at 95% C.L. when applied to BOSS data at 3 ≤ z ≤ 4.2. We also forecast that if the systematic and statistical errors will be reduced by a factor two the upper bound will become 0.1eV at 95% C.L, and 0.056eV when assuming a 1% error.

(297)The Three Hundred project: the gas disruption of infalling objects in cluster environments
  • Robert Mostoghiu,
  • Jake Arthur,
  • Frazer R. Pearce,
  • Meghan Gray,
  • Alexander Knebe
  • +6
  • Weiguang Cui,
  • Charlotte Welker,
  • Sofía A. Cora,
  • Giuseppe Murante,
  • Klaus Dolag,
  • Gustavo Yepes
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 501, p13 (03/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab014
abstract + abstract -

We analyse the gas content evolution of infalling haloes in cluster environments from The Three Hundred project, a collection of 324 numerically modelled galaxy clusters. The haloes in our sample were selected within 5R200 of the main cluster halo at $z$ = 0 and have total halo mass M200 ≥ 1011h-1M. We track their main progenitors and study their gas evolution since their crossing into the infall region, which we define as 1-4R200. Studying the radial trends of our populations using both the full phase-space information and a line-of-sight projection, we confirm the Arthur et al. (2019) result and identify a characteristic radius around 1.7R200 in 3D and at R200 in projection at which infalling haloes lose nearly all of the gas prior their infall. Splitting the trends by subhalo status,we show that subhaloes residing in group-mass and low-mass host haloes in the infall region follow similar radial gas-loss trends as their hosts, whereas subhaloes of cluster-mass host haloes are stripped of their gas much further out. Our results show that infalling objects suffer significant gaseous disruption that correlates with time-since-infall, cluster-centric distance, and host mass, and that the gaseous disruption they experience is a combination of subhalo pre-processing and object gas depletion at a radius that behaves like an accretion shock.

(296)On the characteristics of fast neutrino flavor instabilities in three-dimensional core-collapse supernova models
  • Sajad Abbar,
  • Francesco Capozzi,
  • Robert Glas,
  • H. -Thomas Janka,
  • Irene Tamborra
Physical Review D, 103 (03/2021) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.103.063033
abstract + abstract -

We assess the occurrence of fast neutrino flavor instabilities in two three-dimensional state-of-the-art core-collapse supernova simulations performed using a two-moment three-species neutrino transport scheme: one with an exploding 9 M and one with a nonexploding 20 M model. Apart from confirming the presence of fast instabilities occurring within the neutrino decoupling and the supernova pre-shock regions, we detect flavor instabilities in the post-shock region for the exploding model. These instabilities are likely to be scattering-induced. In addition, the failure in achieving a successful explosion in the heavier supernova model seems to seriously hinder the occurrence of fast instabilities in the post-shock region. This is a consequence of the large matter densities behind the stalled or retreating shock, which implies high neutrino scattering rates and thus more isotropic distributions of neutrinos and antineutrinos. Our findings suggest that the supernova model properties and the fate of the explosion can remarkably affect the occurrence of fast instabilities. Hence, a larger set of realistic hydrodynamical simulations of the stellar collapse is needed in order to make reliable predictions on the flavor conversion physics.

(295)Wavelength Selection by Interrupted Coarsening in Reaction-Diffusion Systems
  • Fridtjof Brauns,
  • Henrik Weyer,
  • Jacob Halatek,
  • Junghoon Yoon,
  • Erwin Frey
Physical Review Letters, 126 (03/2021) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.104101
abstract + abstract -

Wavelength selection in reaction-diffusion systems can be understood as a coarsening process that is interrupted by counteracting processes at certain wavelengths. We first show that coarsening in mass-conserving systems is driven by self-amplifying mass transport between neighboring high-density domains. We derive a general coarsening criterion and show that coarsening is generically uninterrupted in two-component systems that conserve mass. The theory is then generalized to study interrupted coarsening and anticoarsening due to weakly broken mass conservation, providing a general path to analyze wavelength selection in pattern formation far from equilibrium.

(294)The strange case of the transient HBL blazar 4FGL J1544.3-0649
  • N. Sahakyan,
  • P. Giommi
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 502, p9 (03/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab011
abstract + abstract -

We present a multifrequency study of the transient γ-ray source 4FGL J1544.3-0649, a blazar that exhibited a remarkable behaviour raising from the state of an anonymous mid-intensity radio source, never detected at high energies, to that of one of the brightest extreme blazars in the X-ray and γ-ray sky. Our analysis shows that the averaged γ-ray spectrum is well described by a power law with a photon index of 1.87 ± 0.04, while the flux above 100 MeV is (8.0 ± 0.9) × 10-9 photon cm-2 s-1, which increases during the active state of the source. The X-ray flux and spectral slope are both highly variable, with the highest 2-10 keV flux reaching (1.28 ± 0.05) × 10-10 erg cm-2 s-1. On several observations, the X-ray spectrum hardened to the point implying as SED peak moving to energies larger than 10 keV. As in many extreme blazars the broad-band spectral energy distribution can be described by a homogeneous one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton leptonic model. We briefly discuss the potential implications for high-energy multimessenger astrophysics in case the dual behaviour shown by 4FGL J1544.3-0649 does not represent an isolated case, but rather a manifestation of a so far unnoticed relatively common phenomenon.

(293)A homogeneous measurement of the delay between the onsets of gas stripping and star formation quenching in satellite galaxies of groups and clusters
  • Kyle A. Oman,
  • Yannick M. Bahé,
  • Julia Healy,
  • Kelley M. Hess,
  • Michael J. Hudson
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 501, p23 (03/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/staa3845
abstract + abstract -

We combine orbital information from N-body simulations with an analytic model for star formation quenching and SDSS observations to infer the differential effect of the group/cluster environment on star formation in satellite galaxies. We also consider a model for gas stripping, using the same input supplemented with H I fluxes from the ALFALFA survey. The models are motivated by and tested on the Hydrangea cosmological hydrodynamical simulation suite. We recover the characteristic times when satellite galaxies are stripped and quenched. Stripping in massive ($M_{\rm vir}\sim 10^{14.5}\, {\rm M}_\odot$) clusters typically occurs at or just before the first pericentric passage. Lower mass ($\sim 10^{13.5}\, {\rm M}_\odot$) groups strip their satellites on a significantly longer (by $\sim 3\, {\rm Gyr}$) time-scale. Quenching occurs later: Balmer emission lines typically fade $\sim 3.5\, {\rm Gyr}$ ($5.5\, {\rm Gyr}$) after first pericentre in clusters (groups), followed a few hundred Myr later by reddenning in (g - r) colour. These 'delay time-scales' are remarkably constant across the entire satellite stellar mass range probed (~109.5-$10^{11}\, {\rm M}_\odot$), a feature closely tied to our treatment of 'group pre-processing'. The lowest mass groups in our sample ($\sim 10^{12.5}\, {\rm M}_\odot$) strip and quench their satellites extremely inefficiently: typical time-scales may approach the age of the Universe. Our measurements are qualitatively consistent with the 'delayed-then-rapid' quenching scenario advocated for by several other studies, but we find significantly longer delay times. Our combination of a homogeneous analysis and input catalogues yields new insight into the sequence of events leading to quenching across wide intervals in host and satellite mass.

(292)Maintaining scientific discourse during a global pandemic: ESO's first e-conference #H02020
  • Richard I. Anderson,
  • Sherry H. Suyu,
  • Antoine Mérand
abstract + abstract -

From 22 to 26 June 2020, we hosted ESO's first live e-conference, #H02020, from within ESO headquarters in Garching, Germany. Every day, between 200 and 320 researchers around the globe tuned in to discuss the nature and implications of the discord between precise determinations of the Universe's expansion rate, H0. Originally planned as an in-person meeting, we moved to the virtual domain to maintain strong scientific discourse despite the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we describe our conference setup, participants feedback gathered before and after the meeting, and lessons learned from this unexpected exercise. As e-conferencing will become increasingly common in the future, we provide our perspective on how e-conferences can make scientific exchange more effective and inclusive, in addition to climate friendly.

(291)First 3-D grid-based gas-dust simulations of circumstellar disks with an embedded planet
  • Fabian Binkert,
  • Judit Szulágyi,
  • Til Birnstiel
arXiv e-prints (03/2021) e-Print:2103.10177
abstract + abstract -

Substructures are ubiquitous in high resolution (sub-)millimeter continuum observations of circumstellar disks. They are possibly caused by forming planets embedded in the disk. To investigate the relation between observed substructures and young planets, we perform novel three-dimensional two-fluid (gas+1-mm-dust) hydrodynamic simulations of circumstellar disks with embedded planets (Neptune-, Saturn-, Jupiter-, 5 Jupiter-mass) at different orbital distances from the star (5.2AU, 30AU, 50AU). We turn these simulations into synthetic (sub-)millimeter ALMA images. We find that all but the Neptune-mass planet open annular gaps in both the gas and the dust component of the disk. We find that the temporal evolution of the dust density distribution is distinctly different of the gas'. For example, the planets cause significant vertical stirring of the dust in the circumstellar disk which opposes the vertical settling. This creates a thicker dust disk than disks without a planet. We find that this effect greatly influences the dust masses derived from the synthetic ALMA images. Comparing the dust disk masses in the 3D simulations and the ones derived from the 2D ALMA synthetic images, we find the former to be a factor of a few (up to 10) larger, pointing to that real disks might be significantly more massive than previously thought based on ALMA continuum images using the optically thin assumption and equation. Finally, we analyze the synthetic ALMA images and provide an empirical relationship between the planet mass and the width of the gap in the ALMA images including the effects of the beam size.

(290)Calibration of bias and scatter involved in cluster mass measurements using optical weak gravitational lensing
  • Sebastian Grandis,
  • Sebastian Bocquet,
  • Joseph J. Mohr,
  • Matthias Klein,
  • Klaus Dolag
Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc., 507, p5671 (03/2021) e-Print:2103.16212 doi:10.1093/mnras/stab2414
abstract + abstract -

Cosmological inference from cluster number counts is systematically limited by the accuracy of the mass calibration, i.e. the empirical determination of the mapping between cluster selection observables and halo mass. In this work we demonstrate a method to quantitatively determine the bias and uncertainties in weak-lensing (WL) mass calibration. To this end, we extract a library of projected matter density profiles from hydrodynamical simulations. Accounting for shear bias and noise, photometric redshift uncertainties, mis-centreing, cluster member contamination, cluster morphological diversity, and line-of-sight projections, we produce a library of shear profiles. Fitting a one-parameter model to these profiles, we extract the so-called WL mass M_WL. Relating the WL mass to the halo mass from gravity-only simulations with the same initial conditions as the hydrodynamical simulations allows us to estimate the impact of hydrodynamical effects on cluster number counts experiments. Creating new shear libraries for ∼1000 different realizations of the systematics provides a distribution of the parameters of the WL to halo mass relation, reflecting their systematic uncertainty. This result can be used as a prior for cosmological inference. We also discuss the impact of the inner fitting radius on the accuracy, and determine the outer fitting radius necessary to exclude the signal from neighbouring structures. Our method is currently being applied to different Stage III lensing surveys, and can easily be extended to Stage IV lensing surveys.

(289)Unravelling stellar populations in the Andromeda Galaxy
  • Grzegorz Gajda,
  • Ortwin Gerhard,
  • Matías Blaña,
  • Ling Zhu,
  • Juntai Shen
  • +2
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 647, p20 (03/2021) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202038381
abstract + abstract -

To understand the history and formation mechanisms of galaxies, it is crucial to determine their current multidimensional structure. In this work, we focus on the properties that characterise stellar populations, such as metallicity and [α/Fe] enhancement. We devised a new technique to recover the distribution of these parameters using spatially resolved, line-of-sight averaged data. Our chemodynamical method is based on the made-to-measure framework and results in an N-body model for the abundance distribution. Following a test on a mock data set we found that the radial and azimuthal profiles were well-recovered, however, only the overall shape of the vertical profile matches the true profile. We applied our procedure to spatially resolved maps of mean [Z/H] and [α/Fe] for the Andromeda Galaxy, using an earlier barred dynamical model of M 31. We find that the metallicity is enhanced along the bar, with a possible maxima at the ansae. In the edge-on view, the [Z/H] distribution has an X shape due to the boxy/peanut bulge; the average vertical metallicity gradient is equal to −0.133 ± 0.006 dex kpc−1. We identify a metallicity-enhanced ring around the bar, which also has relatively lower [α/Fe]. The highest [α/Fe] is found in the centre, due to the classical bulge. Away from the centre, the α-overabundance in the bar region increases with height, which could be an indication of a thick disc. We argue that the galaxy assembly resulted in a sharp peak of metallicity in the central few hundred parsecs and a more gentle negative gradient in the remaining disc, but no [α/Fe] gradient. The formation of the bar leads to the re-arrangement of the [Z/H] distribution, causing a flat gradient along the bar. Subsequent star formation close to the bar ends may have produced the metallicity enhancements at the ansae and the [Z/H] enhanced lower-α ring.

(288)RES-NOVA sensitivity to core-collapse and failed core-collapse supernova neutrinos
  • L. Pattavina,
  • N. Ferreiro Iachellini,
  • L. Pagnanini,
  • L. Canonica,
  • E. Celi
  • +16
  • M. Clemenza,
  • F. Ferroni,
  • E. Fiorini,
  • A. Garai,
  • L. Gironi,
  • M. Mancuso,
  • S. Nisi,
  • F. Petricca,
  • S. Pirro,
  • S. Pozzi,
  • A. Puiu,
  • J. Rothe,
  • S. Schoenert,
  • L. Shtembari,
  • R. Strauss,
  • V. Wagner
  • (less)
abstract + abstract -

RES-NOVA is a new proposed experiment for the investigation of astrophysical neutrino sources with archaeological Pb-based cryogenic detectors. RES-NOVA will exploit Coherent Elastic neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CEνNS) as detection channel, thus it will be equally sensitive to all neutrino flavors produced by Supernovae (SNe). RES-NOVA with only a total active volume of (60 cm)3 and an energy threshold of 1 keV will probe the entire Milky Way Galaxy for (failed) core-collapse SNe with > 3 σ detection significance. The high detector modularity makes RES-NOVA ideal also for reconstructing the main parameters (e.g. average neutrino energy, star binding energy) of SNe occurring in our vicinity, without deterioration of the detector performance caused by the high neutrino interaction rate. For the first time, distances <3 kpc can be surveyed, similarly to the ones where all known past galactic SNe happened. We discuss the RES-NOVA potential, accounting for a realistic setup, considering the detector geometry, modularity and background level in the region of interest. We report on the RES-NOVA background model and on the sensitivity to SN neutrinos as a function of the distance travelled by neutrinos.

(287)First constraints on the AGN X-ray luminosity function at z 6 from an eROSITA-detected quasar
  • J. Wolf,
  • K. Nandra,
  • M. Salvato,
  • T. Liu,
  • J. Buchner
  • +17
  • M. Brusa,
  • D. N. Hoang,
  • V. Moss,
  • R. Arcodia,
  • M. Brüggen,
  • J. Comparat,
  • F. de Gasperin,
  • A. Georgakakis,
  • A. Hotan,
  • G. Lamer,
  • A. Merloni,
  • A. Rau,
  • H. J. A. Rottgering,
  • T. W. Shimwell,
  • T. Urrutia,
  • M. Whiting,
  • W. L. Williams
  • (less)
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 647, p16 (03/2021) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202039724
abstract + abstract -

Context. High-redshift quasars signpost the early accretion history of the Universe. The penetrating nature of X-rays enables a less absorption-biased census of the population of these luminous and persistent sources compared to optical/near-infrared colour selection. The ongoing SRG/eROSITA X-ray all-sky survey offers a unique opportunity to uncover the bright end of the high-z quasar population and probe new regions of colour parameter space.
Aims: We searched for high-z quasars within the X-ray source population detected in the contiguous ~140 deg2 field observed by eROSITA during the performance verification phase. With the purpose of demonstrating the unique survey science capabilities of eROSITA, this field was observed at the depth of the final all-sky survey. The blind X-ray selection of high-redshift sources in a large contiguous, near-uniform survey with a well-understood selection function can be directly translated into constraints on the X-ray luminosity function (XLF), which encodes the luminosity-dependent evolution of accretion through cosmic time.
Methods: We collected the available spectroscopic information in the eFEDS field, including the sample of all currently known optically selected z > 5.5 quasars and cross-matched secure Legacy DR8 counterparts of eROSITA-detected X-ray point-like sources with this spectroscopic sample.
Results: We report the X-ray detection of eFEDSU J083644.0+005459, an eROSITA source securely matched to the well-known quasar SDSS J083643.85+005453.3 (z = 5.81). The soft X-ray flux of the source derived from eROSITA is consistent with previous Chandra observations. The detection of SDSS J083643.85+005453.3 allows us to place the first constraints on the XLF at z > 5.5 based on a secure spectroscopic redshift. Compared to extrapolations from lower-redshift observations, this favours a relatively flat slope for the XLF at z ~ 6 beyond L*, the knee in the luminosity function. In addition, we report the detection of the quasar with LOFAR at 145 MHz and ASKAP at 888 MHz. The reported flux densities confirm a spectral flattening at lower frequencies in the emission of the radio core, indicating that SDSS J083643.85+005453.3 could be a (sub-) gigahertz peaked spectrum source. The inferred spectral shape and the parsec-scale radio morphology of SDSS J083643.85+005453.3 indicate that it is in an early stage of its evolution into a large-scale radio source or confined in a dense environment. We find no indications for a strong jet contribution to the X-ray emission of the quasar, which is therefore likely to be linked to accretion processes.
Conclusions: Our results indicate that the population of X-ray luminous AGNs at high redshift may be larger than previously thought. From our XLF constraints, we make the conservative prediction that eROSITA will detect ~90 X-ray luminous AGNs at redshifts 5.7 < z < 6.4 in the full-sky survey (De+RU). While subject to different jet physics, both high-redshift quasars detected by eROSITA so far are radio-loud; a hint at the great potential of combined X-ray and radio surveys for the search of luminous high-redshift quasars.

(286)A double copy for asymptotic symmetries in the self-dual sector
  • Miguel Campiglia,
  • Silvia Nagy
Journal of High Energy Physics, 2021 (03/2021) doi:10.1007/JHEP03(2021)262
abstract + abstract -

We give a double copy construction for the symmetries of the self-dual sectors of Yang-Mills (YM) and gravity, in the light-cone formulation. We find an infinite set of double copy constructible symmetries. We focus on two families which correspond to the residual diffeomorphisms on the gravitational side. For the first one, we find novel non-perturbative double copy rules in the bulk. The second family has a more striking structure, as a non-perturbative gravitational symmetry is obtained from a perturbatively defined symmetry on the YM side.At null infinity, we find the YM origin of the subset of extended Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) symmetries that preserve the self-duality condition. In particular, holomorphic large gauge YM symmetries are double copied to holomorphic supertranslations. We also identify the single copy of superrotations with certain non-gauge YM transformations that to our knowledge have not been previously presented in the literature.

(285)Intermediate mass black hole formation in compact young massive star clusters
  • Francesco Paolo Rizzuto,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Rainer Spurzem,
  • Mirek Giersz,
  • J. P. Ostriker
  • +4
  • N. C. Stone,
  • Long Wang,
  • Peter Berczik,
  • M. Rampp
  • (less)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 501, p17 (03/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/staa3634
abstract + abstract -

Young dense massive star clusters are promising environments for the formation of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) through collisions. We present a set of 80 simulations carried out with NBODY6++GPU of 10 models of compact $\sim 7 \times 10^4 \, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$ star clusters with half-mass radii Rh ≲ 1 pc, central densities $\rho _\mathrm{core} \gtrsim 10^5 \, \mathrm{M}_\odot \, \mathrm{pc}^{-3}$ , and resolved stellar populations with 10 per cent primordial binaries. Very massive stars (VMSs) up to $\sim 400 \, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ grow rapidly by binary exchange and three-body scattering with stars in hard binaries. Assuming that in VMS-stellar black hole (BH) collisions all stellar material is accreted on to the BH, IMBHs with masses up to $M_\mathrm{BH} \sim 350 \, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ can form on time-scales of ≲15 Myr, as qualitatively predicted from Monte Carlo MOCCA simulations. One model forms an IMBH of 140 $\mathrm{M_{\odot }}$ by three BH mergers with masses of 17:28, 25:45, and 68:70 $\mathrm{M_{\odot }}$ within ∼90 Myr. Despite the stochastic nature of the process, formation efficiencies are higher in more compact clusters. Lower accretion fractions of 0.5 also result in IMBH formation. The process might fail for values as low as 0.1. The IMBHs can merge with stellar mass BHs in intermediate mass ratio inspiral events on a 100 Myr time-scale. With 105 stars, 10 per cent binaries, stellar evolution, all relevant dynamical processes, and 300 Myr simulation time, our large suite of 80 simulations indicate another rapid IMBH formation channel in young and compact massive star clusters.

(284)Feedback-limited accretion: variable luminosity from growing planets
  • M. Gárate,
  • J. Cuadra,
  • M. Montesinos,
  • P. Arévalo
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 501, p9 (03/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/staa3860
abstract + abstract -

Planets form in discs of gas and dust around stars, and continue to grow by accretion of disc material while available. Massive planets clear a gap in their protoplanetary disc, but can still accrete gas through a circumplanetary disc. For high enough accretion rates, the planet should be detectable at infrared wavelengths. As the energy of the gas accreted on to the planet is released, the planet surroundings heat up in a feedback process. We aim to test how this planet feedback affects the gas in the coorbital region and the accretion rate itself. We modified the 2D code FARGO-AD to include a prescription for the accretion and feedback luminosity of the planet and use it to model giant planets on 10 au circular and eccentric orbits around a solar mass star. We find that this feedback reduces but does not halt the accretion on to the planet, although this result might depend on the near-coincident radial ranges where both recipes are implemented. Our simulations also show that the planet heating gives the accretion rate a stochastic variability with an amplitude $\Delta \dot{M}_p \sim 0.1 \dot{M}_p$ . A planet on an eccentric orbit (e = 0.1) presents a similar variability amplitude, but concentrated on a well-defined periodicity of half the orbital period and weaker broad-band noise, potentially allowing observations to discriminate between both cases. Finally, we find that the heating of the co-orbital region by the planet feedback alters the gas dynamics, reducing the difference between its orbital velocity and the Keplerian motion at the edge of the gap, which can have important consequences for the formation of dust rings.

(283)Fast neutrino flavor conversions in one-dimensional core-collapse supernova models with and without muon creation
  • Francesco Capozzi,
  • Sajad Abbar,
  • Robert Bollig,
  • H. -Thomas Janka
Physical Review D, 103 (03/2021) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.103.063013
abstract + abstract -

In very dense environments, neutrinos can undergo fast flavor conversions on scales as short as a few centimeters provided that the angular distribution of the neutrino lepton number crosses zero. This work presents the first attempt to establish whether the non-negligible abundance of muons and their interactions with neutrinos in the core of supernovae can affect the occurrence of such crossings. For this purpose we employ state-of-the-art one-dimensional core-collapse supernova simulations, considering models that include muon-neutrino interactions as well as models without these reactions. Although a consistent treatment of muons in the equation of state and neutrino transport does not seem to modify significantly the conditions for the occurrence of fast modes, it allows for the existence of an interesting phenomenon, namely fast instabilities in the μ -τ sector. We also show that crossings below the supernova shock are a relatively generic feature of the one-dimensional simulations under investigation, which contrasts with the previous reports in the literature. Our results highlight the importance of multidimensional simulations with muon creation, where our results must be tested in the future.

(282)A new distance to the Brick, the dense molecular cloud G0.253+0.016
  • M. Zoccali,
  • E. Valenti,
  • F. Surot,
  • O. A. Gonzalez,
  • A. Renzini
  • +1
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 502, p7 (03/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/stab089
abstract + abstract -

We analyse the near-infrared colour-magnitude diagram of a field including the giant molecular cloud G0.253+0.016 (a.k.a. The Brick) observed at high spatial resolution, with HAWK-I@VLT. The distribution of red clump stars in a line of sight crossing the cloud, compared with that in a direction just beside it, and not crossing it, allow us to measure the distance of the cloud from the Sun to be 7.20, with a statistical uncertainty of ±0.16 and a systematic error of ±0.20 kpc. This is significantly closer than what is generally assumed, i.e. that the cloud belongs to the near side of the central molecular zone, at 60 pc from the Galactic centre. This assumption was based on dynamical models of the central molecular zone, observationally constrained uniquely by the radial velocity of this and other clouds. Determining the true position of the Brick cloud is relevant because this is the densest cloud of the Galaxy not showing any ongoing star formation. This puts the cloud off by one order of magnitude from the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation between the density of the dense gas and the star formation rate. Several explanations have been proposed for this absence of star formation, most of them based on the dynamical evolution of this and other clouds, within the Galactic centre region. Our result emphasizes the need to include constraints coming from stellar observations in the interpretation of our Galaxy's central molecular zone.

(281)Decays of an exotic 1<SUP>-+</SUP> hybrid meson resonance in QCD
  • Antoni J. Woss,
  • Jozef J. Dudek,
  • Robert G. Edwards,
  • Christopher E. Thomas,
  • David J. Wilson
  • +1
Physical Review D, 103 (03/2021) doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.103.054502
abstract + abstract -

We present the first determination of the hadronic decays of the lightest exotic JP C=1-+ resonance in lattice QCD. Working with SU(3) flavor symmetry, where the up, down and strange-quark masses approximately match the physical strange-quark mass giving mπ∼700 MeV , we compute finite-volume spectra on six lattice volumes which constrain a scattering system featuring eight coupled channels. Analytically continuing the scattering amplitudes into the complex-energy plane, we find a pole singularity corresponding to a narrow resonance which shows relatively weak coupling to the open pseudoscalar-pseudoscalar, vector-pseudoscalar and vector-vector decay channels, but large couplings to at least one kinematically closed axial-vector-pseudoscalar channel. Attempting a simple extrapolation of the couplings to physical light-quark mass suggests a broad π1 resonance decaying dominantly through the b1π mode with much smaller decays into f1π , ρ π , ηπ and η π . A large total width is potentially in agreement with the experimental π1(1564 ) candidate state observed in η π , ηπ , which we suggest may be heavily suppressed decay channels.

(280)The Thermal and Gravitational Energy Densities in the Large-scale Structure of the Universe
  • Yi-Kuan Chiang,
  • Ryu Makiya,
  • Eiichiro Komatsu,
  • Brice Ménard
The Astrophysical Journal, 910, p10 (03/2021) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abe387
abstract + abstract -

As cosmic structures form, matter density fluctuations collapse gravitationally and baryonic matter is shock-heated and thermalized. We therefore expect a connection between the mean gravitational potential energy density of collapsed halos, ${{\rm{\Omega }}}_{W}^{\mathrm{halo}}$ , and the mean thermal energy density of baryons, Ωth. These quantities can be obtained using two fundamentally different estimates: we compute ${{\rm{\Omega }}}_{W}^{\mathrm{halo}}$ using the theoretical framework of the halo model, which is driven by dark matter statistics, and measure Ωth using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect, which probes the mean thermal pressure of baryons. First, we derive that, at the present time, about 90% of ${{\rm{\Omega }}}_{W}^{\mathrm{halo}}$ originates from massive halos with M > 1013 M. Then, using our measurements of the SZ background, we find that Ωth accounts for about 80% of the kinetic energy of the baryons available for pressure in halos at z ≲ 0.5. This constrains the amount of nonthermal pressure, e.g., due to bulk and turbulent gas motion sourced by mass accretion, to be about Ωnon-th ≃ 0.4 × 10-8 at z = 0.

(279)Diffusive coupling of two well-mixed compartments elucidates elementary principles of protein-based pattern formation
  • Fridtjof Brauns,
  • Jacob Halatek,
  • Erwin Frey
Physical Review Research, 3 (03/2021) doi:10.1103/PhysRevResearch.3.013258
abstract + abstract -

Spatial organization of proteins in cells is important for many biological functions. In general, the nonlinear, spatially coupled models for protein-pattern formation are only accessible to numerical simulations, which has limited insight into the general underlying principles. To overcome this limitation, we adopt the setting of two diffusively coupled, well-mixed compartments that represents the elementary feature of any pattern—an interface. For intracellular systems, the total numbers of proteins are conserved on the relevant timescale of pattern formation. Thus the essential dynamics is the redistribution of the globally conserved mass densities between the two compartments. We present a phase-portrait analysis in the phase-space of the redistributed masses that provides insights on the physical mechanisms underlying pattern formation. We demonstrate this approach for several paradigmatic model systems. In particular, we show that the pole-to-pole Min oscillations in Escherichia coli are relaxation oscillations of the MinD polarity orientation. This reveals a close relation between cell polarity oscillatory patterns in cells. Critically, our findings suggest that the design principles of intracellular pattern formation are found in characteristic features in these phase portraits (nullclines and fixed points). These features are not uniquely determined by the topology of the protein-interaction network but depend on parameters (kinetic rates, diffusion constants) and distinct networks can give rise to equivalent phase portrait features.

(278)The impact of modified gravity on the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect
  • Myles A. Mitchell,
  • Christian Arnold,
  • César Hernández-Aguayo,
  • Baojiu Li
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 501, p14 (03/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/staa3941
abstract + abstract -

We study the effects of two popular modified gravity theories, which incorporate very different screening mechanisms, on the angular power spectra of the thermal (tSZ) and kinematic (kSZ) components of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Using the first cosmological simulations that simultaneously incorporate both screened modified gravity and a complete galaxy formation model, we find that the tSZ and kSZ power spectra are significantly enhanced by the strengthened gravitational forces in Hu-Sawicki f(R) gravity and the normal-branch Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model. Employing a combination of non-radiative and full-physics simulations, we find that the extra baryonic physics present in the latter acts to suppress the tSZ power on angular scales l ≳ 3000 and the kSZ power on all tested scales, and this is found to have a substantial effect on the model differences. Our results indicate that the tSZ and kSZ power can be used as powerful probes of gravity on large scales, using data from current and upcoming surveys, provided sufficient work is conducted to understand the sensitivity of the constraints to baryonic processes that are currently not fully understood.

(277)Stellar Collapse Diversity and the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background
  • Daniel Kresse,
  • Thomas Ertl,
  • Hans-Thomas Janka
The Astrophysical Journal, 909, p32 (03/2021) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abd54e
abstract + abstract -

The diffuse cosmic supernova neutrino background (DSNB) is an observational target of the gadolinium-loaded Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector and the forthcoming JUNO and Hyper-Kamiokande detectors. Current predictions are hampered by our still incomplete understanding of the supernova (SN) explosion mechanism and of the neutron star (NS) equation of state and maximum mass. In our comprehensive study we revisit this problem on grounds of the landscapes of successful and failed SN explosions obtained by Sukhbold et al. and Ertl et al. with parameterized one-dimensional neutrino engines for large sets of single-star and helium-star progenitors, with the latter serving as a proxy for binary evolution effects. Besides considering engines of different strengths, leading to different fractions of failed SNe with black hole (BH) formation, we also vary the NS mass limit and the spectral shape of the neutrino emission and include contributions from poorly understood alternative NS formation channels, such as accretion-induced and merger-induced collapse events. Since the neutrino signals of our large model sets are approximate, we calibrate the associated degrees of freedom by using state-of-the-art simulations of proto-NS cooling. Our predictions are higher than other recent ones because of a large fraction of failed SNe with long delay to BH formation. Our best-guess model predicts a DSNB ${\bar{\nu }}_{{\rm{e}}}$ <!-- --> -flux of ${28.8}_{-10.9}^{+24.6}$ <!-- --> cm-2 s-1 with ${6.0}_{-2.1}^{+5.1}$ <!-- --> cm-2 s-1 in the favorable measurement interval of [10, 30] MeV and ${1.3}_{-0.4}^{+1.1}$ <!-- --> cm-2 s-1 with ${\bar{\nu }}_{{\rm{e}}}$ <!-- --> energies > 17.3 MeV, which is roughly a factor of two below the current SK limit. The uncertainty range is dominated by the still insufficiently constrained cosmic rate of stellar core-collapse events.

(276)LYRA - I. Simulating the multiphase ISM of a dwarf galaxy with variable energy supernovae from individual stars
  • Thales A. Gutcke,
  • Rüdiger Pakmor,
  • Thorsten Naab,
  • Volker Springel
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 501, p19 (03/2021) doi:10.1093/mnras/staa3875
abstract + abstract -

We introduce the LYRA project, a new high-resolution galaxy formation model built within the framework of the cosmological hydrodynamical moving mesh code AREPO. The model resolves the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) down to 10 K. It forms individual stars sampled from the initial mass function (IMF), and tracks their lifetimes and death pathways individually. Single supernova (SN) blast waves with variable energy are followed within the hydrodynamic calculation to interact with the surrounding ISM. In this paper, we present the methods and apply the model to a $10^{10}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$ isolated halo. We demonstrate that the majority of SNe are Sedov resolved at our fiducial gas mass resolution of $4\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$ . We show that our SN feedback prescription self-consistently produces a hot phase within the ISM that drives significant outflows, reduces the gas density, and suppresses star formation. Clustered SNe play a major role in enhancing the effectiveness of feedback, because the majority of explosions occur in low-density material. Accounting for variable SN energy allows the feedback to respond directly to stellar evolution. We show that the ISM is sensitive to the spatially distributed energy deposition. It strongly affects the outflow behaviour, reducing the mass loading by a factor of 2-3, thus allowing the galaxy to retain a higher fraction of mass and metals. LYRA makes it possible to use a comprehensive multiphysics ISM model directly in cosmological (zoom) simulations of dwarf and higher mass galaxies.

(275)How dust fragmentation may be beneficial to planetary growth by pebble accretion
  • J. Drążkowska,
  • S. M. Stammler,
  • T. Birnstiel
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 647, p11 (03/2021) doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202039925
abstract + abstract -

Context. Pebble accretion is an emerging paradigm for the fast growth of planetary cores. Pebble flux and pebble sizes are the key parameters used in the pebble accretion models.
Aims: We aim to derive the pebble sizes and fluxes from state-of-the-art dust coagulation models and to understand their dependence on disk parameters and the fragmentation threshold velocity, and the impact of those on planetary growth by pebble accretion.
Methods: We used a 1D dust evolution model including dust growth and fragmentation to calculate realistic pebble sizes and mass flux. We used this information to integrate the growth of planetary embryos placed at various locations in the protoplanetary disk.
Results: Pebble flux strongly depends on disk properties including size and turbulence level, as well as the dust aggregates' fragmentation threshold. We find that dust fragmentation may be beneficial to planetary growth in multiple ways. First of all, it prevents the solids from growing to very large sizes, at which point the efficiency of pebble accretion drops. What is more, small pebbles are depleted at a lower rate, providing a long-lasting pebble flux. As the full coagulation models are computationally expensive, we provide a simple method of estimating pebble sizes and flux in any protoplanetary disk model without substructure and with any fragmentation threshold velocity.

(274)Cosmological bubble friction in local equilibrium
  • Shyam Balaji,
  • Michael Spannowsky,
  • Carlos Tamarit
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 2021, p18 (03/2021) doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2021/03/051
abstract + abstract -

In first-order cosmological phase transitions, the asymptotic velocity of expanding bubbles is of crucial relevance for predicting observables like the spectrum of stochastic gravitational waves, or for establishing the viability of mechanisms explaining fundamental properties of the universe such as the observed baryon asymmetry. In these dynamic phase transitions, it is generally accepted that subluminal bubble expansion requires out-of-equilibrium interactions with the plasma which are captured by friction terms in the equations of motion for the scalar field. This has been disputed in works pointing out subluminal velocities in local equilibrium arising either from hydrodynamic effects in deflagrations or from the entropy change across the bubble wall in general situations. We argue that both effects are related and can be understood from the conservation of the entropy of the degrees of freedom in local equilibrium, leading to subluminal speeds for both deflagrations and detonations. The friction effect arises from the background field dependence of the entropy density in the plasma, and can be accounted for by simply imposing local conservation of stress-energy and including field dependent thermal contributions to the effective potential. We illustrate this with explicit calculations of dynamic and static bubbles for a first-order electroweak transition in a Standard Model extension with additional scalar fields.

(273)Gravitational waves as a big bang thermometer
  • Andreas Ringwald,
  • Jan Schütte-Engel,
  • Carlos Tamarit
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 2021, p50 (03/2021) doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2021/03/054
abstract + abstract -

There is a guaranteed background of stochastic gravitational waves produced in the thermal plasma in the early universe. Its energy density per logarithmic frequency interval scales with the maximum temperature Tmax which the primordial plasma attained at the beginning of the standard hot big bang era. It peaks in the microwave range, at around 80 GHz [106.75/g*s(Tmax)]1/3, where g*s(Tmax) is the effective number of entropy degrees of freedom in the primordial plasma at Tmax. We present a state-of-the-art prediction of this Cosmic Gravitational Microwave Background (CGMB) for general models, and carry out calculations for the case of the Standard Model (SM) as well as for several of its extensions. On the side of minimal extensions we consider the Neutrino Minimal SM (νMSM) and the SM-Axion-Seesaw-Higgs portal inflation model (SMASH), which provide a complete and consistent cosmological history including inflation. As an example of a non-minimal extension of the SM we consider the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). Furthermore, we discuss the current upper limits and the prospects to detect the CGMB in laboratory experiments and thus measure the maximum temperature and the effective number of degrees of freedom at the beginning of the hot big bang.

(272)Dynamical Stellar Masses of Pre-main-sequence Stars in Lupus and Taurus Obtained with ALMA Surveys in Comparison with Stellar Evolutionary Models
  • Teresa A. M. Braun,
  • Hsi-Wei Yen,
  • Patrick M. Koch,
  • Carlo F. Manara,
  • Anna Miotello
  • +1
The Astrophysical Journal, 908, p24 (02/2021) doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abd24f
abstract + abstract -

We analyzed archival molecular line data of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars in the Lupus and Taurus star-forming regions obtained with ALMA surveys with an integration time of a few minutes per source. We stacked the data of 13CO and C18O (J = 2-1 and 3-2) and CN (N = 3-2, J = 7/2-5/2) lines to enhance the signal-to-noise ratios and measured the stellar masses of 45 out of 67 PMS stars from the Keplerian rotation in their circumstellar disks. The measured dynamical stellar masses were compared to the stellar masses estimated from the spectroscopic measurements with seven different stellar evolutionary models. We found that the magnetic model of Feiden provides the best estimate of the stellar masses in the mass range of 0.6 M ≤ M ≤ 1.3 M with a deviation of <0.7σ from the dynamical masses, while all the other models underestimate the stellar masses in this mass range by 20%-40%. In the mass range of <0.6 M, the stellar masses estimated with the magnetic model of Feiden have a larger deviation (>2σ) from the dynamical masses, and other, nonmagnetic stellar evolutionary models of Siess et al., Baraffe et al., and Feiden show better agreement with the dynamical masses with the deviations of 1.4σ-1.6σ. Our results show the mass dependence of the accuracy of these stellar evolutionary models.

(271)No Evidence for Orbital Clustering in the Extreme Trans-Neptunian Objects
  • K.J. Napier,
  • D.W. Gerdes,
  • Hsing Wen Lin,
  • S.J. Hamilton,
  • G.M. Bernstein
  • +48
  • P.H. Bernardinelli,
  • T.M.C. Abbott,
  • M. Aguena,
  • J. Annis,
  • S. Avila,
  • D. Bacon,
  • E. Bertin,
  • D. Brooks,
  • D.L. Burke,
  • A. Carnero Rosell,
  • M. Carrasco Kind,
  • J. Carretero,
  • M. Costanzi,
  • L.N. da Costa,
  • J. De Vicente,
  • H.T. Diehl,
  • P. Doel,
  • S. Everett,
  • I. Ferrero,
  • P. Fosalba,
  • J. García-Bellido,
  • D. Gruen,
  • R.A. Gruendl,
  • G. Gutierrez,
  • D.L. Hollowood,
  • K. Honscheid,
  • B. Hoyle,
  • D.J. James,
  • S. Kent,
  • K. Kuehn,
  • N. Kuropatkin,
  • M.A.G. Maia,
  • F. Menanteau,
  • R. Miquel,
  • R. Morgan,
  • A. Palmese,
  • F. Paz-Chinchón,
  • A.A. Plazas,
  • E. Sanchez,
  • V. Scarpine,
  • S. Serrano,
  • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
  • M. Smith,
  • E. Suchyta,
  • M.E.C. Swanson,
  • C. To,
  • A.R. Walker,
  • R.D. Wilkinson
  • (less)
(02/2021) e-Print:2102.05601
abstract + abstract -

The apparent clustering in longitude of perihelion $\varpi$ and ascending node $\Omega$ of extreme trans-Neptunian objects (ETNOs) has been attributed to the gravitational effects of an unseen 5-10 Earth-mass planet in the outer solar system. To investigate how selection bias may contribute to this clustering, we consider 14 ETNOs discovered by the Dark Energy Survey, the Outer Solar System Origins Survey, and the survey of Sheppard and Trujillo. Using each survey's published pointing history, depth, and TNO tracking selections, we calculate the joint probability that these objects are consistent with an underlying parent population with uniform distributions in $\varpi$ and $\Omega$. We find that the mean scaled longitude of perihelion and orbital poles of the detected ETNOs are consistent with a uniform population at a level between $17\%$ and $94\%$, and thus conclude that this sample provides no evidence for angular clustering.

(270)CMB/kSZ and Compton-y Maps from 2500 deg$^{2}$ of SPT-SZ and Planck Survey Data
  • L.E. Bleem,
  • T.M. Crawford,
  • B. Ansarinejad,
  • B.A. Benson,
  • S. Bocquet
  • +35
  • J.E. Carlstrom,
  • C.L. Chang,
  • R. Chown,
  • A.T. Crites,
  • T. de Haan,
  • M.A. Dobbs,
  • W.B. Everett,
  • E.M. George,
  • R. Gualtieri,
  • N.W. Halverson,
  • G.P. Holder,
  • W.L. Holzapfel,
  • J.D. Hrubes,
  • L. Knox,
  • A.T. Lee,
  • D. Luong-Van,
  • D.P. Marrone,
  • J.J. McMahon,
  • S.S. Meyer,
  • M. Millea,
  • L.M. Mocanu,
  • J.J. Mohr,
  • T. Natoli,
  • Y. Omori,
  • S. Padin,
  • C. Pryke,
  • S. Raghunathan,
  • C.L. Reichardt,
  • J.E. Ruhl,
  • K.K. Schaffer,
  • E. Shirokoff,
  • Z. Staniszewski,
  • A.A. Stark,
  • J.D. Vieira,
  • R. Williamson
  • (less)
Astrophys.J.Supp., 258, p36 (02/2021) e-Print:2102.05033 doi:10.3847/1538-4365/ac35e9
abstract + abstract -

We present component-separated maps of the primary cosmic microwave background/kinematic Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) amplitude and the thermal SZ Compton-y parameter, created using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the Planck satellite. These maps, which cover the ∼2500 deg$^{2}$ of the southern sky imaged by the SPT-SZ survey, represent a significant improvement over previous such products available in this region by virtue of their higher angular resolution ( for our highest-resolution Compton-y maps) and lower noise at small angular scales. In this work we detail the construction of these maps using linear combination techniques, including our method for limiting the correlation of our lowest-noise Compton-y map products with the cosmic infrared background. We perform a range of validation tests on these data products to test our sky modeling and combination algorithms, and we find good performance in all of these tests. Recognizing the potential utility of these data products for a wide range of astrophysical and cosmological analyses, including studies of the gas properties of galaxies, groups, and clusters, we make these products publicly available at and on the NASA/LAMBDA website.